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Sample records for delayed deleterious effect

  1. The effect of deleterious mutations on neutral molecular variation

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    Charlesworth, B.; Morgan, M.T.; Charlesworth, D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Selection against deleterious alleles maintained by mutation may cause a reduction in the amount of genetic variability at linked neutral sites. This is because a new neutral variant can remain in a large population for a long period of time only if it is maintained in gametes that are free of deleterious alleles, and hence are not destined for rapid elimination from the population by selection. Approximate formulas are derived for the reduction below classical neutral values resulting from such background selection against deleterious mutations, for the mean times of fixation and loss of new mutations, nucleotide site diversity, and number of segregating sites. These formulas apply to random-mating populations with no genetic recombination, and to populations reproducing exclusively asexually or by self-fertilization. For a given selection regime and mating system, the reduction is an exponential function of the total mutation rate to deleterious mutations for the section of the genome involved. Simulations show that the effect decreases rapidly with increasing recombination frequency or rate of outcrossing. The mean time to loss of new neutral mutations and the total number of segregating neutral sites are less sensitive to background selection than the other statistics, unless the population size is of the order of a hundred thousand or more. The stationary distribution of allele frequencies at the neutral sites is correspondingly skewed in favor of rare alleles, compared with the classical neutral result. Observed reductions in molecular variation in low recombination genomic regions of sufficiently large size, for instance in the centromere-proximal regions of Drosophila autosomes or in highly selfing plant populations, may be partly due to background selection against deleterious mutations. 58 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

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    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  3. Relative effectiveness of mating success and sperm competition at eliminating deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Sean C A Clark

    Full Text Available Condition-dependence theory predicts that sexual selection will facilitate adaptation by selecting against deleterious mutations that affect the expression of sexually selected traits indirectly via condition. Recent empirical studies have provided support for this prediction; however, their results do not elucidate the relative effects of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection on deleterious mutations. We used the Drosophila melanogaster model system to discern the relative contributions of pre- and postcopulatory processes to selection against deleterious mutations. To assess second-male ejaculate competition success (P2; measured as the proportion of offspring attributable to the experimental male and mating success, mutant and wild-type male D. melanogaster were given the opportunity to mate with females that were previously mated to a standard competitor male. This process was repeated for males subjected to a diet quality manipulation to test for effects of environmentally-manipulated condition on P2 and mating success. While none of the tested mutations affected P2, there was a clear effect of condition. Conversely, several of the mutations affected mating success, while condition showed no effect. Our results suggest that precopulatory selection may be more effective than postcopulatory selection at removing deleterious mutations. The opposite result obtained for our diet manipulation points to an interesting discrepancy between environmental and genetic manipulations of condition, which may be explained by the multidimensionality of condition. Establishing whether the various stages of sexual selection affect deleterious mutations differently, and to what extent, remains an important issue to resolve.

  4. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

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    Maja Peraica

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN. Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.

  5. Deleterious effects of nonthermal electrons in shock ignition concept

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    Nicolaï, Ph.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Touati, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Gus'kov, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2014-03-01

    Shock ignition concept is a promising approach to inertial confinement fusion that may allow obtaining high fusion energy gains with the existing laser technology. However, the spike driving laser intensities in the range of 1-10 PW/cm2 produces the energetic electrons that may have a significant effect on the target performance. The hybrid numerical simulations including a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled to a rapid Fokker-Planck module are used to asses the role of hot electrons in the shock generation and the target preheat in the time scale of 100 ps and spatial scale of 100 μm. It is shown that depending on the electron energy distribution and the target density profile the hot electrons can either increase the shock amplitude or preheat the imploding shell. In particular, the exponential electron energy spectrum corresponding to the temperature of 30 keV in the present HiPER target design preheats the deuterium-tritium shell and jeopardizes its compression. Ways of improving the target performance are suggested.

  6. The Effect of an Extreme and Prolonged Population Bottleneck on Patterns of Deleterious Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil T; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Grarup, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    to a markedly more extreme distribution of allele frequencies than seen for any other human population, making the Inuit the perfect population for investigating the effect of a bottleneck on patterns of deleterious variation. When comparing proxies for genetic load that assume an additive effect of deleterious......The genetic consequences of population bottlenecks on patterns of deleterious genetic variation in human populations are of tremendous interest. Based on exome sequencing of 18 Greenlandic Inuit here we show that the Inuit have undergone a severe ~20,000 year long bottleneck. This has led...... alleles, the Inuit show, at most, a slight increase in load compared to European, East Asian, and African populations. Specifically, we observe

  7. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

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    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  8. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  9. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre

  10. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

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    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  11. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging.

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    Joseph, James A; Fisher, Derek R; Cheng, Vivian; Rimando, Agnes M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2008-11-26

    Research suggests that polyphenolic compounds contained in fruits and vegetables that are rich in color may have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present studies determined if stilbene (e.g., resveratrol) compounds would be efficacious in reversing the deleterious effects of aging in 19 month old Fischer 344 rats. Experiment I utilized resveratrol and six resveratrol analogues and examined their efficacies in preventing dopamine-induced decrements in calcium clearance following oxotremorine-induced depolarization in COS-7 cells transfected with M1 muscarinic receptors (MAChR) that we have shown previously to be sensitive to oxidative stressors. Experiment II utilized the most efficacious analogue (pterostilbene) from experiment I and fed aged rats a diet with a low (0.004%) or a high (0.016%) concentration of pterostilbene. Results indicated that pterostilbene was effective in reversing cognitive behavioral deficits, as well as dopamine release, and working memory was correlated with pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus.

  12. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

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    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  13. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

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    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  14. Deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model.

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    López-Villavicencio, M; Debets, A J M; Slakhorst, M; Giraud, T; Schoustra, S E

    2013-09-01

    Why sexual reproduction is so prevalent in nature remains a major question in evolutionary biology. Most of the proposed advantages of sex rely on the benefits obtained from recombination. However, it is still unclear whether the conditions under which these recombinatorial benefits would be sufficient to maintain sex in the short term are met in nature. Our study addresses a largely overlooked hypothesis, proposing that sex could be maintained in the short term by advantages due to functions linked with sex, but not related to recombination. These advantages would be so essential that sex could not be lost in the short term. Here, we used the fungus Aspergillus nidulans to experimentally test predictions of this hypothesis. Specifically, we were interested in (i) the short-term deleterious effects of recombination, (ii) possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex particularly through the elimination of mutations and (iii) the outcrossing rate under choice conditions in a haploid fungus able to reproduce by both outcrossing and haploid selfing. Our results were consistent with our hypotheses: we found that (i) recombination can be strongly deleterious in the short term, (ii) sexual reproduction between individuals derived from the same clonal lineage provided nonrecombinatorial advantages, likely through a selection arena mechanism, and (iii) under choice conditions, outcrossing occurs in a homothallic species, although at low rates.

  15. Dominance effects of deleterious and beneficial mutations in a single gene of the RNA virus ϕ6.

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    Sarah B Joseph

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of dominance stems from studies of deleterious mutations. From these studies we know that most deleterious mutations are recessive, and that this recessivity arises from a hyperbolic relationship between protein function (i.e., protein concentration or activity and fitness. Here we investigate whether this knowledge can be used to make predictions about the dominance of beneficial and deleterious mutations in a single gene. We employed a model system--the bacteriophage φ6--that allowed us to generate a collection of mutations in haploid conditions so that it was not biased toward either dominant beneficial or recessive deleterious mutations. Screening for the ability to infect a bacterial host that does not permit infection by the wildtype φ6, we generated a collection of mutations in P3, a gene involved in attachment to the host and in phage particle assembly. The resulting collection contained mutations with both deleterious and beneficial effects on fitness. The deleterious mutations in our collection had additive effects on fitness and the beneficial mutations were recessive. Neither of these observations were predicted from previous studies of dominance. This pattern is not consistent with the hyperbolic (diminishing returns relationship between protein function and fitness that is characteristic of enzymatic genes, but could have resulted from a curve of increasing returns.

  16. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

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    Paulo eZielinsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten prcent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and antiinflamatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus constriction.Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal ductus arteriosus patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal ductus arteriosus after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet.

  17. Is the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception mitigated by exercise?

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    Ribeiro, F; Moreira, S; Neto, J; Oliveira, J

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute effects of cryotherapy on knee position sense and to determine the time period necessary to normalize joint position sense when exercising after cryotherapy. 12 subjects visited the laboratory twice, once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of exercise on a cycloergometer and once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of rest. Sessions were randomly determined and separated by 48 h. Cryotherapy was applied in the form of ice bag, filled with 1 kg of crushed ice, for 20 min. Knee position sense was measured at baseline, after cryotherapy and every 5 min after cryotherapy removal until a total of 30 min. The main effect of cryotherapy was significant showing an increase in absolute (F7,154=43.76, pcryotherapy. The intervention after cryotherapy (rest vs. exercise) revealed a significant main effect only for absolute error (F7,154=4.05, pcryotherapy, the proprioceptive acuity reached the baseline values faster (10 min vs. 15 min). Our results indicated that the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception is mitigated by low intensity exercise, being the time necessary to normalize knee position sense reduced from 15 to 10 min.

  18. Deleterious Effects of Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Kidney Function

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    Zaher Armaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP occurs in many clinical settings, including sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis, acute decompensated heart failure, hepatorenal syndrome, resuscitation with large volume, mechanical ventilation with high intrathoracic pressure, major burns, and acidosis. Although increased IAP affects several vital organs, the kidney is very susceptible to the adverse effects of elevated IAP. Kidney dysfunction is among the earliest physiological consequences of increased IAP. In the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery is rapidly replacing the open approach in many areas of surgery. Although it is superior at many aspects, laparoscopic surgery involves elevation of IAP, due to abdominal insufflation with carbonic dioxide (pneumoperitoneum. The latter has been shown to cause several deleterious effects where the most recognized one is impairment of kidney function as expressed by oliguria and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal blood flow (RBF. Despite much research in this field, the systemic physiologic consequences of elevated IAP of various etiologies and the mechanisms underlying its adverse effects on kidney excretory function and renal hemodynamics are not fully understood. The current review summarizes the reported adverse renal effects of increased IAP in edematous clinical settings and during laparoscopic surgery. In addition, it provides new insights into potential mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and therapeutic approaches to encounter renal complications of elevated IAP.

  19. Female rats are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation on cognitive performance.

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    Hajali, Vahid; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Shabani, Mohammad

    2012-03-17

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) may alter subsequent learning and memory capacity. There are differences in both the intensity and direction of responses of the male and female species to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent of the effects of PSD for 72h on spatial learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, corticosterone levels, and the body weight in male as well as in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats. Multiple platform method was used for PSD induction. Spatial learning and memory and anxiety-like behavior were determined using Morris water maze (MWM) task and open field test, respectively. The data showed that PSD could not significantly affect subsequent spatial learning and short-term memory in male rats, while it significantly impaired the performance of the intact and OVX female rats. The PSD-intact and -OVX female rats showed more memory impairment than the PSD-male animals. Those impairments do not appear to be due to elevated stress level, since the plasma corticosterone did not significantly change following PSD induction. The open field data showed that PSD significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior in all experimental groups. In addition, PSD had a reducing effect on the mean body weight of female groups. Such results suggest that the female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.

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    Davidson, Lien M; Millar, Kate; Jones, Celine; Fatum, Muhammad; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide obesity rates have nearly doubled since 1980 and currently over 10% of the population is obese. In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and older had a body mass index or BMI above a healthy weight and of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. While obesity can have many ramifications upon adult life, one growing area of concern is that of reproductive capacity. Obesity affects male infertility by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus causing detrimental effects upon spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility. In particular, evidence indicates that excess adipose tissue can alter the relative ratio of testosterone and oestrogen. Additional effects involve the homeostatic disruption of insulin, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, leptin and inhibin B, leading to diminished testosterone production and impairment to spermatogenesis. Aberrant spermatogenesis arising from obesity is associated with downstream changes in key semen parameters, defective sperm capacitation and binding, and deleterious effects on sperm chromatin structure. More recent investigations into trans-generational epigenetic inheritance further suggest that molecular changes in sperm that arise from obesity-related impaired spermatogenesis, such as modified sperm RNA levels, DNA methylation, protamination and histone acetylation, can impact upon the development of offspring. Here, we summarise our current understanding of how obesity exerts influence over spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility status, and make recommendations for future investigative research.

  1. Failure to replicate the deleterious effects of safety behaviors in exposure therapy.

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    Sy, Jennifer T; Dixon, Laura J; Lickel, James J; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Deacon, Brett J

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted to replicate the finding obtained by Powers, Smits, and Telch (2004; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 448-545) that both the availability and utilization of safety behaviors interfere with the efficacy of exposure therapy. An additional goal of the study was to evaluate which explanatory theories about the detrimental effects of safety behaviors best account for this phenomenon. Undergraduate students (N=58) with high claustrophobic fear were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (a) exposure only, (b) exposure with safety behavior availability, and (c) exposure with safety behavior utilization. Participants in each condition improved substantially, and there were no significant between-group differences in fear reduction. Unexpectedly, exposure with safety behavior utilization led to significantly greater improvement in self-efficacy and claustrophobic cognitions than exposure only. The extent to which participants inferred danger from the presence of safety aids during treatment was associated with significantly less improvement on all outcome measures. The findings call into question the hypothesized deleterious effects of safety behaviors on the outcome of exposure therapy and highlight a possible mechanism through which the mere presence of safety cues during exposure trials might affect treatment outcomes depending on participants' perceptions of the dangerousness of exposure stimuli. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Multiple deleterious effects of experimentally aged sperm in a monogamous bird

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    White, J.; Wagner, R.H.; Helfenstein, F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Mulard, Hervé; Naves, L.C.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm aging is known to be detrimental to reproductive performance. However, this apparently general phenomenon has seldom been studied in an evolutionary context. The negative impact of sperm aging on parental fitness should constitute a strong selective pressure for adaptations to avoid its effects. We studied the impact of sperm aging on black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a monogamous seabird. Kittiwakes comprise a model system because (i) of evidence that females eject their mates' sperm to prevent fertilization by sperm that would be old and degraded by the time of fertilization and result in reduced reproductive performance and (ii) the lack of extra-pair fertilization in this species makes cryptic female choice an unlikely explanation of postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. We experimentally manipulated the age of the sperm fertilizing kittiwake eggs by fitting males with anti-insemination rings for variable periods of time preceding egg-laying. We found evidence that sperm aging negatively affected four sequential stages of reproduction: fertilization potential, rate of embryonic development, embryonic mortality, and chick condition at hatching. These results may be produced by a continuum of a single process of sperm aging that differentially affects various aspects of development, depending on the degree of damage incurred to the spermatozoa. The marked impact of sperm age on female fitness may thus drive postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. These results provide experimental evidence of deleterious effects of sperm aging on a nondomestic vertebrate, underlining its taxonomic generality and its potential to select for a wide array of adaptations. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  3. The deleterious effect of metabolic acidosis on nutritional status of hemodialysis patients

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    Tayebeh Soleymanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of protein-energy malnutrition in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD is metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metabolic acidosis on nutritional status in a group of MHD patients with adequately delivered dialysis treatment. Of 165 eligible anuric MHD outpatients with Kt/V ≥ 1 and no underlying inflammatory diseases, 47 subjects were enrolled. In order to evaluate the effect of different parameters on serum albumin, we measured the pre-dialysis serum albumin, blood pH, serum bicarbonate (HCO 3‾ , Kt/V, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR and body mass index (BMI in these patients. The mean age of the study patients was 55 ± 13.8 years; there were 22 females and six diabetics. The average Kt/V was 1.22 ± 0.16, pH was 7.40 ± 0.15, serum HCO 3‾ was 23.18 ± 2.38 mEq/L, serum albumin was 4.03 ± 0.56 g/dL, nPCR was 1.00 ± 0.16 g/kg/day, post-dialysis body weight was 58.50 ± 11.50 kg and BMI was 23.47 ± 2.70 kg/m 2 . There was a statistically significant direct correlation between serum albumin and BMI (r = 0.415, P = 0.004, and between serum albumin and serum HCO 3 (r = 0.341, P = 0.019. On multiple regression analysis, the predictors of serum albumin were serum HCO3‾ and BMI (direct effect and nPCR (inverse effect. In 17 patients on MHD with serum HCO3‾ 22 mEq/L (P = 0.046. These data demonstrate that patients on MHD with metabolic acidosis had a lower serum albumin concentration despite adequate dialysis treatment. The inverse effect of nPCR on serum albumin concentration in acidotic MHD patients may be due to hypercatabolism in the setting of metabolic acidosis, leading to deleterious effects on the nutritional status of patients on MHD.

  4. Sex and deleterious mutations.

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    Gordo, Isabel; Campos, Paulo R A

    2008-05-01

    The evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction has been considered as one of the most pressing questions in evolutionary biology. While a pluralistic view of the evolution of sex and recombination has been suggested by some, here we take a simpler view and try to quantify the conditions under which sex can evolve given a set of minimal assumptions. Since real populations are finite and also subject to recurrent deleterious mutations, this minimal model should apply generally to all populations. We show that the maximum advantage of recombination occurs for an intermediate value of the deleterious effect of mutations. Furthermore we show that the conditions under which the biggest advantage of sex is achieved are those that produce the fastest fitness decline in the corresponding asexual population and are therefore the conditions for which Muller's ratchet has the strongest effect. We also show that the selective advantage of a modifier of the recombination rate depends on its strength. The quantification of the range of selective effects that favors recombination then leads us to suggest that, if in stressful environments the effect of deleterious mutations is enhanced, a connection between sex and stress could be expected, as it is found in several species.

  5. Systematic Mapping of Protein Mutational Space by Prolonged Drift Reveals the Deleterious Effects of Seemingly Neutral Mutations.

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    Liat Rockah-Shmuel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic mappings of the effects of protein mutations are becoming increasingly popular. Unexpectedly, these experiments often find that proteins are tolerant to most amino acid substitutions, including substitutions in positions that are highly conserved in nature. To obtain a more realistic distribution of the effects of protein mutations, we applied a laboratory drift comprising 17 rounds of random mutagenesis and selection of M.HaeIII, a DNA methyltransferase. During this drift, multiple mutations gradually accumulated. Deep sequencing of the drifted gene ensembles allowed determination of the relative effects of all possible single nucleotide mutations. Despite being averaged across many different genetic backgrounds, about 67% of all nonsynonymous, missense mutations were evidently deleterious, and an additional 16% were likely to be deleterious. In the early generations, the frequency of most deleterious mutations remained high. However, by the 17th generation, their frequency was consistently reduced, and those remaining were accepted alongside compensatory mutations. The tolerance to mutations measured in this laboratory drift correlated with sequence exchanges seen in M.HaeIII's natural orthologs. The biophysical constraints dictating purging in nature and in this laboratory drift also seemed to overlap. Our experiment therefore provides an improved method for measuring the effects of protein mutations that more closely replicates the natural evolutionary forces, and thereby a more realistic view of the mutational space of proteins.

  6. Systematic Mapping of Protein Mutational Space by Prolonged Drift Reveals the Deleterious Effects of Seemingly Neutral Mutations.

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    Rockah-Shmuel, Liat; Tóth-Petróczy, Ágnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-08-01

    Systematic mappings of the effects of protein mutations are becoming increasingly popular. Unexpectedly, these experiments often find that proteins are tolerant to most amino acid substitutions, including substitutions in positions that are highly conserved in nature. To obtain a more realistic distribution of the effects of protein mutations, we applied a laboratory drift comprising 17 rounds of random mutagenesis and selection of M.HaeIII, a DNA methyltransferase. During this drift, multiple mutations gradually accumulated. Deep sequencing of the drifted gene ensembles allowed determination of the relative effects of all possible single nucleotide mutations. Despite being averaged across many different genetic backgrounds, about 67% of all nonsynonymous, missense mutations were evidently deleterious, and an additional 16% were likely to be deleterious. In the early generations, the frequency of most deleterious mutations remained high. However, by the 17th generation, their frequency was consistently reduced, and those remaining were accepted alongside compensatory mutations. The tolerance to mutations measured in this laboratory drift correlated with sequence exchanges seen in M.HaeIII's natural orthologs. The biophysical constraints dictating purging in nature and in this laboratory drift also seemed to overlap. Our experiment therefore provides an improved method for measuring the effects of protein mutations that more closely replicates the natural evolutionary forces, and thereby a more realistic view of the mutational space of proteins.

  7. Vitamin E prevents deleterious effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer used in PVC blood storage bags.

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    Dhanya, C R; Gayathri, N S; Mithra, K; Nair, K V Neelakantan; Kurup, P A

    2004-09-01

    Vitamin E administration prevented DEHP induced deleterious effects like (i) degenerative changes in the brain and thyroid, (ii) decrease in the activity of neuronal membrane Na+ - K+ ATPase, (iii) decrease in the concentration of insulin, cortisol and TSH, and (iv) the increase in T3 and T4 in female Albino rats. The results suggest use of vitamin E to prevent harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood as in thalassemia patient. The possibility of using vitamin E to prevent the harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood, as in thalassemia patients, is discussed.

  8. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  9. Duration of sexual harassment and generalized harassment in the workplace over ten years: effects on deleterious drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.

  10. Oxidative Stress Is Related to the Deleterious Effects of Heme Oxygenase-1 in an In Vivo Neuroinflammatory Rat Model

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    Claire Tronel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 induction is associated with beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the experimental conditions adopted and the neurodegenerative rodent models used. The present study aimed first to evaluate the effects of cerebral HO-1 induction in an in vivo rat model of neuroinflammation by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA and secondly to explore the role played by reactive oxygen species (ROS and free iron (Fe2+ derived from heme catabolism promoted by HO-1. Chronic I.P. treatment with the HO-1 inductor and substrate hemin was responsible for a significant dose-related increase of cerebral HO-1 production. Brain tissue loss, microglial activation, and neuronal death were significantly higher in rats receiving QA plus hemin (H-QA versus QA and controls. Significant increase of ROS production in H-QA rat brain was inhibited by the specific HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP which supports the idea that ROS level augmentation in hemin-treated animals is a direct consequence of HO-1 induction. The cerebral tissue loss and ROS level in hemin-treated rats receiving the iron chelator deferoxamine were significantly decreased, demonstrating the involvement of Fe2+in brain ROS production. Therefore, the deleterious effects of HO-1 expression in this in vivo neuroinflammatory model were linked to a hyperproduction of ROS, itself promoted by free iron liberation.

  11. Deleterious effects on MDAMB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell lineage submitted to Ho-166 radioactive seeds at very low activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Patricia L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Sarmento, Eduardo V. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cuperschmid, Ethel M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CEMEMOR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, BR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Centro de Memoria da Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Herein, the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation provided by Ho-166 radioactive seeds at low activity were addressed, based on experimental in vitro assays at the MDA MB231 cell lineage, a breast adenocarcinoma, compared to PBMC - peripheral blood cells. The methodology involves of the MDBMB-231 and PBMC expansion in culture in suitable environment in 30mm well plates and T-25 flasks. Seeds were synthesized with Ho-165 incorporated and characterized previously. Activation was processed at IPR1 reactor at the peripheral table, at 8h exposition. Three groups of seeds were tested: 0,34 mCi, 0,12 mCi activity, and control group. Such seeds were placed on culture and held to a period of 05 half-lives of the radionuclide. The biological responses at these exposure were documented by inverse microscopic photographic in time. Also, MTT essay were performed. A fast response in producing deleterious effects at cancer cell was observed even if for the low activity seeds. Also, a biological response dependent to a radial distance of the seed was observed. At conclusion, viability clonogenic control of MDAMB231 is identified at the exposition to Ho-166 ceramic seeds, even if at low activity of 0,1 to 0,3mCi. (author)

  12. Tongue-placed tactile biofeedback suppresses the deleterious effects of muscle fatigue on joint position sense at the ankle

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    Whereas the acuity of the position sense at the ankle can be disturbed by muscle fatigue, it recently also has been shown to be improved, under normal ankle neuromuscular state, through the use of an artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback. The underlying principle of this biofeedback consisted of supplying individuals with supplementary information about the position of their matching ankle position relative to their reference ankle position through electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. Within this context, the purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether this biofeedback could mitigate the deleterious effect of muscle fatigue on joint position sense at the ankle. To address this objective, sixteen young healthy university students were asked to perform an active ankle-matching task in two conditions of No-fatigue and Fatigue of the ankle muscles and two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. Measures of the overall accuracy and the variability of the positioning were determin...

  13. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance.

  14. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  15. Application of super absorbent polymer and ascorbic acid to mitigate deleterious effects of cadmium in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam,Hamid Reza Tohidi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growing use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, posing environmental and health threats. Heavy metals can also affect crop yield. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to explore the role of ascorbic acid foliar application and soil-applied super absorbent to mitigate adverse effects of cadmium (Cd), in terms of biochemical parameters in wheat. The experiment was installed in a completel...

  16. The Mental and Psychological Deleterious Effect of Noise on the Operators of Telecommunication Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taheri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, unwanted noise is present everywhere in the workplace and in the living environment and disturbs human peace and calm. In spite of the importance of the indirect impact of noise on human life, little is performed about this issue in our country. Therefore, the present study have been focused on the measurement of noise pollution that impose operators of the telecommunication company in addition to the evaluation of the psychological and mental effect of sound on the telecommunication operators.

  17. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  18. Poloxamer [corrected] 188 has a deleterious effect on dystrophic skeletal muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Terry

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked, fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is currently no cure and limited palliative treatments. Poloxomer 188 (P188 is a tri-block copolymer that has been proposed as a potential treatment for cardiomyopathy in DMD patients. Despite the reported beneficial effects of P188 on dystrophic cardiac muscle function, the effects of P188 on dystrophic skeletal muscle function are relatively unknown. Mdx mice were injected intraperitoneally with 460 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg P188 dissolved in saline, or saline alone (control. The effect of single-dose and 2-week daily treatment was assessed using a muscle function test on the Tibialis Anterior (TA muscle in situ in anaesthetised mice. The test comprises a warm up, measurement of the force-frequency relationship and a series of eccentric contractions with a 10% stretch that have previously been shown to cause a drop in maximum force in mdx mice. After 2 weeks of P188 treatment at either 30 or 460 mg/kg/day the drop in maximum force produced following eccentric contractions was significantly greater than that seen in saline treated control mice (P = 0.0001. Two week P188 treatment at either dose did not significantly change the force-frequency relationship or maximum isometric specific force produced by the TA muscle. In conclusion P188 treatment increases susceptibility to contraction-induced injury following eccentric contractions in dystrophic skeletal muscle and hence its suitability as a potential therapeutic for DMD should be reconsidered.

  19. Deleterious effects of cypermethrin on semen characteristics and testes of dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, Ijaz; Khan, Ahrar; Najib-ur-Rehman

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out on 30 male dwarf goats to determine the effects of cypermethrin (CY) on semen characteristics and at tissue level in testes. Animals were divided randomly into five equal groups and each group was dipped with 0%, 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.8% or 1.6% CY, on days 0 and 15. The semen was collected at day 0, then fortnightly till 75 days and evaluated for physical characteristics, sperm morphology and concentration. None of the parameters studied showed any statistical difference on days 0 and 15 of sample collection. From day 30, effect of CY on semen characteristics started to appear and was more pronounced from days 45 to 75. Significantly (P<0.01) decreased ejaculatory volume, motility percentage, mass activity, and concentration of spermatozoa were observed in treated groups as compared to control. With the treatment of CY, pH of semen became more alkaline. Semen color changed from creamy (control) to milky white to straw color in treated bucks. Percentage of abnormal spermatozoa (tailless, bent tails, coiled tailed) was much higher in treated animals than in control. Dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.01) in the treatment groups from days 30 to 75 as compared to the control group. All these changes were dose dependent, being less with low CY dose and more even extensive with high CY dose. Slight to moderate improvement in the above parameters was observed at day 75 nearly in all treated groups. Grossly decreased weight of testis and cyanotic epididymides were observed in bucks treated with 1.6% CY. Histopathologically, degenerative changes and loss of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, Sertoli cells, spermatids, and spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were also dose dependent. It was concluded that CY caused dose-dependent effects on all parameters studied. High doses of CY (0.8% and 1.6% solution) affected the parameters on semen characteristics, though this effect seems to be transient as improvement in these parameters was observed at day

  20. Deleterious effects of net clogging on the quantification of stream drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Copp, Adam J.; Sabol, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Drift studies are central to stream and river ecological research. However, a fundamental aspect of quantifying drift — how net clogging affects the accuracy of results — has been widely ignored. Utilizing approaches from plankton and suspended sediment studies in oceanography and hydrology, we examined the rate and dynamics of net clogging across a range of conditions. We found that nets clog nonlinearly over time and that suspended solid concentrations and net mesh size exerted a strong effect on clogging rates. Critically, net clogging introduced unpredictable biases in resultant data due to the inaccuracies in water volume estimates introduced by progressive clogging. This renders the widespread approach to linearly “correct” for clogging inadequate. Using a meta-analysis of 77 drift studies spanning 25 years, we demonstrate that the detrimental effects of net clogging are routinely unappreciated, even though the results of most of these studies were likely affected by clogging. We close by describing an approach for avoiding net clogging, which will increase the accuracy and reproducibility of results in future freshwater, lotic drift studies.

  1. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  2. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  4. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy minimizes the deleterious effect of nicotine in female rats with induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualberto, Erivan Clementino; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Longo, Mariellén; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Ervolino, Edilson; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of experimentally induced periodontitis in female rats that were systemically treated with or without nicotine. Female rats (n = 180) were divided into two groups: vehicle administration (Veh) and nicotine administration (Nic). Mini-pumps containing either vehicle or nicotine were implanted in the rats 30 days before the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP). EP was induced by placing a cotton ligature around the left mandibular first molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed, and the rats were randomly divided into three treatment subgroups: SRP (only SRP), DL (SRP plus diode laser), and aPDT (SRP plus aPDT). The aPDT consisted of phenothiazine photosensitizer deposition followed by diode laser irradiation. Ten rats from each subgroup were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatment. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region was evaluated using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The rats that were treated with nicotine showed more ABL compared to those treated with vehicle. In both the Veh and Nic groups, SRP plus aPDT treatment resulted in reduced ABL, smaller numbers of both TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells, and higher numbers of PCNA-positive cells compared to SRP treatment alone. aPDT was an effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of periodontitis in female rats regardless of whether they received nicotine.

  5. Effect of Deleterious Phases on Corrosion Resistance of Duplex Stainless Steel (2205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulKadar M. Godil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steel is a Ferritic(BCC-Austenitic(FCC steel, covers the advantages of both Austenitic and Ferritic Stainless steels. They having good mechanical and corrosion resistance properties are widely used in many industries like chemical plants, refineries for critical equipments such as pressure vessels, heatexchangers, water heaters. Major problem occurs with duplex steels when they are worked or heated above about temperature of 280°C. Detrimental phases like Sigma, Chi, Laves and Alpha prime form when the Duplex steels are treated above this temperature and they retard the properties of Duplex stainless steels. They also cause embrittlement above temperature of 475°C called “475°C embrittlement”. During welding of duplex steels, Secondary austenite also forms, which is also one of the harmful phases in duplex steels. Among all of these phases, Sigma (σ is extremely harmful to the corrosion resistance of steel. Due to these limitations duplexgrades are not used above certain temperature ranges. In this experimental work a plate of duplex grade 2205 in hot worked condition was procured from TCR Advanced Engineering Pvt. Ltd., GIDC, Vadodara. Initially chemical composition of the plate was checked with emission spectrometer, tensile test and hardness tests werecarried out for comparing with the standard data. As there was no Sigma phase detected when tested with ASTM 930 in the received sample, Sigma phase was intentionally produced by giving heat treatment in the range of 700-850°C. Sigma phases were quantified with ASTM 930 practice A, by electrolytic etching with 40% NaOH. The effect of Sigma phase on corrosion resistance was measured by ASTM G48. The pitting corrosion resistance was evaluated in terms of average pit depth and overall corrosion rate.

  6. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  7. Imipramine protects against the deleterious effects of chronic corticosterone on depression-like behavior, hippocampal reelin expression, and neuronal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Erin Y; Fournier, Neil M; Lussier, April L; Romay-Tallon, Raquel; Caruncho, Hector J; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2015-07-03

    We have hypothesized that a downregulation of reelin and deficient maturation of adult-born hippocampal neurons are important factors in the pathogenesis of depression. This hypothesis is based on previous work showing that depression-like behavior in rats treated with protracted corticosterone develops in concert with decreased dendritic complexity in newborn hippocampal granule neurons and decreased reelin expression in the proliferative subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In addition, heterozygous reeler mice with approximately 50% of normal brain levels of reelin are more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of corticosterone than wild-type mice. The purpose of this experiment was to provide pharmacological validation for the link between reelin, neuronal maturation, and depression by examining whether the deleterious effects of corticosterone on these measures could be prevented by co-administration of the antidepressant imipramine. Rats received corticosterone injections, corticosterone injections plus either 10 or 15mg/kg imipramine injections, or vehicle injections for 21 consecutive days. They were then subjected to the forced swim test to assess depression-like behavior and sacrificed for immunohistochemical examination of immature neuron number and dendritic complexity and the presence of reelin+cells. We found that corticosterone increases depression-like behavior, decreases the number of reelin+cells in the subgranular zone, and decreases the number and complexity of immature neurons in the granule cell layer. All of these behavioral and cellular phenotypes were prevented by imipramine, providing further support for the idea that reelin is involved in the pathogenesis of depression.

  8. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 Vaccinations Promote Protective Effects without Deleterious Consequences for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65 after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE development. Female Lewis rats were immunized with BCG or BCG followed by pVAXhsp65 boosters. The animals underwent EAE induction and were daily evaluated for weight loss and clinical score. They were euthanized during recovery phase to assess immune response and inflammatory infiltration at the central nervous system. Previous immunization did not aggravate or accelerate clinical score or weight loss. In addition, this procedure clearly decreased inflammation in the brain. BCG immunization modulated the host immune response by triggering a significant reduction in IL-10 and IFN-γ levels induced by myelin basic protein. These data indicated that vaccination protocols with BCG or BCG followed by boosters with pVAXhsp65 did not trigger a deleterious effect on EAE evolution.

  9. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  10. Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos, E-mail: kleber08@gmail.com [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, CEP 96210-030, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum, diesel and gasoline after 96 h revealed a variety of lesions in the larvae. The gills, pseudobranchs and esophagus presented epithelial hyperplasia, and the liver presented dilatation of hepatic sinusoids, hepatocitomegaly, bi-nucleated and nuclear degeneration of hepatocytes, such as pyknotic nuclei. The acute toxicity of diesel and gasoline is at least fivefold higher than Brazilian petroleum. However, all toxicants induced histopathological abnormalities in pejerrey larvae. The results are of importance since much attention has been paid to large visible surfaces of petroleum spills instead of potential toxic effects of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons, which are more available to marine biota.

  11. Overexpression of human and fly frataxins in Drosophila provokes deleterious effects at biochemical, physiological and developmental levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FA, the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN and fly (FH frataxins in Drosophila. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels.

  12. Overexpression of Human and Fly Frataxins in Drosophila Provokes Deleterious Effects at Biochemical, Physiological and Developmental Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Sirena; Botella, José A.; Schneuwly, Stephan; Martínez-Sebastián, María J.; Moltó, María D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Friedreich's ataxia (FA), the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN) and fly (FH) frataxins in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels. PMID:21779322

  13. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Laurentis, Valéria L.; Ramalho, Dagmara G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding. PMID:27509087

  14. Computational Analysis of Breast Cancer GWAS Loci Identifies the Putative Deleterious Effect of STXBP4 and ZNF404 Gene Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Banaganapalli, Babajan; Vaidyanathan, Venkatesh; Talluri, Venkateswar R; Shaik, Noor A

    2017-04-19

    The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled us in identifying different breast cancer (BC) susceptibility loci. However, majority of these are non-coding variants with no annotated biological function. We investigated such 78 noncoding genome wide associated SNPs of BC and further expanded the list to 2,162 variants with strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD, r(2) ≥0.8). Using multiple publically available algorithms such as CADD, GWAVA, and FATHAMM, we classified all these variants into deleterious, damaging, or benign categories. Out of total 2,241 variants, 23 (1.02%) variants were extreme deleterious (rank 1), 70 (3.12%) variants were deleterious (rank 2), and 1,937 (86.43%) variants were benign (rank 3). The results show 14% of lead or associated variants are under strong negative selection (GERP++ RS ≥2), and ∼22% are under balancing selection (Tajima's D score >2) in CEU population of 1KGP-the regions being positively selected (GERP++ RS <0) in mammalian evolution. The expression quantitative trait loci of highest deleteriously ranked genes were tested on relevant adipose and breast tissues, the results of which were extended for protein expression on breast tissues. From the concordance analysis of ranking system of GWAVA, CADD, and FATHMM, eQTL and protein expression, we identified the deleterious SNPs localized in STXBP4 and ZNF404 genes which might play a role in BC development by dysregulating its gene expression. This simple approach will be easier to implement and to prioritize large scale GWAS data for variety of diseases and link to the potentially unrecognized functional roles of genes. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-12, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Harnessing Mechanistic Knowledge on Beneficial Versus Deleterious IFN-I Effects to Design Innovative Immunotherapies Targeting Cytokine Activity to Specific Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Elena; Pollet, Emeline; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Uzé, Gilles; Dalod, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-I) were identified over 50 years ago as cytokines critical for host defense against viral infections. IFN-I promote anti-viral defense through two main mechanisms. First, IFN-I directly reinforce or induce de novo in potentially all cells the expression of effector molecules of intrinsic anti-viral immunity. Second, IFN-I orchestrate innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. However, IFN-I responses can be deleterious for the host in a number of circumstances, including secondary bacterial or fungal infections, several autoimmune diseases, and, paradoxically, certain chronic viral infections. We will review the proposed nature of protective versus deleterious IFN-I responses in selected diseases. Emphasis will be put on the potentially deleterious functions of IFN-I in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and on the respective roles of IFN-I and IFN-III in promoting resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We will then discuss how the balance between beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I responses is modulated by several key parameters including (i) the subtypes and dose of IFN-I produced, (ii) the cell types affected by IFN-I, and (iii) the source and timing of IFN-I production. Finally, we will speculate how integration of this knowledge combined with advanced biochemical manipulation of the activity of the cytokines should allow designing innovative immunotherapeutic treatments in patients. Specifically, we will discuss how induction or blockade of specific IFN-I responses in targeted cell types could promote the beneficial functions of IFN-I and/or dampen their deleterious effects, in a manner adapted to each disease.

  16. Harnessing mechanistic knowledge on beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I effects to design innovative immunotherapies targeting cytokine activity to specific cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eDALOD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I were identified over 50 years ago as cytokines critical for host defense against viral infections. IFN-I promote antiviral defense through two main mechanisms. First, IFN-I directly reinforce or induce de novo in potentially all cells the expression of effector molecules of intrinsic antiviral immunity. Second, IFN-I orchestrate innate and adaptive antiviral immunity. However, IFN-I responses can be deleterious for the host in a number of circumstances, including secondary bacterial or fungal infections, several autoimmune diseases, and, paradoxically, certain chronic viral infections. We will review the proposed nature of protective versus deleterious IFN-I responses in selected diseases. Emphasis will be put on the potentially deleterious functions of IFN-I in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, and on the respective roles of IFN-I and IFN-III in promoting resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We will then discuss how the balance between beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I responses is modulated by several key parameters including i the subtypes and dose of IFN-I produced, ii the cell types affected by IFN-I and iii the source and timing of IFN-I production. Finally we will speculate how integration of this knowledge combined with advanced biochemical manipulation of the activity of the cytokines should allow designing innovative immunotherapeutic treatments in patients. Specifically, we will discuss how induction or blockade of specific IFN-I responses in targeted cell types could promote the beneficial functions of IFN-I and/or dampen their deleterious effects, in a manner adapted to each disease.

