WorldWideScience

Sample records for delay line based

  1. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.

  2. A scheme to expand the delay-bandwidth product in the resonator-based delay lines by optical OFDM technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangbo; Tao, Li; Zhang, Ziran

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to expand the inherent limit in the product of the optical delay and the transmission bandwidth in resonator-based delay lines, with the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) technique. The optical group delay properties of a single ring resonator we...

  3. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  4. Several key issues on implementing delay line based TDCs using FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.

  5. A new time-digital convert circuit based on digital delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haifeng; Guo Ying; Zhang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    An introduction of a new method of time-digital convert circuit based on digital delay line is given. High precision and good reliability can be realized when it is combined with traditional counting convert method in the measurement of large scale pulse width and low frequency self-excitation oscillator. (authors)

  6. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  7. A low dead time vernier delay line TDC implemented in an Actel flash-based FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xi; Feng Changqing; Zhang Deliang; Zhao Lei; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a high precision vernier delay line (VDL) TDC (Time-to-Digital Converter) in an Actel flash-based Field-Programmable-Gate-Arrays A3PE1500 is implemented, achieving a resolution of 16.4-ps root mean square value or 42-ps averaged bin size. The TDC has a dead time of about 200 ns while the dynamic range is 655.36 Vs. The double delay lines method is employed to cut the dead time in half to improve its performance. As the bin size of the TDC is dependent on temperature, a compensation algorithm is adopted as temperature drift correction, and the TDC shows satisfying performance in a temperature range from -5℃ to +55℃. (authors)

  8. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  9. A liquid lens switching-based motionless variable fiber-optic delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Reza, Syed Azer; Sheikh, Mumtaz

    2018-05-01

    We present a Variable Fiber-Optic Delay Line (VFODL) module capable of imparting long variable delays by switching an input optical/RF signal between Single Mode Fiber (SMF) patch cords of different lengths through a pair of Electronically Controlled Tunable Lenses (ECTLs) resulting in a polarization-independent operation. Depending on intended application, the lengths of the SMFs can be chosen accordingly to achieve the desired VFODL operation dynamic range. If so desired, the state of the input signal polarization can be preserved with the use of commercially available polarization-independent ECTLs along with polarization-maintaining SMFs (PM-SMFs), resulting in an output polarization that is identical to the input. An ECTL-based design also improves power consumption and repeatability. The delay switching mechanism is electronically-controlled, involves no bulk moving parts, and can be fully-automated. The VFODL module is compact due to the use of small optical components and SMFs that can be packaged compactly.

  10. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  11. Photonic-assisted time-interleaved ADC based on optical delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Xinyi; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    An approach to implement photonic-assisted time-interleaved analog-to-digital conversion and its calibration method are presented. The analog modulated optical signal is divided into M channels, suffering different time delay induced by optical delay lines which provide great flexibility in producing time intervals and is then sampled by electronic analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The channel mismatches resulting in performance degradation are estimated by a modified sine wave fitting method. The time mismatch and other mismatches are corrected by fine optical delay adjustment and digital processing, respectively. A four-channel photonic-assisted time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) system operating at 40 GSa s −1 was demonstrated experimentally. The photonic-assisted TIADC system was tested with a 6.31 GHz sine wave signal, exhibiting 40.3 dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) and 57.6 dBc spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR). It is shown that the SINAD is dominated by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analog optical link and the SFDR of the proposed system is limited by the linearity of the link. (paper)

  12. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  13. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  14. A self contained Linux based data acquisition system for 2D detectors with delay line readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, D.; Toledo, J.; Klora, A.C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a fast and self-contained data acquisition system for 2D gas-filled detectors with delay line readout. It allows the realization of time resolved experiments in the millisecond scale. The acquisition system comprises of an industrial PC running Linux, a commercial time-to-digital converter and an in-house developed histogramming PCI card. The PC provides a mass storage for images and a graphical user interface for system monitoring and control. The histogramming card builds images with a maximum count rate of 5 MHz limited by the time-to-digital converter. Histograms are transferred to the PC at 85 MB/s. This card also includes a time frame generator, a calibration channel unit and eight digital outputs for experiment control. The control software was developed for easy integration into a beamline, including scans. The system is fully operational at the Spanish beamline BM16 at the ESRF in France, the neutron beamlines Adam and Eva at the ILL in France, the Max Plank Institute in Stuttgart in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the future ALBA synchrotron in Spain. Some representative collected images from synchrotron and neutron beamlines are presented