  17. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise.

  18. Testing the ability of non-methylamine osmolytes present in kidney cells to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeza Khan

    Full Text Available Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔG D (o and functional activity parameters (K m and k cat of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea] ratio, (ii any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea] ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively.

  19. Testing the Ability of Non-Methylamine Osmolytes Present in Kidney Cells to Counteract the Deleterious Effects of Urea on Structure, Stability and Function of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheeza; Bano, Zehra; Singh, Laishram R.; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine) present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine) present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔGDo) and functional activity parameters (Km and kcat) of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i) for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea]) ratio, (ii) any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii) taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea]) ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively. PMID:24039776

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  1. Hormone therapy/adjuvant chemotherapy induced deleterious effects on the bone mass of breast cancer patients and the intervention of physiotherapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezzer, T; Pereira, C M A P; Filho, U P; Marx, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, breast cancer has witnessed some notable improvements regarding early diagnosis and new therapeutical strategies, mainly because of the utilization of new drugs and systemic treatment protocols, which have had a direct impact in the increase of these patients' global survival rate. At the same time, it is an ever-growing concern among oncology professionals to identify and minimize as much as possible the effects of long-term toxicity resulting from cancer therapies. Within this context, physiotherapy fits as a preventive and rehabilitating factor regarding functional and skeletal alterations, deriving not only from the direct action of breast cancer, but also from the treatment to which these patients are submitted. The aim of this study was to revise the scientific literature on possible adjuvant chemotherapy-induced secondary deleterious effects on the bone mass of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, and also to revise the literature on the intervention of physiotherapy in cases of secondary bone mass loss caused by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients suffering from breast cancer. The research was carried out by consulting the following medical websites: Medicus Medline Index, Lilacs, Sciello, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Google Academic and Capes (a Brazilian website for scientific information). The selection gathers articles written in different languages, English in special, published from January 1998 to October 2008. 24 studies explicitly mention chemotherapy-induced direct and/or indirect effects upon bone mass. Different authors refer to bone mass loss as one possible secondary deleterious effect resulting from adjuvant chemotherapy applied in breast cancer treatment. Nonetheless, no scientific articles were found on the subject of physiotherapy intervention aimed at patients in this specific condition. The results achieved in this revision study point out the possible chemotherapy-induced late deleterious effects on patients

  2. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  3. Salt Potentiates Methylamine Counteraction System to Offset the Deleterious Effects of Urea on Protein Stability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram R.; Warepam, Marina; Ahmad, Faizan; Dar, Tanveer Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds) believed to offset the urea’s harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea’s effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction. PMID:25793733

  4. Salt potentiates methylamine counteraction system to offset the deleterious effects of urea on protein stability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    Full Text Available Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds believed to offset the urea's harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea's effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction.

  5. Deleterious Effects of Intra-arterial Administration of Particulate Steroids on Microvascular Perfusion in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Elisabeth; Segal, Nicolas; Mirshahi, Massoud; Azzazene, Dalel; Le Marchand, Sylvie; Wybier, Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine the in vivo effects of several particulate steroids on microvascular perfusion by using intravital microscopy in a mice model and to investigate the in vitro interactions between these particulate steroids and red blood cells (RBCs). Materials and Methods The study was conducted in agreement with the guidelines of the National Committee of Ethic Reflection on Animal Experimentation. By using intravital microscopy of mouse cremaster muscle, the in vivo effects of several particulate steroids on microvascular perfusion were assessed. Four to five mice were allocated to each of the following treatment groups: saline solution, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a nonparticulate steroid, and the particulate steroids cortivazol, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone, and prednisolone. By using in vitro blood microcinematography and electron microscopy, the interactions between these steroids and human RBCs were studied. All results were analyzed by using nonparametric tests. Results With prednisolone, methylprednisolone, or triamcinolone, blood flow was rapidly and completely stopped in all the arterioles and venules (median RBC velocity in first-order arterioles, 5 minutes after administration was zero for these three groups) compared with a limited effect in mice treated with saline, dexamethasone, and cortivazol (20.3, 21.3, and 27.5 mm/sec, respectively; P steroids. Conclusion Several particulate steroids have an immediate and massive effect on microvascular perfusion because of formation of RBC aggregates associated with the transformation of RBCs into spiculated RBCs. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. The deleterious effects of the nuclear crisis in Japan; Os deleterios impactos da crise nuclear no Japao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Paulo, E-mail: pmarx@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work reports the severe nuclear incident occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, due a earthquake followed by tsunami, where three of six existing reactors in Daiichi-Fukushima were damaged. The explosions with releasing of radioactive materials to environment have been discussed. It has shown the harmful effects of radiations to the exposed human being. Besides, the existence of the main impediment of the nuclear electric generation represented by production of non-disposable atomic waste has been discussed. (author)

  7. Effects of Delayed Second Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui-ming; WU Xi-hong; JANG Zi-gang; JING Yuan-yuan; LIN Yun-juan; YU Li-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective Since Helms' successful bilateral cochlear implantation with good results in 1996, there have been increasing number of reports on bilateral cochlear implantation. Most second device have been implantated within one year after the first. Considering effects of long time auditory deprivation, it is not clear whether a delayed second cochlear implant serves to add additional benefits and how it may interact with central nervous system plasticity. Methods Three cases who received delayed second cochlear implants at People's Hospital of Peking University from 2002 to 2005 were reviewed. The interval between the first and second implants was longer than 2 years in all three patients. Sound perception, and unilateral/bilateral speech discrimination in quiet and noise were evaluated. In addition, GAP detection test was conducted in one patient. Results In one case,having both implants on provided improved performance compared to using only one implant both in quiet and noise. Presumably due to visual interference from lip-reading or short interval between second implant and testing,one patient showed no improvement from using the second implant either in quiet or noise, while the last case demonstrated additional benefits from the second implant only in quiet. In all three patients, performance in recognizing the four tones in Mandarin was superior over word recognition. Conclusions Considerable plasticity in the cerebral auditory center is preserved, despite long acoustic deprivation in some children who have received unilateral cochlear implant. Delayed second implants can result in significant improvements in some of these children. Visual interference from lip-reading may be an obstacle during retraining. The better recognition of tones in the Mandarin language may represent a different sound discrimination mechanism in the auditory system,although it may also be related to the signal processing mechanisms of the implant used (MED-EL COMBI 40+).

  8. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival

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    Jariya Umka Welbat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA.

  9. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schönfelder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17αethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  10. Effectiveness of porcine dermal collagen in giant hernia closure in patients with deleterious fascia constitution after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkgartner, Georg; Cerwenka, Herwig; Rappl, Thomas; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Kornprat, Peter; Iberer, Florian; Bacher, Heinz; Wagner, Mathias; Mischinger, Hans J; Wagner, Doris

    2015-02-01

    Incisional hernias (IHs) occur universally after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of porcine dermal collagen (PDC) as a closing aid in giant hernias after OLT in a prospective trial. If direct closure (DC) was not feasible due to the hernia size and abdominal wall constitution, a PDC mesh was implanted. All patients from the PDC and DC groups were followed prospectively for 24 months. IH recurrence rates served as the primary endpoint, and the development of infections and wound healing disorders served as the secondary endpoints. Recurrence rate was 21% (4/19) in DC patients and 12% (2/16) in PDC patients (P = 0.045). Implant site infections occurred in five of PDC and one of DC patients (P < 0.05). All of them were managed with antibiotics; two of the PDC patients required surgical drainage. Histological analysis of PDC mesh biopsies indicated good angiogenesis and integration of the PDC into the abdominal wall. PDC was effective in our study for incisional hernia repair, and our results compared favourably with those of patients in whom direct hernia closure was feasible.

  11. Nitrate causes deleterious effects on the behaviour and reproduction of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-08-01

    Nitrate (NO3 (-)) is present in aquatic ecosystems as a natural component of the nitrogen cycle. However, in the last decades, several human activities are the causes of the rising amounts of organic matter and inorganic nitrogen nutrients in aquatic ecosystems, causing notable increase of nitrate above background natural levels. In spite of the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic animals, there are relatively few studies on the chronic toxicity of this compound to invertebrates. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of chronic (35 days) exposure to nitrate on the behaviour (velocity of movement) and reproduction (number of newborns) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Four actual concentrations of nitrate were used (21.4, 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg N-NO3 (-)/L). In each treatment, 12 animals were individually monitored for velocity (weekly) and newborn production (every 3-4 days). Velocity was recorded using quantitative video monitoring. Our results showed that nitrate did not cause mortality, but it reduced the velocity of movement (at 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg N-NO3 (-)/L) and number of live newborns (in all tested concentrations). Reproductive impairment was caused at realistic nitrate concentrations which is relevant to the risk assessment of this compound. Our study contributes to the knowledge of the chronic effects of nitrate on the behaviour and reproduction of an aquatic snail.

  12. Obesogenic diets have deleterious effects on fat deposits irrespective of the nature of dietary carbohydrates in a Yucatan minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Val-Laillet, David; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri

    2016-09-01

    The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet). Body adiposity, liver volume, and fat content were estimated from computed tomographic images (n=18). Liver volume and lipid content were also measured post mortem (n=12). We hypothesized that the quantity and the spatial distribution of fat deposits in the adipose tissue or in the liver would be altered by the nature of the carbohydrate present in the obesogenic diet. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure, body weight (from 26±4 to 58±3 kg), total body adiposity (from 38±1 to 47±1%; P<.0001), liver volume (from 1156±31 to 1486±66 mL; P<.0001), plasma insulin (from 10±1 to 14±2 mIU/L; P=.001), triacylglycerol (from 318±37 to 466±33 mg/L; P=.005), and free-fatty acids (from 196±60 to 396±59 μmol/L; P=.0001) increased irrespective of the carbohydrate type. Similarly, the carbohydrate type did not induce changes in the spatial repartition of the adipose tissue. Divergent results were obtained for fat deposits in the liver depending on the investigation method. In conclusion, obesogenic diets alter adipose tissue fat deposits and the metabolic profile independently of the nature of dietary carbohydrates.

  13. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Iñigo, P M; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Guaza, C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease in conjunction with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Adenosine A2A receptors participate in some of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, as the A2A antagonist ZM241385 partially blocks the protective effects of CBD in the initial stages of inflammation. Together, our findings highlight the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in this viral model of MS and demonstrate the significant therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory component.

  14. Angular dependence of Wigner time delay: Relativistic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kkeifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Laser assisted photoionization time delay mainly consists of two parts: Wigner time delay, and time delay in continuum-continuum transition. Wigner time delay results from the energy derivative of the phase of the photoionization amplitude (matrix element). In general, the photoionization time delay is not the same in all directions relative to the incident photon polarization, although when a single transition dominates the amplitude, the resultant time delay is essentially isotropic. The relativistic-random-phase approximation is employed to determine the Wigner time delay in photoionization from the outer np subshells of the noble gas atoms, Ne through Xe. The time delay is found to significantly depend on angle, as well as energy. The angular dependence of the time delay is found to be quite sensitive to atomic dynamics and relativistic effects, and exhibit strong energy and angular variation in the neighborhood of Cooper minima. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  15. Pelleted bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are better protected from the deleterious effects of arthroscopic heat shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthaman eKalamegam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of arthroscopic temperature on joint tissues is poorly understood and it is not known how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs respond to the effects of heat generated by the device during the process of arthroscopy assisted experimental cell-based therapy. In the present study, we isolated and phenotypically characterized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs from osteoarthritis (OA patients, and evaluated the effect of arthroscopic heat on cell viability in suspension and pellet cultures.Methods: Primary cultures of hBMMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of OA patients and cultured using DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and characterized for their stemness. hBMMSCs (1 x 106 cells cultured as single cell suspensions or cell pellets were exposed to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min. This was followed by analysis of cellular proliferation and heat shock related gene expression. Results: hBMMSCs were viable and exhibited population doubling, short spindle morphology, MSC related CD surface markers expression and tri-lineage differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation increased collagen production and alkaline phosphatase activity. Exposure of hBMMSCs to an illuminated arthroscope for 10, 20 or 30 min for 72 h decreased cell proliferation in cell suspensions (63.27% at 30 min and increased cell proliferation in cell pellets (62.86% at 10 min and 68.57% at 20 min. hBMMSCs exposed to 37C, 45C and 55C for 120 seconds demonstrated significant upregulation of BAX, P53, Cyclin A2, Cyclin E1, TNF-α, and HSP70 in cell suspensions compared to cell pellets. Conclusions: hBMMSC cell pellets are better protected from temperature alterations compared to cell suspensions. Transplantation of hBMMSCs as pellets rather than as cell suspensions to the cartilage defect site would therefore support their viability and may aid enhanced cartilage

  16. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Mostafa Z; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N; Cunningham, Michael L; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNgamma+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARalpha-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated.

  17. The Effects of Delay of Feedback on a Delayed Concept Formation Transfer Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    Delay and completeness of verbal information feedback were investigated within a transfer of learning paradigm involving concept formation. An experiment with 192 undergraduates indicates that, although delay of feedback (up to 30 seconds) slows speed of learning on the initial task, it has positive effects on the transfer task. (SLD)

  18. Delay time and Hartman effect in strain engineered graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn; Deng, Zhi-Yong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Ban, Yue, E-mail: yban@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-07

    Tunneling times, including group delay and dwell time, are studied for massless Dirac electrons transmitting through a one-dimensional barrier in strain-engineered graphene. The Hartman effect, the independence of group delay on barrier length, is induced by the strain effect, and associated with the transmission gap and the evanescent mode. The influence of barrier height/length and strain modulus/direction on the group delay is also discussed, which provides the flexibility to control the group delay with applications in graphene-based devices. The relationship between group delay and dwell time is finally derived to clarify the nature of the Hartman effect.

  19. Propofol effects on atrial fibrillation wavefront delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Millet, José; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Since the cardiac activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by autonomic modulations, in this study, a novel method to quantify the effects of the most common anesthetic agent (propofol) in AF ablation procedures is introduced. This study has two main objectives: first, to assess whether the sedation earlier to radio frequency ablation affects the arrhythmia itself, and second, to provide new information that contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the autonomic nervous system on AF. The methodology presented is based on the measurement of synchronization and delay indexes between two atrial activations at adjacent intracavitary electrodes. These parameters aim to estimate whether two activations at different sites may be caused by the same propagating wavefront, or otherwise, are the consequence of independent wavefronts. The results showed that the mentioned indexes have a different behavior at both atria: the right atrium becomes more synchronized with propofol administration, whereas the synchronization index decreases at the left atrium.

  20. Tunable delay time and Hartman effect in graphene magnetic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Yue; Wang, Lin-Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Tunable group delay and Hartman effect have been investigated for massless Dirac electrons in graphene magnetic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, dwell time is found to be equal to net group delay plus the group delay contributing from the lateral shifts. The group delay times are discussed in both cases of normal and oblique incidence, to clarify the nature of Hartman effect. In addition, the group delay in transmission can be modulated from subluminality to superluminality by adjusting the magnetic field, which may also lead to potential applications in graphene-based microelectronics.

  1. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  2. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  3. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  4. The effects of the framing of time on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, William Brady; Odum, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of the framing of time on delay discounting. Delay discounting is the process by which delayed outcomes are devalued as a function of time. Time in a titrating delay discounting task is often framed in calendar units (e.g., as 1 week, 1 month, etc.). When time is framed as a specific date, delayed outcomes are discounted less compared to the calendar format. Other forms of framing time; however, have not been explored. All participants completed a titrating calendar unit delay-discounting task for money. Participants were also assigned to one of two delay discounting tasks: time as dates (e.g., June 1st, 2015) or time in units of days (e.g., 5000 days), using the same delay distribution as the calendar delay-discounting task. Time framed as dates resulted in less discounting compared to the calendar method, whereas time framed as days resulted in greater discounting compared to the calendar method. The hyperboloid model fit best compared to the hyperbola and exponential models. How time is framed may alter how participants attend to the delays as well as how the delayed outcome is valued. Altering how time is framed may serve to improve adherence to goals with delayed outcomes.

  5. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  6. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10% or sucrose liquid diets for two weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+ and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3±1.1 g/kg/day after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133 exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.

  7. Properties and modeling of GWAS when complex disease risk is due to non-complementing, deleterious mutations in genes of large effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Thornton

    Full Text Available Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS have high power to detect intermediate frequency SNPs making modest contributions to complex disease, but they are underpowered to detect rare alleles of large effect (RALE. This has led to speculation that the bulk of variation for most complex diseases is due to RALE. One concern with existing models of RALE is that they do not make explicit assumptions about the evolution of a phenotype and its molecular basis. Rather, much of the existing literature relies on arbitrary mapping of phenotypes onto genotypes obtained either from standard population-genetic simulation tools or from non-genetic models. We introduce a novel simulation of a 100-kilobase gene region, based on the standard definition of a gene, in which mutations are unconditionally deleterious, are continuously arising, have partially recessive and non-complementing effects on phenotype (analogous to what is widely observed for most Mendelian disorders, and are interspersed with neutral markers that can be genotyped. Genes evolving according to this model exhibit a characteristic GWAS signature consisting of an excess of marginally significant markers. Existing tests for an excess burden of rare alleles in cases have low power while a simple new statistic has high power to identify disease genes evolving under our model. The structure of linkage disequilibrium between causative mutations and significantly associated markers under our model differs fundamentally from that seen when rare causative markers are assumed to be neutral. Rather than tagging single haplotypes bearing a large number of rare causative alleles, we find that significant SNPs in a GWAS tend to tag single causative mutations of small effect relative to other mutations in the same gene. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating the power to detect associations under models that are genetically and evolutionarily motivated.

  8. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts through undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-ying; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yan-shan; Li, Feng; Wang, Yan-ying; Wang, Yong-yue; Gong, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with multiple skeletal disorders, and vitamin D may play a functional role in the preservation of glucose tolerance. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and DM is not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular link between 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation and glucose homeostasis. Rat primary osteoblasts were cultured in different conditioned medium: normal glucose, high glucose, high glucose and insulin, high glucose and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), high glucose and insulin and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The activity of osteoblasts was measured by cell viability, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin assay. The potential mechanism of how 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) affect insulin sensitivity was investigated by the assay of insulin receptor (IR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level. The combined treatment has the strongest effect of inhibiting the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts, and it promoted the %ucOC value to approximately 40%, which is much higher than that in high glucose without treatment. Levels of IR and VDR of osteoblasts in combined treatment culture increased significantly compared with that in high glucose without treatment. So maybe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) promotes insulin sensitivity of osteoblasts by activating insulin signaling and simultaneously stimulating ucOC secretion, which in turn regulate insulin production and sensitivity. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) might be beneficial not only for diabetes, but also, for osteoporosis by promoting bone formation.

  9. Do Longer Delays Matter? The Effect of Prolonging Delay in CTL Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Gallegos, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The activation of a specific immune response takes place in the lymphoid organs such as the spleen. We present here a simplified model of the proliferation of specific immune cells in the form of a single delay equation. We show that the system can undergo switches in stability as the delay is increased, and we interpret these results in the context of sustaining an effective immune response to a dendritic cell vaccine.

  10. Effects of delay and probability combinations on discounting in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David J; Dallery, Jesse

    2016-10-01

    To determine discount rates, researchers typically adjust the amount of an immediate or certain option relative to a delayed or uncertain option. Because this adjusting amount method can be relatively time consuming, researchers have developed more efficient procedures. One such procedure is a 5-trial adjusting delay procedure, which measures the delay at which an amount of money loses half of its value (e.g., $1000 is valued at $500 with a 10-year delay to its receipt). Experiment 1 (n=212) used 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to measure delay discounting of losses, probabilistic gains, and probabilistic losses. Experiment 2 (n=98) assessed combined probabilistic and delayed alternatives. In both experiments, we compared results from 5-trial adjusting delay or probability tasks to traditional adjusting amount procedures. Results suggest both procedures produced similar rates of probability and delay discounting in six out of seven comparisons. A magnitude effect consistent with previous research was observed for probabilistic gains and losses, but not for delayed losses. Results also suggest that delay and probability interact to determine the value of money. Five-trial methods may allow researchers to assess discounting more efficiently as well as study more complex choice scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  12. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. Developmental expression of Musashi-1 and Musashi-2 RNA-binding proteins during spermatogenesis: analysis of the deleterious effects of dysregulated expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jessie M; Fraser, Barbara A; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Pye, Victoria J; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Siddall, Nicole A; Koopman, Peter; Hime, Gary R; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process whereby diploid spermatogenic stem cells become haploid and undergo a series of morphological changes to produce physically mature spermatozoa. Crucial to this process are a number of RNA-binding proteins, responsible for the posttranscriptional control of essential mRNAs and particularly pertinent to the two periods of inactive transcription that occur in spermatogenesis. One such group of RNA-binding proteins is the Musashi family, specifically Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2), which act as key translational regulators in various stem cell populations and have been linked with the induction of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the differential expression of mammalian MSI1 and MSI2 during germ cell development in the mouse testis. MSI1 was found to be predominately localized in mitotic gonocytes and spermatogonia, whereas MSI2 was detected in meiotic spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids. Extensive examination of the function of Musashi in spermatogenesis was achieved through the use of two transgenic mouse models with germ cell-specific overexpression of full-length isoforms of Msi1 or Msi2. These models demonstrated that aberrant expression of either Msi1 or Msi2 has deleterious effects on normal spermatogenesis, with Msi2 overexpression resulting in male sterility. Studies undertaken on human testicular seminoma tumors provide further insights into the relevance of MSI1 and MSI2 overexpression as diagnostic markers to human stem cell cancers. Overall this study provides further evidence for the unique functions that RNA-binding protein isoforms occupy within spermatogenesis, and introduces the potential manipulation of the Musashi family proteins to elucidate the mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene expression during germ cell development.

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  15. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  16. Assessing the Effects of Construction Delays on MARA Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Malaysia is facing a serious issue of construction delay causing a significant amount of time over run and cost over run. Various studies have addressed the issue of construction delay, however, most of studies focused on identifying causes of delay. Less attention has been paid of assessing effects of construction delay. Hence this study is aimed to assess effects of construction delay on MARA large projects. Investigation approach for study includes the site study of 30 MARA  large projects selected from various areas of Malaysia and structured questionnaire survey among client, consultant and contractor personnel’s. It is important to note that 90% of MARA projects are experiencing time overrun. Data was analyzed with statistical analysis  to calculate rank of the effects of delays and correlation with spearman formula to identify the interrelationship between attributes of effects. Results showed that time over-run and cost over-run are most significant effects of delay on MARA construction projects. Time over-run has high degree of correlation with cost over-run and moderate degree of correlation with disputes.

  17. Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized Intersections. ... Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... There are several methods available for operational analysis including mathematical models and traffic ...

  18. Efficient purging of deleterious mutations in plants with haploid selfing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szovenyi, Peter [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Shaw, Jon [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Devos, Nicolas [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-30

    In diploid organisms, selfing reduces the efficiency of selection in removing deleterious mutations from a population. This need not be the case for all organisms. Some plants, for example, undergo an extreme form of selfing known as intragametophytic selfing, which immediately exposes all recessive deleterious mutations in a parental genome to selective purging. Here we ask how effectively deleterious mutations are removed from such plants. Specifically, we study the extent to which deleterious mutations accumulate in a predominantly selfing and a predominantly outcrossing pair of moss species, using genome-wide transcriptome data. We find that the selfing species purge significantly more non-synonymous mutations, as well as a greater proportion of radical amino acid changes which alter physicochemical properties of amino acids. Moreover, their purging of deleterious mutation is especially strong in conserved regions of protein-coding genes. Our observations show that selfing need not impede but can even accelerate the removal of deleterious mutations, and do so on a genome-wide scale.

  19. Effects of seasonal growth on delayed prey-predator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakkhar, Sunita [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sungkfma@iitr.ernet.in; Sahani, Saroj Kumar [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: sarojdma@iitr.ernet.in; Negi, Kuldeep [Department of Mathematics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: negikdma@iitr.ernet.in

    2009-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of a delayed predator-prey system with Holling II functional response is investigated. The stability analysis has been carried out and existence of Hopf bifurcation has been established. The complex dynamic behavior due to time delay has been explored. The effects of seasonal growth on the complex dynamics have been simulated. The model shows a rich variety of behavior, including period doubling, quasi-periodicity, chaos, transient chaos, and windows of periodicity.

  20. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  1. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; Ast, V.A. van; Joëls, M.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distin

  2. Effects of time delays on bifurcation and chaos in a non-autonomous system with multiple time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhongkui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: sunzk205@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)]. E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoli [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Fang Tong [Department of Applied Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Time delays are often sources of complex behavior in dynamic systems. Yet its complexity needs to be further explored, particularly when multiple time delays are present. As a purpose to gain insight into such complexity under multiple time delays, we investigate the mechanism for the action of multiple time delays on a particular non-autonomous system in this paper. The original mathematical model under consideration is a Duffing oscillator with harmonic excitation. A delayed system is obtained by adding delayed feedbacks to the original system. Two time delays are involved in such system, one of which in the displacement feedback and the other in the velocity feedback. The time delays are taken as adjustable parameters to study their effects on the dynamics of the system. Firstly, the stability of the trivial equilibrium of the linearized system is discussed and the condition under which the equilibrium loses its stability is obtained. This leads to a critical stability boundary where Hopf bifurcation or double Hopf bifurcation may occur. Then, the chaotic behavior of such system is investigated in detail. Particular emphasis is laid on the effect of delay difference between two time delays on the chaotic properties. A Melnikov's analysis is employed to obtain the necessary condition for onset of chaos resulting from homoclinic bifurcation. And numerical analyses via the bifurcation diagram and the top Lyapunov exponent are carried out to show the actual time delay effect. Both the results obtained by the two analyses show that the delay difference between two time delays plays a very important role in inducing or suppressing chaos, so that it can be taken as a simple but efficient 'switch' to control the motion of a system: either from order to chaos or from chaos to order.

  3. N-carbamylglutamate enhancement of ureagenesis leads to discovery of a novel deleterious mutation in a newly defined enhancer of the NAGS gene and to effective therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibel, Sandra K; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Caldovic, Ljubica; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, Mendel

    2011-10-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the conversion of glutamate and acetyl-CoA to NAG, the essential allosteric activator of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I, the first urea cycle enzyme in mammals. A 17-year-old female with recurrent hyperammonemia attacks, the cause of which remained undiagnosed for 8 years in spite of multiple molecular and biochemical investigations, showed markedly enhanced ureagenesis (measured by isotope incorporation) in response to N-carbamylglutamate (NCG). This led to sequencing of the regulatory regions of the NAGS gene and identification of a deleterious single-base substitution in the upstream enhancer. The homozygous mutation (c.-3064C>A), affecting a highly conserved nucleotide within the hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1) binding site, was not found in single nucleotide polymorphism databases and in a screen of 1,086 alleles from a diverse population. Functional assays demonstrated that this mutation decreases transcription and binding of HNF-1 to the NAGS gene, while a consensus HNF-1 binding sequence enhances binding to HNF-1 and increases transcription. Oral daily NCG therapy restored ureagenesis in this patient, normalizing her biochemical markers, and allowing discontinuation of alternate pathway therapy and normalization of her diet with no recurrence of hyperammonemia. Inc.

  4. Deleterious mutation accumulation in asexual Timema stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumulate in asexual lineages and contribute to their short evolutionary life span. To test this prediction, we estimated the accumulation rate of coding (nonsynonymous) mutations, which are expected to be deleterious, in parts of one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (Actin and Hsp70) genes in six independently derived asexual lineages and related sexual species of Timema stick insects. We found signatures of increased coding mutation accumulation in all six asexual Timema and for each of the three analyzed genes, with 3.6- to 13.4-fold higher rates in the asexuals as compared with the sexuals. In addition, because coding mutations in the asexuals often resulted in considerable hydrophobicity changes at the concerned amino acid positions, coding mutations in the asexuals are likely associated with more strongly deleterious effects than in the sexuals. Our results demonstrate that deleterious mutation accumulation can differentially affect sexual and asexual lineages and support the idea that deleterious mutation accumulation plays an important role in limiting the long-term persistence of all-female lineages.

  5. Effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathinam, C; Rajasekar, S; Sanjuán, M A F

    2013-03-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of multiple time-delay on vibrational resonance in a single Duffing oscillator and in a system of n Duffing oscillators coupled unidirectionally and driven by both a low- and a high-frequency periodic force. For the single oscillator, we obtain analytical expressions for the response amplitude Q and the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonance occurs. The regions in parameter space of enhanced Q at resonance, as compared to the case in absence of time-delay, show a bands-like structure. For the two-coupled oscillators, we explain all the features of variation of Q with the control parameter g. For the system of n-coupled oscillators with a single time-delay coupling, the response amplitudes of the oscillators are shown to be independent of the time-delay. In the case of a multi time-delayed coupling, undamped signal propagation takes place for coupling strength (δ) above a certain critical value (denoted as δu). Moreover, the response amplitude approaches a limiting value QL with the oscillator number i. We obtain analytical expressions for both δu and QL.

  6. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  7. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  8. Effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness on masticatory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.; Fueki, K.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to clarify the effects of experimentally provoked delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the jaw-closing muscles on subjective and objective measures of masticatory function. Twenty-one dentate female subjects, without pain-related signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, part

  9. Chaotifying delayed recurrent neural networks via impulsive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Enes

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, chaotification of delayed recurrent neural networks via chaotically changing moments of impulsive actions is considered. Sufficient conditions for the presence of Li-Yorke chaos with its ingredients proximality, frequent separation, and existence of infinitely many periodic solutions are theoretically proved. Finally, effectiveness of our theoretical results is illustrated by an example with numerical simulations.

  10. Effective multicasting algorithm for dynamic membership with delay constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; XU Zheng-quan

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective heuristic algorithm for dynamic multicast routing with delay-constrained DDMR.The tree constructed by DDMR has the following characteristics: (1) multicast tree changes with the dynamic memberships; (2)the cost of the tree is as small as possible at each node addition/removal event; (3) all of the path delay meet a fixed delay constraint;(4) minimal perturbation to an existing tree. The proposed algorithm is based on "damage" and "usefulness" concepts proposed in previous work, and has a new parameter bf(Balancing Factor) for judging whether or not to rearrange a tree region when membership changes. Mutation operation in Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also employed to find an attached node for a new adding node.Simulation showed that our algorithm performs well and is better than static heuristic algorithms, in term of cost especially.

  11. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  12. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  13. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Part 1005 RIN 3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date... Financial Protection (Bureau) is issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of... delaying the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the finalization of a proposal, published...

  14. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the deleterious effects of palmitate and high glucose on human pancreatic beta-cell turnover and function

    OpenAIRE

    Maedler, Kathrin; Oberholzer, José; Bucher, Pascal Alain Robert; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Donath, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to the impaired beta-cell function observed in type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the effect of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on human beta-cell turnover and secretory function. Exposure of cultured human islets to saturated fatty acid and/or to an elevated glucose concentration for 4 days increased beta-cell DNA fragmentation and decreased beta-cell proliferation. In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitol...

  15. The Deleterious Effects of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Palmitoylation, Membrane Lipid Rafts and Lipid-Based Cellular Signalling: New Drug Targets in Neuroimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; Puri, Basant K; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is causatively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and depression. Many of the consequences stemming from O&NS, including damage to proteins, lipids and DNA, are well known, whereas the effects of O&NS on lipoprotein-based cellular signalling involving palmitoylation and plasma membrane lipid rafts are less well documented. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in lipid-based signalling, including palmitoylation, membrane/lipid raft (MLR) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) functions, the effects of O&NS processes on these processes and their role in the abovementioned diseases. S-palmitoylation is a post-translational modification, which regulates protein trafficking and association with the plasma membrane, protein subcellular location and functions. Palmitoylation and MRLs play a key role in neuronal functions, including glutamatergic neurotransmission, and immune-inflammatory responses. Palmitoylation, MLRs and n-3 PUFAs are vulnerable to the corruptive effects of O&NS. Chronic O&NS inhibits palmitoylation and causes profound changes in lipid membrane composition, e.g. n-3 PUFA depletion, increased membrane permeability and reduced fluidity, which together lead to disorders in intracellular signal transduction, receptor dysfunction and increased neurotoxicity. Disruption of lipid-based signalling is a source of the neuroimmune disorders involved in the pathophysiology of the abovementioned diseases. n-3 PUFA supplementation is a rational therapeutic approach targeting disruptions in lipid-based signalling.

  16. Use of a serum-free epidermal culture model to show deleterious effects of epidermal growth factor on morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Lavker, R M; Rodeck, U; Risse, B; Jensen, P J

    1995-01-01

    The presence of serum has limited the utility of many culture models for the study of cytokine effects because its complexity and variability can confound the interpretation of data. In the present study, a serum-free skin co-culture model was used to investigate the effect of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes cultured on collagen rafts at the air-liquid interface produced a well-differentiated epithelium that resembled normal epidermis. Keratin filaments, membrane-coating granules, and keratohyalin granules were all observed. Epidermal differentiation markers keratin K1/K10, involucrin, and transglutaminase were localized in most of the suprabasal layers, whereas profilaggrin/filaggrin was confined to the granular layers and stratum corneum. In the continual presence of 10-20 ng/mL EGF, the epidermis was less organized, thinner, and less proliferative. EGF also depressed several indicators of differentiation: The number of keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules was greatly decreased; antigen expression of profilaggrin/filaggrin appeared diminished by immunocytochemical staining; frequent nuclear retention was noted in the relatively thickened stratum corneum-like layers. As detected by immunohistochemical staining, the expression of EGF receptor in the epidermis was reduced by exogenous EGF. These data illustrate that EGF cannot be considered a simple mitogen. Our findings also underscore the importance of using sophisticated culture models to assess complex cytokine effects that may be dependent on the architecture of a differentiating epidermis.

  17. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)

  18. Delayed Effects of Graduate Education on Increased Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Simister

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Human Capital Theory’ shows that education is a vital part of improving productivity.  This paper investigates effects of tertiary education (post-school education: at universities, higher-education colleges, and similar institutions on how productive an employee is.  A problem with such research is to identify which variable is the cause, and which is the effect.  This paper uses time-series regression analysis of World Bank data, on the fraction of a country’s workforce with tertiary education, and productivity.  This paper also uses Britain as a case study: the British Household Panel Study shows what happens to a graduate in the years after they leave university.  The delayed effects of education on output makes clear that education is a cause (rather than an effect of improvements in productivity.  In conclusion, university-level education is beneficial to economic growth.

  19. Brain tissue oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the deleterious effect of a chronic high dose of estradiol on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimeh Khodabandehloo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to antioxidative effects, estrogens also exert pro-oxidative actions. The effect of chronic administration of a high dose of estradiol valerate on Morris water maze tasks and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated with estradiol valerate (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Escape latency and traveled path in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were significantly higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.01 and p≪0.001. In the probe trial, the animals of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups spent lower time in Q1 compared to Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. In Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups, the brain tissue total thiol concentration was significantly lower, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. It is concluded that administration of high exogenous levels of estradiol impairs performance and enhances oxidative stress.

  20. The Social Patterning of Tobacco Use Among Women in Jordan: The Protective Effect of Education on Cigarette Smoking and the Deleterious Effect of Wealth on Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Daouk, Aref

    2016-04-01

    The presence of social inequalities in tobacco-use has been fully recognized in the international literature. Even though cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) are prevalent in the Arab region, the literature has not addressed the social determinants of the impending tobacco epidemic. This study examined the socioeconomic patterning of cigarette and WTS among Jordanian women. We analyzed pooled data from four waves of the Jordan Demographic and Health Surveys: 2002 (N = 5851); 2007 (N = 10 654); 2009 (N = 9879), and 2012 (N = 11 113). We specified logistic regression models to test the association between education and household wealth and the two outcome measures, cigarette and WTS, adjusting for other covariates. For each outcome, we ran time-unadjusted and time-adjusted logistic models. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Jordanian women remained almost constant (around 10%) between 2002 and 2012. WTS prevalence steadily increased from 4.1% in 2002 to 10.2% in 2012. Increasing education predicted lower odds of cigarette smoking, whereas increasing household wealth weakly predicted higher odds. As to WTS, increasing household wealth strongly predicted higher odds of use. Among Jordanian women, increasing education is protective against cigarette smoking. Household wealth, on the other hand, exerts a deleterious effect on both forms of tobacco consumption, particularly WTS. This pattern shows that Jordan has not fully undergone the socioeconomic crossover in tobacco prevalence which characterizes high-income countries. Future control policies should aim to decrease prevalence but also preempt increasing social inequalities in tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-10

    Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative impacts of heat and cold on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and cold in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and cold, which were defined as temperatures above and below an "optimum temperature" that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and cold. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and cold was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%-13.65%). Taken separately, cold was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%-12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%-2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%-24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%-16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with cold responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on cold days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the impact of ambient temperature

  2. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Frenedoso da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n=20 were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water, MeHg group (140 μg/Kg, Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow, and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group. The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  3. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2 Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3 Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006 and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001. Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  4. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenedoso da Silva, Raquel; Missassi, Gabriela; dos Santos Borges, Cibele; Silva de Paula, Eloísa; Hornos Carneiro, Maria Fernanda; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n = 20) were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 μg/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  5. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  6. The deleterious effect of cholesterol and protection by quercetin on mitochondrial bioenergetics of pancreatic β-cells, glycemic control and inflammation: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Carrasco-Pozo

    2016-10-01

    mechanism for the protection of quercetin against cytokine mediated cholesterol-induced glycemic control impairment. In summary, our data highlight cellular, molecular and bioenergetic mechanisms underlying quercetin's protective effects on β-cells in vitro and in vivo, and provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which quercetin can be developed as a nutraceutical to preserve β-cell function.

  7. Effect of early or delayed treatment upon healing of mandibular fractures: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Niels Ulrich; Hillerup, Søren; Kofod, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The possible relation between treatment delay and healing complications in mandibular fracture treatment (excluding condylar fractures) was reviewed systematically. Twenty-two studies were identified. No randomized studies focused on the effect of immediate or delayed treatment. The main focus...

  8. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  9. An approach to normal forms of Kuramoto model with distributed delays and the effect of minimal delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Ben, E-mail: niubenhit@163.com [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Guo, Yuxiao [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott–Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution. - Highlights: • Heterogeneously delay-coupled Kuramoto model with minimal delay is considered. • Perturbation technique on complex domain is established for bifurcation analysis. • Hysteresis phenomenon is investigated in a theoretical way. • The effect of excess kurtosis of distributed delays is discussed.

  10. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  11. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  12. Contagion effects in a chartist fundamentalist model with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibeh, Ghassan

    2007-08-01

    In this paper two models of speculative markets are developed to study the effects of feedback mechanisms in financial markets. In the first model, a crash market model couples a linear chartist-fundamentalist model with time delays with a log-periodic market index I(t) through direct coupling. Numerical solutions to the model show that asset prices exhibit significant persistence as a result of the coupling to the log-periodic market index. An extension to include endogenous wealth dynamics shows that the chartists benefit from the persistent dynamics induced by the coupling. The second model is a two-asset model represented by a 2-dimensional delay-differential equation. Asset one price exhibits limit cycle dynamics while in the second market asset prices follow stable damped oscillations. The markets are coupled through a diffusive coupling term. Solutions to the coupled model show that the dynamics of asset two changes fundamentally with the price now exhibiting a limit cycle. The stable converging dynamics is replaced with limit cycle oscillations around the fundamental.

  13. Clinical Effects of Gemifloxacin on the Delay of Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Yun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Jong Sun; Park, Sung Soo; Heo, Eun Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Hee Soon

    2013-01-01

    Although gemifloxacin has low in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the effect of gemifloxacin on the delay of tuberculosis (TB) treatment has not been validated in a clinical setting. The study group included patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who initially received gemifloxacin for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Two control groups contained patients treated with other fluoroquinolones or nonfluoroquinolone antibiotics. Sixteen cases were treated with gemifloxacin for suspected CAP before TB diagnosis. Sixteen and 32 patients were treated with other fluoroquinolones and nonfluoroquinolones, respectively. The median period from the initiation of antibiotics to the administration of anti-TB medication was nine days in the gemifloxacin group, which was significantly different from the other fluoroquinolones group (35 days). The median times for the nonfluoroquinolone group and the gemifloxacin group were not significantly different. There were no significant differences between the gemifloxacin and other fluoroquinolone group in terms of symptomatic and radiographic improvements. However, the frequency of radiographic improvement in the other fluoroquinolones group tended to be higher than in the gemifloxacin group. Gemifloxacin might be the preferred fluoroquinolone for treating CAP, to alleviate any concerns about delaying TB treatment. PMID:23486643

  14. Effect of Small Transmission Delay on Human Behavior in Audio Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Kaname

    Transmission delay in audio communications is a well-known obstacle to achieving smooth communication. However, it is not known what kinds of effects are caused by small delays. We hypothesized that the small delay in the listener's responses disturbs the speaker's “verbal conditioning, ” where the verbal behavior of the speaker varies in accordance with the listener's responses. We examined whether the small delays in the listener's responses disturb the speaker's verbal conditioning using an artificial-grammar learning task. The results suggested that a 300-ms delay disturbed the participants' verbal conditioning although they were not adequately aware of the delay.

  15. The effect of process delay on dynamical behaviors in a self-feedback nonlinear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan; He, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback loops play a crucial role in the stability of dynamical systems. The effect of process delay in feedback is studied numerically and theoretically in the delayed feedback nonlinear systems including the neural model, periodic system and chaotic oscillator. The process delay is of key importance in determining the evolution of systems, and the rich dynamical phenomena are observed. By introducing a process delay, we find that it can induce bursting electric activities in the neural model. We demonstrate that this novel regime of amplitude death also exists in the parameter space of feedback strength and process delay for the periodic system and chaotic oscillator. Our results extend the effect of process delay in the paper of Zou et al.(2013) where the process delay can eliminate the amplitude death of the coupled nonlinear systems.

  16. PROBLEMS OF PROJECTS AND EFFECTS OF DELAYS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haseeb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of project delays is a fact that occurs mostly in construction industry of Pakistan. Delays are always measured as expensive to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. For analyzing the causes of delay, an appraisal on construction project’s time performance was conducted. The main objective of this study is the identification of factors of delay and their effects on the success and completion of project. The most common factor of delay are natural disaster in Pakistan like flood and earthquake and some others like financial and payment problems, improper planning, poor site management, insufficient experience, shortage of materials and equipment etc. This paper covers the delay factors and causes of delay and some suggestion for reducing these delays in large construction projects in Pakistan.

  17. Unloading Effect on Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    It is well-known that a tensile overload retards not only the crack growth rate (CGR) in zirconium alloys during the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests but also the fatigue crack growth rate in metals, the cause of which is unclear to date. A considerable decrease in the fatigue crack growth rate due to overload is suggested to occur due either to the crack closure or to compressive stresses or strains arising from unloading of the overload. However, the role of the crack closure or the compressive stress in the crack growth rate remains yet to be understood because of incomplete understanding of crack growth kinetics. The aim of this study is to resolve the effect of unloading on the CGR of zirconium alloys, which comes in last among the unresolved issues as listed above. To this end, the CGRs of the Zr-2.5Nb tubes were determined at a constant temperature under the cyclic load with the load ratio, R changing from 0.13 to 0.66 where the extent of unloading became higher at the lower R. More direct evidence for the effect of unloading after an overload is provided using Simpson's experiment investigating the effect on the CGR of a Zr-2.5Nb tube of the stress states of the prefatigue crack tip by unloading or annealing after the formation of a pre-fatigue crack

  18. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situations, do not have a notable effect on synchronization. This allows results obtained with constant delays to remain relevant even in the case of randomly distributed delays.

  19. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  20. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to gast

  1. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  2. Effect of delayed cord clamping on very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvolu, Arpitha; Tolia, Veeral N; Qin, Huanying; Stone, Genna Leal; Rich, Diana; Conant, Rhoda J; Inzer, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Despite significant proposed benefits, delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is not practiced widely in preterm infants largely because of the question of feasibility of the procedure and uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the reported benefits, especially intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) vs the adverse consequences of delaying the neonatal resuscitation. The objective of this study was to determine whether implementation of the protocol-driven DCC process in our institution would reduce the incidence of IVH in very preterm infants without adverse consequences. We implemented a quality improvement process for DCC the started in August 2013 in infants born at ≤32 weeks' gestational age. Eligible infants were left attached to the placenta for 45 seconds after birth. Neonatal process and outcome data were collected until discharge. We compared infants who received DCC who were born between August 2013 and August 2014 with a historic cohort of infants who were born between August 2012 and August 2013, who were eligible to receive DCC, but whose cord was clamped immediately after birth, because they were born before the protocol implementation. DCC was performed on all the 60 eligible infants; 88 infants were identified as historic control subjects. Gestational age, birthweight, and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in the DCC cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome, or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared with the historic cohort. A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH in the DCC cohort compared with the historic control group (18.3% vs 35.2%). After adjustment for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and DCC with IVH was significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared with the historic cohort; an odds ratio of 0

  3. The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, J; Sforzo, G; Swensen, T

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods: Eighteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a massage or control group. DOMS was induced with six sets of eight maximal eccentric contractions of the right hamstring, which were followed 2 h later by 20 min of massage or sham massage (control). Peak torque and mood were assessed at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Range of motion (ROM) and intensity and unpleasantness of soreness were assessed at 6, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Neutrophil count was assessed at 6 and 24 h postexercise. Results: A two factor ANOVA (treatment v time) with repeated measures on the second factor showed no significant treatment differences for peak torque, ROM, neutrophils, unpleasantness of soreness, and mood (p > 0.05). The intensity of soreness, however, was significantly lower in the massage group relative to the control group at 48 h postexercise (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage administered 2 h after exercise induced muscle injury did not improve hamstring function but did reduce the intensity of soreness 48 h after muscle insult. PMID:12547748

  4. Accumulation of Deleterious Mutations Near Sexually Antagonistic Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Connallon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutation generates a steady supply of genetic variation that, while occasionally useful for adaptation, is more often deleterious for fitness. Recent research has emphasized that the fitness effects of mutations often differ between the sexes, leading to important evolutionary consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation and long-term population viability. Some forms of sex-specific selection—i.e., stronger purifying selection in males than females—can help purge a population’s load of female-harming mutations and promote population growth. Other scenarios—e.g., sexually antagonistic selection, in which mutations that harm females are beneficial for males—inflate genetic loads and potentially dampen population viability. Evolutionary processes of sexual antagonism and purifying selection are likely to impact the evolutionary dynamics of different loci within a genome, yet theory has mostly ignored the potential for interactions between such loci to jointly shape the evolutionary genetic basis of female and male fitness variation. Here, we show that sexually antagonistic selection at a locus tends to elevate the frequencies of deleterious alleles at tightly linked loci that evolve under purifying selection. Moreover, haplotypes that segregate for different sexually antagonistic alleles accumulate different types of deleterious mutations. Haplotypes that carry female-benefit sexually antagonistic alleles preferentially accumulate mutations that are primarily male harming, whereas male-benefit haplotypes accumulate mutations that are primarily female harming. The theory predicts that sexually antagonistic selection should shape the genomic organization of genetic variation that differentially impacts female and male fitness, and contribute to sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fitness variation.

  5. The Effects of Download Delay on Performance and End-User Satisfaction in an Internet Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erica S.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of university students that investigated the effects of a variable unique to Internet-based learning, namely download delay of instructional materials. Discusses a simulated online teaching tool that measured the effects of download delay of images on test performance, time spent on the material, end-user satisfaction, and…

  6. GLOBAL EXPONENTIAL STABILITY OF HOPFIELD NEURAL NETWORKS WITH VARIABLE DELAYS AND IMPULSIVE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-chun; XU Dao-yi

    2006-01-01

    A class of Hopfield neural network with time-varying delays and impulsive effects is concerned. By applying the piecewise continuous vector Lyapunov function some sufficient conditions were obtained to ensure the global exponential stability of impulsive delay neural networks. An example and its simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  7. Impacts of Wake Effect and Time Delay on the Dynamic Analysis of Wind Farms Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.; El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the impacts of proper modeling of the wake effects and wind speed delays, between different wind turbines' rows, on the dynamic performance accuracy of the wind farms models. Three different modeling scenarios were compared to highlight the impacts of wake effects and wind speed time-delay models. In the first scenario,…

  8. Effect of electric field, stress and environment on delayed fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yi; SU; Yanjing; CHU; Wuyang; QIAO; Lijie

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic in silicone oil has been investigated using a single edge notched specimen. The results show that the fracture toughness and the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed fracture in silicone oil, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, decrease linearly with the increasing applied electric field, either positive or negative. For the PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramics, delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained positive or negative field can occur, and the threshold field for delayed fracture under sustained positive or negative field decreases linearly with applied stress intensity factor. The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on delayed fracture in silicone oil includes fieldenhancing delayed fracture under sustained load and stress-enhancing delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained field.

  9. 二甲双胍减轻糖基化终末产物对成骨细胞功能损害的观察%Metformin ameliorating the deleterious effects of advanced glycation end products on osteoblastic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄东户; 汤旭磊; 成建国; 韩婕; 刘丽娟; 傅松波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of metformin on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in the advanced glycation end products(AGEs)-induced rat cranium osteoblasts. Methods Rat cranium osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. The proliferation of osteoblasts was assayed by MTT method, the activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) was measured by biochemical method, the number of mineralized nodules was assessed by Alizarin red S staining, and the calcium deposition in the mineralized nodules was detected by hydrochloric acid decalcification method. Results With 500 fig/ml AGEs, the cellular proliferation, ALP activity, number of mineralized nodules, and calcium deposition were reduced significantly. Metformine (100-500 μmol/L) increased the cellular proliferation and ALP activity, and promoted the formation of mineralized nodules and calcium deposition in both control and AGEs groups. Conclusion AGEs inhibit the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of the primary osteoblasts. Metformine strengthens the osteogenesis of osteoblasts and relieves the deleterious effect of AGEs on osteoblasts.%目的 观察二甲双胍对晚期糖基化终末产物(AGEs)诱导的大鼠颅骨成骨细胞增殖、分化、矿化的影响.方法 分离培养大鼠颅骨成骨细胞,四氮唑蓝(MTT)比色分析法测定细胞增殖,生化法测定碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、茜素红S钙染法检测矿化结节形成,盐酸脱钙法检测矿化结节中钙含量.结果 500μg/ml AGEs抑制成骨细胞增殖、ALP活性、钙化结节形成、钙沉积;给予二甲双胍(100~500 μmol/L)可不同程度上提高成骨细胞数量和ALP活性,促进矿化结节形成及钙沉积,减轻AGEs对成骨细胞增殖、ALP活性、钙化结节形成及钙沉积的抑制.结论 AGEs对原代成骨细胞增殖、分化与矿化产生抑制作用,二甲双胍提高成骨细胞的成骨能力,减轻AGEs对成骨细胞功能的损害.

  10. Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M.…

  11. Digital TV, the effect of delay when watching football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, R.N.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Bulterman, D.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hearing a neighbor cheer for a goal seconds before you see it can be very annoying. Currently, many people that upgrade their TV service from analog to digital TV are experiencing this. We briefly describe causes of these (relative) delays. To support this with practical evidence, we report field me

  12. Effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding in delaying fatigue during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Coggan, A R

    1984-01-01

    Prolonged exercise in the fasted state frequently results in a lowering of blood glucose concentration, and when the intensity is moderate (i.e. 60-80% of VO2 max), muscle often becomes depleted of glycogen. The extent to which carbohydrate feedings contribute to energy production, and their effectiveness for improving endurance during prolonged exercise, are reviewed in this article. Prolonged exercise (i.e. greater than 2 hours) results in a failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle glucose uptake. As a result, blood glucose concentration frequently declines below 2.5 mmol/L. Despite this hypoglycaemia, fewer than 25% of subjects display symptoms suggestive of central nervous system dysfunction. Since fatigue rarely results from hypoglycaemia alone, the effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding should be judged by its potential for muscle glycogen sparing. Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity exercise postpones the development of fatigue by approximately 15 to 30 minutes, yet it does not prevent fatigue. This observation agrees with data suggesting that carbohydrate supplementation reduces muscle glycogen depletion. It is not certain whether carbohydrate feeding increases muscle glucose uptake throughout moderate exercise or if glucose uptake is higher only during the latter stages of exercise. In contrast to moderate intensity exercise, carbohydrate feeding during low intensity exercise (i.e. less than 45% of VO2 max) results in hyperinsulinaemia. Consequently, muscle glucose uptake and total carbohydrate oxidation are increased by approximately the same amount. The amount of ingested glucose which is oxidised is greater than the increase in total carbohydrate oxidation and therefore endogenous carbohydrate is spared. The majority of sparing appears to occur in the liver, which is reasonable since muscle glycogen is not utilised to a large extent during mild exercise. Although carbohydrate feedings prevent hypoglycaemia and are readily

  13. Effects of Nonlinear Time-Delay on a Stochastic Asymmetric System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu-Yun; ZHU Chun-Lian; JIA Ya; LI Jia-Rong

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effects of nonlinear time-delay on the stochastic system. With the delay time increasing, it is found that the peak of probability distribution in low steady states is decreased, and the peak of probability distribution in high steady states is increased. The mean of state variable, the normalized variance, and the normalized autocorrelation function which quantifies the concentrated degree are slowly varied for small delay time. However, the mean of state variable is rapidly increased, and the normalized variance and the normalized autocorrelation function is rapidJy decreased for large delay time.

  14. The Effect of D-Cycloserine on Immediate vs. Delayed Extinction of Learned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M.; Richardson, Rick

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) on immediate (10 min after conditioning) and delayed (24 h after conditioning) extinction of learned fear in rats. DCS facilitated both immediate and delayed extinction when the drug was administered after extinction training. However, DCS did not facilitate immediate extinction when administered prior…

  15. The Effects of Inflation and Interest Rates on Delay Discounting in Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Interest and inflation rates may be major determinants of delay discounting, but these variables have not been controlled in past experiments because they depend on macroeconomic conditions. This study uses a computer game-like task to investigate the effects of inflation rates on people's subjective valuation of delayed rewards. During the task,…

  16. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  17. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Conor W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables). PMID:28144622

  18. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, MacKenzie; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kelly, Conor W; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables).

  19. A novel design for randomized immuno-oncology clinical trials with potentially delayed treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The semi-parametric proportional hazards model is widely adopted in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, and the log-rank test is frequently used to detect a potential treatment effect. Immuno-oncology therapies pose unique challenges to the design of a trial as the treatment effect may be delayed, which violates the proportional hazards assumption, and the log-rank test has been shown to markedly lose power under the non-proportional hazards setting. A novel design and analysis approach for immuno-oncology trials is proposed through a piecewise treatment effect function, which is capable of detecting a potentially delayed treatment effect. The number of events required for the trial will be determined to ensure sufficient power for both the overall log-rank test without a delayed effect and the test beyond the delayed period when such a delay exists. The existence of a treatment delay is determined by a likelihood ratio test with resampling. Numerical results show that the proposed design adequately controls the Type I error rate, has a minimal loss in power under the proportional hazards setting and is markedly more powerful than the log-rank test with a delayed treatment effect.

  20. Time Delay Effects on Coupled Limit Cycle Oscillators at Hopf Bifurcation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, D V R; Johnston, G L

    1998-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effect of time delay on the collective dynamics of coupled limit cycle oscillators at Hopf bifurcation. For a simple model consisting of just two oscillators with a time delayed coupling, the bifurcation diagram obtained by numerical and analytical solutions shows significant changes in the stability boundaries of the amplitude death, phase locked and incoherent regions. A novel result is the occurrence of amplitude death even in the absence of a frequency mismatch between the two oscillators. Similar results are obtained for an array of N oscillators with a delayed mean field coupling and the regions of such amplitude death in the parameter space of the coupling strength and time delay are quantified. Some general analytic results for the N tending to infinity (thermodynamic) limit are also obtained and the implications of the time delay effects for physical applications are discussed.

  1. Effects of Time Delay on Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration Oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Yang-Jun; HUANG Zu-Qia

    2001-01-01

    Based on the SS-model [Somogyi R and Stucki J W J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 11 068] for the generation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration oscillations, we consider a time delay for the binding kinetics of the Ca2+ channel and find a significant phenomenon that the oscillation takes two quite different modes when a parameter of the system crosses a threshold. One is a quick oscillation mode and the other is a slow oscillation mode. The oscillation frequencies of these modes differ from each other by more than ten times. The change of oscillation form with parameters and its critical behaviour are illustrated by numerical simulation results.

  2. Effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Javier; Desantes, Domingo; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Rubio, Juan; Diago Almela, Vicente J; Perales, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    To ascertain if there are differences in umbilical cord blood gas analysis between immediate and delayed cord clamping. In a prospective observational study on 60 vaginally delivered healthy term newborns, we sampled umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery and at the time umbilical cord pulsation spontaneously ceased. There were significant decreases in pH, oxygen saturation (sO(2)), glycemia, oxygen content (ctO(2)), bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) and base excess (BE). Lactate and [Formula: see text] increased. Delayed cord clamping pH correlated with immediate cord clamping pH, [Formula: see text] , ctHb, sO(2) and time (r(2)=0.77, pcord clamping lactate was associated with immediate cord clamping lactate and time (r(2)=0.83, pcord clamping alters acid-base parameters and lactate values compared to immediate cord clamping. Those variations depend mainly on time, prior pH and lactate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Bubbling effect in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization in the optical systems coupled network always suffers from bubbling events. In this paper, we numerically investigate the statistical properties of the synchronization characteristics and bubbling effects in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network with different coupling strength, delay time and gain coefficient. Furthermore, we compare our results with the synchronization properties of semiconductor laser (SL) coupled network, which indicates that the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator can be better to suppress the bubbling effects in the synchronization of coupled network under the same conditions.

  5. Design and analysis of clinical trials in the presence of delayed treatment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Tony; Liu, Mengling; Shnaidman, Michael; Ying, Zhiliang

    2016-05-20

    In clinical trials with survival endpoint, it is common to observe an overlap between two Kaplan-Meier curves of treatment and control groups during the early stage of the trials, indicating a potential delayed treatment effect. Formulas have been derived for the asymptotic power of the log-rank test in the presence of delayed treatment effect and its accompanying sample size calculation. In this paper, we first reformulate the alternative hypothesis with the delayed treatment effect in a rescaled time domain, which can yield a simplified sample size formula for the log-rank test in this context. We further propose an intersection-union test to examine the efficacy of treatment with delayed effect and show it to be more powerful than the log-rank test. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  7. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  8. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. Exponential stability of cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dong; Wang Hui; Yang Dan; Zhang Xiao-Hong; Wang Shi-Long

    2008-01-01

    In this work,the stability issues of the equilibrium points of the cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive effects are investigated.Based on the stability theory of Lyapunov-Krasovskii,the method of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and parametrized first-order model transformation,several novel conditions guaranteeing the delaydependent and the delay-independent exponential stabilities are obtained.A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  10. Effect of delay of reinforcement on superstitious inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, J M

    2000-06-01

    Temporal contiguity is positively associated with ease of detecting contingencies. When actions and outcomes are not contiguous, intervening responses might be strengthened by adventitious reinforcement. In the current study, participants engaged in a task where pressing 1 of 10 keys was reinforced either immediately or after various delays. Outcomes were scheduled either according to an FR 1 or FR 2 schedule. Participants also answered a question designed to assess their illusion of control. As the latency between the instrumental response and the reinforcer increased, participants attributed less importance to the instrumental response, attributed more importance to other nonessential responses, and began to show stereotyped patterns of responding. The illusion of control was positively related to the intricacy of such patterns. Results are discussed in terms of a contiguity which implies causality heuristic and the relationship of superstition with adventitious reinforcement and illusion of control.

  11. Polidocanol injection for chemical delay and its effect on the survival of rat dorsal skin flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menevşe, Gülsüm Tetik; TeomanTellioglu, Ali; Altuntas, Nurgül; Cömert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Surgical delay is an invasive method requiring a two-stage surgical procedure. Hence, methods that may serve as an alternative to surgical delay have become the focus of interest of research studies. From a conceptual view, any technique that interrupts the blood flow along the edges of a proposed flap will render the flap ischemic and induce a delay phenomenon. Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol(®)-Kreussler) was initially used as a local anesthetic. Nowadays, it has been used as a sclerosing agent to treat telangiectasias and varicose veins. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of polidocanol injected around the periphery of a random flap as a sclerosing agent on flap delay and survival in a random flap model. A preliminary histopathologic study was performed on two rats to evaluate the sclerosing effect and distribution of polidocanol injection. After the preliminary study, the main study was carried out with three groups: group 1: dorsal flap (n = 10); group 2: dorsal flap + surgical delay (n = 10), group 3: dorsal flap + chemical delay (n = 10). Tissue samples obtained from the flap and injection area revealed destruction of intradermal vessels. The area affected with sclerosis was limited to 0.1 cm beyond the injection site. Mean viable flap areas were 52.1 ± 4.38% (44.0-58.2) in group 1, 64.8 ± 8.92% (57.2-89.2) in group 2, and 71.8 ± 5.18% (64.0-84.0) in group 3. A statistically highly significant difference was found between the surgical delay and chemical delay groups versus the group without delay (p surgical and chemical delay groups (p = 0.056). In conclusion, this study has shown that polidocanol injection around the dorsal flap in the rat is a safe and easy method for nonsurgical delay. The results have shown a flap survival benefit that is superior to controls and equivalent to surgical delay. The clinical application of polidocanol, already in clinical practice for occlusal of telangiectasias, for surgical delay appears

  12. Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCanavier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.

  13. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  14. A nicotina atua como fator deletério na reparação da parede abdominal The nicotine has a deleterious effect on the healing of abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    subcutaneously near the abdominal sutured lesion. In the tenth postoperative day 1ml of serous liquid was harvested from the silicone tube and a pO2 dosage was done. The rats were killed with overdose of anesthetic. A 2cm width transversal segment of abdominal wall was submited to tensile strength test by a tensiometer. A biopsy of the sutured area including muscle, aporeurosis and peritoneum was processed for histopatologic analysis by a digitalised system. The data were processed by the ANOVA and Newman-Keuls tests, considering significant the differences when p<0,05. RESULTS: In the group A the pO2 on the tissue serous liquid reached 17,75± 3,4 mmHg and in the group B (control the pO2 = 40,75± 6,4 mmHg (p<0,01. The tensile strength reached 728,5± 161,75gf in the group A and 1241,6± 232gf in the control one (p<0,01.The mean density of the histopatologic elements was 105± 17,1 in group A and 146,2± 8,8 in group B (p<0,01. CONCLUSION: after evaluation of tissue pO2 , tensiometry and histopatology, the data permited to conclude that the nicotine has a deleterious effect on the healing the abdominal wall of rats.

  15. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed). Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test) and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests), and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter) and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category) to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing. PMID:28344679

  16. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Hou Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test and processing level (shallow, deep, and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests, and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing.

  17. Choice between delayed food and immediate opioids in rats: treatment effects and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Secci, Maria E; Schindler, Charles W; Bradberry, Charles W

    2017-09-04

    Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food. Treatment with a high dose of the opioid antagonist naltrexone decreased but did not reverse the preference for remifentanil. Treatment with the serotonin 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin decreased remifentanil and food self-administration nonselectively. Across conditions in which the alternative to delayed food was either a moderate dose of oxycodone, a moderate or high dose of remifentanil, a smaller more immediate delivery of food, or timeout with no primary reinforcement, choice was determined by both the length of the delay and the nature of the alternative option. Delayed food was discounted most steeply when the alternative was a high dose of remifentanil, which was preferred over food when food was delayed by 30 s or more. Within-subject comparisons showed no evidence for trait-like impulsivity or sensitivity to delay across these conditions. Choice was determined more by the current contingencies of reinforcement than by innate individual differences. This finding suggests that people might develop steep delay-discounting functions because of the contingencies in their environment, and it supports the use of contingency management to enhance the relative value of delayed nondrug reinforcers.

  18. Effects of time-delayed feedback on the properties of self-sustained oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risau-Gusman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Most self-sustained oscillations in biological systems and in technical applications are based on a feedback loop, and it is usually important to know how they will react when an external oscillatory force is applied. Here we investigate the effects that the introduction of a time delay in the feedback can have in the entrainment properties of self-sustained oscillators. To do this, we derive analytic expressions for the periodic trajectories and their asymptotic stability, for a generic external oscillatory force. This allows us to show that, for large quality factors, the resonance frequency does not depend on the feedback delay. When the external force is harmonic, it is shown that the largest entrainment range does not correspond to the time delay that gives the maximal response of the unforced oscillator. In fact, that delay gives the shortest entrainment range.

  19. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumi Bhattacharya; Smita Dubey; Rajesh Tiwari; P. K. Purohit; A. K. Gwal

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) have been chosen to study these effects. This paper presents the results of ionospheric time delay during quiet and disturbed days for the year 2005. Results show that maximum delay is observed during quiet days in equinoxial month while the delays of disturbed period are observed during the months of winter. We also study the ionospheric time delay during magnetic storm conditions for the same period. Results do not show any clear relationship either with the magnitude of the geomagnetic storm or with the main phase onset (MPO) of the storm. But most of the maximum ionospheric time delay variations are observed before the main phase onset (MPO) or sudden storm commencement (SSC) as compared to storm days.

  20. The effect and design of time delay in feedback control for a nonlinear isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuting; Xu, Jian; Fu, Jiangsong

    2017-03-01

    The optimum value of time delay of active control used in a nonlinear isolation system for different types of external excitation is studied in this paper. Based on the mathematical model of the nonlinear isolator with time-delayed active control, the stability, response and displacement transmissibility of the system are analyzed to obtain the standards for appropriate values of time delay and control strengths. The effects of nonlinearity and time delay on the stability and vibration response are discussed in details. For impact excitation and random excitation, the optimal value of time delay is obtained based on the vibration dissipation time via eigenvalues analysis, while for harmonic excitation, the optimal values are determined based on multiple vibration properties including natural frequency, amplitude death region and effective isolation region by the Averaging Method. This paper establishes the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a nonlinear isolation system which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed active control for different types of excitation in engineering practices.

  1. Effect of unsignaled delays between stimuli in a chain schedule on responding and resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E

    2008-03-01

    Behavioral momentum theory is an evolving theoretical account of the strength of behavior. One challenge for the theory is determining the role of signal stimuli in determining response strength. This study evaluated the effect of an unsignaled delay between the initial link and terminal link of a two-link chain schedule on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Pigeons were presented two different signaled delay to reinforcement schedules. Both schedules employed a two-link chain schedule with a variable interval 120-s initial link followed by a 5-s fixed time terminal link schedule. One of the schedules included a 5-s unsignaled delay between the initial link and the terminal link. Resistance to change was assessed with two separate disruption procedures: extinction and adding a variable time 20-s schedule of reinforcement to the inter-component interval. Baseline responding was lower in the schedule with the unsignaled delay but resistance to change for the initial link was unaffected by the unsignaled delay. The results suggest that not all unsignaled delays are equal in their effect on resistance to change.

  2. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  3. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    M., Kopeikin S

    2015-01-01

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  4. Purging deleterious mutations under self fertilization: paradoxical recovery in fitness with increasing mutation rate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi T Morran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of deleterious mutations can drastically reduce population mean fitness. Self-fertilization is thought to be an effective means of purging deleterious mutations. However, widespread linkage disequilibrium generated and maintained by self-fertilization is predicted to reduce the efficacy of purging when mutations are present at multiple loci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of self-fertilizing populations to purge deleterious mutations at multiple loci by exposing obligately self-fertilizing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans to a range of elevated mutation rates and found that mutations accumulated, as evidenced by a reduction in mean fitness, in each population. Therefore, purging in obligate selfing populations is overwhelmed by an increase in mutation rate. Surprisingly, we also found that obligate and predominantly self-fertilizing populations exposed to very high mutation rates exhibited consistently greater fitness than those subject to lesser increases in mutation rate, which contradicts the assumption that increases in mutation rate are negatively correlated with fitness. The high levels of genetic linkage inherent in self-fertilization could drive this fitness increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compensatory mutations can be more frequent under high mutation rates and may alleviate a portion of the fitness lost due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations through epistatic interactions with deleterious mutations. The prolonged maintenance of tightly linked compensatory and deleterious mutations facilitated by self-fertilization may be responsible for the fitness increase as linkage disequilibrium between the compensatory and deleterious mutations preserves their epistatic interaction.

  5. Extinction and permanence in delayed stage-structure predator-prey system with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi 537000 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the classical stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, an impulsive delayed differential equation to model the process of periodically releasing natural enemies at fixed times for pest control is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for global attractivity of the 'pest-extinction' ('prey-eradication') periodic solution and permanence of the population of the model depend on time delay. We also show that constant maturation time delay and impulsive releasing for the predator can bring great effects on the dynamics of system by numerical analysis. As a result, the pest maturation time delay is considered to establish a procedure to maintain the pests at an acceptably low level in the long term. In this paper, the main feature is that we introduce time delay and pulse into the predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) model with age structure, exhibit a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations, and give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

  6. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (p<0.05) in ARI score was detected between the 0.5-min and 4.0-min delay groups with more adhesive remaining on the bracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  7. The Effects of Social Skills Groups for Young Children with Social Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted as a program evaluation of an existing social skills program. A review of literature identified a limited number of empirical studies on group-based social skills training for young children with social delays. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social skills groups as well as the effects of homework…

  8. Learning to Effectively Implement Constant Time Delay Procedures To Teach Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Trudie A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Keel, Marie C.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a training procedure in teaching a special educator the constant time delay procedure and the effectiveness of the procedure in teaching spelling to a 12-year-old with learning disabilities. The teacher successfully implemented the procedure and the student learned to spell all 15 words. (Contains references.)…

  9. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40

  10. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40 participan

  11. Effect of caffeine and adenosine on G2 repair: mitotic delay and chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, A; Hernández, P; López-Sáez, J F

    1985-04-01

    Proliferating plant cells treated during the late S period with 5-aminouracil (AU), give the typical response that DNA-damaging agents induce, characterized by: an important mitotic delay, and a potentiation of the chromosome damage by caffeine post-treatment. The study of labelled prophases, after a tritiated thymidine pulse, allowed evaluation of the mitotic delay induced by AU as well as its reversion by caffeine, while chromosome damage was estimated by the percentage of anaphases and telophases showing chromosomal aberrations. Post-treatment with adenosine alone has shown no effect on mitotic delay or chromosomal damage. However, when cells after AU were incubated in caffeine plus adenosine, the chromosome damage potentiation was abolished without affecting the caffeine action on mitotic delay. As a consequence, we postulate that caffeine could have two effects on G2 cells with damaged DNA: the first, to cancel their mitotic delay and the second to inhibit some DNA-repair pathway(s). Only this last effect could be reversed by adenosine.

  12. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  13. Estimating the Effects of Delayed Entry into Higher Education: A Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark many high school graduates choose to delay their entry into higher education. A number of studies have investigated the effects of the delay on the educational and labour market careers. The existing studies are likely to suffer from selection bias, and this problem is unlikely...... to be remedied by use of control variables. More advanced techniques that can eliminate the selection bias are needed in order to identify causal effects. For policy purposes it would thus be preferable to focus on the economic losses associated with the years lost in the skilled labour market which...

  14. Monte Carlo and deterministic computational methods for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2013-07-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction β plays an important role in kinetics and static analysis of the reactor physics experiments. It is used as reactivity unit referred to as "dollar". Usually, it is obtained by computer simulation due to the difficulty in measuring it experimentally. In 1965, Keepin proposed a method, widely used in the literature, for the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction β. This method requires calculation of the adjoint neutron flux as a weighting function of the phase space inner products and is easy to implement by deterministic codes. With Monte Carlo codes, the solution of the adjoint neutron transport equation is much more difficult because of the continuous-energy treatment of nuclear data. Consequently, alternative methods, which do not require the explicit calculation of the adjoint neutron flux, have been proposed. In 1997, Bretscher introduced the k-ratio method for calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction; this method is based on calculating the multiplication factor of a nuclear reactor core with and without the contribution of delayed neutrons. The multiplication factor set by the delayed neutrons (the delayed multiplication factor) is obtained as the difference between the total and the prompt multiplication factors. Using Monte Carlo calculation Bretscher evaluated the β as the ratio between the delayed and total multiplication factors (therefore the method is often referred to as the k-ratio method). In the present work, the k-ratio method is applied by Monte Carlo (MCNPX) and deterministic (PARTISN) codes. In the latter case, the ENDF/B nuclear data library of the fuel isotopes (235U and 238U) has been processed by the NJOY code with and without the delayed neutron data to prepare multi-group WIMSD neutron libraries for the lattice physics code DRAGON, which was used to generate the PARTISN macroscopic cross sections. In recent years Meulekamp and van der Marck in 2006 and Nauchi and Kameyama

  15. Automated problem scheduling and reduction of synchronization delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    It is anticipated that in order to make effective use of many future high performance architectures, programs will have to exhibit at least a medium grained parallelism. A framework is presented for partitioning very sparse triangular systems of linear equations that is designed to produce favorable preformance results in a wide variety of parallel architectures. Efficient methods for solving these systems are of interest because: (1) they provide a useful model problem for use in exploring heuristics for the aggregation, mapping and scheduling of relatively fine grained computations whose data dependencies are specified by directed acrylic graphs, and (2) because such efficient methods can find direct application in the development of parallel algorithms for scientific computation. Simple expressions are derived that describe how to schedule computational work with varying degrees of granularity. The Encore Multimax was used as a hardware simulator to investigate the performance effects of using the partitioning techniques presented in shared memory architectures with varying relative synchronization costs.

  16. Acute and Delayed Effects of Melatonin: Operational Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    In mammals its primary sites circadian zeitgeber in humans have been much of production are the pineal gland and the retina, discussed (e.g. 5...proposed as an methoxytryptamine (melatonin). The rhythm of endogenous sleep substance, as an opener of the pineal synthesis is generated in the...8217hypnotic’ effect in both animals (cats, dark onset (the rise) and offset (the decline) and rats , chickens) and humans, reviewed by Cramer in reinforces

  17. Time-delay effects and simplified control fields in quantum Lyapunov control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, X X; Wu, S L [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, X L; Oh, C H, E-mail: yixx@dlut.edu.cn, E-mail: phyohch@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-10-14

    Lyapunov-based quantum control has the advantage that it is free from the measurement-induced decoherence and it includes the instantaneous information of the system in the control. The Lyapunov control is often confronted with time delay in the control fields and difficulty in practical implementations of the control. In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the Lyapunov control and explore the possibility of replacing the control field with a pulse train or a bang-bang signal. The efficiency of the Lyapunov control is also presented through examining the convergence time of the system. These results suggest that the Lyapunov control is robust against time delay, easy to realize and effective for high-dimensional quantum systems.

  18. Effects of small time delay on a bistable system subject to Levy stable noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiamin; Tao Weiming; Xu Bohou, E-mail: taowm@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-09-23

    Levy stable noise is often used to describe impulsive noise bursting in communication systems. This paper investigates the effects of small time delay on a bistable system driven by an aperiodic bipolar pulse signal and Levy stable noise. We obtain the dynamical probability density of the system response by solving the approximated time-delayed fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) via an implicit finite difference method. A new approach to evaluate the system response time is presented. The bit error rate (BER) is employed to measure the performance of the bistable system in detecting binary signals. The theoretical BER is validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that the existence of time delay can change both the drift term and the diffusion coefficient in time-delayed FFPE. For small noise intensity, the time delay extends the system response time and thus reduces the detection performance. However, effects of this kind will fade away with the increase of noise intensity. (paper)

  19. Delay time dependence of thermal effect of combined pulse laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Boshi; Jin, Guangyong; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The research focused on the effect of delay time in combined pulse laser machining on the material temperature field. Aiming at the parameter optimization of pulse laser machining aluminum alloy, the combined pulse laser model based on heat conduction equation was introduced. And the finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics, was also utilized in the research. Without considering the phase transition process of aluminum alloy, the results of the numerical simulation was shown in this paper. By the simulation study of aluminum alloy's irradiation with combined pulse, the effect of the change in delay time of combined pulse on the temperature field of the aluminum alloy and simultaneously the quantized results under the specific laser spot conditions were obtained. Based on the results, several conclusions could be reached, the delay time could affect the rule of temperature changing with time. The reasonable delay time controlling would help improving the efficiency. In addition, when the condition of the laser pulse energy density is constant, the optimal delay time depends on pulse sequence.

  20. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  1. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  2. Delay-Induced Triple-Zero Bifurcation in a Delayed Leslie-Type Predator-Prey Model with Additive Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli; Yu, Pei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a Leslie-type predator-prey model with ratio-dependent functional response and Allee effect on prey is considered. We first study the existence of the multiple positive equilibria and their stability. Then we investigate the effect of delay on the distribution of the roots of characteristic equation and obtain the conditions for the occurrence of simple-zero, double-zero and triple-zero singularities. The formulations for calculating the normal form of the triple-zero bifurcation of the delay differential equations are derived. We show that, under certain conditions on the parameters, the system exhibits homoclinic orbit, heteroclinic orbit and periodic orbit.

  3. Effects of Concurrent and Delayed Visual Feedback on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Li, Teng; Yang, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yuru

    2017-02-22

    In many domains, it's important to understand the ways in which humans learn and develop new motor skills effectively and efficiently. For example, in dental operations, the ability to apply a weak force with a required tolerance is a fundamental skill to ensure diagnostic and treatment outcome, but acquiring such a skill is a challenge for novices. In this paper, we focus on motor memory for producing normally applied force by a hand-held probe and we compare the effects of two feedback methods on motor memory consolidation. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a Concurrent Group and a Delayed Group. Participants in the Concurrent Group were trained to apply a target force with concurrent visual feedback, while those in the Delayed Group were trained with delayed visual feedback. The task included two phases: a Training/Testing Phase, and a Retention Phase. The results indicated that participants in the Delayed Group obtained more effective learning outcomes and better retention effects. These findings provide a new perspective to explore the relationship between feedback methods and the cognitive process of motor skill learning, and open a new way to train motor skill using more effective methods than the traditional concurrent feedback approaches.

  4. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate αh, which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as αh increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as αh is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  5. Effect of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on stochastic resonance of scale-free neuronal networks. For this purpose, we introduce the heterogeneity to the specified neuron with the highest degree. It is shown that in the absence of delay, an intermediate noise level can optimally assist spike firings of collective neurons so as to achieve stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks for small and intermediate α(h), which plays a heterogeneous role. Maxima of stochastic resonance measure are enhanced as α(h) increases, which implies that the heterogeneity can improve stochastic resonance. However, as α(h) is beyond a certain large value, no obvious stochastic resonance can be observed. If the information transmission delay is introduced to neuronal networks, stochastic resonance is dramatically affected. In particular, the tuned information transmission delay can induce multiple stochastic resonance, which can be manifested as well-expressed maximum in the measure for stochastic resonance, appearing every multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. Furthermore, we can observe that stochastic resonance at odd multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period is subharmonic, as opposed to the case of even multiple of one half of the subthreshold stimulus period. More interestingly, multiple stochastic resonance can also be improved by the suitable heterogeneous neuron. Presented results can provide good insights into the understanding of the heterogeneous neuron and information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks.