  15. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  16. An FPGA-Integrated Time-to-Digital Converter Based on a Ring Oscillator for Programmable Delay Line Resolution Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the architecture of a time-to-digital converter (TDC, specially intended to measure the delay resolution of a programmable delay line (PDL. The configuration, which consists of a ring oscillator, a frequency divider (FD, and a period measurement circuit (PMC, is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. The ring oscillator realized in loop containing a PDL and a look-up table (LUT generates periodic oscillatory pulses. The FD amplifies the oscillatory period from nanosecond range to microsecond range. The time-to-digital conversion is based on counting the number of clock cycles between two consecutive pulses of the FD by the PMC. Experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the TDC. The achieved relative errors for four PDLs are within 0.50%–1.21% and the TDC has an equivalent resolution of about 0.4 ps.

  17. ESTIMATION OF BURSTS LENGTH AND DESIGN OF A FIBER DELAY LINE BASED OBS ROUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHA AWASTHI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher bandwidth is increasing day by day and this ever growing demand cannot be catered to with current electronic technology. Thus new communication technology like optical communication needs to be used. In the similar context OBS (optical burst switching is considered as next generation data transfer technology. In OBS information is transmitted in forms of optical bursts of variable lengths. However, contention among the bursts is a major problem in OBS system, and for contention resolution defection routing is mostly preferred. However, deflection routing increases delay. In this paper, it is shown that the arrival of very large bursts is rare event, and for moderate burst length the buffering of contending burst can provide very effective solution. However, in case of arrival of large bursts deflection can be used.

  18. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  19. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-11-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market.

  20. Transmission Delay Modeling of Packet Communication over Digital Subscriber Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain multimedia and voice services, such as VoIP, IPTV, etc., are significantly delay sensitive and their performance is influenced by the overall transmission delay and its variance. One of the most common solutions used in access networks are xDSL lines, especially ADSL2+ or VDSL2. Although these subscriber lines also use packet communication, there are several differences and mechanisms, which influence their resulting delay. Their delay characteristics are also dependent on the individual settings of each xDSL provider, therefore we decided to investigate this area for typical commercially available lines in Czech Republic. Based on the measured values and experiments with real ADSL2+ lines we also developed a potential modeling method, which is presented in this article as well. The parameters for packet jitter based on the generalized Pareto distribution were modeled.

  1. Delay line MWPC hazard signals inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.B.; Kirsten, F.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Schilling, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Hazard Inspector is a CAMAC module which divides a MWPC delay line into 8 independent signal monitor and control segments. Independent control effectively reduces delay line occupation time and cuts the number of background and non-trigger particles accepted by the 4XQT charge-time-pulse-width digitizer, a device presented in a separate communication. Only segments containing legitimate information are digitized. Non-trigger related events are gated out at the digitizer, and contaminating hits are noted for computer correction

  2. A Delay Line for Compression of Electromagnetic Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelnikov, Yuriy N.; Nyce, David S.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method to obtain an electromagnetic signal delay is described. It is shown that the positive magnetic and electric coupling between impedance conductors produces an increase in the time delay. It is also shown that the increase in delay time is obtained without additional attenuation. This allows a reduction in electromagnetic losses, by a factor of several times, for a delay time. An approximate analysis of electromagnetic delay lines based on coupled impedance conductors with 'spiral' and 'meander' patterns allowed obtaining very simple expressions for the wave deceleration factor, wave impedance, and attenuation factor. The results of the analysis are confirmed by the results of measurements. It is shown that a delay line based on counter-wound radial spirals can be successfully used for compression of electromagnetic pulses. Although the offered delay line was designed to operate with a relatively small signal, the analysis of the 'coupling effect', taking place in this delay line, might be useful in devices for compression of high-power microwave pulses

  3. Delay line clipping in a scintillation camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel base line restoring circuit and a novel delay line clipping circuit in a scintillation camera system. Single and double delay line clipped signal waveforms are generated for increasing the operational frequency and fidelity of data detection of the camera system by base line distortion such as undershooting, overshooting, and capacitive build-up. The camera system includes a set of photomultiplier tubes and associated amplifiers which generate sequences of pulses. These pulses are pulse-height analyzed for detecting a scintillation having an energy level which falls within a predetermined energy range. Data pulses are combined to provide coordinates and energy of photopeak events. The amplifiers are biassed out of saturation over all ranges of pulse energy level and count rate. Single delay line clipping circuitry is provided for narrowing the pulse width of the decaying electrical data pulses which increase operating speed without the occurrence of data loss. (JTA)