  6. Growth delay effect of combined interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy in a rat solid tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D; Kimler, B F; Estes, N C; Durham, F J

    1989-01-01

    The rat mammary AC33 solid tumor model was used to investigate the efficacy of interstitial hyperthermia and/or brachytherapy. Subcutaneous flank tumors were heated with an interstitial microwave (915 MHz) antenna to a temperature of 43 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 45 min for two treatments, three days apart, and/or implanted with Ir-192 seeds for three days (-25 Gy tumor dose). Following treatments, tumors were measured 2 to 3 times per week. Hyperthermia alone produced a modest delay in tumor volume regrowth, while brachytherapy was substantially more effective. The combination produced a improvement in tumor regrowth delay compared to brachytherapy alone.

  7. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  8. Electron correlation effects on photoionization time delay in atomic Ar and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A.; Saha, S.; Decshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time delay studies in photoionization processes have stimulated much interest as they provide valuable dynamical information about electron correlation and relativistic effects. In a recent work on Wigner time delay in the photoionization of noble gas atoms, it was found that correlations resulting from interchannel coupling involving shells with different principal quantum numbers have significant effects on 2s and 2p photoionization of Ne, 3s photoionization of Ar, and 3d photoionization of Kr. In the present work, photoionization time delay in inner and outer subshells of the noble gases Ar and Xe are examined by including electron correlations using different many body techniques: (i) the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), (ii) RRPA with relaxation, to include relaxation effects of the residual ion and (iii) the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (RMCTD) approximation. The (sometimes substantial) effects of the inclusion of non-RPA correlations on the photoionization Wigner time delay are reported. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  9. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Kersten, F.A.M.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Roijen, L.H.; Habbema, J.D.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does the cost-effectiveness (CE) of immediate IVF compared with postponing IVF for 1 year, depend on prognostic characteristics of the couple? SUMMARY ANSWER: The CE ratio, i.e. the incremental costs of immediate versus delayed IVF per extra live birth, is the highest (range of

  10. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  11. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  12. Effect of delay time on the generation of chaos in continuous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berezowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with a theoretical analysis of the effect of delay time of energy transport upon the generation of complex dynamics in continuous physical system. The importance of this time for the presence of quasi - periodicity and chaos in a reactor is demonstrated. The considerations are preceded by the analysis of one - dimensional mathematical model.

  13. [Systematization of data and information on delayed consequences of the effects of chemicals in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianno, L V; Pimenova, M N; Osipova, I V

    1993-01-01

    The systematization and analysis of the data connected with delayed consequences arising in human body from exposure to dangerous chemicals have been carried out. The paper contains the list of dangerous chemicals exerting mutagenic or carcinogenic effects and chromosome aberrations. The cytologic express method of revealing mucous membrane dysplasia resulting from exposure to some chemical mutagens have been evaluated.

  14. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  15. Effects of wrapping time delays on fermentation characteristics of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage is an attractive forage conservation approach for small and mid-sized dairy or beef producers, partly because it limits the risks associated with baling dry hay during wet or unstable weather conditions. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on silage fermentation,...

  16. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate,…

  17. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  18. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Compared health-related quality of life of 43 delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients (mean age 34.1 yrs) with a random Dutch sample of 1,063 Ss (aged 18-89 yrs) and 95 sleep apnea, 262 clinical depression, 546 migraine, and 194 osteoarthritis patients. The effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg

  19. Effects of melatonin on the quality of life in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, J.E.; Laurant, M.W.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Smits, M.G.; Meer, Y.G. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) patients with a random Dutch sample and four samples of patients with other chronic conditions. We also investigated the effectiveness of treatment with 5 mg of melatonin on the

  20. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  1. Simultaneous and Delayed Video Modeling: An Examination of System Effectiveness and Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber-Doughyt, Teresa; Patton, Scott E.; Brennan, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of simultaneous and delayed video modeling when used by three middle-school students with moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. Alternating between modeling systems, students were taught to use the public library computer to locate specific book call numbers and use the Dewey Decimal Classification System to locate…

  2. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. D.; Siebers, D. L.; Dijulio, S. S.; Westbrook, C. K.

    1993-12-01

    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR = 23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  3. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  5. Effects of Ion Irradiation on Seedlings Growth Monitored by Ultraweak Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Cirrone, Giuseppe A. P.; Cuttone, Giacomo; Gulino, Marisa; Musumeci, Francesco; Romano, Francesco; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Scordino, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The optical technique based on the measurement of delayed luminescence emitted from the biological samples has demonstrated its ability to provide valid and predictive information on the functional status of various biological systems. We want to extend this technique to study the effect of ionizing radiation on biological systems. In particular we are interested in the action of ion beams, used for therapeutic purposes or to increase the biological diversity. In general, the assessment of the damage that radiation produces both in the target objects and in the surrounding tissues, requires considerable time because is based on biochemical analysis or on the examination of the evolution of the irradiated systems. The delayed luminescence technique could help to simplify this investigation. We have so started our studies performing irradiations of some relatively simple vegetable models. In this paper we report results obtained from mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds submitted to a 12C ion beam at the energy of 62 MeV/nucleon. The dry seeds were irradiated at doses from 50 to 7000 Gy. The photoinduced delayed luminescence of each seed before and after ion irradiation was measured. The growth of seedlings after irradiation was compared with that of untreated seeds. A growth reduction on increasing the dose was registered. The results show strong correlations between the ion irradiation dose, seeds growth and delayed luminescence intensity. In particular, the delayed luminescence intensity is correlated by a logistic function to the seedlings elongation and, after performing a suitable measurement campaign based on blind tests, it could become a tool able to predict the growth of seeds after ion irradiation. Moreover these results demonstrate that measurements of delayed luminescence could be used as a fast and non-invasive technique to check the effects of ion beams on relatively simple biological systems. PMID:27936220

  6. Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries -- a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Skeie, A; Hjørting-Hansen, E; Schwartz, O

    2002-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature concerning parameters influencing the prognosis of traumatic dental injuries, few studies were found to have examined possible relationships between treatment delay and pulpal and periodontal ligament healing complications. It has been commonly accepted that all injuries should be treated on an emergency basis, for the comfort of the patient and also to reduce wound healing complications. For practical and especially economic reasons, various approaches can be selected to fulfill such a demand, such as acute treatment (i.e. within a few hours), subacute (i.e. within the first 24 h), and delayed (i.e. after the first 24 h). In this survey the consequences of treatment delay on pulpal and periodontal healing have been analyzed for the various dental trauma groups. Applying such a treatment approach to the various types of injuries, the following treatment guidelines can be recommended, based on our present rather limited knowledge of the effect of treatment delay upon wound healing. Crown and crown/root fractures: Subacute or delayed approach. Root fractures: Acute or subacute approach. Alveolar fractures: Acute approach (evidence however questionable). Concussion and subluxation: Subacute approach. Extrusion and lateral luxation: Acute or subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Intrusion: Subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Avulsion: If the tooth is not replanted at the time of injury, acute approach; otherwise subacute. Primary tooth injury: Subacute approach, unless the primary tooth is displaced into the follicle of the permanent tooth or occlusal problems are present; in the latter instances, an acute approach should be chosen. These treatment guidelines are based on very limited evidence from the literature and should be revised as soon as more evidence about the effect of treatment delay becomes available.

  7. Multiscale Analysis of Effects of Additive and Multiplicative Noise on Delay Differential Equations Near a Bifurcation Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosek, M. M.

    2004-04-01

    We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations.

  8. Effect of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic bracket bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, Michael J.

    This study examined the effect of bracket manipulation in combination with delayed polymerization times on orthodontic bracket shear bond strength and degree of resin composite conversion. Orthodontics brackets were bonded to extracted third molars in a simulated oral environment after a set period of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation. After curing the bracket adhesive, each bracket underwent shear bond strength testing followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis to measure the degree of conversion of the resin composite. Results demonstrated the shear bond strength and the degree of conversion of ceramic brackets did not vary over time. However, with stainless steel brackets there was a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) of delay time on shear bond strength between the 0.5 min and 10 min bracket groups. In addition, stainless steel brackets showed significant differences related to degree of conversion over time between the 0.5 min and 5 min groups, in addition to the 0.5 min and 10 min groups. This investigation suggests that delaying bracket adhesive polymerization up to a period of 10 min then adjusting the orthodontic bracket may increase both shear bond strength and degree of conversion of stainless steel brackets while having no effect on ceramic brackets.

  9. Potential Effects on Large Mara Construction Projects Due To Construction Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry continues to be the driving force in the growth of the nation’s socio economic development. One of the major issues in large construction industry is its frequent delay where this delay decelerates the multiplier effects to the economy. This paper presents the study of a survey on significant cause of delay and its effects in large MARA (Majlis Amanah Rakyat construction project in the views of project management consultants (PMC. Respondents of this survey were personnel that work as PMC ranging from the executives, managerial and supporting groups. The result revealed that the five most significant delay causes as seen by PMC were cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor’s poor site management, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers and ineffective planning and scheduling by contractors and its three most significant effects were time overrun, cost overrun and arbitration. Hopefully, the findings of this study will at least shade some lights to the problems faced by Malaysia construction industry particularly MARA large construction project and effort can be taken to improve it.

  10. Deleterious Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Timema Stick Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumu

  11. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  12. The immediate versus delayed effects of an advertising literacy training on children's responses to product placement

    OpenAIRE

    De Jans, Steffi; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the immediate vs. delayed effects of an advertising literacy training on product placement effects for 7-8 versus 10-11 year old children. The advertising literacy training increased children’s understanding of product placement (advertising literacy), both for the younger and the older children and both immediately and in the longer run (measured after one week). In addition, this advertising literacy had a negative impact on pester power, but only when c...

  13. Is delayed ischemic preconditioning as effective on running performance during a 5km time trial as acute IPC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Joost P H; Timmers, Silvie; Ploegmakers, Danique J M; Cable, N Timothy; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance exercise performance. Cardioprotective effects of IPC are known to re-occur 24h after the stimulus. Whether the delayed effect of IPC has similar effects as IPC on exercise performance is unknown.

  14. A Job with a Future? Delay Discounting, Magnitude Effects, and Domain Independence of Utility for Career Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Thomas E.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2003-01-01

    Seniors (n=20) assessed two job offers with differences in domain (salary/tasks), delay (career-long earnings), and magnitude (initial salary offer). Contrary to discounted utility theory, choices reflected nonconstant discount rates for future salary/tasks (delay effect), lower discount rates for salary/preferred tasks (magnitude effect), and a…

  15. Tracking with asymptotic sliding mode and adaptive input delay effect compensation of nonlinearly perturbed delayed systems applied to traffic feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Boris; Haddad, Jack; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Asymptotical sliding mode-model reference adaptive control design for a class of systems with parametric uncertainty, unknown nonlinear perturbation and external disturbance, and with known input and state delays is proposed. To overcome the difficulty to directly predict the plant state under uncertainties, a control design is based on a developed decomposition procedure, where a 'generalised error' in conjunction with auxiliary linear dynamic blocks with adjustable gains is introduced and the sliding variable is formed on the basis of this error. The effect of such a decomposition is to pull the input delay out of first step of the design procedure. As a result, similarly to the classical Smith predictor, the adaptive control architecture based only on the lumped-delays, i.e. without conventional in such cases difficult-implemented distributed-delay blocks. Two new adaptive control schemes are proposed. A linearisation-based control design is constructed for feedback control of an urban traffic region model with uncertain dynamics. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method.

  16. The effect of topical minoxidil pretreatment on nonsurgical delay of rat cutaneous flaps: further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Tuncer, Ersin; Yılmaz, Sarper

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of topically applied minoxidil in the pharmacological delay phenomenon and to demonstrate the comparable microscopic and macroscopic changes between minoxidil-pretreated flaps and surgically delayed flaps. A modified version of the McFarlane flap was used. Group 1 rats, in which a caudally based dorsal skin flap was raised and sutured back, were the control group. In group II, minoxidil solution was spread over the marked skin flap area for 7 days. On the 7th day, a caudally based dorsal skin flap was elevated and then sutured back. Group III rats underwent a surgical delay procedure alone. On the 7th day after flap elevation, evaluation was done by histologic examination and calculation of the flap survival areas in all groups. The lowest flap survival rate appeared in group I and was statistically different from groups II and III. The mean surviving skin flap area in the minoxidil-pretreated group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After histologic evaluation, moderate angiogenesis was also detected in group II. We also found that surgical delay significantly reduced flap necrosis when compared to the minoxidil pretreatment group. According to our study, minoxidil may be considered an effective vasoactive agent for the stimulation of angiogenesis in rat cutaneous flaps and capable of achieving pharmacological delay and increasing flap survival. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. TRAVELING WAVES IN A BIOLOGICAL REACTION-DIFFUSION MODEL WITH STRONG GENERIC DELAY KERNEL AND NON-LOCAL EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the reaction diffusion equations with strong generic delay kernel and non-local effect,which models the microbial growth in a flow reactor.The existence of traveling waves is established for this model.More precisely,using the geometric singular perturbation theory,we show that traveling wave solutions exist provided that the delay is sufficiently small with the strong generic delay kernel.

  18. The Effect of Learner-generated Illustrations on the Immediate And Delayed Recall of English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Aeineh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of learner generated illustrations on the immediate and delayed idiom recall of Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners. To accomplish this end, 40 female students participated in this study. A placement test (Quick Placement Test, Version 2 was administered to the participants to ascertain that they were all at intermediate level of proficiency. Since the design of the study was quasi experimental, they were randomly assigned to control (N: 20 and experimental (N: 20 groups. A pretest of idioms was given to the participants to ensure that they were homogeneous in terms of their knowledge of idioms. Both groups were provided with the clarification of idioms through definitions and examples. However the experimental group was required to draw their own mental image of the idioms on a paper. At the end of the treatment, students took an immediate posttest of idioms. After an interval of 2 weeks, a similar posttest was given to the students to examine the delayed recall ability of the learners. The obtained results through an independent samples t-test indicated that the experimental group slightly outperformed the control group on immediate posttest, but the difference was not statistically significant. However the results on the delayed posttest suggested that there was a significant difference between the two groups and the participants in the experimental group had stronger delayed recall ability.

  19. Effects of a delay in feed delivery on behaviour, milk yield and heamatological parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Normando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a delay (at 09:30 instead of 07:30 h in Total Mixed Ration (TMR delivery on the behaviour, milk yield, and haematological parameters in dairy cows. Twelve healthy Italian Holstein cows, divided into two homogeneous groups of six each, were involved. The TMR delay was applied either for one (on Tuesday; single delay, SD or for three consecutive days (Tuesday to Thursday; repeated delay, RD to one group at a time while the other acted as control. A week of pause was interposed between treatments and the order of the treatment was randomised. Behaviour was observed by instantaneous scan sampling every 2 min during seven half-hour periods on Tuesday and Thursday and blood samples were taken at 14:30 h on these days. Milk yield was recorded daily. Data were analysed by a mixed models for repeated measurements. The delay caused a marked increase in activities towards the feeding rack prior to feeding on day 1 when delay was applied both as SD (P<0.01 and RD (P<0.05. On the third day of delay, pre- and post-meal agonistic behaviour increased in delayed cows (P<0.01. Milk yield and blood parameters were not affected by the delay. Results suggest that a two hours delay in feeding can affect behaviour in cows, increasing behavioural patterns, which may be a sign of mild frustration.

  20. Time Delay Effect in a Living Coupled Oscillator System with the Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Fujii, Teruo; Endo, Isao

    2000-08-01

    A living coupled oscillator system was constructed by a cell patterning method with a plasmodial slime mold, in which parameters such as coupling strength and distance between the oscillators can be systematically controlled. Rich oscillation phenomena between the two-coupled oscillators, namely, desynchronizing and antiphase/in-phase synchronization were observed according to these parameters. Both experimental and theoretical approaches showed that these phenomena are closely related to the time delay effect in interactions between the oscillators.

  1. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Salehi; Mohammad Javad Fatemi; Maryam Sedghi; Mitra Niazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G) of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patie...

  2. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  3. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  4. Measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction in a fast neutron reactor using the perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Jun; Yin, Yan-Peng; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Hong; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2016-06-01

    A perturbation method is proposed to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff of a cylindrical highly enriched uranium reactor. Based on reactivity measurements with and without a sample at a specified position using the positive period technique, the reactor reactivity perturbation Δρ of the sample in β eff units is measured. Simulations of the perturbation experiments are performed using the MCNP program. The PERT card is used to provide the difference dk of effective neutron multiplication factors with and without the sample inside the reactor. Based on the relationship between the effective multiplication factor and the reactivity, the equation β eff = dk/Δρ is derived. In this paper, the reactivity perturbations of 13 metal samples at the designable position of the reactor are measured and calculated. The average β eff value of the reactor is given as 0.00645, and the standard uncertainty is 3.0%. Additionally, the perturbation experiments for β eff can be used to evaluate the reliabilities of the delayed neutron parameters. This work shows that the delayed neutron data of 235U and 238U from G.R. Keepin’s publication are more reliable than those from ENDF-B6.0, ENDF-B7.0, JENDL3.3 and CENDL2.2. Supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012AA01, 2014AA01), National Natural Science Foundation (11375158, 91326104)

  5. Effects of dark energy and flat rotation curve on the gravitational time delay of particle with non-zero mass

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Tamal; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The effects of several dark energy models on gravitational time delay of particles with non-zero mass are investigated and analytical expressions for the same are obtained at the first order accuracy. Also the expression for gravitational time delay under the influence of conformal gravity potential that well describes the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies is derived. The findings suggest that i) the conformal gravity description of dark matter reduces the net time delay in contrast to the effect of normal dark matter and therefore in principle the models can be discriminated using gravitational time delay observations and ii)the effect of dark energy/flat rotation curve may be revealed from high precision measurements of gravitational time delay of particles involving megaparsec and beyond distance-scale.

  6. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  7. The Effects of Constant Time Delay and Strategic Instruction on Students with Learning Disabilities' Maintenance and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Houchins, David E.; Shippen, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this series of case studies was to compare the impact of Constant Time Delay and Strategic Instruction on the maintenance and generalization of learning. Four middle school students with learning disabilities were effectively taught two different groups of multiplication facts using Constant Time Delay and Strategic instruction. The…

  8. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  9. [Effect of diazepam on delayed nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, F Z; Zhang, J Q; Qiao, X M; Mao, Y C; Meng, F Y; Liu, H J; Hui, S; Zhu, F X; Shu, W; Hong, J

    1998-02-01

    We conducted an evaluation of the usefulness of antiemetics (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine 3 receptor antagonism, 5HT3RA) combined with diazepam for delayed nausea and vomiting due to anticancer agents in 17 patients with various malignancies (such as lung Ca, breast Ca, esophagus Ca, gastric Ca, colon Ca, and non Hodgkin's disease) for whom chemotherapy was performed with different regimens in the Dept. of Oncologic Chemotherapy, People's Hospital, Beijing Medical University. Antiemetics (5HT3RA) combined with diazepam were given only to cases that had symptoms of nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents in the 1st course and invalidity with antiemetics (5HT3RA) alone in this study. Antiemetic (5HT3RA) agents + Dexamethasone were dosed before chemotherapy and also diazepam 5 mg orally after 24 hours (namely, when nausea was observed). Nausea was reduced and vomiting decreased after the antiemetic treatment with 5HT3RA + Dexamethasone and diazepam. These results indicated that 5HT3RA and diazepam combination therapies were more effective than 5HT3 RA + Dexamethasone alone for delayed nausea and vomiting. Further, the antiemetics had characters that a short adminiter time, few times and a take not over dose. The only side effect related to this antiemetic therapy was light somnolence. Antiemetics combined with diazepam might be a useful therapy against delayed nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents.

  10. Competitive coexistence and competitive exclusion for a nonlinear community with delay effect and impulsive birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Feng; Wei, Jianzhou

    2016-12-01

    By constructing a population model of multi-species competition, a community with nonlinear interaction relationship is investigated, in which the species' response delay and environmental fluctuation effects (i.e., seasonal fluctuation of resource supplies and species' reproductive activities) on population are considered. Firstly, the conditions about competitive coexistence (i.e., persistence of all species) and competitive exclusion (i.e., only partial of species, but not all, keep persistence) of the community are established, and the underlying ecological mechanism of these results are analyzed. Secondly, by some illustrative examples, the interactive effects of nonlinear competition, species' response delay and environmental fluctuation on the structure of community are explored. It is demonstrated that small response delay and slight deviation of nonlinear competition indexes from 1 have little impact on the coexistence of community, but acute changes have distinct negative influence on community coexistence. This reveals to us that parameter perturbations of natural communities should keep in an appropriate range, which is of great significance in conservation and restoration biology.

  11. Design and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ketoprofen Delayed Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Pinto, Aldo; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P

    2015-10-01

    For the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases affected by circadian rhythms, the development of once-daily dosage forms is required to target early morning symptoms. In this study, Zn-alginate beads containing ketoprofen (K) were developed by a tandem technique prilling/ionotropic gelation. The effect of main critical variables on particles micromeritics, inner structure as well as on drug loading and in vitro drug release was studied. The in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using a modified protocol of carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw administering beads to rats by oral gavage at 0, 3, or 5 h before edema induction. Good drug loading and desired particle size and morphology were obtained for the optimized formulation F20. In vitro dissolution studies showed that F20 had a gastroresistant behavior and delayed release of the drug in simulated intestinal fluid. The in vitro delayed release pattern was clearly reflected in the prolonged anti-inflammatory effect in vivo of F20, compared to pure ketoprofen; F20, administered 3 h before edema induction, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing maximum paw volume in response to carrageenan injection, whereas no response was observed for ketoprofen. The designed beads appear a promising platform suitable for a delayed release of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3451-3458, 2015.

  12. The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components Delayed Hydride Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Puls, Manfred P

    2012-01-01

    By drawing together the current theoretical and experimental understanding of the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys, The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components: Delayed Hydride Cracking provides a detailed explanation focusing on the properties of hydrogen and hydrides in these alloys. Whilst the focus lies on zirconium alloys, the combination of both the empirical and mechanistic approaches creates a solid understanding that can also be applied to other hydride forming metals.   This up-to-date reference focuses on documented research surrounding DHC, including current methodologies for design and assessment of the results of periodic in-service inspections of pressure tubes in nuclear reactors. Emphasis is placed on showing that our understanding of DHC is supported by progress across a broad range of fields. These include hysteresis associated with first-order phase transformations; phase relationships in coherent crystalline metallic...

  13. Second-order term effect on the dispersion characteristics of a magnetostatic delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperis, P.; Marcelli, R.; Miccoli, G.

    1988-04-01

    This work reanalyzes the methods of calculation of the dispersion characteristics of a dispersive magnetostatic wave delay line. It turns out that the analytical approach, commonly developed in a first-order approximation, leads to erroneous results when exploited to derive the variation of the group velocity as a function of the wave vector k (or of the frequency), particularly for k values lower than 100-200 cm-1. To get a more accurate response, higher-order terms have been introduced in the analysis of the dispersion relation. To describe their effect, the inferred analytical results are compared to the numerical ones and to the experimental responses of a magnetostatic wave delay line. Furthermore, the method has been exploited to evaluate the power threshold levels (Pthr) in the excitation of magnetostatic solitons. It gives the correct order of magnitude of values when compared to the experimental ones.

  14. Effects of time-delay in a model of intra- and inter-personal motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Krauskopf, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Motor coordination is an important feature of intra- and inter-personal interactions, and several scenarios — from finger tapping to human-computer interfaces — have been investigated experimentally. In the 1980s, Haken, Kelso and Bunz formulated a coupled nonlinear two-oscillator model, which has been shown to describe many observed aspects of coordination tasks. We present here a bifurcation study of this model, where we consider a delay in the coupling. The delay is shown to have a significant effect on the observed dynamics. In particular, we find a much larger degree of bistablility between in-phase and anti-phase oscillations in the presence of a frequency detuning.

  15. Hopf bifurcation in a diffusive Lotka-Volterra type system with nonlocal delay effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shangjiang; Yan, Shuling

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a diffusive Lotka-Volterra type model for two species with nonlocal delay effect and Dirichlet boundary conditions is investigated in this paper. The existence and multiplicity of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions are obtained by means of Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction. The stability of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions and the existence of Hopf bifurcation with the changes of the time delay are obtained by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues of the infinitesimal generator associated with the linearized system. By the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction, the stability and bifurcation direction of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits are derived. Finally, our theoretical results are illustrated by a model with homogeneous kernels and one-dimensional spatial domain.

  16. Shortening baroreflex delay in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients – an unknown effect of β-blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzynska-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Ochotny, Romuald; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Wachowiak-Baszynska, Hanna; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Gwizdala, Adrian; Mitkowski, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic and systolic function. Abnormal sympathetic–parasympathetic balance is a potential stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy in HCM patients. β-Blockers are routinely used in HCM for their strong negative inotropic effect; however, these drugs also influence the sympathetic–parasympathetic balance. This study aimed to determine the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system and the autonomic effects of β-blockers in HCM patients treated or untreated with β-blockers. Methods Among 51 HCM outpatients (18–70 years old; 29 men) there were 19 individuals with no medication and 32 subjects treated with a β-blocker. Fourteen age- and gender-matched (23–70 years old; nine men) healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Continuous, non-invasive finger blood pressure was recorded during supine rest for 30 min. Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system was measured by heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex function (cross-correlation sequence method). Results The mean pulse interval, time domain and spectral measures of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were comparable between HCM patients, treated or not with β-blockers, and the control group. However, the delay of the baroreflex was significantly longer in HCM patients who were not treated with β-blockers [2.0 (1.6–2.3) s] in comparison with HCM patients receiving β-blockers [1.4 (1.1–1.8) s; P = 0.0072] or control subjects [1.2 (0.8–1.8) s; P = 0.0025]. This delay did not differ between HCM patients treated with β-blockers and the control group. Conclusions Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy not treated with β-blockers is accompanied by prolonged baroreflex delay. The use of β-blockers normalizes this delay. PMID:23126403

  17. Most of rare missense alleles in humans are deleterious:implications for evolution of complex disease and associationstudies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukov, Gregory V.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.

    2006-10-24

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious missense mutations inindividual human genomes has been proposed to be a genetic basis forcomplex diseases. The plausibility of this hypothesis depends onquantitative estimates of the prevalence of mildly deleterious de novomutations and polymorphic variants in humans and on the intensity ofselective pressure against them. We combined analysis of mutationscausing human Mendelian diseases, human-chimpanzee divergence andsystematic data on human SNPs and found that about 20 percent of newmissense mutations in humans result in a loss of function, while about 27percent are effectively neutral. Thus, more than half of new missensemutations have mildly deleterious effects. These mutations give rise tomany low frequency deleterious allelic variants in the human populationas evident from a new dataset of 37 genes sequenced in over 1,500individual human chromosomes. Surprisingly, up to 70 percent of lowfrequency missense alleles are mildly deleterious and associated with aheterozygous fitness loss in the range 0.001-0.003. Thus, the low allelefrequency of an amino acid variant can by itself serve as a predictor ofits functional significance. Several recent studies have reported asignificant excess of rare missense variants in disease populationscompared to controls in candidate genes or pathways. These studies wouldbe unlikely to work if most rare variants were neutral or if rarevariants were not a significant contributor to the genetic component ofphenotypic inheritance. Our results provide a justification for thesetypes of candidate gene (pathway) association studies and imply thatmutation-selection balance may be a feasible mechanism for evolution ofsome common diseases.

  18. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial.......In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  19. A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Roy, Sandip; Wan, Yan; Saberi, Ali

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can

  20. A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Roy, Sandip; Wan, Yan; Saberi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can

  1. Delayed effects of carcinoma in childhood or adolescence; Spaetfolgen von Krebs im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Blettner, Maria [Universitaetsmedizin der Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI)

    2016-08-01

    Due to advances in diagnostics and therapy the survival rate and survival time of juvenile oncologic patients have increased during the last years. About 80% of these patients survive 15 years after diagnosis, dependent on localization, status and some other factors. With increasing survival probability the many questions concerning delayed effects of disease and therapy arise. Especially cardiac and vascular side effects seem to be predominant. The PanCare network (Pan-European network for care of survivors after childhood and adolescent cancer) has evoked several research projects.

  2. Best-fit estimate of relativistic effects in time-delay experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Time-delay experiments are analyzed within the frame of a curved space-time. Residuals from Newtonian best fits of relativistic data are used as a measure of the 'relativistic effects.' Radial transponder trajectories are considered. If the motion is towards the sun, the relativistic residuals are of the order of 100 m. If the motion is away from the sun, they are at the 10-km level and the fraction due to the second-order curvature of the metric is at the 1-km level. Those effects are significantly smaller than those calculated from the divergence of the Newtonian and relativistic predictions after exact fit of the initial measurements.

  3. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs.

  4. A perspective on the evolution of germ-cell development and germinal mosaics of deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Ronny C; Balinski, Michael A; Bouzat, Juan L

    2015-10-01

    In many animals a small number of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are set aside early in development, mitosis and mitochondrial DNA syntheses are arrested, transcription is stopped or reduced, and the PGCs migrate later to the emerging gonads and become germ cells. What could be the evolutionary advantage of sequestering non-dividing PGCs early in development? A commonly cited advantage is a reduction in the number of new deleterious mutations that would occur if there were additional divisions in PGCs early in development. We would like to add to this advantage the fact that these additional mutations in PGCs give rise to germinal mosaics (i.e., premeiotic clusters of mutation) in multiple progeny of the same individual, thus having a larger detrimental effect on the evolutionary fitness of their carriers. Here, we reviewed published studies providing evidence that germinal mosaics of deleterious mutant alleles are not rare, occur for all types of genetic damage, and have been observed in all tested organisms and in nature. We propose the hypothesis that PGC sequestration during early animal development may have evolved in part in response to selection for preventing the occurrence of premeiotic clusters of deleterious mutant alleles, and describe a series of predictions that would allow the assessment of the potential role of germinal mosaics on the evolution of PGC sequestration.

  5. Effect of delayed light curing of a resin composite on marginal integrity in cylindrical dentine cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, A; Debari, K; Itoh, K; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S

    1993-12-01

    The effect of delayed light curing of resin composite on marginal adaptation has been examined by measuring the wall-to-wall polymerization contraction gap when using a commercial resin composite together with experimental dentine bonding systems to restore cylindrical preparations in dentine. Morphological changes in dentine during dentine bonding procedures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. In a previous report, the contraction gap width for a resin composite increased when irradiation of the resin system was delayed, despite the use of a dentine bonding system considered to be 'contraction' gap free. Such deterioration in marginal adaptation was minimized by use of an experimental dentine primer, 40% erythritol methacrylate aqueous solution (EM), followed by the use of a commercial dual- or autocured dentine bonding agent. Under scanning electron microscopy, the dentine surface microstructure became unclear after EM priming, and a polymer film was detected after polymerization of the dual-cured dentine bonding agent. The hydrogelled primer and the formation of a polymer network on the dentine surface may prevent the flow of fluid from the pulp through the dentine tubules, and maintain marginal integrity if there is delay in light curing of light-activated resin composite systems.

  6. Remediation of time-delay effects in tokamak axisymmetric control loops by optimal tuning and robust predictor augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondak, D.; Arastoo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Schuster, E., E-mail: schuster@lehigh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    It is sometimes incorrectly assumed that, because superconducting tokamaks already have significant intrinsic or imposed sources of control delay, introducing extra delays/lags into the axisymmetric control loops will have negligible detrimental impact on the plasma control. This study exposes and quantifies the detrimental effects imposed by time delays/lags in the control loop in superconducting tokamaks, using as an example the plasma current control and radial position control in a vertically stable circular plasma in the KSTAR tokamak. Delays and lags in the power supplies, data acquisition, and vessel structure are taken into account. Optimal tuning of PID controllers in combination with an ohmic-flux control strategy is proposed as a possible method for remediating the negative effects of time delays/lags. In addition, an augmentation of the control loop by the introduction of a robust predictor has been proposed to improve the performance of the time-delayed closed-loop system when the amount of delay/lag in the loop is unknown. The Nyquist dual locus technique based on the Argument Principle in complex theory is employed to assess stability of the optimally tuned closed-loop system in the presence of time delays.

  7. Effect of Algae-Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay, Combustion Process and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Mahendran; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Razali, Azahari; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    Algae oil methyl esters produced from algae oil were blended with diesel at various volumetric percentages to evaluate the variations in the fuel properties. Microalgae biodiesel production has received much interest in an effort for sustainable development as the microalgae seem to be an attractive way to produce the biodiesel due to their ability to accumulate lipids and their very high actual photosynthetic yields. Correlations between fuel properties, including the calorific heat, density, kinematic viscosity, and oxidation stability of the Algae oil-diesel blends, and the blending ratio of the algae biodiesel have been established. As a result, low blending ratio of the Algae oil with diesel was recommended up to 2vol % in comparison with other type of biodiesel-diesel blends. The objective of this research is to investigate effect of biodiesel blending ratio on ignition delay, combustion process and emission for different type of biodiesel. The combustion tests of the Algae-Derived biodiesel blends were performed in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). The combustion tests were carried out at injection pressure of 130 MPa and ambient temperature were varied between 750 K and 1100 K. The result from the experiment is compared with Palm-Oil biodiesel which are varied in biodiesel percentage from 5vol% to 15vol% and jatropha biodiesel. Higher ignition delay period were clearly observed with higher blending ratio. It seems that increasing blending ratio exhibits relatively weakens in fuel ignitibility and therefore prolongs the ignition delay of algae biodiesel. A2 had the lowest ignition delay period when compared with J2, B5, B10 and B15 due to lower density that present in A2 molecules.The concentration of carbon dioxide and nitrogen monoxide in the exhaust gas increased with higher blending ratio while the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon decreased.

  8. Effect of educational television commercial on pre-hospital delay in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Haruo; Kon, Tomoya; Ueno, Tatsuya; Haga, Rie; Yamazaki, Keishi; Yagihashi, Kei; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Administering intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) within 4.5 h or endovascular procedures within 8 h of ischemic stroke onset may reduce the risk of disability. The effectiveness of media campaigns to raise stroke awareness and shorten pre-hospital delay is unclear. We studied 1144 consecutive ischemic stroke patients at Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan, between March 2010 and February 2014. From March 2012, the government sponsored an educational campaign based on a television commercial to improve knowledge of stroke symptoms and encourage ambulance calls for facial palsy, arm palsy, or speech disturbance. For the 544 and 600 patients admitted before and during the intervention, respectively, we recorded the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke type, the time when patients or bystanders recognized stroke symptoms, and hospital arrival time. Pre-hospital delay, as the time interval from awareness of stroke to hospital arrival, was categorized as 0-3, 3-6, and 6+ h. The mean pre-hospital delay was shorter (12.0 vs 13.5 h; P = 0.0067), the proportion of patients arriving within 3 h was larger (55.7 vs 46.5 %; P = 0.0021), and the proportion arriving after 6 h was smaller (32.7 vs 39.5 %; P = 0.0162) in the intervention group than in the pre-intervention group. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients treated with r-tPA (6 and 7.5 % of the intervention and pre-intervention groups, respectively). A television-based public education campaign potentially reduced pre-hospital delay for ischemic stroke patients, but the r-tPA treatment rate was unchanged.

  9. Laparoscopy mitigates adverse oncological effects of delayed adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Gerald A; Ashburn, Jean; Kiran, Ravi P; Khorana, Alok A; Kalady, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgical resection for colorectal cancer adversely affects overall patient survival. The effect of a laparoscopic surgical approach on initiation of chemotherapy has not been studied. The goal of this study was to determine if a laparoscopic approach to colon cancer resection affects the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and outcomes. Patients who underwent curative surgery for stage II or III colon cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were categorized according to surgical approach: open or laparoscopic. Patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, postoperative complications, time from surgery to initiation of chemotherapy, and long-term oncologic outcomes were compared. Age, gender, ASA class, BMI, tumor stage, and postoperative complications were similar for laparoscopic and open cases, while length of stay was 2 days shorter for laparoscopic cases (5.4 vs 7.6 days, p < 0.01). The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy more than 8 weeks after surgery did not differ between the groups (35.6 % open vs 38.7 % laparoscopic, p = 0.77). In the open group, delay in chemotherapy after surgery was associated with decreased disease-free and overall survival (p = 0.01, 0.01, respectively). However, delay in chemotherapy more than 8 weeks did not affect disease-free or overall survival in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.93, 0.51, respectively). The benefits of quicker recovery after laparoscopic surgery did not translate into earlier initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in this retrospective study. However, a laparoscopic approach negated the inferior oncologic outcomes of patients who received delayed initiation of chemotherapy.

  10. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Sedghi, Maryam; Niazi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G) of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patients with deep thermal burns of the dorsal hand with total body surface area (TBSA) <20% who were admitted to special burn hospital. After standard primary burn care and resuscitation, necessary procedures (EE and G or more conservative treatment) were performed based on the patients' conditions. The patients were placed into early excision (No. =30) and delayed excision group (No. =30). Total active motion (TAM) of fingers, grip strength of the hand and the assessment of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire, were measured in all patients 6 months after grafting. The average percentage of TBSA in the EE and G group was more than the delayed excision group (17.34% ±5.12% vs. 15.64% ±5.83%), this difference was not significant (P = 0.23). After 6 months, the average of the TAM and grip strength in the EE and G group was significantly more than that of the delayed group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019). The present study showed that EE and G with proper physical therapy and rehabilitation management provides a higher functional outcome in dorsal deep burned hand.

  11. Effects of early versus delayed excision and grafting on the return of the burned hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a general consensus regarding the impacts of early excision and grafting (EE and G of burned hand on the reducing of treatment cost and hospital stay, there are some controversial issues about its effect on the outcome of hand function. This study conducted to compare the results of the EE and G and delayed skin grafting in deep hand burns regarding the hand functional outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April 2012 to November 2013 in sixty patients with deep thermal burns of the dorsal hand with total body surface area (TBSA <20% who were admitted to special burn hospital. After standard primary burn care and resuscitation, necessary procedures (EE and G or more conservative treatment were performed based on the patients' conditions. The patients were placed into early excision (No. =30 and delayed excision group (No. =30. Total active motion (TAM of fingers, grip strength of the hand and the assessment of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire, were measured in all patients 6 months after grafting. Results: The average percentage of TBSA in the EE and G group was more than the delayed excision group (17.34% ±5.12% vs. 15.64% ±5.83%, this difference was not significant (P = 0.23. After 6 months, the average of the TAM and grip strength in the EE and G group was significantly more than that of the delayed group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019. Conclusion: The present study showed that EE and G with proper physical therapy and rehabilitation management provides a higher functional outcome in dorsal deep burned hand.

  12. Single-gene speciation with pleiotropy: effects of allele dominance, population size, and delayed inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Masato; Sasaki, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Single-gene speciation is considered to be unlikely, but an excellent example is found in land snails, in which a gene for left-right reversal has given rise to new species multiple times. This reversal might be facilitated by their small population sizes and maternal effect (i.e., "delayed inheritance," in which an individual's phenotype is determined by the genotype of its mother). Recent evidence suggests that a pleiotropic effect of the speciation gene on antipredator survival may also promote speciation. Here we theoretically demonstrate that, without a pleiotropic effect, in small populations the fixation probability of a recessive mutant is higher than a dominant mutant, but they are identical for large populations and sufficiently weak selection. With a pleiotropic effect that increases mutant viability, a dominant mutant has a higher fixation probability if the strength of viability selection is sufficiently greater than that of reproductive incompatibility, whereas a recessive mutant has a higher fixation probability otherwise. Delayed inheritance increases the fixation probability of a mutant if viability selection is sufficiently weaker than reproductive incompatibility. Our results clarify the conflicting effects of viability selection and positive frequency-dependent selection due to reproductive incompatibility and provide a new perspective to single-gene speciation theory.