  4. Wavelength-stepped, actively mode-locked fiber laser based on wavelength-division-multiplexed optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new scheme for an actively mode-locked wavelength-swept fiber laser that produces a train of discretely wavelength-stepped pulses from a short fiber cavity. Pulses with different wavelengths are split and combined by standard wavelength division multiplexers with fiber delay lines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a laser using an erbium doped fiber amplifier and commercially available wavelength-division multiplexers with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm. The results show simultaneous mode-locking at three different wavelengths. Laser output parameters in time domain, optical and radio frequency spectral domain, and the noise characteristics are presented. Suggestions for the improved design are discussed.

  5. Superconducting delay lines and chirp filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, G.J.; Kratz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films are now good enough to realize certain devices, particularly passive analog broadband devices requiring only a single layer of high quality material. This is especially true for long delay lines and related structures, e. g. chirp filters, where low loss and dispersion result in large usable bandwidths. The availability of these devices may hasten the commercialization of the high temperature superconductors, because they take full advantage of their unique properties. (orig.)

  6. Radiofrequency spark chambers and delay line resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayag, Jacques

    1971-01-01

    According to a suggestion of A. Kastler, a spark chamber was excited by an undamped radiofrequency pulse and tracks about 1 mm wide obtained; the result was interpreted by computation of the coefficients of electronic amplification and partial ambipolar diffusion. This work led us to the construction of a new fast triggering undamped wave-train generator of very high tension (patent taken out by the C.E.A. under the no.: EN 7 134 650 the 27.9.1971). Since this apparatus uses a resonant storage line, its design implied a precise knowledge of high impedance delay lines. The experimental radiofrequency spectra of the input impedance of opened or short-circuited lines were plotted completely and analysed by the circuits theory, new measuring methods were established, dispersion relations accurately checked and the equivalence of the formulas, within the third order, with theses of Debye's Dipolar Absorption demonstrated. General properties of Hilbert's transform were also investigated. From the experimental point of view, the electromagnetic energy storage process was extended to the case of a liquid nitrogen-immersed resonant delay line. The good behavior of the cryogenic experiment, where the main difficulty of icing was overcame by the construction of special electrodes, offers great promise for extrapolation to superconductivity. (author) [fr

  7. Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V

    2010-08-16

    We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.

  8. The MEL-X project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: a mirror-based delay line for x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Tom; Hill, Randy; Decker, Todd; Alameda, Jennifer; Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andy; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sébastien; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2015-09-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in collaboration with the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we are developing a mirror-based delay line for x-rays (MEL-X) to enable x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments at Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The goal of this project is the development and deployment of a proof-of-principle delay line featuring coated x-ray optics. The four-mirror design of the MEL-X is motivated by the need for ease of alignment and use. In order to simplify the overlap of the pump and the probe beam after each delay time change, a scheme involving super-polished rails and mirror-to-motor decoupling has been adopted. The MEL-X, used in combination with a bright pulsed source like LCLS, features a capability for a high intensity pump beam. Its Iridium coating allows it to work at hard x-ray energies all the way up to 9 keV, with a probe beam transmission of 35% up to 8keV, and 14% at 9keV. The delay time can be tailored to each particular experiment, with a nominal range of 70 - 350 fs for this prototype. The MEL-X, combined with established techniques such as x-ray diffraction, absorption or emission, could provide new insights on ultra-fast transitions in highly excited states of matter.

  9. Multiwire proportional counter (lecture by an electromagnetic delay line)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruere-Dawson, R.

    1989-01-01

    For track localisation of ionizing particles with multiwire proportional chamber, an electronic chain including amplifying, shaping and memorizing circuits is required for each wire. In order to lower the cost of this type of detector, an electromagnetic delay line is proposed among various possibilities. In this paper, different coupling modes between chamber and delay line are studied with their respective advantages. The realization of one meter long delay line with a unit delay time of 15 ns per cm is also presented [fr