  13. Gravitomagnetic time delay and the Lense-Thirring effects in f(R) gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Noelia S.; Santos, Janilo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recently, in face of the impressive amount of astrophysical data pointing to a phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, modified gravity models had a revival, mainly in the cosmological context. Perhaps the much simply of these models, f(R) gravity examines the possibility of modifying Einstein's general relativity by adding terms proportional to powers of the Ricci scalar R to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. Nowadays there is increasing interest in applications of f(R) gravity to cosmology motivated by the fact that these theories can exhibit naturally an accelerating late expansion phase without introducing exotic form of matter like the so called dark energy. However, when modifying gravity, one must ensure that general relativity is recovered in the well tested short scales like the solar system. As is well known, general relativity predicts interesting effects associated with rotations of massive bodies, the so called gravitomagnetic effects. The Lense-Thirring precession and the gravitomagnetic time delay are the much studied such effects in the weak field and slow motion approximation of general relativity, valid throughout the solar system. Here we investigate and discuss the gravitomagnetic time delay and the Lense-Thirring effects in the context of the f(R) theories of gravity. We obtain the equation of motion of a particle inside the gravitomagnetic field of a slowly rotating distribution of matter, in the framework of a general f(R) theory, and compare it with that obtained from the weak field approximation of general relativity. Moreover, we calculate the gravitomagnetic time delay in light ray propagation near a rotating mass in the context of f(R) gravity and discuss the observational consequences associated with some classes of these theories. (author)

  14. Simulator study of the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot tracking performance with an audio side task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.

  15. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-Min; Wang Can-Jun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise.Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle,we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound UB(t) of the time derivative of the information entropy.The results show that there is a critical value of T (delay time),and UB(t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value.For the case of the weak additive noise,T can induce a reentrance transition.Delay time T also causes a reversal behaviour in UB(t)-λ plot,where λ denotes the decree of the correlation between the two noises.

  16. Effects of delayed NSAID administration after experimental eccentric contraction injury – A cellular and proteomics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldape, Michael J.; Bayer, Clifford R.; Katahira, Eva J.; Bond, Laura; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Metz, Thomas O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Stevens, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute muscle injuries are exceedingly common and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed to reduce the associated inflammation, swelling and pain that peak 1–2 days post-injury. While prophylactic use or early administration of NSAIDs has been shown to delay muscle regeneration and contribute to loss of muscle strength after healing, little is known about the effects of delayed NSAID use. Further, NSAID use following non-penetrating injury has been associated with increased risk and severity of infection, including that due to group A streptococcus, though the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of delayed NSAID administration on muscle repair and sought mechanisms supporting an injury/NSAID/infection axis. Methods A murine model of eccentric contraction (EC)-induced injury of the tibialis anterior muscle was used to profile the cellular and molecular changes induced by ketorolac tromethamine administered 47 hr post injury. Results NSAID administration inhibited several important muscle regeneration processes and down-regulated multiple cytoprotective proteins known to inhibit the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. These activities were associated with increased caspase activity in injured muscles but were independent of any NSAID effect on macrophage influx or phenotype switching. Conclusions These findings provide new molecular evidence supporting the notion that NSAIDs have a direct negative influence on muscle repair after acute strain injury in mice and thus add to renewed concern about the safety and benefits of NSAIDS in both children and adults, in those with progressive loss of muscle mass such as the elderly or patients with cancer or AIDS, and those at risk of secondary infection after trauma or surgery. PMID:28245256

  17. Effects of Time Delay on Stability of an Unstable State in a Bistable System with Correlated Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun; MEI Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated.The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu,τ)from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived.The numerical calculation results of W(xu,τ)indicate that W(xu,τ)decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensi by and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu,τ)increases with increasing delay time.Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.%Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated. The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu, T) from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived. The numerical calculation results of W(xu, T) indicate that W(xu, T) decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensity and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu, T) increases with increasing delay time. Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.

  18. Gamma radiation and magnetic field mediated delay in effect of accelerated ageing of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Dahuja, Anil; Anand, Anjali

    2015-08-01

    Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 kGy), static magnetic field (50, 100 and 200 mT) and a combination of gamma radiation and magnetic energy (0.5 kGy + 200 mT and 5 kGy + 50 mT) and stored at room temperature for six months. These seeds were later subjected to accelerated ageing treatment at 42 °C temperature and 95-100 % relative humidity and were compared for various physical and biochemical characteristics between the untreated and the energized treatments. Energy treatment protected the quality of stored seeds in terms of its protein and oil content . Accelerated aging conditions, however, affected the oil and protein quantity and quality of seed negatively. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited a decline in their activity during aging while the LOX activity, which reflects the rate of lipid peroxidation, in general, increased during the aging. Gamma irradiated (3 and 5 kGy) and magnetic field treated seeds (100 and 200 mT) maintained a higher catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity which may help in efficient scavenging of deleterious free radical produced during the aging. Aging caused peroxidative changes to lipids, which could be contributed to the loss of oil quality. Among the electromagnetic energy treatments, a dose of 1-5 kGy of gamma and 100 mT, 200 mT magnetic field effectively slowed the rate of biochemical degradation and loss of cellular integrity in seeds stored under conditions of accelerated aging and thus, protected the deterioration of seed quality. Energy combination treatments did not yield any additional protection advantage.

  19. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA, endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN, and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S, showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O[sub]2[/sub][sup]-[/sup] , interleukin-1 (IL-1 and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of [i]P. agglomerans[/i], and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. [i]P. agglomerans[/i] has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium.

  20. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S), showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O2(-)), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of P. agglomerans proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of P. agglomerans, and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. P. agglomerans has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, Pantoea agglomerans should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium.

  1. Boiling Delay phenomenon in a Thermosyphon Heat Sink and Its Effect on Device Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeilinHu; YihuiZhou; 等

    1994-01-01

    A new kind of thermosyphon heat sink has been studied and developed,its peformance being measured.It was found that a remarkable boiling delay phenomenon occurs during its work.The phenomenon is described and explained and its effects on thermoresistance performance at both steady and transient states are discussed.The thermoresistance of this sink is found to be 0.029℃/W at air velocity 5m/s.THis heat sink will satisfy the needs of cooling rectifier diodes and thyristors of rated currents up to 1000 amperes.

  2. An Investigation of the Effect of Segmentation on Immediate and Delayed Knowledge Transfer in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of segmentation on immediate and delayed recall and transfer in a multimedia learning environment. The independent variables of segmentation and non-segmentation, and immediate and delayed assessments were manipulated to assess the effects of segmentation on the participantsâ ability to recall and transfer information from the multimedia tutorial. Data was analyzed using a 2X2 factorial design. The results of this study found that segme...

  3. Decrease in hematopoietic stem cell domains as a delayed effect of x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, M.A.; Lamela, R.A.; Patt, H.M.

    1983-09-01

    Although the hematopoietic integrity of locally X-irradiated sites can be restored for a time even after fairly large doses, a secondary aplasia often occurs some months later. To gain further insight into this delayed effect within the framework of the stem cell regulatory domain hypothesis, we characterized the growth kinetics of spleen colony forming units (CFU-S) in WBB6FI-+/+ bone marrow transplanted into WBB6FI-W/WV mice in which one leg had been exposed to 10-30 Gy of X rays 4-5 months previously. Compared to unirradiated contralateral marrow, fewer CFU-S either reached the previously irradiated marrow or were seeded into sites that could support growth. The initial exponential growth of effectively seeded CFU-S was unchanged, but growth deceleration (inflection point) occurred at a lower level of CFU-S in marrow previously irradiated with 20-30 Gy. This change in the inflection point indicates a radiation dose-dependent decrease consistent with the decrease in bone marrow cellularity. The decrease in effective stem cell domains after 20 Gy was calculated to be about 35%. We interpret these results to reflect the highly localized nature of delayed radiation damage to the marrow microenvironment.

  4. ERP correlates of the incidental retrieval of emotional information: effects of study-test delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Corona, Maria; Rugg, Michael D

    2009-05-07

    Prior studies indicate that, in tests of recognition memory, ERPs elicited by correctly recognized test items differ according to whether the items were encoded in an emotionally arousing or an emotionally neutral study context. These prior studies employed only a relatively brief (ca. 10 min) retention interval, however. The present study contrasted the ERP correlates of incidental emotional retrieval as a function of study-test delay. Pictures of emotionally neutral objects were encoded in association with either emotionally negative or emotionally neutral scenes. In a repeated measures design (N=19), half of the objects were subjected to a recognition memory test 10 min after completion of the study phase, whereas the remainder were tested 24 h later. After the short delay, ERPs elicited by objects paired with emotional vs. neutral backgrounds differed from around 200 ms post-stimulus, the objects paired with the emotional scenes eliciting the more positive-going waveforms. After 24 h, differences between the ERPs elicited by the two classes of object were still apparent from around 200 ms post-stimulus. Strikingly, these effects differed from those obtained 10 min after study in both their polarity and scalp distribution. The early onset of these ERP effects suggests that they may reflect a form of memory independent of the conscious recollection of the associated study contexts. The qualitative differences in the effects at the two retention intervals raise the possibility that the encoded objects were subjected to consolidation processes that differed according to the emotional attributes of their study contexts.

  5. Effect of the GABA B agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Collares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv or intracerebroventricularly (icv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone. Adult male Wistar rats received a saline test meal containing phenol red as a marker. GE was indirectly evaluated by determining the percent of gastric retention (%GR of the meal 10 min after orogastric administration. In the first experiment, the animals were injected iv with vehicle (Civ or 80 mg/kg (240 µmol/kg dipyrone (Dp iv, followed by icv injection of 10 µl vehicle (bac0, or 0.5 (bac0.5, 1 (bac1 or 2 µg (bac2 baclofen. In the second experiment, the animals were injected icv with 5 µl vehicle (Cicv or an equal volume of a solution containing 4 µmol (1333.2 µg dipyrone (Dp icv, followed by 5 µl vehicle (bac0 or 1 µg baclofen (bac1. GE was determined 10 min after icv injection. There was no significant difference between control animals from one experiment to another concerning GR values. Baclofen at the doses of 1 and 2 µg significantly reduced mean %GR induced by iv dipyrone (Dp iv bac1 = 35.9% and Dp iv bac2 = 26.9% vs Dp iv bac0 = 51.8%. Similarly, baclofen significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone injected icv (mean %GR: Dp icv bac1 = 30.4% vs Dp icv bac0 = 54.2%. The present results suggest that dipyrone induces delayed GE through a route in the central nervous system that is blocked by the activation of GABA B receptors.

  6. Bifurcation Analysis and Control of a Differential-Algebraic Predator-Prey Model with Allee Effect and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies systematically a differential-algebraic prey-predator model with time delay and Allee effect. It shows that transcritical bifurcation appears when a variation of predator handling time is taken into account. This model also exhibits singular induced bifurcation as the economic revenue increases through zero, which causes impulsive phenomenon. It can be noted that the impulsive phenomenon can be much weaker by strengthening Allee effect in numerical simulation. On the other hand, at a critical value of time delay, the model undergoes a Hopf bifurcation; that is, the increase of time delay destabilizes the model and bifurcates into small amplitude periodic solution. Moreover, a state delayed feedback control method, which can be implemented by adjusting the harvesting effort for biological populations, is proposed to drive the differential-algebraic system to a steady state. Finally, by using Matlab software, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  7. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  8. MAIN TOXIC PLANTS AND THEIR DELETERIOUS EFFECTS ON SMALL RUMINANTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this literature review, we gather scientific articles about plants that are poisonous to small ruminants. In Brazil the most importants regions of goat and sheep is in northeast and there is a increasing local economy importance. In this context, shows the importance of poisonous plants´ research since 2000 of many research papers have been developed.

  9. Direct measurement of the wigner delay associated with the goos-Hanchen effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvat; Emile; Bretenaker; Le Floch A

    2000-01-03

    It is shown experimentally that the nonspecular reflection of light on an interface induces a time delay, as predicted by Wigner's scattering theory. A differential femtosecond technique is used to directly isolate this delay, associated with the Goos-Hanchen spatial shift produced by a grating near a resonant Wood anomaly. A delay of 4.4 fs is observed between TE and TM pulses, in agreement with the expected Wigner delay obtained from phase shift dispersion measurements.

  10. Reinforcement Delay Fading during Differential Reinforcement of Communication: The Effects of Signals on Response Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Signals during delays to reinforcement may lessen reductions in responding that typically occur when there is a delay between a response and its reinforcer. Sparse applied research has been devoted to understanding the conditions under which responding may be maintained when delays to reinforcement are introduced. We evaluated the extent to which…

  11. Effective delayed neutron fraction measurement in the critical VENUS-F reactor using noise techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3/Univ. Paris Sud (France); Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Chevret, T.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecouey, J.L.; Lehaut, G.; Marie-Nourry, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN/Univ. de Caen/CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Fourmentel, D.; Mellier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DER/SPEX (France); Krasa, A.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    This paper present the measurements of VENUS-F kinetic parameters using the Rossi-Alpha methods. The VENUS-F reactor is a zero-power reactor based in Mol, Belgium at SCK-CEN where the fuel is made of metallic enriched uranium with pure lead in order to simulate the behavior of lead fast reactor. The reactor can be operated under critical when it is coupled with GENEPI-3C. At the beginning of 2014, a measurement campaign was performed in order to estimate the kinetics parameters. In this paper, two measurements are analyzed at two different powers (approximately 2 W and 30 W) with 7 different fission chambers (with a 235-U deposit that varies from 1 g to 10 mg). All the correlation functions needed for the Rossi-Alpha method have been built for each possible set of two detectors in each configuration and values obtained from those functions for the effective delayed neutron fraction are then compared. The absolute necessity to operate at very low power is presented. The final value for the effective delayed neutron fraction is finally estimated to be 730 pcm ± 11 pcm and the prompt neutron generation time is estimated to be equal to 0,041 μseconds ± 0.04 μsec. (authors)

  12. Effects of AV delay programming on ventricular resynchronisation: role of radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, Patrick T.; Comte, Nathalie; Holzmeister, Johannes; Suetsch, Gabor; Koepfli, Pascal; Namdar, Mehdi; Duru, Firat; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Scharf, Christoph [Universitiy Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [Universitiy Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    Optimal atrioventricular delay (AVD) setting for cardiac resynchronisation therapy, i.e. biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure, remains a formidable challenge. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different AVD on inter- and intra-ventricular resynchronisation using phase histograms of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). In 17 consecutive patients (mean age 64 {+-} 6 years), RNV was performed 236 {+-} 350 days after pacemaker implantation for cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Images were acquired during atrial pacing at 80 bpm and during biventricular pacing with AVD ranging from 80 to 160 ms. Inter-ventricular dyssynchrony was measured by the delay between the mean phase angles of the left and right ventricles. Intra-ventricular dyssynchrony was measured by the standard deviation (SD) of left ventricular phase histograms. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was inversely correlated to LV dyssynchrony (SD of LV phase histogram, R = -0.82, p < 0.0001). However, the increase in LVEF by biventricular pacing (mean +4.4 {+-} 4%) showed only modest correlation to the resulting resynchronisation effect (characterised by a -13 {+-} 8 decrease in LV phase histogram SD, R = -0.38, p < 0.0001). RNV is helpful in optimising pacing parameters for resynchronisation therapy. Varying AVD did not have a major impact on intra- or inter-ventricular resynchronisation. Thus, the benefit of AVD-based LVEF optimisation seems to result from atrioventricular resynchronisation. (orig.)

  13. Effect of advanced and delayed rotation on the dominant flow pattern and its temporal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uksul, Esra; Krishna, Swathi; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    During a flapping cycle of an insect, complex time dependent flows are produced as the wing reciprocates, producing a maximum lift at the stroke reversals. By flipping the wing rapidly at the end of each stroke, the insect modulates the flow around the wing and hence the aerodynamic forces necessary to hover. The duration and starting point of the flip play an important role in determining the amount of lift produced. To understand and tailor the effect of wing kinematics on the aerodynamic performance we focussed on the vortex dynamics of the flow field. Phase-averaged data from particle image velocimetry was used to evaluate the flow features inherent to changes in rotation during a stroke of a flat plate, which is modelled based on hoverfly characteristics. The period of rotation is one-third of the total time period. A +10% phase shift is used for delayed rotation, a -10% phase shift for advanced rotation. Vortex detection methods like the λ2 and Γ2 criteria are used to determine the effect of a delay or early rotation on the trajectories, size, shape and location of the prominent vortical structures. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to study the influence of the phase-shifts on the dominant mode structure and the related time-scales.

  14. Effect of Whirlpool Therapy on the Signs and Symptoms of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Lori A.; Lephart, Scott M.; Giannantonio, Frank P.; Blanc, Rob O.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of warm whirlpool, cold whirlpool, and contrast therapy in the treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Design and Setting: Subjects performed eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors and received 4 treatments: immediately postexercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Treatments consisted of 24-minute treatments with warm whirlpool, cold whirlpool, contrast therapy, or no treatment. Subjects: Fifty-six sex-matched volunteers from the University of Pittsburgh. Measurements: Measurements were taken at 5 assessment times: pre-exercise (0 hours); prior to treatment at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise; and at 96 hours postexercise. Dependent variables were degrees of resting elbow flexion, active elbow flexion, and extension; perceived soreness values on a Graphic Pain Rating Scale; and maximal voluntary isometric contraction. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (group by time) and Tukey post hoc analysis were used to determine which treatment groups differed significantly in returning subjects to pre-exercise values. Results: Cold whirlpool and contrast therapy were found to return subjects to baseline values of resting elbow flexion and perceived soreness significantly more than warm whirlpool or no treatment (P < .01). Additionally, warm whirlpool was found to be more effective than no treatment in the return of resting elbow flexion (P < .01). Conclusions: These results suggest that cold whirlpool and contrast therapy are more effective than warm whirlpool or no treatment in alleviating delayed-onset muscle soreness in the elbow flexors. PMID:16558514

  15. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Jeong; Yang, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Unfamiliar or sudden exercise can induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) within 12-24 h. So, several researchers have reported various interventions to treat DOMS. Massage is generally known to eliminate muscle fatigue. However, effect of massage after DOMS is still not clear. We investigated whether the massage is effective on pain and gait after DOMS. The participants were divided into a control group (n= 10) with DOMS and an experimental group (n= 11) with the massage treated after DOMS. We induced DOMS by taking isotonic exercise with going up and down 20 times in 5-story building. We applied the massage and assessment on gastrocnemius of dominant foot. The change of gait and pain was assessed using gaitrite and algometer. In the present results, the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS showed significant difference in pain (P< 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference in gait (P< 0.05), especially, spatial parameters (distance, step length, stride length) and temporal parameters (ambulation, heel on off time, stride velocity). Moreover, the pain relief after massage-treated in DOMS correlated with gait. These results suggest that the massage on gastrocnemius after DOMS has influence on pain and gait performance. Therefore, massage can be applied as intervention for delayed onset muscle soreness.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF OMEGA-3 INTAKE ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORNESS IN NON-ATHLET MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS is classified as a muscle strain that presents with tenderness and stiffness one to two days after exercise. At present there are multiple proposed methods for treating DOMS, including anti-inflammatory medication, stretching, homeopathy, L-carnitine, rest and light exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of omega-3 intake on delayed onset muscle soreness in non-athlete men. 20 healthy subjects (age: 20.5±1.8 years participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control. In the experimental group, subjects consume daily 2000 mg of omega-3; 2 times per day for 1 month before and 48 hours after perform leg press exercise with eccentric pattern. Similarly, the с was taking in the control group. The results showed significant decrease in severity of DOMS (CK and LDH levels and decreased knee's range of motion in experimental group in comparison with control group (p<0.05. As a result of our study it is suggested that the use of omega-3 supplement can effectively reduce DOMS caused by eccentric exercise.

  17. Effect of diagnostic delay on survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Sáez, Luis; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Pazos-Sierra, Alejandro; González-Santamaría, Paloma; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia

    2016-08-22

    Disparate and contradictory results make studies necessary to investigate in more depth the relationship between diagnostic delay and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the interval from first symptom to diagnosis (SDI) and survival in CRC. Retrospective study of n = 942 CRC patients. SDI was calculated as the time from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms of CRC. Cox regression was used to estimate five-year mortality hazard ratios as a function of SDI, adjusting for age and gender. SDI was modelled according to SDI quartiles and as a continuous variable using penalized splines. Median SDI was 3.4 months. SDI was not associated with stage at diagnosis (Stage I = 3.6 months, Stage II-III = 3.4, Stage IV = 3.2; p = 0.728). Shorter SDIs corresponded to patients with abdominal pain (2.8 months), and longer SDIs to patients with muchorrhage (5.2 months) and rectal tenesmus (4.4 months). Adjusting for age and gender, in rectum cancers, patients within the first SDI quartile had lower survival (p = 0.003), while in colon cancer no significant differences were found (p = 0.282). These results do not change after adjusting for TNM stage. The splines regression analysis revealed that, for rectum cancer, 5-year mortality progressively increases for SDIs lower than the median (3.7 months) and decreases as the delay increases until approximately 8 months. In colon cancer, no significant relationship was found between SDI and survival. Short diagnostic intervals are significantly associated with higher mortality in rectal but not in colon cancers, even though a borderline significant effect is also observed in colon cancer. Longer diagnostic intervals seemed not to be associated with poorer survival. Other factors than diagnostic delay should be taken into account to explain this "waiting-time paradox".

  18. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric e...

  19. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Linden Ulrike; Groß Wibke; Ostermann Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 childr...

  20. The effects of activating the money concept on perseverance and preference for delayed gratification in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata eTrzcińska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behaviour and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children’s behaviour. The participants were six to eight year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analysed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6 to 8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1 money activation influences children’s perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2 it increases children’s preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children’s behaviour. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life.

  1. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  2. Effect of Inter Packet Delay in performance analysis of coexistence heterogeneous Wireless Packet Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tamilselvan, G M

    2010-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the ISM band usage continues, there are many scenarios where different systems operate in the same place at the same time. One of growing concerns is the coexistence of heterogeneous wireless network systems. For the successful deployment of mission-critical systems such as wireless sensor networks, it is required to provide a solution for the coexistence. In this paper, we propose a new scheme using inter packet delay for the coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4 LRWPAN and IEEE 802.11b WLAN. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, measurement and simulation study are conducted using Qualnet 4.5 simulation software. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in performance improvement for coexistence network of IEEE 802.15.4 for various topologies.

  3. Effects of vibratory stimulations on maximal voluntary isometric contraction from delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Bo, Kak Hwang

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vibratory stimulation on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). [Subjects] Sixty healthy adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic disease. [Methods] The researchers induced DOMS in the musculus extensor carpi radialis longus of each participant. Subjects in the control group received no treatment. The ultrasound group received ultrasound treatment (intensity, 1.0 W/cm(2;) frequency 1 MHz; time, 10 minutes). The vibration group received vibration stimulation (frequency, 20 MHz; time, 10 minutes). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was recorded at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] MVIC measurements showed statistically significant differences in the vibration group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Vibratory stimulation had a positive effect on recovery of muscle function from DOMS.

  4. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE VS ACTIVE EXERCISES ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaturvedi Pilladi *,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate the effect of massage of versus active exercises on experimentally induced delayedonset of muscle soreness.Method:30 subjects were divided into two groups, Experimental group received Massage and control groupreceived active exercises, results were taken by measurement of pain and functional stair climbing capacity ofknee joint were taken by visual analog score and functional knee rating score.Results:obtained results were analyzed with the use of Paired T-test, which has been carried out to observethetreatment impact between the groups before and after the treatment. After a 4 week treatment period,thesubjects in the Group I (Quadriceps message compared with the subjects in the Group II (Active exercise hadshown a statistically significant improvement with the outcome measures at 0.05 level.Conclusion:Quadriceps massagewas found much effective in decreasing Delayed onset of muscle sorenessthan active exercises.

  5. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  6. Paradoxical Roles of the Neutrophil in Sepsis: Protective and Deleterious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sônego, Fabiane; Castanheira, Fernanda Vargas e Silva; Ferreira, Raphael Gomes; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Leite, Caio Abner Vitorino Gonçalves; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Colón, David Fernando; Borges, Vanessa de Fátima; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis, an overwhelming inflammatory response syndrome secondary to infection, is one of the costliest and deadliest medical conditions worldwide. Neutrophils are classically considered to be essential players in the host defense against invading pathogens. However, several investigations have shown that impairment of neutrophil migration to the site of infection, also referred to as neutrophil paralysis, occurs during severe sepsis, resulting in an inability of the host to contain and eliminate the infection. On the other hand, the neutrophil antibacterial arsenal contributes to tissue damage and the development of organ dysfunction during sepsis. In this review, we provide an overview of the main events in which neutrophils play a beneficial or deleterious role in the outcome of sepsis. PMID:27199981

  7. Mate choice among yeast gametes can purge deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzyman, S J; Seymour, R M; Pomiankowski, A; Greig, D

    2012-08-01

    Meiosis in Saccharomyces yeast produces four haploid gametes that usually fuse with each other, an extreme form of self-fertilization among the products of a single meiosis known as automixis. The gametes signal to each other with sex pheromone. Better-quality gametes produce stronger signals and are preferred as mates. We suggest that the function of this signalling system is to enable mate choice among the four gametes from a single meiosis and so to promote the clearance of deleterious mutations. To support this claim, we construct a mathematical model that shows that signalling during automixis (i) improves the long-term fitness of a yeast colony and (ii) lowers its mutational load. We also show that the benefit to signalling is greater with larger numbers of segregating mutations.

  8. Inferring Deleterious-Mutation Parameters in Natural Daphnia Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Hong-Wen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Deng and Lynch (1, 2 proposed to characterize deleterious genomic mutations from changes in the mean and genetic variance of fitness traits upon selfing in outcrossing populations. Such observations can be readily acquired in cyclical parthenogens. Selfing and life-table experiments were performed for two such Daphnia populations. A significant inbreeding depression and an increase of genetic variance for all traits analyzed were observed. Deng and Lynch's (2 procedures were employed to estimate the genomic mutation rate (U, mean dominance coefficient ( , mean selection coefficient ( , and scaled genomic mutational variance ( . On average, , , and (^ indicates an estimate are 0.84, 0.30, 0.14 and 4.6E-4 respectively. For the true values, the and are lower bounds, and and upper bounds.

  9. Effect of wettability on sessile drop freezing: when superhydrophobicity stimulates an extreme freezing delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Korolev, Vadim V; Pashinin, Andrei S

    2014-02-18

    An increasing number of studies directed at supercooling water droplets on surfaces with different wettabilities have appeared in recent years. This activity has been stimulated by the recognition that water supercooling phenomena can be effectively used to develop methods for protecting outdoor equipment and infrastructure elements against icing and snow accretion. In this article, we discuss the nucleation kinetics of supercooled sessile water droplets on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces under isothermal conditions at temperatures of -8, -10, and -15 °C and a saturated water vapor atmosphere. The statistics of nucleation events for the ensembles of freezing sessile droplets is completed by the detailed analysis of the contact angle temperature dependence and freezing of individual droplets in a saturated vapor atmosphere. We have demonstrated that the most essential freezing delay is characteristic of the superhydrophobic coating on aluminum, with the texture resistant to contact with ice and water. This delay can reach many hours at T = -8 °C and a few minutes at -23 °C. The observed behavior is analyzed on the basis of different nucleation mechanisms. The dissimilarity in the total nucleation rate, detected for two superhydrophobic substrates having the same apparent contact angle of the water drop but different resistivities of surface texture to the contact with water/ice, is associated with the contribution of heterogeneous nucleation on external centers located at the water droplet/air interface.

  10. Delayed effects of neutron irradiation on central nervous system microvasculature in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gordon, W.A.; Yates, A.J.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pathologic examination of a series of 14 patients with malignant gliomas treated with BNCT showed well demarcated zones of radiation damage characterized by coagulation necrosis. Beam attenuation was correlated with edema, loss of parenchymal elements, demyelination, leukocytosis, and peripheral gliosis. Vascular disturbances consisted of endothelial swelling, medial and adventitial proliferation, fibrin impregnation, frequent thrombosis, and perivascular inflammation. Radiation changes appeared to be acute and delayed. The outcome of the patients in this series was not significantly different from the natural course of the disease, even though two of the patients had no residual tumor detected at the time of autopsy. The intensity of the vascular changes raised a suspicion that boron may have sequestered in vessel walls, resulting in selectively high doses of radiation to these structures (Asbury et al., 1972), or that there may have been high blood concentrations of boron at the time of treatment. The potential limiting effects of a vascular ischemic reaction in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) prompted the following study to investigate the delayed response of microvascular structures in a rat model currently being used for pre-clinical investigations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of Delay Time on Microstructural Evolution during Warm Rolling of Ti-Nb-IF Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Najafi-zadeh; R.Ebrahimi

    2004-01-01

    The effect of delay time with constant first finishing pass temperature (800℃) has been investigated by means of multi-pass torsion tests on Ti-Nb-IF steel. All the tests have been carried out at a strain rate of 2 s-1 with 11 passes and 0.3 strain each pass. During the final pass, dynamic recrystallization occurs to a degree that depends on the delay time. In short interpass time (1 s) and at these temperatures (T≤800℃) there is not enough time to start static recrystallization, therefore, accumulation of strain occurs and after some passes, strain reaches a critical strain for starting dynamic recrystallization. In this study, the changes of mean flow stress during each pass and also the microstructural observation confirms that dynamic recrystallization occurs after some passes in ferrite phase of this steel. The stress-strain curves with constant temperature obtained by using a kinetic model and compensation of the increasing mean flow stress with decreasing temperature. Thus, this result also confirms that dynamic recrystallization occurs in warm rolling of this IF steel.

  12. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  13. Effects of Inter-electrode Distance on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Microcurrent Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Ji-Sun; Park, Soo-Ji; Yoon, Se-Won; Jeong, Seong-Kwan; Heo, Myoung

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the distance between the two electrodes on delayed onset muscle soreness during microcurrent therapy. [Methods] In this study 24 healthy women who hadn't exercised regularly for six months were selected and randomly divided into two groups. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced and experimental Group 1 were given microcurrent treatment with the electrodes attached at a close distance evaluated. Experimental Group 2 received the same treatment with the electrodes attached at a greater distance apart. Visual analogue scale pain and the RIII reflex were evaluated after inducing DOMS and after one day, two days, three days and four days of microcurrent treatment. [Results] The visual analogue scale and amplitude of RIII amplitude only showed significant differences with the length of time of the treatment. [Conclusion] This study found that difference of interelectrode distance has no influence on VAS pain and the RIII reflex of DOMS. Although there were no significant differences in RIII amplitude, we suspect that it may be influenced by current parameters such as frequency and intensity.

  14. Effects of infection-induced migration delays on the epidemiology of avian influenza in wild mallard populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Galsworthy

    Full Text Available Wild waterfowl populations form a natural reservoir of Avian Influenza (AI virus, and fears exist that these birds may contribute to an AI pandemic by spreading the virus along their migratory flyways. Observational studies suggest that individuals infected with AI virus may delay departure from migratory staging sites. Here, we explore the epidemiological dynamics of avian influenza virus in a migrating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos population with a specific view to understanding the role of infection-induced migration delays on the spread of virus strains of differing transmissibility. We develop a host-pathogen model that combines the transmission dynamics of influenza with the migration, reproduction and mortality of the host bird species. Our modeling predicts that delayed migration of individuals influences both the timing and size of outbreaks of AI virus. We find that (1 delayed migration leads to a lower total number of cases of infection each year than in the absence of migration delay, (2 when the transmission rate of a strain is high, the outbreak starts at the staging sites at which birds arrive in the early part of the fall migration, (3 when the transmission rate is low, infection predominantly occurs later in the season, which is further delayed when there is a migration delay. As such, the rise of more virulent AI strains in waterfowl could lead to a higher prevalence of infection later in the year, which could change the exposure risk for farmed poultry. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of generation time and loss of immunity for the effect of migration delays. Thus, we demonstrate, in contrast to many current transmission risk models solely using empirical information on bird movements to assess the potential for transmission, that a consideration of infection-induced delays is critical to understanding the dynamics of AI infection along the entire flyway.

  15. The effect of stochastic acceleration and delay probability on the velocity and the gap between vehicles in traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Peng; Zhao Shu-Long; Wang Jun-Feng; Tang Peng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new combined cellular automaton (CA) model considering the driver behavior of stochastic acceleration and delay with the velocity of the preceding vehicle and the gap between the successive vehicles based on the WWH model and the noise-first NaSch model.It introduces the delay probability varying with the gap,adds the anticipation headway and increases the acceleration with a certain probability.Through these simulations,not only can the metastable state and start-stop wave be obtained but also the synchronized flow which the wide moving jam results in.Moreover,the effect of stochastic acceleration and delay on traffic flow is discussed by analyzing the correlation of traffic data.This indicates that synchronized flow easily emerges in the critical area between free flow and synchronized flow when acceleration and delay are synchronized or their probability is close to 0.5.

  16. Effects of delayed mating on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of females of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ping Wang; Yu-Ling Fang; Zhong-Ning Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of delayed mating on the copulation duration, female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and the number days alive after mating of females of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were studied. When male mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and number days alive after mating of DBM decreased, and there was a negative correlation between the age of the moth with those variables except copulation duration. When female mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, percent egg fertility and number days alive after mating of DBM also decreased, but the longevity increased, which also showed a negative relationship between the age of the moth with the variables except copulation duration and longevity. When both males and females delayed mating, the female fertility and fecundity decreased; egg fertility was affected marginally, and the longevity of females increased. The moth age was negatively correlated with those variables.

  17. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situatio...

  18. Effectiveness of Constant Time Delay on Teaching Snack and Drink Preparation Skills to Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Funda; Gursel, Oguz

    2005-01-01

    A multiple probe design with probe conditions across behaviors was used to evaluate effectiveness of constant time delay on teaching snack and drink preparation skills to children with mental retardation. In addition, generalization effects across settings, time, and materials, and maintenance effects were examined. Three students between the ages…

  19. Is delayed ischemic preconditioning as effective on running performance during a 5km time trial as acute IPC?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeger, J.P.H.; Timmers, S.; Ploegmakers, D.J.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance exercise performance. Cardioprotective effects of IPC are known to re-occur 24h after the stimulus. Whether the delayed effect of IPC has similar effects as IPC on exercise performance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Examine whether IPC applied 24h (24-IPC) before

  20. Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-07-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n = 25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n = 50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (∼8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.

  1. Reinforcer magnitude affects delay discounting and influences effects of d-amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher A; Reilly, William J; Anderson, Karen G

    2016-09-01

    Impulsive choice in humans can be altered by changing reinforcer magnitude; however, this effect has not been found in rats. Current levels of impulsive choice can also influence effects of d-amphetamine. This study used a within-subject assessment to determine if impulsive choice is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and whether effects of d-amphetamine are related to current levels of impulsive choice. A discounting procedure in which choice was for a smaller reinforcer available immediately or a larger reinforcer available after a delay that increased within session was used. Reinforcer magnitude was manipulated between conditions and impulsive choice was quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In the Smaller-Magnitude (SM) Condition, choice was between one food pellet and three food pellets. In the Larger-Magnitude (LM) Condition, choice was between two food pellets and six food pellets. Impulsive choice was greater in the SM Condition compared to the LM Condition. Further, effects of d-amphetamine (0.1-1.8mg/kg) were related to differences in impulsive choice. d-Amphetamine increased impulsive choice in the LM Condition, but had no effect on impulsive choice in the SM Condition. Overall, these results show that impulsive choice in rats is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and that effects of d-amphetamine are influenced by current levels of impulsive choice.

  2. Synchronization transitions on small-world neuronal networks: Effects of information transmission delay and rewiring probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Duan, Zhisheng; Perc, Matjaž; Chen, Guanrong

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization transitions are investigated in small-world neuronal networks that are locally modeled by the Rulkov map with additive spatiotemporal noise. In particular, we investigate the impact of different information transmission delays and rewiring probability. We show that short delays induce zigzag fronts of excitations, whereas intermediate delays can further detriment synchrony in the network due to a dynamic clustering anti-phase synchronization transition. Detailed investigations reveal, however, that for longer delay lengths the synchrony of excitations in the network can again be enhanced due to the emergence of in-phase synchronization. In addition, we show that an appropriate small-world topology can restore synchronized behavior provided information transmission delays are either short or long. On the other hand, within the intermediate delay region, which is characterized by anti-phase synchronization and clustering, differences in the network topology do not notably affect the synchrony of neuronal activity.

  3. Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuxing; DU Guoqiang; WANG Guoying; ZHANG Jianghong; Hassan Imran

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit senescence ofHuang Kum pear.Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution,enzyme activities and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined.The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes at 0.02 mmol/L and at 0.002 mmol/L with the treatment of dipping fruit discs for 4 h and 12 h,respectively.The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were reduced at 0.002 mmol/L for 12 h,and water loss ratio was decreased at 0.5 mmol/L after 48 h of treatment.It was concluded that SA at lower concentrations could delay the senescence of Huang Kum pear fruit.

  4. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...... exercise performed with blood-flow restriction leads to marked increases in rapid force capacity (RTD). However, a general delayed adaptive response was observed for voluntary contractile parameters (including RTD) in parallel with a decline and subsequent recovery in evoked contractile properties...

  5. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  6. Estimation of Network Delay in Control Systems and Reducing Network's Effects by Using Data Sending Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Pariz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper opens with introducing the structure of the network control systems and then the impact of the network on the system equations is simultaneously modeled and the factors affecting the network control systems, due to the existence of the network in the system, are examined.Next, a instantaneous approximation based on Kalman filter design is obtained, by considering the delay as random variable and by an appropriate modeling of network control system dynamics. For doing this, the impact of the network on the main system is modeled in a way that can be used for Kalman filter. Then, the impact of the network on the system performance is approximated based on the model and the Kalman filter. At last by using data sending management network's effect on control system is reduced.

  7. Individual benefits of nestling begging: experimental evidence for an immediate effect, but no evidence for a delayed effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessells, C Kate M; Riebel, Katharina; Draganoiu, Tudor Ion

    2011-06-23

    The evolutionary stability of honest signalling by offspring is thought to require that begging displays be costly, so the costs and benefits of begging--and whether they are experienced individually or by the whole brood--are crucial to understanding the evolution of begging behaviour. Begging is known to have immediate individual benefits (parents distribute more food to intensely begging individuals) and delayed brood benefits (parents increase provisioning rate to the brood), but the possibility of delayed individual benefits (previous begging affects the current distribution of food) has rarely, if ever, been researched. We did this using playback of great tit Parus major chick begging and a control sound from either side of the nest. Male parents fed chicks close to the speaker more when great tit chick begging, but not other stimuli, was played back. In contrast, there was no effect of playback at the previous visit on the chicks that male parents fed. We have thus demonstrated an immediate individual benefit to begging, but found no evidence of a delayed individual benefit in this species.

  8. Genetic contribution to aging: deleterious and helpful genes define life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, J I; Montoriol, C; Morer, I; Beyer, K

    2005-12-01

    For the best understanding of aging, we must consider a genetic pool in which genes with negative effects (deleterious genes that shorten the life span) interact with genes with positive effects (helpful genes that promote longevity) in a constant epistatic relationship that results in a modulation of the final expression under particular environmental influences. Examples of deleterious genes affecting aging (predisposition to early-life pathology and disease) are those that confer risk for developing vascular disease in the heart, brain, or peripheral vessels (APOE, ACE, MTFHR, and mutation at factor II and factor V genes), a gene associated with sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (APOE E4), a polymorphism (COLIA1 Sp1) associated with an increased fracture risk, and several genetic polymorphisms involved in hormonal metabolism that affect adverse reactions to estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women. In summary, the process of aging can be regarded as a multifactorial trait that results from an interaction between stochastic events and sets of epistatic alleles that have pleiotropic age-dependent effects. Lacking those alleles that predispose to disease and having the longevity-enabling genes (those beneficial genetic variants that confer disease resistance) are probably both important to such a remarkable survival advantage.

  9. Cognitive Control Modulates Effects of Episodic Simulation on Delay Discounting in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K.; Peters, Jan; Brassen, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age (“tag-effect”). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic “tags” in healthy older participants. Future thinking ability was assessed using autobiographical interviews for future event simulations and a visual search task was applied to assess participants’ cognitive control ability. In contrast to previous data in young adults, the group of older participants did not benefit from tagging the future with episodic events. Older participants’ cognitive control function was directly associated with discounting rates in the episodic conditions: the less the older adults were able to focus their attention the less they benefited from the inclusion of episodic events. Consistent with this, imaging results revealed that: (a) subjective value (SV) signals in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as; (b) hippocampal-striatal coupling during the episodic condition were positively related to participants’ control capacity. Our findings highlight the critical role of executive functioning for the simultaneous integration of episodic information with future value computation in aging. Boosting delay gratification by including episodic tags might hence be limited in older individuals with pronounced decline in distraction control. PMID:28352226

  10. A Noise and Mismatches of Delay Cells and Their Effects on DLLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gholami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jitter is one of the most important parameters in design of delay locked loop (DLL based frequency synthesizer. In this paper noise and mismatches of conventional delay cells which are mainly used in the DLLs architecture are introduced completely. First, time domain equations related to noise and mismatches of conventional delay cells are reported. Then, these equations are used to calculate jitter of DLL due to mismatch and noise of delay cells. At last closed form equations are obtained which can be used in the designing of low jitter DLLs. To validate these equations, a conventional DLL is designed in TSMC 0.18um CMOS Technology.

  11. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  12. Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Zainal; Newton, Mike; Sacco, Paul; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes muscle pain and tenderness that typically develop several hours postexercise and consist of predominantly eccentric muscle actions, especially if the exercise is unfamiliar. Although DOMS is likely a symptom of eccentric-exercise–induced muscle damage, it does not necessarily reflect muscle damage. Some prophylactic or therapeutic modalities may be effective only for alleviating DOMS, whereas others may enhance recovery of muscle function without affecting DOMS. Objective: To test the hypothesis that massage applied after eccentric exercise would effectively alleviate DOMS without affecting muscle function. Design: We used an arm-to-arm comparison model with 2 independent variables (control and massage) and 6 dependent variables (maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness). A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests were used to examine differences in changes of the dependent variable over time (before, immediately and 30 minutes after exercise, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days postexercise) between control and massage conditions. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women) with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training. Intervention(s): Subjects performed 10 sets of 6 maximal isokinetic (90°·s−1) eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm on a dynamometer, separated by 2 weeks. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 3 hours after eccentric exercise; the contralateral arm received no treatment. Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic elbow flexor strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness. Results: Delayed-onset muscle soreness was significantly less for the massage condition for peak

  13. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    . koenigii alone, were found effective in fertility improvement in delayed pubertal buffalo heifers by increasing ovulation and conception rate.

  14. Antitumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum : Cytotoxicity and Tumor Growth Delay(1)

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    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [Chonju Woosuck Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    1994-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum(G.I.) on the survival of tumor cells in vitro and on the growth of tumors in vivo. Materials and Methods: Dried G.I. was made into powder, extracted with distilled water, filtered and diluted from a maximum concentration of 100 mg/ml in sequence. The cytotoxicity of G.O. in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenicity of SCK tumor cells. For the tumor growth delay study, about 2x10{sup 5} of SCK tumor cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the legs of A/J mice. The first experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G/I. From the first day after tumor inoculation for 10 days. The second experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G.I. either once a day for 10 days or twice a day for 5 days beginning from the 7th day after tumor inoculation. Results: 1. Cytotoxicity in vitro; survival fraction, as judged from the curve, at G.I. concentration of 0.5, 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 mg/ml were 1.0, 0.74{+-}0.03, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, 0.015 and 0.0015, respectively. 2. Tumor growth delay in vivo; a) the time required for the mean tumor volume to grow to 1,000mm{sup 3} was 11 days in the control group and 14 days in the experimental group. b) the time required for tumor volume to increase 4 times was 11 days in the control group while it was 10.5 and 12 days in the groups injected with G.I. once a day and twice a day from the 7th day after tumor inoculation respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of G.I. showed a marked cytotoxicity on the SCK mammary cells in vitro. Tumor growth delay was statistically significant when G.I. injection was started soon after tumor inoculation, but it was not significant when injection was started after the tumors were firmly established.

  15. Exploration of structural stability in deleterious nsSNPs of the XPA gene: A molecular dynamics approach

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    N NagaSundaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distinguishing the deleterious from the massive number of non-functional nsSNPs that occur within a single genome is a considerable challenge in mutation research. In this approach, we have used the existing in silico methods to explore the mutation-structure-function relationship in the XPA gene. Materials and Methods: We used the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT, Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen, I-Mutant 2.0, and the Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships methods to predict the effects of deleterious nsSNPs on protein function and evaluated the impact of mutation on protein stability by Molecular Dynamics simulations. Results: By comparing the scores of all the four in silico methods, nsSNP with an ID rs104894131 at position C108F was predicted to be highly deleterious. We extended our Molecular dynamics approach to gain insight into the impact of this non-synonymous polymorphism on structural changes that may affect the activity of the XPA gene. Conclusion: Based on the in silico methods score, potential energy, root-mean-square deviation, and root-mean-square fluctuation, we predict that deleterious nsSNP at position C108F would play a significant role in causing disease by the XPA gene. Our approach would present the application of in silico tools in understanding the functional variation from the perspective of structure, evolution, and phenotype.

  16. Effects of AV delay and VV delay on left atrial pressure and waveform in ambulant heart failure patients: insights into CRT optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W Y Wandy; Blomqvist, Andreas; Melton, Iain C; Norén, Kjell; Crozier, Ian G; Benser, Michael E; Eigler, Neal L; Gutfinger, Dan; Troughton, Richard W

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that left atrial pressure (LAP) obtained by a permanent implantable sensor is sensitive to changes in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) settings and could guide CRT optimization to improve the response rate. We investigated the effect of CRT optimization on LAP and its waveform parameters in ambulant heart failure (HF) patients. CRT optimization was performed in eight ambulant HF patients, using echocardiography as reference. LAP waveform was acquired at each of eight atrioventricular (AV) intervals and five inter-ventricular (VV) intervals. Selected waveform parameters were also evaluated for their sensitivity to CRT changes and agreement with echocardiography-guided optimal settings. Optimal AV and VV intervals varied considerably between patients. All patients exhibited significant changes in waveform morphology with AV optimization. Optimal AV delay determined from echocardiography ranged between 140 ms and 225 ms. Mean LAP tended to be lower at optimal setting 14 ± 3 mmHg compared to shorter (160 ms) AV settings (P = 0.16). There were clear trends to smaller peak a-wave (P = 0.11) and gentler positive a-slope (P = 0.15) and positive v-slope (P = 0.09) with longer AV delays. Mean LAP and negative v-wave slope correlated well with echo-guided optimal setting, r = 0.91 (P = 0.001) and 0.79 (P = 0.03), respectively. No significant effects on LAP or waveform were seen during VV optimization. LAP and its waveform changes considerably with AV optimization. There is good agreement between echo-guided optimal setting and LAP. LAP could provide an objective guide to CRT optimization. (Clinical Trial Registry information: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00632372). ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  18. Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Double-Blind Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Perrin, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) treatment on pain and loss of range of motion (ROM) associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design and Setting: We assigned subjects to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received treatment with microcurrent stimulation (200 μA, 30 Hz, for 10 minutes, then 100 μA, 0.3 Hz, for 10 minutes) 24, 48, and 72 hours after DOMS induction. Group 2 served as a sham group and was treated using a machine altered by the manufacturer so that no current could flow through the electrodes. Subjects: DOMS was induced in the biceps brachii of the nondominant arm of 18 subjects (3 males, 15 females: age = 20.33 ± 2.3 years, ht = 170.81 ± 7.3 cm, wt = 69.61 ± 13.1 kg). Dominance was defined as the arm used by the subject to throw a ball. Measurements: Subjective pain and active elbow extension ROM were evaluated before and after treatment each day. Two methods were used to assess pain: constant pressure using a weighted Orthoplast sphere and full elbow extension to the limit of pain tolerance. Subjective pain was measured with a graphic rating scale and active elbow extension ROM using a standard, plastic, double-armed goniometer. Three repeated-measures ANOVAs (between-subjects variable was group, within- subjects variables were day and test) were used to assess ROM and pain scores for the 2 groups. Results: We found no significant difference in the measurement of subjective pain scores or elbow extension ROM when the MENS group was compared with the sham group. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the MENS treatment, within the parameters used for this experiment, was not effective in reducing the pain or loss of ROM associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness. PMID:16558582

  19. Primary Blast Causes Delayed Effects without Cell Death in Shell-Encased Brain Cell Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas W; Ritzel, David V; Wang, Yushan; Josey, Tyson; Villanueva, Mercy; Nelson, Peggy; Song, Yanfeng; Shei, Yimin; Hennes, Grant; Vair, Cory; Parks, Steve; Fan, Changyang; McLaws, Lori

    2017-09-14

    Previous work in this laboratory used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. The current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (∼6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes. When brain aggregates were exposed to similar conditions, no cell death was observed and no changes in several commonly used biomarkers of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were noted. However, similarly to underwater blast, immediate and transient increases in the protein kinase B signaling pathway were observed at early time-points (3 days). In contrast, the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor, both displayed markedly delayed (14-28 days) and pressure-dependent responses. The imposition of a spherical shell between the single pulse shock wave and the target brain tissue introduces greatly increased complexity to the insult. This work shows that brain tissue can not only discriminate the nature of the pressure changes it experiences, but that a portion of its response is significantly delayed. These results have mechanistic implications for the study of primary blast-induced TBI and also highlight the importance of rigorously characterizing the actual pressure variations experienced by target tissue in primary blast studies.

  20. Effects of time delay and space on herbivore dynamics: linking inducible defenses of plants to herbivore outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Wang, Su-Lan; Ren, Qian; Jin, Zhen; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Empirical results indicate that inducible defenses of plants have effects on herbivore populations. However, little is known about how inducible defenses of plants have influences on herbivore outbreak when space effect is considered. To reveal the relationship between inducible defenses and herbivore outbreak, we present a mathematical model to describe the interaction of them. It was found that time delay plays dual effects in the persistence of herbivore populations: (i) large value of time delay may be associated with small density of herbivore populations, and thus causes the populations to run a higher risk of extinction; (ii) moderate value of time delay is beneficial for maintaining herbivore density in a determined range which may promote the persistence of herbivore populations. Additionally, we revealed that interaction of time delay and space promotes the growth of average density of herbivore populations during their outbreak period which implied that time delay may drive the resilience of herbivore populations. Our findings highlight the close relationship between inducible defenses of plants and herbivore outbreak. PMID:26084812

  1. Effects of time delay and space on herbivore dynamics: linking inducible defenses of plants to herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Wang, Su-Lan; Ren, Qian; Jin, Zhen; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2015-06-18

    Empirical results indicate that inducible defenses of plants have effects on herbivore populations. However, little is known about how inducible defenses of plants have influences on herbivore outbreak when space effect is considered. To reveal the relationship between inducible defenses and herbivore outbreak, we present a mathematical model to describe the interaction of them. It was found that time delay plays dual effects in the persistence of herbivore populations: (i) large value of time delay may be associated with small density of herbivore populations, and thus causes the populations to run a higher risk of extinction; (ii) moderate value of time delay is beneficial for maintaining herbivore density in a determined range which may promote the persistence of herbivore populations. Additionally, we revealed that interaction of time delay and space promotes the growth of average density of herbivore populations during their outbreak period which implied that time delay may drive the resilience of herbivore populations. Our findings highlight the close relationship between inducible defenses of plants and herbivore outbreak.

  2. Exponential stability of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with impulsive effects and small delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yong-Bin; Zhong Qi-Shui; Liao Xiao-Feng; Yu Jue-Bang

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the exponential stability of impulsive Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with delay. Impulsive control and delayed fuzzy control are applied to the system, and the criterion on exponential stability expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented.

  3. Effects of Time Delay on the Bistable System Subjected to Correlated Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Lin-Ru; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The time-delayed bistable system subjected to the multiplicative and additive noises is investigated. In the condition of small delay time, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) is derived, and under the condition of large delay time, the SPDF is stochastically simulated. The analytical and simulative results indicate that: (i) For the case of λ= 0λ denotes the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and additive noises), the time delay affects weakly the SPDF peak structure, and the symmetrical property of the SPDF two-peak structure does not change with the increasing delay time, (ii) For the case of λ≠0, the two-peak structure changes with the increasing delay time, i.e. one peak goes up and the other go down simultaneously as the delay time increases and along with further increase of the delay time, the lower peak disappears gradually while the higher one goes up, i.e. the structure of the SPDF changes from a bimodal to a unimodal and the system becomes monostable.

  4. The effect of consumption delay on the excitation of Goodwin's oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the influence of the consumption delay in Godwin's model of the business cycle on the excitation of the Goodwin oscillation, its amplitude and period. We show that the amplitudes of the oscillations of income, consumption and induced investment fall with the increasing the consumption delay.

  5. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a "diffuse sensory organ" that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this "pan-endocrine illness" is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death.

  6. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  7. The effects of mands and models on the speech of unresponsive language-delayed preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S F; McQuarter, R J; Rogers-Warren, A K

    1984-02-01

    The effects of the systematic use of mands (non-yes/no questions and instructions to verbalize), models (imitative prompts), and specific consequent events on the productive verbal behavior of three unresponsive, socially isolate, language-delayed preschool children were investigated in a multiple-baseline design within a classroom free play period. Following a lengthy intervention condition, experimental procedures were systematically faded out to check for maintenance effects. The treatment resulted in increases in total verbalizations and nonobligatory speech (initiations) by the subjects. Subjects also became more responsive in obligatory speech situations. In a second free play (generalization) setting, increased rates of total child verbalizations and nonobligatory verbalizations were observed for all three subjects, and two of the three subjects were more responsive compared to their baselines in the first free play setting. Rate of total teacher verbalizations and questions were also higher in this setting. Maintenance of the treatment effects was shown during the fading condition in the intervention setting. The subjects' MLUs (mean length of utterance) increased during the intervention condition when the teacher began prompting a minimum of two-word utterances in response to a mand or model.

  8. Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation.

  9. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9; MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  10. Measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction in a fast neutron reactor using the perturbation method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hao-Jun; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Hong; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The perturbation method is proposed to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction (\\b{eta}eff) of a cylindrical highly enriched uranium reactor. Based on the reactivity measurements with and without a sample at a designable position using the positive periodic technique, the reactor reactivity perturbation {\\Delta}\\r{ho} of the sample in \\b{eta}eff units is measured. The simulation of the perturbation experiments are performed by MCNP program. The PERT card is used to provide the difference dk of effective neutron multiplication factors with and without the sample inside the reactor. Based on the relationship between the effective multiplication factor and the reactivity, the equation \\b{eta}eff =dk/{\\Delta}\\r{ho} is derived. In this paper, the reactivity perturbations of 13 metal samples at the designable position of the reactor are measured and calculated. The average \\b{eta}eff value of the reactor is given as 0.00645, and the standard uncertainty is 3.0%. Additionally, the perturbation experiments for ...

  11. Delayed protective effect of telmisartan on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in valve replacement operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongfeng; Zhang, Daguo; Xiang, Daokang

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the delayed protective effect of telmisartan on lung ischemic/reperfusion injury in patients undergoing heart valve replacement operations. In total, 180 patients diagnosed with rheumatic valve diseases were randomly divided into the telmisartan (T), captopril (C) and placebo (P) groups. In the telmisartan group, the patients were pretreated with telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day), at the time period 96-48 h before the operation, whereas in the C group, the patients were treated with captopril (1 mg/kg/day) at the time period 96-48 h prior to the operation control group. Each drug treatment group included a corresponding placebo treatment. The variables pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and A-aDO2 were measured prior to CPB and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h after CPB. Pulmonary neutrophil (PMN) count in the left and right atrium blood as well as SOD malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, angiotensin II (AngII) value in the left atrium blood, were measured 30 min prior to and after CPB. The PVR parameters of the telmisartan and captopril groups were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (Ptelmisartan and captopril groups were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at 1, 3 and 6 h following CPB treatment. The difference between the right and left atrium blood PMN was significantly lower in the telmisartan and captopril intervention groups compared to that in the placebo group 30 min following CPB treatment. The left atrium blood SOD and NO values were significantly higher, whereas the MDA value was significantly lower in the telmisartan group compared to the control group 30 min following CPB treatment. As for AngII, there was no difference between the C and T groups, compared with the P group. In the two groups 30 min after treatment with CPB, 24 patients experienced varying degrees of cough, with the telmisartan group showing a significant difference (Ptelmisartan group than the captopril and placebo groups (Ptelmisartan (1 mg

  12. Stabilizing Effect of Prey Refuge and Predator’s Interference on the Dynamics of Prey with Delayed Growth and Generalist Predator with Delayed Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaldev Jana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, I study a prey-predator model with multiple time delays where the predator population is regarded as generalist. For this regard, I consider a Holling-Tanner prey-predator system where a constant time delay is incorporated in the logistic growth of the prey to represent a delayed density dependent feedback mechanism and the second time delay is considered to account for the length of the gestation period of the predator. Predator’s interference in predator-prey relationship provides better descriptions of predator's feeding over a range of prey-predator abundances, so the predator's functional response here is considered to be Type II ratio-dependent. In accordance with previous studies, it is observed that delay destabilizes the system, in general, and stability loss occurs via Hopf bifurcation. There exist critical values of delay parameters below which the coexistence equilibrium is stable and above which it is unstable. Hopf bifurcation occurs when delay parameters cross their critical values. When delay parameters are large enough than their critical values, the system exhibits chaotic behavior and this abnormal behavior may be controlled by refuge. Numerical computation is also performed to validate different theoretical results. Lyapunov exponent, recurrence plot, and power spectral density confirm the chaotic dynamical behaviors.

  13. Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Atkinson, Fiona; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2008-01-01

    In observational studies, habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We hy-pothesized that the mechanism may be related to delayed effects on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, sweetened and unsweetened, tea and sucrose, 1 h prior to a high carbohydrate meal. On separate occasions in random order, lean young healthy subjects (n = 8) consumed a potato-based meal 1 hour after consumption of 250 mL of black coffee (COF), black coffee sweetened with 10 g of sucrose (COF+SUC), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), black tea (TEA), 10 g sucrose (SUC) or hot water (CON). Fingerprick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h and the glucose and insulin responses quantified as area under the curve. Compared to CON, COF caused a 28% increase in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.022). In contrast, COF+SUC decreased glycemia compared with either COF (-38%, pconcentration at the start of the meal (pcoffee significantly reduces postprandial glycemia. This observation may explain the paradoxical findings of observational and clinical studies relating coffee drinking to diabetes risk.

  14. DELAYED POSITIVE EFFECTS OF AN ACUTE BOUT OF COORDINATIVE EXERCISE ON CHILDREN'S ATTENTION (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Egger, Fabienne; Conzelmann, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Since attention is an important prerequisite for learning, it is particularly worthwhile to promote it in schools, through specific interventions. The present study examined the effects of an acute bout of coordinative exercise in physical education on the attention of primary school children. A total of 90 fifth grade primary school children (41 boys, 49 girls; M = 11.0 yr., SD = 0.6) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. The experimental group received a cognitively demanding physical education lesson consisting of different coordinative exercises; the control group attended a normal sedentary school lesson. Before, immediately after, and 90 min. after each experimental condition, the children's attentional performance was tested using the revised version of the d2 Test of Attention (d2-R). Results of the repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that children's attentional performance increased through the specifically designed physical education lesson, not immediately but 90 min. after cessation. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms explaining the relationship between acute physical exercise, and immediate and delayed effects on attention.

  15. Effect of 3 Key Factors on Average End to End Delay and Jitter in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Hakak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected by wireless links where each node or mobile device is independent to move in any desired direction and thus the links keep moving from one node to another. In such a network, the mobile nodes are equipped with CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance transceivers and communicate with each other via radio. In MANETs, routing is considered one of the most difficult and challenging tasks. Because of this, most studies on MANETs have focused on comparing protocols under varying network conditions. But to the best of our knowledge no one has studied the effect of other factors on network performance indicators like throughput, jitter and so on, revealing how much influence a particular factor or group of factors has on each network performance indicator. Thus, in this study the effects of three key factors, i.e. routing protocol, packet size and DSSS rate, were evaluated on key network performance metrics, i.e. average delay and average jitter, as these parameters are crucial for network performance and directly affect the buffering requirements for all video devices and downstream networks.

  16. Recurrent boosting effects of short inactivity delays on performance: an ERPs study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maquet Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies investigating off-line processes of consolidation in motor learning have demonstrated a sudden, short-lived improvement in performance after 5–30 minutes of post-training inactivity. Here, we investigated further this behavioral boost in the context of the probabilistic serial reaction time task, a paradigm of implicit sequence learning. We looked both at the electrophysiological correlates of the boost effect and whether this phenomenon occurs at the initial training session only. Findings Reaction times consistently improved after a 30-minute break within two sessions spaced four days apart, revealing the reproducibility of the boost effect. Importantly, this improvement was unrelated to the acquisition of the sequential regularities in the material. At both sessions, event-related potentials (ERPs analyses disclosed a boost-associated increased amplitude of a first negative component, and shorter latencies for a second positive component. Conclusion Behavioral and ERP data suggest increased processing fluency after short delays, which may support transitory improvements in attentional and/or motor performance and participate in the final setting up of the neural networks involved in the acquisition of novel skills.

  17. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  18. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  19. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  20. Dissociations in the effect of delay on object recognition: evidence for an associative model of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Robinson, Jasper; Jennings, Dómhnall J; Bonardi, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Rats were administered 3 versions of an object recognition task: In the spontaneous object recognition task (SOR) animals discriminated between a familiar object and a novel object; in the temporal order task they discriminated between 2 familiar objects, 1 of which had been presented more recently than the other; and, in the object-in-place task, they discriminated among 4 previously presented objects, 2 of which were presented in the same locations as in preexposure and 2 in different but familiar locations. In each task animals were tested at 2 delays (5 min and 2 hr) between the sample and test phases in the SOR and object-in-place task, and between the 2 sample phases in the temporal order task. Performance in the SOR was poorer with the longer delay, whereas in the temporal order task performance improved with delay. There was no effect of delay on object-in-place performance. In addition the performance of animals with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus was selectively impaired in the object-in-place task at the longer delay. These findings are interpreted within the framework of Wagner's (1981) model of memory.

  1. Effects of time delay and random rewiring on the stochastic resonance in excitable small-world neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Liu, Chen

    2013-05-01

    The effects of time delay and rewiring probability on stochastic resonance and spatiotemporal order in small-world neuronal networks are studied in this paper. Numerical results show that, irrespective of the pacemaker introduced to one single neuron or all neurons of the network, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The time delay in the coupling process can either enhance or destroy stochastic resonance on small-world neuronal networks. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances, which appear intermittently at integer multiples of the oscillation period of the pacemaker. More importantly, it is found that the small-world topology can significantly affect the stochastic resonance on excitable neuronal networks. For small time delays, increasing the rewiring probability can largely enhance the efficiency of pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance. We argue that the time delay and the rewiring probability both play a key role in determining the ability of the small-world neuronal network to improve the noise-induced outreach of the localized subthreshold pacemaker.

  2. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Didier; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Capdevielle, Xavier; Dugravot, Aline; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001–2005). Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area) at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70–90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60%) than in less heavily infected trees (85%). Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production. PMID:27177029

  3. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bert

    Full Text Available Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001-2005. Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70-90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60% than in less heavily infected trees (85%. Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production.

  4. Effects of Lévy noise and immune delay on the extinction behavior in a tumor growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng-Li; Xu, Wei; Gu, Xu-Dong; Qi, Lu-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The combined effects of Lévy noise and immune delay on the extinction behavior in a tumor growth model are explored. The extinction probability of tumor with certain density is measured by exit probability. The expression of the exit probability is obtained using the Taylor expansion and the infinitesimal generator theory. Based on numerical calculations, it is found that the immune delay facilitates tumor extinction when the stability index α 1. Moreover, larger stability index and smaller noise intensity are in favor of the extinction for tumor with low density. While for tumor with high density, the stability index and the noise intensity should be reduced to promote tumor extinction.

  5. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.

    2009-01-01

    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,

  6. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  7. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  8. The Effect of Feedback Delay and Feedback Type on Perceptual Category Learning: The Limits of Multiple Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C.; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that learning rule-based (RB) and information-integration (II) category structures can be dissociated across different experimental variables has been used to support the view that such learning is supported by multiple learning systems. Across 4 experiments, we examined the effects of 2 variables, the delay between response and feedback…

  9. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Schwabe, L.; Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maast

  10. The Effects of an Intensive Shared Book-Reading Intervention for Preschool Children at Risk for Vocabulary Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kwok, Oiman; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjung; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention on the vocabulary development of preschool children who were at risk for vocabulary delay. The participants were 125 children, who the researchers stratified by classroom and randomly assigned to one of two shared book-reading conditions (i.e., the experimental, Words…

  11. The Effect of Online Gaming, Cognition and Feedback Type in Facilitating Delayed Achievement of Different Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Brian; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Online and computer-based instructional gaming is becoming a viable instructional strategy at all levels of education. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of (a) gaming, (b) gaming plus embedded questions, and (c) gaming plus questions plus feedback on delayed retention of different types of educational objectives for students…

  12. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune

    2007-01-01

    In the neuroscience community interest for using the pig is growing. Several disease models have been developed creating a need for validation of behavioural paradigms in these animals. Here, we report the effect of different inter-phase delay intervals on the performance of Göttingen minipigs in...

  13. Effects of High and Low Constraint Utterances on the Production of Immediate and Delayed Echolalia in Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Patrick J.; Mirenda, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the effects of adult antecedent utterances on echolalia in seven male children with autism (ages five and six) during free play found that most immediate echoes followed high constraint utterances and were used as responsives, organizational devices, and cognitives. Most delayed echoes followed low constraint utterances and were…

  14. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  15. Effects of Vocabulary Instruction Using Constant Time Delay on Expository Reading of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Scheidecker, Bethany J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using constant time delay (CTD) with young adults with intellectual disability on their vocabulary acquisition and retention, as well as expository reading comprehension. Four learners, ages 19 to 21 years, from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study.…

  16. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  17. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  18. Effect of Boron on Delayed Fracture Resistance of Medium-Carbon High Strength Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The delayed fracture behavior of medium-carbon high strength spring steel containing different amounts of boron (0. 000 5%, 0. 001 6%) was studied using sustained load delayed fracture test. The results show that delayed fracture resistance of boron containing steels is higher than that of conventional steel 60Si2MnA at the same strength level and it increases with the increase of boron content from 0. 000 5 % to 0. 001 6 %. The delayed fracture mode is mainly intergranular in the boron containing steels tempered at 350 ℃, which indicates that the addition of boron does not change the fracture character. However, the increase of boron content enlarges the size of the crack initiation area. Further study of phase analysis indicates that most boron is in solid solution, and only a very small quantity of boron is in the M3 (C, B) phase.

  19. Effectiveness of diagnostic strategies in suspected delayed cerebral ischemia : A decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawal, Sapna; Barnett, Carolina; John-Baptiste, Ava; Thein, Hla Hla; Krings, Timo; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a serious complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. If DCI is suspected clinically, imaging Methods designed to detect angiographic vasospasm or regional hypoperfusion are often used before instituting therapy. Uncertainty in the

  20. Effect of delayed response in growth on the dynamics of a chemostat model with impulsive input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Jianjun [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economics System Simulation, Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550004 (China)], E-mail: jiaojianjun05@126.com; Yang Xiaosong [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Lansun [Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: lschen@amss.ac.cn; Cai Shaohong [Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economics System Simulation, Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550004 (China)

    2009-11-30

    In this paper, a chemostat model with delayed response in growth and impulsive perturbations on the substrate is considered. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain a microorganism-extinction periodic solution, further, the globally attractive condition of the microorganism-extinction periodic solution is obtained. By the use of the theory on delay functional and impulsive differential equation, we also obtain the permanent condition of the investigated system. Our results indicate that the discrete time delay has influence to the dynamics behaviors of the investigated system, and provide tactical basis for the experimenters to control the outcome of the chemostat. Furthermore, numerical analysis is inserted to illuminate the dynamics of the system affected by the discrete time delay.

  1. Delay compensation - Its effect in reducing sampling errors in Fourier spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, A. S.; Aaronson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    An approximate formula is derived for the spectrum ghosts caused by periodic drive speed variations in a Michelson interferometer. The solution represents the case of fringe-controlled sampling and is applicable when the reference fringes are delayed to compensate for the delay introduced by the electrical filter in the signal channel. Numerical results are worked out for several common low-pass filters. It is shown that the maximum relative ghost amplitude over the range of frequencies corresponding to the lower half of the filter band is typically 20 times smaller than the relative zero-to-peak velocity error, when delayed sampling is used. In the lowest quarter of the filter band it is more than 100 times smaller than the relative velocity error. These values are ten and forty times smaller, respectively, than they would be without delay compensation if the filter is a 6-pole Butterworth.

  2. The fragility of intergroup relations: divergent effects of delayed audiovisual feedback in intergroup and intragroup interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam R; West, Tessa V; Dovidio, John F; Powers, Stacie Renfro; Buck, Ross; Henning, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Intergroup interactions between racial or ethnic majority and minority groups are often stressful for members of both groups; however, the dynamic processes that promote or alleviate tension in intergroup interaction remain poorly understood. Here we identify a behavioral mechanism-response delay-that can uniquely contribute to anxiety and promote disengagement from intergroup contact. Minimally acquainted White, Black, and Latino participants engaged in intergroup or intragroup dyadic conversation either in real time or with a subtle temporal disruption (1-s delay) in audiovisual feedback. Whereas intergroup dyads reported greater anxiety and less interest in contact after engaging in delayed conversation than after engaging in real-time conversation, intragroup dyads reported less anxiety in the delay condition than they did after interacting in real time. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding intergroup communication and social dynamics and for promoting positive intergroup contact.

  3. The effects of immediate and delayed summarizing on judgments of learning, studying patterns and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wenting

    2008-01-01

    This study explored whether writing a summary immediately or with delay after studying can improve learners? metacomprehension accuracy, influence their regulation of study, and enhance reading comprehension immediately and under transfer conditions. Undergraduates (N=75) were randomly assigned to three groups: no summary, immediate summary and delayed summary. After screening data to remove participants who did not apply plausible effort, no statistically detectable differences were found fo...

  4. Effects of Delaying Transplanting on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Rice under Mechanical Transplantation Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Qihua Liu; Xiu Wu; Jiaqing Ma; Bocong Chen; Caiyun Xin

    2015-01-01

    A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT) of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency...

  5. The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    McGRATH, RYAN P.; James R. Whitehead; CAINE, DENNIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the scientific community believed that post-exercise stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but recent reviews of studies on the topic have concluded that pre- or post-exercise static stretching has no effect on mitigating DOMS. However, the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-exercise stretching on preventing DOMS has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of post-exercise PNF stretc...

  6. Effect of delayed breeding during the summer on profitability of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this retrospective observational cohort study, combined with simulation, was to evaluate the effect of extending the voluntary waiting period (VWP) during the summer on profitability on a Florida dairy farm. Data from Holstein cows (n=1,416) that calved between June and September of 2007 and 2008 were used. Cows that calved between June 1 and July 21 (regular group; REG; n=719) were artificially inseminated (AI) for the first time upon estrus detection (ED) after the second PGF₂α of the Presynch protocol administered between 57 and 63 d in milk (DIM), or underwent timed AI using the Ovsynch protocol (TAI) if not detected in estrus. Cows that calved between July 22 and September 18 (extended group; EXT; n=697) underwent AI for the first time after the first or second PGF₂α starting November 14 or November 21 or underwent TAI if not detected in estrus. For second and subsequent AI, all cows underwent AI upon ED or enrolled on TAI after nonpregnancy diagnosis. Following these schemes, average VWP in the REG group and EXT group were 60 and 83 d, respectively. Overall profitability for both experimental and subsequent parities were calculated by subtracting the costs existing of feeding costs ($0.30/kg lactating cow diet; $0.25/kg dry cow diet), breeding costs ($2.65/dose PGF₂α; $2.40/dose GnRH; $0.25/injection administration; $10/semen straw; $5/AI; $3/pregnancy diagnosis), and other costs ($3/d) from the daily revenues with milk sales ($0.44/kg of milk), cow sales ($1.76/kg of live weight), and calf sales ($140/calf). A herd budget simulation was used to predict future cash flow after culling or end of subsequent parity until 6 yr after the start of the study to account for all cash flow consequences of extended VWP. Cows in the EXT group had greater first-service pregnancy per AI (PAI1) but still had greater days open and calving interval. Delaying breeding did not affect total cash flow because the EXT group had greater combined

  7. Effects of delay and noise in a negative feedback regulatory motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palassini, Matteo; Dies, Marta

    2009-03-01

    The small copy number of the molecules involved in gene regulation can induce nontrivial stochastic phenomena such as noise-induced oscillations. An often neglected aspect of regulation dynamics are the delays involved in transcription and translation. Delays introduce analytical and computational complications because the dynamics is non-Markovian. We study the interplay of noise and delays in a negative feedback model of the p53 core regulatory network. Recent experiments have found pronounced oscillations in the concentrations of proteins p53 and Mdm2 in individual cells subjected to DNA damage. Similar oscillations occur in the Hes-1 and NK-kB systems, and in circadian rhythms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this oscillatory behaviour, such as deterministic limit cycles, with and without delay, or noise-induced excursions in excitable models. We consider a generic delayed Master Equation incorporating the activation of Mdm2 by p53 and the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53. In the deterministic limit and for large delays, the model shows a Hopf bifurcation. Via exact stochastic simulations, we find strong noise-induced oscillations well outside the limit-cycle region. We propose that this may be a generic mechanism for oscillations in gene regulatory systems.

  8. Effects of distance-dependent delay on small-world neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Xianbin

    2016-04-01

    We study firing behaviors and the transitions among them in small-world noisy neuronal networks with electrical synapses and information transmission delay. Each neuron is modeled by a two-dimensional Rulkov map neuron. The distance between neurons, which is a main source of the time delay, is taken into consideration. Through spatiotemporal patterns and interspike intervals as well as the interburst intervals, the collective behaviors are revealed. It is found that the networks switch from resting state into intermittent firing state under Gaussian noise excitation. Initially, noise-induced firing behaviors are disturbed by small time delays. Periodic firing behaviors with irregular zigzag patterns emerge with an increase of the delay and become progressively regular after a critical value is exceeded. More interestingly, in accordance with regular patterns, the spiking frequency doubles compared with the former stage for the spiking neuronal network. A growth of frequency persists for a larger delay and a transition to antiphase synchronization is observed. Furthermore, it is proved that these transitions are generic also for the bursting neuronal network and the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuronal network. We show these transitions due to the increase of time delay are robust to the noise strength, coupling strength, network size, and rewiring probability.

  9. Measured and calculated effective delayed neutron fraction of the IPR-R1 Triga reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Dalle, Hugo M.; Campolina, Daniel A.M., E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.b, E-mail: dallehm@cdtn.b, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction, {beta}{sub eff}, one of the most important parameter in reactor kinetics, was measured for the 100 kW IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The current reactor core has 63 fuel elements, containing about 8.5% and 8% by weight of uranium enriched to 20% in U{sup 235}. The core has cylindrical configuration with an annular graphite reflector. Since the first criticality of the reactor in November 1960, the core configuration and the number of fuel elements have been changed several times. At that time, the reactor power was 30 kW, there were 56 fuel elements in the core, and the {beta}{sub eff} value for the reactor recommended by General Atomic (manufacturer of TRIGA) was 790 pcm. The current {beta}{sub eff} parameter was determined from experimental methods based on inhour equation and on the control rod drops. The estimated values obtained were (774 {+-} 38) pcm and (744 {+-} 20) pcm, respectively. The {beta}{sub eff} was calculated by Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 and it was obtained 747 pcm. The calculated and measured values are in good agreement, and the relative percentage error is -3.6% for the first case, and 0.4% for the second one. (author)

  10. Effects of Lipoteichoic Acid induced Delayed Preconditioning on Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世玉; 向继洲; 吴基良; 胡本容

    2003-01-01

    To explore the potential of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) induced cardioprotection against is-chemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat hearts and whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO)participates-in the protection, the rats were pretreated with LTA (1 mg/kg, i. p. ) 24 h before theexperiment, and the isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min no-flow normothermic global ischemiaand 60 min reperfusion after a 20-min stabilization period by the langendorff method. Cardiac func-tions were evaluated at the end of stabilization, and at 30 min, 60 min of reperfusion. The amountsof MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and total NO oxidationproducts in the coronary effluent were measured spectrophotometrically at the end of reperfusion. Itwas revealed that pretreatment with LTA could significantly improve the recovery of cardiac func-tion, reduce the release of CK-MB and LDH, and increase the concentrations of NO in coronary ef-fluent. The protective effects were abrogated by pretreatment of the rats with L-NAME. It wasconcluded that LTA could induce the delayed cardioprotection against I/R injury, and endogenousNO may be involved in the mechanisms.

  11. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  12. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECT OF VASOPRESSIN ON DELAYED NEURONAL DAMAGE IN HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN GERBILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新峰; 金泳清; 陈光辉

    1996-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used as delayed neuronal damage (DND) animal models.At the end of 15 minute cerebral ischermia and at various reperfusion time ranging from 1 to 96 hours,the content of water and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the CA1 sector of hippocampus were measured by the specific gravity method and radioimmunoassy.Furthermore,we also examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of AVP,AVP antiserum on calcium,Na+,K+-ATP ase activity in the CA1 sector after ischemia and 96 hour reperfusion.The results showed that AVP Contents of CA1 sector of hippocampus during 6 to 96 hour recirculation,and the water content of CA1 sector during 24 to 96 hour were significantly and continuously increased.After ICV injection of AVP,the water content and calcium in CA1 sector of hippocampus at cerebral ischemia and 96 hour recirculation further increased,and the Na+,K+-AT-tion of AVP antiserum,the water contenr and calcium in CA1 sector were significantly decreased as compared with that of control.These suggested that AVP was involved in the pathopysiologic process of DND in hippocampus following cerbral ischemia and reprfusion.Its mechanism might be through the change of intracellular action mediated by specific AVP receptor to lead to Ca inos over-load of neuron and inhibit the Na+,K+-ATPase activity,thereby to exacerbate the DND in hippocampus.

  14. Acute effects of passive stretching on the electromechanical delay and evoked twitch properties: a gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Cramer, Joel T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the acute effects of passive stretching on electromechanical delay (EMD), peak twitch force (PTF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak-to-peak M-wave (PPM) for the soleus muscle during evoked isometric plantar flexion muscle actions. Fourteen men (mean age ± SD = 21.2 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 80.0 ± 14.9 kg; height = 176.9 ± 7.2 cm) and 20 women (20.9 ± 2.5 years; 61.3 ± 8.9 kg; 165.3 ± 7.5 cm) volunteered for the study. Five single-square, supramaximal transcutaneous electrical stimuli (each separated by 5 s) were delivered to the tibial nerve before and after passive stretching. A time × gender interaction was observed for EMD, and the post hoc dependent-samples t tests indicated that EMD increased 4% for the women (p = .023), but not for the men (p = .191). There were no other stretching-related changes for PTF, RFD, or p-p M-wave for either the men or women (p > .05). These findings tentatively suggested that mechanical factors related to the stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit may contribute to the explanation for why stretching caused an acute increase in the EMD during evoked twitches in the women, but not in the men.

  15. Acute effects of passive stretching on the electromechanical delay and evoked twitch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Cramer, Joel T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of passive stretching on the electromechanical delay (EMD), peak twitch force (PTF), rate of force development (RFD), and compound muscle action potential (M-wave) amplitude during evoked twitches of the plantar flexor muscles. 16 men (mean age +/- SD = 21.1 +/- 1.7 years; body mass = 75.9 +/- 11.4 kg; height = 176.5 +/- 8.6 cm) participated in this study. A single, square-wave, supramaximal transcutaneous electrical stimulus was delivered to the tibial nerve before and after passive stretching. The stretching protocol consisted of nine repetitions of passive assisted stretching designed to stretch the calf muscles. Each repetition was held for 135 s separated by 5-10 s of rest. Dependent-samples t tests (pre- vs. post-stretching) were used to analyze the EMD, PTF, RFD, and M-wave amplitude data. There were significant changes (P 0.05). These findings suggested that passively stretching the calf muscles affected the mechanical aspects of force production from the onset of the electrically evoked twitch to the peak twitch force. These results may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the stretching-induced force deficit that have been reported as either "mechanical" or "electrical" in origin.

  16. Efficient HOMO-LUMO separation by multiple resonance effect toward ultrapure blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ikuta, Toshiaki; Shiren, Kazushi; Nakajima, Kiichi; Nomura, Shintaro; Ni, Jingping

    2016-09-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) play an important role in the new generation of flat-panel displays. Conventional OLEDs employing fluorescent materials together with triplet-triplet annihilation suffer from a relatively low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 62.5%. On the other hand, the IQE of OLEDs employing phosphorescent or thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials can reach 100%. However, these materials exhibit very broad peaks with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 70-100 nm and cannot satisfy the color-purity requirements for displays. Therefore, the latest commercial OLED displays employ blue fluorescent materials with a relatively low IQE, and efficient blue emitters with a small FWHM are highly needed. In our manuscript, we present organic molecules that exhibit ultrapure blue fluorescence based on TADF. These molecules consist of three benzene rings connected by one boron and two nitrogen atoms, which establish a rigid polycyclic framework and significant localization of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals by a multiple resonance effect. An OLED device based on the new emitter exhibits ultrapure blue emission at 467 nm with an FWHM of 28 nm, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.12, 0.13), and an IQE of 100%, which represent record-setting performance for blue OLED devices.

  17. Effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping on peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Zeynel; Ozkiraz, Servet; Tarcan, Aylin; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Ozbek, Namik

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematological parameters in premature infants (cord clamping (ICC) at 5-10 s and 21 infants to DCC at 30-45 s. One milliliter blood sample was taken in the first 30 min of life. HPCs were measured by three-color flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. There were no significant differences between groups in either maternal or neonatal demographics. All HPC counts were higher in the ICC group, but the difference was not significant. CD34+ cell counts were 45.3 ± 36.6/μL in the ICC and 33.2 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.33); multi-potent progenitor cell counts were 43.2 ± 35/μL in the ICC and 31.1 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.28); and hematopoietic stem cell counts were 2.1 ± 2.1/μL in the ICC and 2.1 ± 3.1/μL in the DCC group (P=0.66). Contrary to our expectation, all HPC counts were lower in the DCC group.

  18. Pilot Study on the Effect of Grounding on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dick; Hill, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are markers that can be used to study the effects of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design and subjects Eight (8) healthy subjects were exposed to an eccentric exercise that caused DOMS in gastrocnemius muscles of both legs. Four (4) subjects were grounded with electrode patches and patented conductive sheets connected to the earth. Four (4) control subjects were treated identically, except that the grounding systems were not connected to the earth. Outcome measures Complete blood counts, blood chemistry, enzyme chemistry, serum and saliva cortisols, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy and pain levels were taken at the same time of day before the eccentric exercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours afterwards. Parameters consistently differing by 10% or more, normalized to baseline, were considered worthy of further study. Results Parameters that differed by these criteria included white blood cell counts, bilirubin, creatine kinase, phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios, glycerolphosphorylcholine, phosphorylcholine, the visual analogue pain scale, and pressure measurements on the right gastrocnemius. Conclusions In a pilot study, grounding the body to the earth alters measures of immune system activity and pain. Since this is the first intervention that appears to speed recovery from DOMS, the pilot provides a basis for a larger study. PMID:20192911

  19. Effect of Vibration in Prevention of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Recent Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubia Veqar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS is muscular pain and discomfort experienced approximately 24-72 hours after exercise. DOMS is due to microscopic muscle fiber tears and is more common after unfamiliar high-force muscular work. It is seen predominantly post eccentric exercise. It is commonly seen after the intensity and volume of training are increased, the order of progression in exercise or a new training regime is performed. DOMS is not a disorder or disease; it can be considered as a painful type I muscle strain injury. DOMS can limit further exercise in the days following an initial training. It is a matter of concern for coaches, athletic trainers, physiotherapist, and other sports medicine personnel concerned with the athletes. Various pre- and post exercise interventions have been investigated with respect to preventing the subsequent symptoms and treating DOMS. Interventions like pharmacological treatments, therapeutic treatments using physical modalities, and interventions using nutritional supplements have been researched. In the aspect of prevention and treatment of DOMS vibration therapy is effective. Vibration therapy helps to synchronization of motor unit activity by preventing sarcoma disruption and also improves muscular strength, power development and kinesthetic awareness. Thus optimal muscle performance prevents the muscle damage, reducing the chances of DOMS. The purpose of this review is to find out the role of Vibration therapy in preventing DOMS.

  20. Causes and effects of delayed treatment of spine deformation in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzewski, Krzysztof; Skwarcz, Andrzej

    2005-02-28

    Background. Delays and negligence in the treatment of spinal deformations have both objective and subjective causes and often occur simultaneously. The aim of our study was to evaluate and analyze the pathomorphological features of spine deformation in young patients following the program suggested by Karski, especially flexion-rotations exercises. Material and methods. We analyzed 36 post-surgical patients who performed flexion-rotation exercises for varying lengths of time. In additional to information regarding the course and manner of treatment with flexion-rotation exercises obtained from anamnesis, clinical and X-ray examinations were carried out. Results. Upon analysis of the progress of treatment with flexion-rotation exercises, correction of deformityof presumed abduction contracture of the right hip, and forced positions, we observed exceptionally rapid progression of scoliosis. Conclusions. Flexion-rotation exercises do not reduce the extent of spinal deformities, and may even accelerate the process of scoliosis. Unexpectedly rapid progress of sciolosis was confirmed in 3 patients treated by this method using complete radiological examination. Prolonging flexion-rotation exercises in progressive scoliosis is harmful, since it contributes to postponing the proper surgical treatment and reduces its effectiveness by giving the changes a permanent character.

  1. Frequency, delay and velocity analysis for intrinsic channel region of carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gate wrap around field effect transistor is preferred for its good channel control. To study the high frequency behaviour of the device, parameters like cut-off frequency, transit or delay time, velocity are calculated and plotted. Double-walled and array of channels are considered in this work for enhanced output and impedance matching of the device with the measuring equipment terminal respectively. The perfomance of double-walledcarbon nanotube is compared with single-walled carbon nanotube and found that the device with double-wall shows appreciable improvement in its characteristics. Analysis of these parameters are done with various values of source/drain length, gate length, tube diameters and channel densities. The maximum cut-off frequency is found to be 72.3 THz with corresponding velocity as 5x106 m/s for channel density as 3 and gate length as 11nm. The number of channel is varied from 3 to 21 and found that the perfromance of the device containing double-walled carbon nano tube is better for channel number lesser than or equal to 12. The proposed modelling can be used for designing devices to handle high speed applications of future generation.

  2. Delayed Neutrons Effect on Power Reactor with Variation of Fluid Fuel Velocity at MSR Fuji-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro Aji, Indarta; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Novitrian; Irwanto, Dwi; Waris, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    As the nuclear reactor operate with liquid fuel, controlling velocity of the fuel flow on the Molten salt reactor very influence on the neutron kinetics in that reactor system. The effect of the pace fuel changes to the populations number of neutrons and power density on vertical direction (1 dimension) from the first until fifth year reactor operating had been analyzed on this research. This research had been conducted on MSR Fuji-12 with a two meters core high, and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as fuel composition respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section obtained from ouput of SRAC (neutronic calculation code has been developed by JAEA, with JENDL-4.0 as data library on the SRAC calculation) was being used for the calculation process of this research. The calculation process of this research had been performed numerically by SOR (successive over relaxation) and finite difference methode, as well as using C programing language. From the calculation, regarding to the value of power density resulting from delayed neutrons, concluded that 20 m/s is the optimum fuel flow velocity in all the years reactor had operated. Where the increases number of power are inversely proportional with the fuel flow speed.

  3. Delayed matching to sample: reinforcement has opposite effects on resistance to change in two related procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A; Odum, Amy L; Ward, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement on delayed matching to sample (DMTS) have been studied in two within-subjects procedures. In one, reinforcer magnitudes or probabilities vary from trial to trial and are signaled within trials (designated signaled DMTS trials). In the other, reinforcer probabilities are consistent for a series of trials produced by responding on variable-interval (VI) schedules within multiple-schedule components (designated multiple VI DMTS). In both procedures, forgetting functions in rich trials or components are higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components. However, during disruption, accuracy has been found to decrease more in rich than in lean signaled DMTS trials and, conversely, to decrease more in lean than in rich multiple VI DMTS components. In the present study, we compared these procedures in two groups of pigeons. In baseline, forgetting functions in rich trials or components were higher than and roughly parallel to those in lean trials or components, and were similar between the procedures. During disruption by prefeeding or extinction, accuracy decreased more in rich signaled DMTS trials, whereas accuracy decreased more in lean multiple VI DMTS components. These results replicate earlier studies and are predicted by a model of DMTS from Nevin, Davison, Odum, and Shahan (2007).

  4. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Prevents Delayed Effects of Early Life Stress in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early developmental insults can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. The neuropsychiatric disorders associated with such dysfunction might involve neuroinflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key mediator of inflammation and is therefore a potential target for preventive treatment. Here, we investigated whether the developmental trajectories of PVB expression and COX-2 induction in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex are altered after maternal separation stress in male rats. Methods Male rat pups were separated from their mother and littermates for 4 hours/day between postnatal Days 2 and 20. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze PVB and COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A separate cohort of animals was treated with a COX-2 inhibitor during preadolescence and analyzed for PVB, COX-2, and working memory performance. Results We demonstrate that maternal separation causes a reduction of PVB and an increase in COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex in adolescence, with concurrent working memory deficits. Parvalbumin was not affected earlier in development. Prophylactic COX-2 inhibition preadolescence prevents PVB loss and improves working memory deficits induced by maternal separation. Conclusions These data are the first to show a preventive pharmacological intervention for the delayed effects of early life stress on prefrontal cortex interneurons and working memory. Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the relationship between early life stress and interneuron dysfunction in adolescence. PMID:21679927

  5. The Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Selected Markers of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and pain induced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS can be induced by eccentric exercise or an unaccustomed activity. The condition can causes problems in exercising and for athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 150mg curcumin supplementation immediately after intensive eccentric exercise. Evaluations were made for total antioxidant Capacity (TAC, muscle damage markers, and DOMS induced pain. Ten healthy young males (age, 25.0 ± 1.6 years; height, 178.9 ± 4.1 cm; body mass, 81.1 ± 6.8 kg; fat%, 14.2 ± 2.1 completed a double blind randomized-controlled crossover trial to estimate the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (150mg and a placebo on squat performance and DOMS following unaccustomed heavy eccentric exercise. Curcumin (CU or placebo (P was taken at the prescribed dose immediately after eccentric squat exercises; administrations were separated by a 14-day washout period. Measurements were made at the baseline, immediately, 24, 48, and 72h after exercise comprising: (a limb pain (1–10 cm visual analogue scale; VAS, (b total antioxidant capacity (TAC (c serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Measurements taken after exercise showed significantly reduced levels of pain, creatine kinase (CK, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in C group compared with group P group (P<0.05. TAC remained significantly high in group C after exercise compared with levels in group P (P<0.05. The findings of this study suggest that a 150mg dose of curcumin may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects on DOMS.

  6. Temporal Pattern of the Repeated Bout Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle A.; Kimura, Iris F.; Sitler, Michael R.; Kendrick, Zebulon V.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the temporal pattern of the repeated bout effect of eccentric exercise on perceived pain and muscular tenderness associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design and Setting: Subjects completed 2 identical eccentric exercise bouts separated by 6, 7, 8, or 9 weeks. The experiment was conducted in a biokinetics research laboratory. Subjects: Sixteen male and 15 female untrained subjects (age = 24.59 ± 4.42 years, height = 171.71 ± 7.81 cm, weight = 73.00 ± 11.20 kg). Measurements: Two physiologic characteristics of DOMS were measured immediately before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after each eccentric exercise bout. Perceived pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and muscular tenderness was measured using a punctate tenderness gauge (PTG). Results: Two 4 × 2 × 5 (group × bout × time) analyses of variance with repeated measures on the bout and time factors were performed on the VAS and PTG data. Significant (P < .05) main effects were found for group, bout, and time for the VAS and the PTG data. No significant interactions were detected. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly less perceived pain for the 9-week group than the 8-week group. The 7-week group had significantly less and the 8-week group had significantly more muscular tenderness than any other group. Perceived pain and muscular tenderness were significantly less after exercise bout 2 than after exercise bout 1. All subjects had significantly less perceived pain and muscular tenderness pre-exercise than 0 and 24 hours after the eccentric exercise bouts. Conclusions: An effective prophylaxis for perceived pain and muscular tenderness associated with DOMS is the performance of an eccentric exercise bout 6 to 9 weeks before a similar exercise bout. PMID:12937441

  7. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar(Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuttaset Manimmanakorn; Apiwan Manimmanakorn; Disaphon Boobphachart; Worrawut Thuwakum; Wiroon Laupattarakasem; Michael J Hamlin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects ofZingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14%concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). METHODS: Seventy-ifve untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately folowing the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in al groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. RESULTS:Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantialy reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by –82% (95% CI = –155% to –6%,P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (–34%, –96% to 27%,P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a smal non-signiifcant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the folowing 7 d (–40%,–116% to 36%,P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. CONCLUSION:Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantialy reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  8. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Boobphachart, Disaphon; Thuwakum, Worrawut; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Hamlin, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14% concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately following the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in all groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantially reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by -82% (95% CI = -155% to -6%, P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (-34%, -96% to 27%, P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a small non-significant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the following 7 d (-40%, -116% to 36%, P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantially reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  9. Protective effects of batimastat against hemorrhagic injuries in delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Guoyan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhou, Yonghong; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we established delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) models and proposed that the hemorrhagic toxins in jellyfish tentacle extracts (TE) play a significant role in the liver and kidney injuries of the experimental model. Further, we also demonstrated that metalloproteinases are the central toxic components of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata), which may be responsible for the hemorrhagic effects. Thus, metalloproteinase inhibitors appear to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hemorrhagic injuries in DJES. In this study, we examined the metalloproteinase activity of TE from the jellyfish C. capillata using zymography analyses. Our results confirmed that TE possessed a metalloproteinase activity, which was also sensitive to heat. Then, we tested the effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat (BB-94) on TE-induced hemorrhagic injuries in DJES models. Firstly, using SR-based X-ray microangiography, we found that BB-94 significantly improved TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature alterations in DJES mouse model. Secondly, under synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT), we also confirmed that BB-94 reduced TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature changes in DJES rat model. In addition, being consistent with the imaging results, histopathological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling (TUNEL)-like staining observations also clearly corroborated this hypothesis, as BB-94 was highly effective in neutralizing TE-induced extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in DJES rat model. Although it may require further clinical studies in the near future, the current study opens up the possibilities for the use of the metalloproteinase inhibitor, BB-94, in the treatment of multiple organ hemorrhagic injuries in DJES.

  10. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karabalaeifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  12. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  13. Effects of Immediate Recall Trial on One-Year Delayed Recall Performance in Rey Complex Figure Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2016-04-18

    This study aimed to examine the effects of the presence or absence of an immediate recall trial on university students' (n = 39) performance on the one-year delayed recall test in the Rey complex figure test (RCFT). Participants were divided into two groups that took either one or two tests, respectively. In the first year, the participants in the two-test condition completed a copy trial and an immediate recall trial, whereas those in the one-test condition underwent the copy trial only. In the second year, all participants completed a delayed recall test. Those in the two-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the one-test condition on the one-year delayed recall test. Thus, we found that omitting the immediate recall trial caused a decline in performance on the one-year delayed recall test. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was considered.

  14. Effect of wave-function localization on the time delay in photoemission from surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We investigate streaking time delays in the photoemission from a solid model surface as a function of the degree of localization of the initial-state wave functions. We consider a one-dimensional slab with lattice constant a{sub latt} of attractive Gaussian-shaped core potentials of width {sigma}. The parameter {sigma}/a{sub latt} thus controls the overlap between adjacent core potentials and localization of the electronic eigenfunctions on the lattice points. Small values of {sigma}/a{sub latt}<<1 yield lattice eigenfunctions that consist of localized atomic wave functions modulated by a ''Bloch-envelope'' function, while the eigenfunctions become delocalized for larger values of {sigma}/a{sub latt} > or approx 0.4. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate photoemission spectra from which we deduce a characteristic bimodal shape of the band-averaged photoemission time delay: as the slab eigenfunctions become increasingly delocalized, the time delay quickly decreases near {sigma}/a{sub latt}=0.3 from relatively large values below {sigma}/a{sub latt}{approx}0.2 to much smaller delays above {sigma}/a{sub latt}{approx}0.4. This change in wave-function localization facilitates the interpretation of a recently measured apparent relative time delay between the photoemission from core and conduction-band levels of a tungsten surface.

  15. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  16. Large-scale structure effects on the gravitational lens image positions and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, Uros

    1994-01-01

    We compute the fluctuations in gravitational lens image positions and time delay caused by large-scale structure correlations. We show that these fluctuations can be expressed as a simple integral over the density power spectrum. Using the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization we find that positions of objects at cosmological distances are expected to deviate from their true positions by few arcminutes. These deflections are not directly observable. The positions of the images relative to one another fluctuate by a few percent of the relative separation, implying that one does not expect multiple images to be produced by large-scale structure. Nevertheless, the fluctuations are larger than the observational errors on the positions and affect reconstructions of the lens potential. The time delay fluctuations have a geometrical and a gravitational contribution. Both are much larger than the expected time delay from the primary lens, but partially cancel each other. We find that large-scale structure weakly affects the time delay and time delay measurements can be used as a probe of the distance scale in the universe.

  17. Bystander effects in UV-induced genomic instability: Antioxidants inhibit delayed mutagenesis induced by ultraviolet A and B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahle Jostein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability is characteristic of many types of human cancer. Recently, we reported that ultraviolet radiation induced elevated mutation rates and chromosomal instability for many cell generations after ultraviolet irradiation. The increased mutation rates of unstable cells may allow them to accumulate aberrations that subsequently lead to cancer. Ultraviolet A radiation, which primarily acts by oxidative stress, and ultraviolet B radiation, which initially acts by absorption in DNA and direct damage to DNA, both produced genomically unstable cell clones. In this study, we have determined the effect of antioxidants on induction of delayed mutations by ultraviolet radiation. Delayed mutations are indicative of genomic instability. Methods Delayed mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt gene were detected by incubating the cells in medium selectively killing hprt mutants for 8 days after irradiation, followed by a 5 day period in normal medium before determining mutation frequencies. Results The UVB-induced delayed hprt mutations were strongly inhibited by the antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, while only reduced glutathione had a significant effect on UVA-induced delayed mutations. Treatment with antioxidants had only minor effects on early mutation frequenies, except that reduced glutathione decreased the UVB-induced early mutation frequency by 24 %. Incubation with reduced glutathione was shown to significantly increase the intracellular amount of reduced glutathione. Conclusion The strong effects of these antioxidants indicate that genomic instability, which is induced by the fundamentally different ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, is mediated by reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide and downstream products. However, cells take up neither catalase nor SOD, while incubation with glutathione resulted in increased intracellular levels of

  18. Simulation of time delay effects in the intracellular calcium oscillation of cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Weilong; Mei Dongcheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yang Linjing, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.c [College of Chinese Medicine, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Intracellular calcium oscillation with time delay and correlated noises was investigated in this paper by means of stochastic simulation. The time evolution and stationary probability distribution (SPD) of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in the cytosol and in an IP{sub 3}-insensitive pool were calculated. The results indicate that: (i) the intracellular calcium oscillation is suppressed with increasing the delay time {tau} but is enhanced with increasing the external noise intensity D; (ii) the structure of the SPD exhibits a transition from a single peak to double peaks and the biggest peak shrinks as the external noise intensity D increases; (iii) the structure of the SPD exhibits a transition from double peaks to a single peak and the biggest peak grows as the delay time {tau} increases.

  19. Extensive occupational finger use delays age effects in tactile perception-an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Winneke, Axel H; Godde, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Tactile expertise, resulting from extensive use of hands, has previously been shown to improve tactile perception in blind people and musicians and to be associated with changes in the central processing of tactile information. This study investigated whether expertise, due to precise and deliberate use of the fingers at work, relates to improved tactile perception and whether this expertise interacts with age. A tactile pattern and a frequency discrimination task were conducted while ERPs were measured in experts and nonexperts of two age groups within middle adulthood. Independently of age, accuracy was better in experts than in nonexperts in both tasks. Somatosensory N70 amplitudes were larger with increasing age and for experts than for nonexperts. P100 amplitudes were smaller in experts than in nonexperts in the frequency discrimination task. In the pattern discrimination task, P300 difference wave amplitude was reduced in experts and late middle-aged adults. In the frequency discrimination task, P300 was more equally distributed in late middle-aged adults. We conclude that extensive, dexterous manual work leads to acquisition of tactile expertise and that this expertise might delay, but not counteract, age effects on tactile perception. Comparable neurophysiological changes induced by age and expertise presumably have different underlying mechanisms. Enlarged somatosensory N70 amplitudes might result from reduced inhibition in older adults but from enhanced, specific excitability of the somatosensory cortex in experts. Regarding P300, smaller amplitudes might indicate fewer available resources in older adults and, by contrast, a reduced need to engage as much cognitive effort to the task in experts.

  20. Synergistic effect between amoxicillin and TLR ligands on dendritic cells from amoxicillin-delayed allergic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Sanchez-Quintero

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin, a low-molecular-weight compound, is able to interact with dendritic cells inducing semi-maturation in vitro. Specific antigens and TLR ligands can synergistically interact with dendritic cells (DC, leading to complete maturation and more efficient T-cell stimulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and the TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively in TLR expression, DC maturation and specific T-cell response in patients with delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions to amoxicillin. Monocyte-derived DC from 15 patients with DTH to amoxicillin and 15 controls were cultured with amoxicillin in the presence or absence of TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively. We studied TLR1-9 gene expression by RT-qPCR, and DC maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production by flow cytometry. DC from both patients and controls expressed all TLRs except TLR9. The amoxicillin plus TLR2/4 or TLR7/8 ligands showed significant differences, mainly in patients: AX+PAM+LPS induced a decrease in TLR2 and AX+R848 in TLR2, 4, 7 and 8 mRNA levels. AX+PAM+LPS significantly increased the percentage of maturation in patients (75% vs. controls (40% (p=0.036 and T-cell proliferation (80.7% vs. 27.3% of cases; p=0.001. Moreover, the combinations AX+PAM+LPS and AX+R848 produced a significant increase in IL-12p70 during both DC maturation and T-cell proliferation. These results indicate that in amoxicillin-induced maculopapular exanthema, the presence of different TLR agonists could be critical for the induction of the innate and adaptive immune responses and this should be taken into account when evaluating allergic reactions to these drugs.

  1. The Effects of High-Volt Pulsed Current Electrical Stimulation on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, David Lynn; Draper, David O.; Ricard, Mark D.; Myrer, J. William; Schulthies, Shane S.; Durrant, Earlene

    1997-01-01

    Objective: We investigated three 30-minute high-volt pulsed current electrical stimulation (HVPC) treatments of 125 pps to reduce pain, restore range of motion (ROM), and recover strength loss associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design and Setting: Randomized, masked comparison of three 30-minute treatment and sham HVPC regimens over a 48-hour period. Subjects: Twenty-eight college students. Measurements: Subjects performed concentric and eccentric knee extensions with the right leg to induce muscle soreness. Assessments were made before and after the exercise bout and each treatment at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Results: Three separate 2 × 3 × 2 ANOVAs were used to determine significant differences (p < .05) between days, treatments, and pre-post treatment effects and significant interaction among these variables. Scheffe post hoc tests showed no significant reduction in pain perception or improvement in loss of function at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Mean pain perception assessments (0 = no pain, 10 = severe pain) for the HVPC group were 2.9, 4.5, and 3.5 and for the sham group 3.8, 4.8, and 3.5). Mean ROM losses for the HVPC group were 9.0°, 22.3°, and 26.2°, and for the sham group were 9.5°, 23.1°, and 23.0°. Mean strength losses (1RM) for the HVPC group were 25.9, 25.7, and 20.8 lbs and for the sham group were 22.3, 22.3, and 13.8 lbs. Conclusions: HVPC as we studied it was ineffective in providing lasting pain reduction and at reducing ROM and strength losses associated with DOMS. PMID:16558426

  2. Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, A.R.; Gadgil, A.J.; Lorenzetti, D.M.

    2004-05-01

    Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume.

  3. The effect of delay between heat treatment and cold storage on alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Xu, Lanying; Huang, Xuemei; Pang, Xuequn

    2012-10-01

    To understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling resistance of banana by hot-water dipping (HWD, 52 °C for 3 min), we investigated the effect of a 0.5-24 h delay between HWD and cold storage on chilling resistance and the change related to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The HWD-treated fruit with a delay of less than 6 h exhibited markedly less chilling injury than the non-heated control fruit, while a delay more than 6 h resulted in significant loss in chilling resistance. Increased hydrogen peroxide content and rate of superoxide radical production were detected in the fruit at 0.5-1.5 h after HWD treatment, and the levels declined with a longer delay, which may be correlated with the enhanced gene expression levels of the gene coding for a ROS-generating related enzyme, NADPH oxidase (MaNOX). Enhanced activities and gene expression of an ascorbate peroxidase (MaAPX) were recorded in the fruit at 1.5-6 h after the treatment, and after 6 h the ascorbate peroxidase levels decayed to the levels as the control fruit. The higher APX gene expression was maintained in the treated fruit with a 3 h delay during the subsequent cold storage at 7 °C, correlating with the enhanced chilling resistance. The HWD-treated fruit left at ambient temperature up to 6 h prior to cold storage maintained the effect of heat treatment and transiently increased ROS content, and the ascorbate peroxidase activity that occurred 0.5-6 h after the treatment may be correlated with the elevated chilling resistance induced by HWD treatment. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. In Vitro Studies on Space Radiation-Induced Delayed Genetic Responses: Shielding Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Munira A.; Green, Lora M.; Gridley, Daila S.; Murray, Deborah K.; Tran, Da Thao; Andres, Melba; Pocock, Debbie; Macdonald, Denise; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Moyers, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    normalized to physical dose, the monoenergetic proton field present inside the helmet-protected phantom produced equivalent biological responses, when compared to unshielded cells, as measured by the induction of delayed genetic effects in murine haematopoietic stem cells.

  5. Effect of High Injection Pressure of Algae and Jatropha Derived Biodiesel on Ignition Delay and Combustion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurdin; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, Bukhari; Jaat, Norrizam; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sunar, Norshuhaila

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the effect of high injection pressure on the ignition delay period and emission characteristics. Few experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Four types of fuels were tested inside a RCM which are standard diesel (SD), Algae biodiesel (A2), Palm Oil biodiesel (B5, B10, and B15) and Jatropha biodiesel (J5, J10, J15). The experiments were conducted at high injection pressure of 130 MPa. The ambient temperature of constant volume chamber at the time of fuel injection was set at 850 K. The results indicate that the combined factors of specific of ambient temperature and higher injection pressure produces shorter ignition delay time. B5 has the shortest ignition delay with 1.5 ms. Biodiesel has the shorter ignition delay which is prolonged with increasing biodiesel content in the blends. In terms of emissions, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions decreased with all biodiesel-diesel blends. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission of the biodiesel was relatively higher than those of the diesel under all test conditions. In addition, the increase of blends in terms of biodiesel ratio was found to be significant in enhancing the combustion process.

  6. The effects of time delay on the decline and propagation processes of population in the Malthus-Verhulst model with cross-correlated noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J. C.; Mei, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of time delay on the decline and propagation processes of population in the Malthus-Verhulst model with cross-correlated noises are investigated separately. Through numerically computing and stochastically simulating, we find that: (i) inclusion of time delay in the decline process, increasing the delay time τ weakens the stability of population with short delay and strengthens it with long delay. The stability of population reduces monotonically as the cross-correlated intensity λ increasing. The population of a species goes to extinction with increasing τ and increasing λ; (ii) inclusion of time delay in the propagation process, the increasing τ strengthens the stability of population and the increasing λ weakens it. The increasing τ slows down the growth process of a species while the increasing λ speeds it up. That is, the increasing delay time does not affect roughly the stability of population with short delay but strengthens it with long delay, and the population of species is restricted in the lower level by the larger delay time. The stability of population is weakened and the replacement of old individuals with young ones is accelerated by the increasing cross-correlation intensity between two noises.

  7. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions in delaying the institutionalization of patients with dementia: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, A.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vasse, E.; Adang, E.; Wollersheim, H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Verhey, F.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary healthcare policies are designed to shape the conditions that can help delay the institutionalization of patients with dementia. This can be done by developing support programs that minimize healthcare risks for the patients with dementia and their informal caregivers. Many support prog

  8. Time-delay effects on the aging transition in a population of coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Bhumika; Sharma, Devendra; Sen, Abhijit

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the influence of time-delayed coupling on the nature of the aging transition in a system of coupled oscillators that have a mix of active and inactive oscillators, where the aging transition is defined as the gradual loss of collective synchrony as the proportion of inactive oscillators is increased. We start from a simple model of two time-delay coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators that have identical frequencies but are located at different distances from the Hopf bifurcation point. A systematic numerical and analytic study delineates the dependence of the critical coupling strength (at which the system experiences total loss of synchrony) on time delay and the average distance of the system from the Hopf bifurcation point. We find that time delay can act to facilitate the aging transition by lowering the threshold coupling strength for amplitude death in the system. We then extend our study to larger systems of globally coupled active and inactive oscillators including an infinite system in the thermodynamic limit. Our model system and results can provide a useful paradigm for understanding the functional robustness of diverse physical and biological systems that are prone to aging transitions.

  9. Individual Variability in Delayed Auditory Feedback Effects on Speech Fluency and Rate in Normally Fluent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, HeeCheong; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Zhang, Jingfei; Loucks, Torrey; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) is known to induce stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) and cause speech rate reductions in normally fluent adults, but the reason for speech disruptions is not fully known, and individual variation has not been well characterized. Studying individual variation in susceptibility to DAF may identify factors…

  10. Effects of Parent-based Video Home Training in children with developmental language delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Stoep, J.M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    An efficacy study of an indirect or Parent-based intervention programme involving Video Home Training (PVHT) was conducted with a focus on parental strategies to (re-)establish coherence in conversations between young children with Developmental Language Delay (DLD) and their parents or caregivers.

  11. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder and effects of melatonin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Smits, M.G; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic and circadian changes that occur during adolescence can result in chronic sleep reduction. This may particularly be true for adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD), which is associated with late Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO). This study assessed the influence of

  12. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  13. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder and effects of melatonin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Smits, M.G; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic and circadian changes that occur during adolescence can result in chronic sleep reduction. This may particularly be true for adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD), which is associated with late Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO). This study assessed the influence of melatoni

  14. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Regulation of Cognition and Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevarech, Zemira R.; Amrany, Chagit

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed two research questions: (a) the extent to which students who were exposed to meta-cognitive instruction are able to implement meta-cognitive processes in a delayed, stressful situation, in our case--being examined on the matriculation exam; and (b) whether students preparing themselves for the matriculation exam in…

  15. Delaying Interference Training Has Equivalent Effects in Various Pavlovian Interference Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elizabeth J.; Escobar, Martha; Kimble, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery in extinction appears to be inversely related to the acquisition-to-extinction interval, but it remains unclear why this is the case. Rat subjects trained with one of three interference paradigms exhibited less spontaneous recovery of the original response after delayed than immediate interference, regardless of whether…

  16. Bifurcation Phenomena in a Lotka-Volterra Model with Cross-Diffusion and Delay Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuling; Guo, Shangjiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on a Lotka-Volterra model with delay and cross-diffusion. By using Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction, we investigate the existence, multiplicity, stability and Hopf bifurcation of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solutions. Furthermore, we obtain some criteria to determine the bifurcation direction and stability of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits by using Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction.

  17. Effect of Presentation Modality on Immediate and Delayed Recall in Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Nidhi; Bayles, Kathryn A.; Harris, Frances P.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic memory (EM) deficits are the hall-mark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Story-retelling tasks are particularly sensitive to EM impairments and require participants to recall a short story immediately and after a delay. The purpose of this study was to determine whether presentation modality influences story recall in AD participants. Thirty…

  18. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  19. Screening and Evaluation of Deleterious SNPs in APOE Gene of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad Masoodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Apolipoprotein E (APOE is an important risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and is present in 30–50% of patients who develop late-onset AD. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are present in APOE gene which act as the biomarkers for exploring the genetic basis of this disease. The objective of this study is to identify deleterious nsSNPs associated with APOE gene. Methods. The SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP. Using I-Mutant, protein stability change was calculated. The potentially functional nonsynonymous (ns SNPs and their effect on protein was predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT, respectively. FASTSNP was used for functional analysis and estimation of risk score. The functional impact on the APOE protein was evaluated by using Swiss PDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref server. Results. Six nsSNPs were found to be least stable by I-Mutant 2.0 with DDG value of >−1.0. Four nsSNPs showed a highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00. Nine nsSNPs were found to be probably damaging with position-specific independent counts (PSICs score of ≥2.0. Seven nsSNPs were found to be highly polymorphic with a risk score of 3-4. The total energies and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values were higher for three mutant-type structures compared to the native modeled structure. Conclusion. We concluded that three nsSNPs, namely, rs11542041, rs11542040, and rs11542034, to be potentially functional polymorphic.

  20. Computational identification and structural analysis of deleterious functional SNPs in MLL gene causing acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Priya Doss, C; Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-09-01

    A promising application of the huge amounts of data from the Human Genome Project currently available offers new opportunities for identifying the genetic predisposition and developing a better understanding of complex diseases such as cancers. The main focus of cancer genetics is the study of mutations that are causally implicated in tumorigenesis. The identification of such causal mutations does not only provide insight into cancer biology but also presents anticancer therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. In this study, we evaluated the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that can alter the expression and the function in MLL gene through computational methods. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homologybased SIFT tool, suggested that 10 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) (50%) were found to be deleterious. Structure based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 5 nsSNPS (25%) may disrupt protein function and structure. PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutations that occurred in the native protein coded by MLL gene is at amino acid positions Q1198P and K1203Q. The solvent accessibility results showed that 7 residues changed from exposed state in the native type protein to buried state in Q1198P mutant protein and remained unchanged in the case of K1203Q. From the overall results obtained, nsSNP with id (rs1784246) at the amino acid position Q1198P could be considered as deleterious mutation in the acute leukemia caused by MLL gene.

  1. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: Interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, A.; Grace, J.B.; Mciver, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin+burn), and control. Burn and thin+burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which in

  2. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L

    2013-10-01

    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms.

  3. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of 2,599 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying is a serious complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying has not been well evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2014. The meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate any factors accountable for the heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's test, and corrected by Duval's trim and fill method. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different surgical techniques of pyloric removal. Other intraoperative and postoperative parameters were compared between two groups. RESULTS: We included 27 studies involving 2,599 patients, with a moderate-high heterogeneity for primary outcome (I(2 = 63%. Meta-regression analysis showed that four variables primarily contributed to the heterogeneity, namely nasogastric tube intubation time, solid food start time, preoperative diabetes percentage and the number of patients in pylorus-preserving group. After excluding four studies, the remaining twenty-three studies showed reduced heterogeneity (I(2 = 51%. Then we used Duval's trim and fill method to correct publication bias. The corrected MH odds ratio was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.17. A subgroup analysis showed that pylorus removal tends to reduce delayed gastric emptying incidence for subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy, compared with pylorus-preserving group. However, standard Whipple procedure failed to show any significant reduction of DGE compared with pylorus-removal group. No significant differences were observed in terms of length of hospital stay, infection and pancreatic fistula; however, pylorus removal resulted in longer operation time, more blood loss and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: The pylorus removal does not significantly reduce the overall incidence of delayed

  4. EFFECT OF ICE BAG, DYNAMIC STRETCHING AND COMBINED TREATMENTS ON THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DELAY ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Warin Krityakiarana; Jariya Budworn; Chatchawan Khajohnanan; Nutchanad Suramas; Watcharaporn Puritasang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of ice bag, dynamic stretching, combined ice and dynamic stretching, and control (non-treated) on the prevention and treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in biceps muscle. Subjects: Fifty-five participants (aged 18 to 25 years) were engaged in this study and randomly assigned into four groups (control group (non-treated) (CG), n = 13; ice bag, n = 14; dynamic stretching, n = 14; and combined treatment, n = 14). Method: Before inducing D...

  5. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, T. Naga; Kanth, V. Rajani; Lavanya, K.

    2008-01-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H2O2 wi...

  6. OBSERVATIONS ON DELAYED EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECTS GF DL-111-IT, A NEW SYNTHETIC PREGNANCY-TERMINATINGAGENT IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUHui-Jun; FANGRui-Ying; YANGBao-Zhu; ZHANGYuan-Pei

    1989-01-01

    DL-111-IT, a new pregnancy-terminating agent, was synthesized in our laboratory. Its subcutaneous ED50 for termination of early pregnancy was found to be 0.29±0.08 mg/ kg/d × 5d or 11.5± 1.3 rag/kg in single dose. The present paper deals with the delayed emhryotoxic and teratogenic effects ofDL-111-IT on fetuses of the next litter in rats.

  7. Delay-independent stabilization for teleoperation with time varying delay

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Namerikawa, Toru

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability for nonlinear teleoperation with time varying communication delays. The proposed method is passivity-based controllers with time varying gains which depend on the rate of change of time varying delay. In our proposed method, stability condition is independent of the magnitude of the communication delay and the damping of the system. The delay-independent stability is shown via Lyapunov stability methods. Several experimental results show the effectiveness o...

  8. Direct simulation of phase delay effects on induced-charge electro-osmosis under large ac electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    The standard theory of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) often overpredicts experimental values of ICEO velocities. Using a nonsteady direct multiphysics simulation technique based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations for an electrolyte around a conductive cylinder subject to an ac electric field, we find that a phase delay effect concerning an ion response provides a fundamental mechanism for electrokinetic suppression. A surprising aspect of our findings is that the phase delay effect occurs even at much lower frequencies (e.g., 50 Hz) than the generally believed charging frequency of an electric double layer (typically, 1 kHz) and it can decrease the electrokinetic velocities in one to several orders. In addition, we find that the phase delay effect may also cause a change in the electrokinetic flow directions (i.e., flow reversal) depending on the geometrical conditions. We believe that our findings move toward a more complete understanding of complex experimental nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena.

  9. Enhanced sensitivity of a mountain bog to climate change as a delayed effect of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. von Sengbusch

    2015-01-01

    Ennersbacher Moor is not domed in this direction, so that water arriving from upslope would reach the bog centre if the road were not present. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the observed succession is a delayed effect of construction of the road.

  10. Paradoxical effect of pertussis toxin on the delayed hypersensitivity response to autoantigens in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwahrdhan Yadav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis toxin (PTX, an exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, enhances the development of experimental autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rodent models. The mechanisms of the promotion of experimental autoimmune diseases by PTX may be based upon PTX-induced disruption of the blood eye/brain barriers facilitating the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the modulation of inflammatory cell migration and the enhancement of the activation of inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that the facilitation of experimental autoimmunity by PTX suggests that its influence on the in vivo immune response to auto-antigen may differ from its influence on non-self antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated the effect of PTX on the simultaneous generation of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and autoimmune responses to uveitogenic interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide (IRBP161-180, encephalitogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55 or ovalbumin (OVA. PTX injection of mice immunized to IRBP peptide161-180 led to (i the development of EAU as shown by histopathology of the retina, (ii pro-inflammatory cytokine production by splenocytes in response to IRBP peptide161-180, and (iii symptomatic EAE in mice immunized with encephalitogenic MOG peptide35-55. However, mice that received PTX had a reduced DTH response to IRBP161-180 peptide or MOG peptide35-55 when challenged distal to the site affected by autoreactive T cells. Moreover, footpad challenge with MOG35-55 peptide reduced EAE in mice immunized with MOG peptide. In contrast, the use of PTX when immunizing with OVA protein or an OVA immunogenic peptide did not affect the DTH response to OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that that the reduced DTH response in mice receiving PTX may be specific for autoantigens and autoantigen-reactive T cells are

  11. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Wibke; Linden, Ulrike; Ostermann, Thomas

    2010-07-21

    Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for children with delayed speech development

  12. Task Engagement and Escape Maintained Challenging Behavior: Differential Effects of General and Explicit Cues when Implementing a Signaled Delay in the Delivery of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Joe; Johnson, LeAnne; Monn, Emily; Harris, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of explicit and general delay cues when implementing a tolerance for a delay in the delivery of a reinforcement procedure to increase task engagement and decrease escape maintained challenging behavior. Two preschool children with autism participated in an alternating treatments design with changing…

  13. The Effects of Time Delay and Increasing Prompt Hierarchy Strategies on the Acquisition of Purchasing Skills by Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, John

    1987-01-01

    Two teaching strategies (constant time delay and increasing prompt hierarchy assistance) were compared in teaching four severely handicapped high school students to purchase snack items at a convenience store and fast food restaurant. Results indicated the time delay procedure was more effective. (DB)

  14. Deleterious effect of TRIS buffer on growth rates and pigment content of Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta Efeito deletério do tampão TRIS nas taxas de crescimento e no conteúdo pigmentar de Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ursi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effects of Tris (hydroxymethyl-aminomethane (TRIS buffer and its interaction with nutrient concentration on the development of Gracilaria birdie, a common species on the Brazilian coast that has been exploited for agar production. Responses to different conditions were assessed through growth rates and pigment content (chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. Provasoli's nutrient solution with and without TRIS addition was tested at concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50%. The pH was also monitored. G. birdiae grew better in the absence of TRIS and at low nutrient concentrations, 12.5 and 25% (growth rates of 10.8-11.3%.day-1. Higher contents of phycoerythrin and chlorophyll a were observed without TRIS at 12.5 and 25% (Phycoerythrin, 649.6-698.0 μg g-1 fresh biomass; Chlorophyll a, 156.0-168.6 μg g-1 fresh biomass. These findings highlight the deleterious effect of TRIS on growth and phycoerythrin and chlorophyll a content. They also demonstrate the importance of appropriate nutrient concentration for laboratory cultures, depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each species.O presente trabalho avaliou os efeitos do tampão Tris (hydroxymethyl-aminomethane (TRIS e a interação com a concentração de nutrientes no desenvolvimento em Gracilaria birdiae, espécie presente no litoral brasileiro utilizada comercialmente na produção de ágar. As respostas às diferentes condições de cultivo foram avaliadas por meio das taxas de crescimento e conteúdo pigmentar (clorofila a, ficoeritrina, ficocianina e aloficocianina. A solução de nutrientes de Provasoli com e sem adição de TRIS foi testada nas concentrações de 12,5, 25 e 50%. O pH foi também monitorado. G. birdiae cresceu melhor em ausência de TRIS e em baixas concentrações de nutrientes, 12,5 e 25% (taxas de crescimento de 10,8-11,3%.dia-1. As maiores concentrações de ficoeritrina e clorofila a foram observadas na ausência de TRIS

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the delay of synchronous division of Physarium polycephalum plasmodium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushcha, N.I.; Dmitriev, A.P.; Grodzinskij, D.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziologii Rastenij)

    Irradiation of P. polycephalum plasmodium both at the middle of the S- and at the G/sub 2/-stages caused a linear increase in the delay of a synchronous division of nuclei at doses of up to 3000 Gy. High radiosensitivity of the plasmodium at the S phase was shown to correlate with the increased yield of abnormal multinucleolate nuclei and with the partial asynchronization of the postirradiation mitosis.

  16. Working Memory Impairment in People with Williams Syndrome: Effects of Delay, Task and Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Courtney, Susan; Street, Whitney; Landau, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired visuospatial representations subserved by the dorsal stream and relatively strong object recognition abilities subserved by the ventral stream. There is conflicting evidence on whether this uneven pattern extends to working memory (WM) in WS. The present studies provide a new perspective, testing WM for a single stimulus using a delayed recognition paradigm in individuals with WS and typically developing children...

  17. Afterglow-reabsorbed H/sub alpha/ line delay effect in an expanding laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Maiorov, S.A.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1987-11-28

    The absorption of H/sub ..cap alpha../ line radiation is shown to lead to delay and even to non-monotonic afterglowing if observed along the 'line' of the expanding laser plasma. This makes it possible to explain the emission character of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ line of the O VIII ion (lambda = 10.2 nm) in experiments with 'Novette' set-ups.

  18. Effect of warm-up exercise on delayed-onset muscle soreness

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Kazuki; Soma, Toshio; Nosaka, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Ishii, Kojiro

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a warm-up exercise consisting of 100 submaximal concentric contractions would attenuate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and decreases in muscle strength associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten male students performed two bouts of the elbow flexor exercise consisting of 12 maximal eccentric contractions with a warm-up exercise for one arm (WU) and without warm-up for the other arm (control: CON) in a randomised, counterbalanced order s...

  19. Long-Term Follow-up of the Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...due to delays in hiring technical staff and by the use of other sources of funding (NIH T32 Training Program) for support of post- doctoral fellows...American Veterinary Medical Associations Guidelines on Euthanasia (36). Diet Prior to arrival at WFSM (and during the time of irradiation), animals

  20. Delayed information flow effect in economy systems. An ACP model study

    CERN Document Server

    Miskiewicz, J; Miskiewicz, Janusz; Ausloos, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Applying any strategy requires some knowledge about the past state of the system. Unfortunately in the case of economy collecting information is a difficult, expensive and time consuming process. Therefore the information about the system is known at the end of some well defined intervals, e. g. company reports, inflation data, GDP etc. They describe a (market) situation in the past. The time delay is specific to the market branch. It can be very short (e.g. stock market offer is updated every minute or so and this information is immediately available) or long, like months in the case of agricultural market, when the decisions are taken based on the results from the previous harvest. The analysis of the information flow delay can be based on the ACP model of spatial evolution of economic systems. The entities can move on a square lattice and when meeting take one of the two following decisions: merge or create a new entity. The decision is based on the system state, which is known with some time delay. The ef...

  1. Energy analysis reveals the negative effect of delays in passive movement mirror therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orand, Abbas; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Yutaka; Tanino, Genichi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Wavelet transform energy analyses of the mean and standard error of the electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) of eight subjects were investigated in passive movement mirror therapies with no delay (in-phase) and with delay (out-of-phase) situations in two frequency bands of 7.81-15.62 and 15.62-31.25 Hz. It was found that the energy levels of EEG at electrode C4 in the in-phase situation were lower than those in out-of-phase situations, while the energy levels of flexor and extensor forearm muscle groups were larger. With two exceptions, this pattern could be seen in all other subjects. The difference between the in-phase (D0) and out-of-phase situations (D025 and D05) for the frequency range of 15.62-31.25 Hz was found to be significant at a significance level of 0.05 (paired t-test analysis). The respective elevation and decline of EEG and EGM with regard to the increase of the delay may indicate the necessity for synchronization of passive movement and mirror therapy.

  2. Length distributions of nanowires: Effects of surface diffusion versus nucleation delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2017-04-01

    It is often thought that the ensembles of semiconductor nanowires are uniform in length due to the initial organization of the growth seeds such as lithographically defined droplets or holes in the substrate. However, several recent works have already demonstrated that most nanowire length distributions are broader than Poissonian. Herein, we consider theoretically the length distributions of non-interacting nanowires that grow by the material collection from the entire length of their sidewalls and with a delay of nucleation of the very first nanowire monolayer. The obtained analytic length distribution is controlled by two parameters that describe the strength of surface diffusion and the nanowire nucleation rate. We show how the distribution changes from the symmetrical Polya shape without the nucleation delay to a much broader and asymmetrical one for longer delays. In the continuum limit (for tall enough nanowires), the length distribution is given by a power law times an incomplete gamma-function. We discuss interesting scaling properties of this solution and give a recipe for analyzing and tailoring the experimental length histograms of nanowires which should work for a wide range of material systems and growth conditions.

  3. Interim analysis based on the weighted log-rank test for delayed treatment effects under staggered patient entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Fleming and Harrington's G(ρ,γ) class of weighted log-rank tests is appropriate for detecting delayed treatment effects such as those seen in cancer vaccines. A conditional power (CP) and an alpha spending function (ASF) approach are useful for interim analyses that are conducted with the aim of early termination due to futility and efficacy, respectively. However, calculation of the CP and the total Type I error probability are often not considered for delayed effects under the staggered patient entry. In this article, we first propose methods for calculating the CP analytically based on the weighted log-rank test. We compared the performances of the proposed methods with two other methods (i.e., usual log-rank test and optimal one) under the delayed alternatives. Our simulations demonstrated that the CP based on the weighted log-rank test was more powerful than that of the usual log-rank test and was comparable to the CP based on the optimal log-rank test. Second, we quantitatively evaluated the degree to which the Type I error probability was inflated when an ASF approach with forced independent increments assumption was applied to the weighted log-rank test. The proposed method will provide valuable tools in the decision-making stage of the interim analysis.

  4. Effects of channel noise on synchronization transitions in delayed scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝英; 龚玉兵

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the effect of the channel noise on the spiking synchronization of a scale-free Hodgkin–Huxley neuron network with time delays. It is found that the time delay can induce synchronization transitions at an intermediate and proper channel noise intensity, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when the channel noise intensity is optimal. The neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions as the channel noise intensity is varied, and this phenomenon is enhanced at around the time delays that can induce the synchronization transitions. It is also found that the synchronization transitions induced by the channel noise are dependent on the coupling strength and the network average degree, and there is an optimal coupling strength or network average degree with which the synchronization transitions become strongest. These results show that by inducing synchronization transitions, the channel noise has a big regulation effect on the synchronization of the neuronal network. These findings could find potential implications for the information transmission in neural systems.

  5. Effects of channel noise on synchronization transitions in delayed scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Ying; Gong, Yu-Bing

    2015-11-01

    We numerically study the effect of the channel noise on the spiking synchronization of a scale-free Hodgkin-Huxley neuron network with time delays. It is found that the time delay can induce synchronization transitions at an intermediate and proper channel noise intensity, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when the channel noise intensity is optimal. The neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions as the channel noise intensity is varied, and this phenomenon is enhanced at around the time delays that can induce the synchronization transitions. It is also found that the synchronization transitions induced by the channel noise are dependent on the coupling strength and the network average degree, and there is an optimal coupling strength or network average degree with which the synchronization transitions become strongest. These results show that by inducing synchronization transitions, the channel noise has a big regulation effect on the synchronization of the neuronal network. These findings could find potential implications for the information transmission in neural systems. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2012AM013).

  6. On formation of the asymptotic spectrum of delayed neutron emitters in measuring the VVER-1000 scram system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Zizin, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The process of formation of an asymptotic distribution of the neutron flux density in the reactor systems after introducing different negative reactivities is considered. The impact of two factors after the reactivity introduction is evaluated: (1) nonuniformity of perturbation of core properties, on one hand, and (2) a sharp reduction in the density of prompt neutrons, which prevents the appearance of new delayed neutron emitters distributed in accordance with the "new" prompt neutron distribution, on the other hand. The results of calculations show that the errors of measuring the scram system effectiveness using the method of inverse solution of the kinetics equation are caused by the fact that, after the negative reactivity insertion, the sources of prompt and delayed neutrons have different spatial distributions. In the case of high negative reactivities, this difference remains while the system still has neutrons, which can be measured.

  7. Effect of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the antinutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Olufunmilola Adunni; Akinoso, Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Effects of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the anti-nutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour were examined. Trifoliate yam tubers were washed, peeled, sliced and subjected to pre-treatment methods, such as soaking, pre-cooking and blanching/soaking. The phenols, phytate, oxalate, tannin and alkaloid profiles of the flours were evaluated and the values of phenols, tannin, oxalate and phytate contents were 0.02-0.32, 0.04-0.53, 0.11-4.32 and 0.20-1.05mg/100g, respectively. The predominant alkaloids in trifoliate yam flour were dioscorine and dihydrodioscorine. The white trifoliate yam flour had higher levels of anti-nutrients than the yellow trifoliate yam flour. Alkaloid contents of trifoliate yam flour increased slightly with delayed harvesting periods. Blanching/soaking method drastically reduced the anti-nutrient contents of trifoliate yam flour than other methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of medial septal lesions on action-outcome associations in rats under conditions of delayed reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Robert; Ouimette, Amy S; Holloway, Katherine A; Curry, Cristi E

    2004-12-01

    In operant tasks, control rats maintain high response rates under positive contingencies, when the probability of reinforcement is greater following a response (contingent reinforcement) than during the absence of that response. However, as contingencies approach zero, response rates decrease. In this experiment, under immediate contingent reinforcement, rats with medial septal lesions reduced their response rates, just like controls, when contingencies were shifted from positive toward zero. However, the septal rats were less sensitive to this contingency shift, compared with controls, when there was a 5-s delay between lever presses and contingent reinforcements. This lesion effect appeared to be due to a failure of voluntary response memory, which impaired sensitivity to operant contingencies when there was a delay between action and outcome.

  9. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  10. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  11. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Two Types of Glass Ionomer to Bleached Dentin: Effect of Delayed Bonding and Antioxidant Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ladan Ranjbar; Sabouri, Parastoo; Abbasi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Elham; Ghavam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown a reduction in bond strength of composites and glass ionomer to bleached enamel and dentin. Several methods have been proposed to reverse compromised bond strength. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of delayed bonding and application of antioxidant agent on the bond strength of reinforced self-cured (Fuji IX) and light-cured glass ionomers (Fuji II LC) to bleached dentin. Material: Eighty extracted third molars were randomly divided into 8 groups. Buccal dentin surfaces received different treatments: Two control groups: no treatment + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two immediate bonding groups: bleaching + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two delayed bonding groups: bleaching + 7 days delay + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two sodium ascorbate application groups: Bleaching + application of 10% sodium ascorbate + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. All samples were tested for shear bond strength. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean and standard deviations among groups, followed by the Tukey’s test for significant interaction. Results: No statistically significant difference was detected in shear bond strength of Fuji IX to bleached or normal dentin. Although a significant reduction was found shear bond strength values of Fuji II LC to bleached dentin, no significant difference was observed between no bleaching group and those treated with 10% sodium ascorbate or 7 days of delay in bonding for both types of glass ionomer. Conclusion: Bleaching had no significant effect on shear bond strength of Fuji IX to dentin; this type of GI can be used immediately after bleaching. PMID:28217187

  13. The effects of bispectral index monitoring on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet; Uluer, Mehmet Selcuk; Ozmen, Sadık

    2015-09-01

    General anesthesia is often preferred for dental surgery or rehabilitation in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. Bispectral index monitoring is used to monitor the depth of anesthesia and to ensure early recovery. However, studies on the topic in developmentally delayed pediatric patients are limited. To evaluate the effects of Bispectral Index Scale (BIS) on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Forty children between the ages of 6-16 years were studied in this prospective and randomized study. The children were randomized into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 20), general anesthesia was maintained with 1-2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in oxygen by standard practice. In Group 2 (n = 20), the depth of anesthesia was monitored by BIS. BIS values were continuously recorded from awake status to tracheal extubation. The duration of the surgical procedure, anesthesia, postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay was noted. To evaluate recovery profile, time to spontaneous ventilation, extubation, open eyes, and PACU discharge were also noted. There were significant differences between recovery times and Non-communicating Children's Pain Checklist - Postoperative Version (NCCPC-PV) scores of two groups. Time to spontaneous ventilation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.17 (1.79-4.54) P < 0.001], extubation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.13 (1.66-4.60) P < 0.001], open eyes [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.97 (2.34-5.59) P < 0.001], and PACU stay time [Difference in means (95% CI); 23.55 (18.08-29.01) P < 0.001] were significantly shorter in Group 2. In conclusion, results suggest that routine BIS monitoring may be beneficial due to its favorable effects on the recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Classical conditioning for preserving the effects of short melatonin treatment in children with delayed sleep: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Annette; Meijer, Anne Marie; Smits, Marcel G; Oort, Frans J

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. After a baseline week, 16 children (mean age: 9.92 years, 31% ADHD/autism) received melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then gradually discontinued the treatment. Classical conditioning was applied by having children drink organic lemonade while taking melatonin and by using a dim red light lamp that was turned on when children went to bed. Results were compared with a group of 41 children (mean age: 9.43 years, 34% ADHD/autism) who received melatonin without classical conditioning. Melatonin treatment was effective in advancing dim light melatonin onset and reducing sleep onset problems, and positive effects were found on health and behavior problems. After stopping melatonin, sleep returned to baseline levels. We found that for children without comorbidity in the experimental group, sleep latency and sleep start delayed less in the stop week, which suggests an effect of classical conditioning. However, classical conditioning seems counterproductive in children with ADHD or autism. Further research is needed to establish these results and to examine other ways to preserve melatonin treatment effects, for example, by applying morning light.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reconstruction Versus Rehabilitation and Delayed Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Dunn, Warren R; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Huston, Laura J; Reinke, Emily K; Spindler, Kurt P

    2014-07-01

    An initial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear can be treated with surgical reconstruction or focused rehabilitation. The KANON (Knee Anterior cruciate ligament, NON-surgical versus surgical treatment) randomized controlled trial compared rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction (ACLR) to rehabilitation plus optional delayed ACLR and found no difference at 2 years by an intention-to-treat analysis of total Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) results. To compare the cost-effectiveness of early versus delayed ACLR. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. A Markov decision model was constructed for a cost-utility analysis of early reconstruction (ER) versus rehabilitation plus optional delayed reconstruction (DR). Outcome probabilities and effectiveness were derived from 2 sources: the KANON study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database. Collectively, these 2 sources provided data from 928 ACL-injured patients. Utilities were measured by the Short Form-6 dimensions (SF-6D). Costs were estimated from a societal perspective in 2012 US dollars. Costs and utilities were discounted in accordance with the United States Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Principal outcome measures were average incremental costs, incremental effectiveness (as measured by QALYs), and net health benefits. Willingness to pay was set at $50,000, which is the currently accepted standard in the United States. In the base case, the ER group resulted in an incremental gain of 0.28 QALYs over the DR group, with a corresponding lower overall cost to society of $1572. Effectiveness gains were driven by the low utility of an unstable knee and the lower utility for the DR group. The cost of rehabilitation and the rate of additional surgery drove the increased cost of the DR group. The most sensitive variable was the rate of knee instability after initial

  16. An ERP study of effects of regularity and consistency in delayed naming and lexicality judgment in a logographic writing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Na eYum

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phonological access is an important component in theories and models of word reading. However, phonological regularity and consistency effects are not clearly separable in alphabetic writing systems. We investigated these effects in Chinese, where the two variables are operationally distinct. In this orthographic system, regularity is defined as the congruence between the pronunciation of a complex character (or phonogram, and that of its phonetic radical, while phonological consistency indexes the proportion of orthographic neighbors that share the same pronunciation as the phonogram. In the current investigation, regularity and consistency were contrasted in an event-related potential (ERP study using a lexical decision task and a delayed naming task with native Chinese readers. ERP results showed that effects of regularity occurred early after stimulus onset and were long-lasting. Regular characters elicited larger N170, smaller P200, and larger N400 compared to irregular characters. In contrast, significant effects of consistency were only seen at the P200 and consistent characters showed a greater P200 than inconsistent characters. Thus, both the time course and the direction of the effects indicated that regularity and consistency operated under different mechanisms and were distinct constructs. Additionally, both of these phonological effects were only found in the delayed naming task and absent in lexical decision, suggesting that phonological access was non-obligatory for lexical decision. The study demonstrated cross-language variability in how phonological information was accessed from print and how task demands could influence this process.

  17. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T Naga; Kanth, V Rajani; Lavanya, K

    2008-03-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H(2)O(2) with an IC(50) of 768.8 +/- 1.76 mug/ml, showing its potential ability as an antioxidant. We have noticed lenticular opacity and oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. This is evident by the elevation of Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Na(+), Mg(2+), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), and carbonyl content and increased activities of polyol enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and up regulation of iNOS transcript and protein aggregation/cross-linking followed by a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), K(+) content, and tryptophan fluorescence in the cataractous lenses of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Garlic administration in a dose-dependent manner attenuated the glycemia-mediated oxidative stress as all the parameters have been found normalized more or less to that of control rats and thus delaying the progression of the lens opacity. We conclude that garlic extract has hypoglycemic and anti oxidant properties that can delay the progression of cataract as revealed in this study.

  18. Delay discounting, but not disinhibition or inattention, partially mediates the effects of neuroticism on disordered eating in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Sneha; Hubbard, Meagan; Fields, Sherecce

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence represents an integral developmental period for the prevention and intervention of disordered eating. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism have been shown to respond with greater impulsivity and use of disordered eating as a coping mechanism. However, the exact mechanism through which neuroticism and impulsivity affect disordered eating remains unknown. To understand the effects of personality and impulsivity on disordered eating in adolescence, the present study aimed to investigate whether impulsivity mediated the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. Adolescents (N=40) between the ages of 13 and 19 (Mage=18.25years; S.D.=1.30) were queried on eating attitudes and personality, as well as completed behavioral tasks assessing impulsivity (delay discounting, disinhibition and inattention). Mediation analyses revealed that neuroticism was significantly associated with patterns of disordered eating, but delay discounting, and not disinhibition and inattention, appeared to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and disordered eating. These results should guide prospective research exploring the relations between neurotic and impulsive behavior, particularly delay discounting on disordered eating, which will assist in future treatment efforts targeting the development of maladaptive eating behaviors.

  19. Resveratrol exerts no effect on inflammatory response and delayed onset muscle soreness after a marathon in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupheimer, M W; Perry, M; Benton, S; Malliaras, P; Maffulli, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the inflammatory response and delayed onset of muscle soreness after a marathon are altered by resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant. Design: Double blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study. Setting: London Marathon. Participants: Marathon race participants Interventions: 7 healthy male athletes were randomised to receive Resveratrol (600 mg Resveratrol daily for 7 days immediately before the marathon) or a placebo. Main Outcome Measurements: Blood samples taken 48 hours before and 18–32 hours after the marathon were analysed for white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A VAS score was taken at the same times as the blood samples to assess delayed onset muscle soreness. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes occurring between pre- and post- tests for WBC, CRP or VAS. Conclusions: There were no differences in immune response or delayed onset muscle soreness between resveratrol and placebo after a marathon. Further investigations are needed with longer treatment time and higher doses, analysing additional parameters such interleukins for a possible effect of resveratrol on the inflammatory response due to extensive exercise. To avoid a type II error, 17 subjects in each group would be required. PMID:25147765

  20. The effects of delayed physical prompts and reinforcement on infant sign language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel H; McKerchar, Paige M; Dancho, Kelly A

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have recommended that sign language be taught to typically developing children during their first 2 years of life; however, existing research does not provide adequate information regarding appropriate methods of sign training. We used delayed physical prompting and reinforcement to teach manual signs to 3 children between the ages of 6 and 13 months. Data were collected on the occurrence of prompted and independent signs as well as crying. Sign training was successful in producing independent signing in all 3 children in under 4 hr of training per child. PMID:15529893

  1. Cadmium causes delayed effects on renal function in the offspring of cadmium-contaminated pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Rubera, I; Tauc, M; Borderie, A; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Sierra, G; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P; Cougnon, M

    2007-11-01

    In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring.

  2. The Effect of a Reconstruction Technique and Heart Rate in the Evaluation of Optimal Trigger Delay Using Multiphase Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Jun [Konyang University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the mean optimal trigger delays and the difference between the absolute delay and the relative delay as a function of heart rate, using multiphase reconstruction. A total of 30 patients consecutively underwent a 64-slice MDCT examination. Optimal trigger delays at four planes (the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery, aortic valve, mitral valve and cardiac apex) were measured using multiphase reconstruction based on the absolute and relative delay. For this reason, patients were divided into three groups according to heart rate (group I, < 65 bpm; group II, 65-74 bpm; group III, {>=} 75 bpm), and the mean optimal trigger delays and the difference between the absolute delay and the relative delay were evaluated at the four planes for each group. The mean optimal trigger delay for the relative delay and absolute delay ranged from 46% to 66% and from 327 to 700 msec, respectively. The differences in the mean optimal trigger delay using the relative and the absolute delay at the four planes were 1% and 4 msec (group I), 3% and 27 msec (group II), and 14% and 46 msec (group III). In group III, the difference of the mean optimal trigger delay based on the relative delay, increased significantly compared to the absolute delay (p = 0.040). For the patients analyzed, the results suggest that as the heart rate increased, the mean optimal trigger delays shifted from the mid-diastolic phase to the end-systolic phase and the differences in the mean optimal trigger delay at the four planes were significantly greater for the relative delay.

  3. Why congestion tolling could be good for the consumer: The effects of heterogeneity in the values of schedule delay and time on the effects of tolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    In studying congestion tolling, it is important to account for heterogeneity in preferences of drivers, as ignoring it can bias the welfare gains. We analyse the effects of tolling, in the bottleneck model, with continuous heterogeneity in the value of time and schedule delay. The welfare gain of a

  4. Line emission in AGN effects of local delays upon line variability

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J A

    1996-01-01

    Previous works concerning active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability (e.g., Blandford \\& McKee 1982) have assumed that the emission characteristics of illuminated clouds are purely a function of the instant continuum flux to which they are exposed. This paper shows that this assumption is not necessarily justified and that the history of exposure accounting for ``local delays" due to finite cloud equilibrium times can also be relevant. For this reason, a new formalism is developed in this paper for computing the observational properties of models which have local delays. The nature of the nonlinear behavior that results is calculated for some very simple nonlinear cloud line emission models. It is found that the mean response time is a function of the recent average value of the continuum. Linear models fit to these nonlinear systems respond too slowly when there are low-energy (and generally rapid) changes in the continuum, yet respond too rapidly when there are high-energy (and generally slow) changes in ...

  5. Adaptive Transmitter Optimization in Multiuser Multiantenna Systems: Theoretical Limits, Effect of Delays, and Performance Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardzija Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in programmable and reconfigurable radios have rendered feasible transmitter optimization schemes that can greatly improve the performance of multiple-antenna multiuser systems. Reconfigurable radio platforms are particularly suitable for implementation of transmitter optimization at the base station. We consider the downlink of a wireless system with multiple transmit antennas at the base station and a number of mobile terminals (i.e., users each with a single receive antenna. Under an average transmit power constraint, we consider the maximum achievable sum data rates in the case of (1 zero-forcing (ZF spatial prefilter, (2 modified zero-forcing (MZF spatial prefilter, and (3 triangularization spatial prefilter coupled with dirty-paper coding (DPC transmission scheme. We show that the triangularization with DPC approaches the closed-loop MIMO rates (upper bound for higher SNRs. Further, the MZF solution performs very well for lower SNRs, while for higher SNRs, the rates for the ZF solution converge to the MZF rates. An important impediment that degrades the performance of such transmitter optimization schemes is the delay in channel state information (CSI. We characterize the fundamental limits of performance in the presence of delayed CSI and then propose performance enhancements using a linear MMSE predictor of the CSI that can be used in conjunction with transmitter optimization in multiple-antenna multiuser systems.

  6. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. 延迟退休的影响效果分析%Analysis Of The Effects Of Delay Retirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付俊; 孟续铎; 张超

    2014-01-01

    近年来,延迟退休的问题引发了学术界和社会大众的广泛讨论。本文将研究视点放在提高退休年龄对养老金支付和劳动力就业的影响效果方面。通过构建不同的计量模型,实际估算了延迟退休对养老保险基金收支变化的影响,以及对劳动力市场的就业挤出效应。结果发现:提高法定退休年龄对养老金缺口存在一定的补偿效应,但从短期来看效果有限;而对就业总量的确将产生挤出效应。并发现,老年人就业岗位与青年人就业岗位之间存在替代性,也就是说延迟退休将严重影响青年人的就业。因此建议政府要慎重考虑并只能在适当的时机推动延迟退休。%In recent years,the problems of Delay retirement caused widely discussed by academia and the public. This article focuses on the effects of raising the retirement age on pension payments and the labor force. By building different econometric model,estimate the actual impact of delay retirement on the changes of pension fund payments ,as well as the crowding-out effect of labor force. Result revealed that: raising retirement age for pension gap exist certain compensation effect ,but in the short term effect is limited;indeed crowding-out effect will occur. And found that ,the jobs are alternative between the elderly and young people,i.e. delay retirement will seriously affect the youth employment. Therefore ,suggested that the government should consider carefully and carry out delay retirement only at an appropriate time.

  8. Effect of acid pre-conditioning and/or delayed light irradiation on enamel bond strength of three resin-modified glass ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, the effect of acid pre-conditioning, delaying irradiation and both on enamel bond strength of RMGIs was material-dependent. Further investigations are recommended.

  9. Variables Prognostic for Delayed Union and Nonunion Following Ulnar Shortening Fixed With a Dedicated Osteotomy Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Kane, Patrick M; Zohn, Ralph C; Buckley, Taylor; Jacoby, Sidney M; Shin, Eon K

    2016-02-01

    To examine potential risk factors for the development of delayed or nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy using a dedicated osteotomy plating system. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent elective ulnar shortening using the TriMed single osteotomy dynamic compression plating system by 1 of 2 fellowship-trained hand surgeons over a 5-year period. Demographic data and medical, surgical, and social histories were reviewed. Time to bony union was determined radiographically by a blinded reviewer. Bivariate statistical analysis was performed to examine the effect of explanatory variables on the time to union and the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Those variables associated with the development of delayed or nonunion were used in a multivariate logistic regression model. Complications, including the need for additional surgery, were also recorded. Seventy-two ulnar shortening osteotomy procedures were performed in 69 patients. Delayed union, defined as ≥ 6 months to union, occurred in 8 of 72 cases (11%). Of 72 surgeries, 4 (6%) resulted in nonunions, all of which required additional surgery. Hardware removal was performed in 13 of 72 (18%) of the cases. Time to union was significantly increased in smokers (6 ± 3 months) versus nonsmokers (3 ± 1 months). On multivariable analysis, diabetics and active smokers demonstrated a significantly higher risk of developing delayed union or nonunion. Patient age, sex, body mass index, thyroid disease, worker's compensation status, alcohol use, and amount smoked daily did not have an effect on the time to union or the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Despite the use of an osteotomy-specific plating system, smokers and diabetics were at significantly higher risk for both delayed union and nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy. Other known risk factors for suboptimal bony healing were not found to have a deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 American Society for

  10. Global exponential stability of complex-valued neural networks with both time-varying delays and impulsive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiankun; Yan, Huan; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the global exponential stability of complex-valued neural networks with both time-varying delays and impulsive effects is discussed. By employing Lyapunov functional method and using matrix inequality technique, several sufficient conditions in complex-valued linear matrix inequality form are obtained to ensure the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for the considered neural networks. Moreover, the exponential convergence rate index is estimated, which depends on the system parameters. The proposed stability results are less conservative than some recently known ones in the literatures, which is demonstrated via two examples with simulations.

  11. EFFECT OF STATIC STRETCHING AND LPG SYSTEM TECHNIQUE ON TREATMENT AND PREVENT OF DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Kianmarz; Afshar Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was done in order to determining effect of static stretching and LPG systemtechnique on treatment and prevent of delayed onset muscle soreness.Methods: In order to thirtynon-athletic females [aged 21.8±1.15 years; fat percent 23.69±1.43 kg; BMI 21.79±1.52 kg/m2]were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to equal three groups. The stretching groupexecuted a static stretch of hamstrings muscle for 20 min pre exercise and 12 hours postexercise. Hold each stretch 30 secon...

  12. Assessment of malnutrition in hip fracture patients: effects on surgical delay, hospital stay and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidis, Panagiotis D; Clark, David

    2006-08-01

    The importance of malnutrition in elderly hip fracture patients has long been recognised. All patients operated upon for a hip fracture over a five-year period were assessed according to two nutritional markers : a) serum albumin levels and b) peripheral blood total lymphocyte count. Patients were subdivided into groups according to the four possible combinations of these results. Outcomes according to four clinical outcome parameters were validated: a) waiting time to operation b) length of hospitalisation, c) in-hospital mortality, and d) one-year postoperative mortality. Significant differences were found between malnourished patients and those with normal laboratory values with regard to surgical delay and one year postoperative mortality. Malnourished patients were also more likely to be hospitalised longer than a month and to die during their hospital stay, but the difference was not significant. The combination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count can be used as an independent prognostic factor in hip fracture patients.

  13. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS – a pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS.

  14. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – a pragmatic trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Ochi, Hideki; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P < 0.05, Dunnetts multiple test). Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS. PMID:19032777

  15. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......In a randomized study of patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery, 12 received i.v. ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours from the skin incision) and 12 had no ranitidine. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed type....../inducer-T cells, suppressor/cytotoxic-T cells, Pan-T cells and NK-cells) were counted by flow-cytometry. Perioperative ranitidine diminished the expected postoperative reduction in DTH responses (p less than 0.0001), as well as in spontaneous NK-cell activity (p less than 0.03) and in vitro IL-2 stimulated NK-cell...

  16. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

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    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  17. Effects of Interleaved and Blocked Study on Delayed Test of Category Learning Generalization

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    Paulo F. Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying different concepts by frequently alternating between them (i.e., interleaving, improves discriminative contrast between different categories, while studying each concept in separate blocks emphasizes the similarities within each category. Interleaved study has been shown to improve learning of high similarity categories by increasing between-category comparison, while blocked study improves learning of low similarity categories by increasing within-category comparison. In addition, interleaved study presents greater temporal spacing between repetitions of each category compared to blocked study, which might present long-term memory benefits. In this study we asked if the benefits of temporal spacing would interact with the benefits of sequencing for making comparisons when testing was delayed, particularly for low similarity categories. Blocked study might be predicted to promote noticing similarities across members of the same category and result in short-term benefits. However, the increase in temporal delay between repetitions inherent to interleaved study might benefit both types of categories when tested after a longer retention interval. Participants studied categories either interleaved or blocked and were tested immediately and 24 hours after study. We found an interaction between schedule of study and the type of category studied, which is consistent with the differential emphasis promoted by each sequential schedule. However, increasing the retention interval did not modulate this interaction or resulted in improved performance for interleaved study. Overall, this indicates that the benefit of interleaving is not primarily due to temporal spacing during study, but rather due to the cross-category comparisons that interleaving facilitates. We discuss the benefits of temporal spacing of repetitions in the context of sequential study and how it can be integrated with the attentional bias hypothesis proposed by Carvalho and

  18. Effect of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin on delayed rectifier potassium currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-Tao; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Yao, Yang; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2009-03-01

    Cypermethrin is a photostable synthetic pyrethroid and the most widely used Type II pyrethroid pesticide. The effects of two different stereoisomers of cypermethrin insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin, on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in hippocampal neurons of rat, were studied using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin decreased the amplitude value of IK, and shifted the steady state activation curve of IK towards negative potential at any concentrations (10(-9) M, 10(-8) M, 10(-7) M). Furthermore, at higher concentration, alpha-cypermethrin (10(-7) M) and theta-cypermethrin (10(-8) M, 10(-7) M) had observable effects of the steady state inactivation of IK. The results suggest that IK is the target of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin, which may explain the mechanism of toxic effects of both steroeisomers of cypermethrin on mammalian neurons. Cypermethrin-altered properties of voltage gated delayed rectifier K+ channels may contribute to neurotoxicity by eliciting abnormal electrical discharges in hippocampal CA3 neurons.

  19. Anti-apoptotic effect of morphine-induced delayed preconditioning on pulmonary artery endothelial cells with anoxia/reoxygenation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Weng-ang; ZHOU Hua-cheng; CUI Xiao-guang; LI Wen-zhi; GUO Yue-ping; ZHANG Bing; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Opioid preconditioning (PC) reduces anoxiaJreoxygenation (NR) injury to various cells. However, it remains unclear whether opioid-induced delayed PC would show anti-apoptotic effects on pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) suffering from A/R injury. The present study was conducted to elucidate this issue and to investigate the potential mechanism of opioid-induced delayed PC.Methods Cultured porcine PAECs underwent 16-hour anoxia followed by 1-hour reoxygenation 24 hours after pretreatment with saline (NaCI; 0.9%) or morphine (1 μmol/L). To determine the underlying mechanism, a non-selective KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide (Glib; 10 μmol/L), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μmol/L), and an opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (Nal; 10 pmol/L) were given 30 minutes before the A/R load. The percentage of apoptotic cells was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, eNOS mRNA level was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). NO content of PAECs supernatants was measured with the Griess reagent.Results Compared to the A/R PAECs, morphine-induced delayed PC significantly reduced PAECs apoptosis ((18.1±1.9)% vs (5.5±0.3)%; P <0.05), increased NO release ((11.4±1.3) μmol/L vs (20.5±2.1) μmol/L, P <0.05), and up-regulated eNOS gene expression nearly 9 times (P<0.05). The anti-apoptosis effect of morphine was abolished by pretreatment with Glib, L-NAME and Nal, but the three agent-selves did not aggravate the A/R injury. Furthermore, L-NAME and Nal offset the enhanced release of NO caused by pretreatment with morphine.Conclusions Morphine-induced delayed PC prevents A/R injury of PAECs. This effect may be mediated by activation of KATP channel via opioid receptor and NO signaling pathways.

  20. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for