  10. Enhanced Performance & Functionality of Tunable Delay Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Based Tunable Optical Delays”, Optics Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 13, pp. 1518-1520 (2008). 2. Louis Christen, Irfan Fazal , Omer F. Yilmaz, Xiaoxia Wu...2008. 3. Omer F. Yilmaz, Louis Christen, Xiaoxia Wu, Scott R. Nuccio, Irfan Fazal , and Alan E. Willner, “Time-Slot-Interchange of 40 Gb/s Variable...F. Yilmaz, S. Khaleghi, L. Christen, I. Fazal , and A. E. Willner, “503 ns, Tunable Optical Delay of 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK using Additional λ-Conversion

  11. LHCb: Radiation hard programmable delay line for LHCb Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J; Vilasís Cardona, X; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Machefert, F; Lefrançois, J; Duarte, O

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a SPI-programmable clock delay chip based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) in order to shift the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1ns, with a 4ps jitter and 18ps of DNL. The delay lines will be integrated into ICECAL, the LHCb calorimeter front-end ASIC in the near future. The stringent noise requirements on the ASIC imply minimizing the noise contribution of digital components. This is accomplished by implementing the DLL in differential mode. To achieve the required radiation tolerance several techniques are applied: double guard rings between PMOS and NMOS transistors as well as glitch suppressors and TMR Registers. This 5.7 mm2 chip has been implemented in CMOS 0.35um technology.

  12. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  13. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjie071063@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100049 (China); Zhou, Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan, China, 430077 (China)

    2015-01-21

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage.

  14. A new delay line loops shrinking time-to-digital converter in low-cost FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The article provides the design and test results of a new time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on delay line loops shrinking method and implemented in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A technique that achieves high resolution with low cost and flexibility is presented. The technique is based on two delay line loops which are used to directly shrink the measured time interval in the designed TDC, and the resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delay times of the two delay line loops. In order to realize high resolution and eliminate temperature influence, the two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is used to stabilize the resolution against process variations and ambient conditions. Meanwhile, one method is used to accurately evaluate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The converter has been implemented in a general-propose FPGA device (Actel SmartFusion A2F200M3). A single shot resolution of the implemented converter is 63.3 ps and the measurement standard deviation is about 61.7 ps within the measurement range of 5 ns. - Highlights: • We provide a new FPGA-integrated time-to-digital converter based on delay line loops method which used two delay line loops to directly shrink time intervals with only rising edges. • The two delay line loops consist of the same delay cells with the same number and symmetrical structure. • The resolution is dependent on the difference between the entire delays of the two delay line loops. • We use delay-locked loop to stabilize the resolution against temperature and supply voltage

  15. Optical buffer based on monolithic InP phased-array 1×16 switch with silica-PLC pitch converter and ultra-compact coiled fiber delay lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanemura, T.; Soganci, I. M.; Oyama, T.; Ohyama, T.; Mino, S.; Williams, K. A.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H. J S; Nakano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large-capacity high-resolution optical buffer, comprising 1×16 InP switch and ultra-compact delay lines based on thin-cladding highly nonlinear fibers. Silica-PLC-based pitch converter is employed to realize uniform coupling from all 16 switch ports simultaneously.

  16. ESO and Fokker Space Sign Contract about VLTI Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The European Southern Observatory is building the world's largest optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , at the ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile. The VLT consists of four 8.2-m unit telescopes and several smaller, moveable Auxiliary Telescopes. When coupled as the giant VLT Interferometer (VLTI) , they will together provide the sharpest images ever obtained by any optical telescope. It will in principle be able to see an astronaut on the surface of the Moon, 400,000 km away. The VLTI Delay Lines Fokker Space (Leiden, The Netherlands) has been awarded a contract for the delivery of the Delay Line of the VLTI. This is a mechanical-optical system that will compensate the optical path differences of the light beams from the individual telescopes. Such a system is necessary to ensure that the light from all telescopes arrive in the same phase at the focal point of the interferometer. Otherwise, the very sharp interferometric images cannot be obtained. ESO PR Photo 08/98 [JPEG, 102k] Schematic representation of the VLTI Delay Line, showing the retro-reflector on its moving base. For more details, please consult the technical explanation below. This highly accurate system will be developed in close co-operation with the Dutch institute TNO-TPD (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research - Institute of Applied Physics) . The most innovative feature of the Delay Line is the new control strategy, a two-stage control system, based on linear motor technology, combined with high accuracy piezo-electric control elements. This enables the system to position the so-called cat's eye reflector system with an accuracy of only a few nanometers (millionth of a millimetre (nm)) over a stroke length of 60 metres. Within radio astronomy, interferometric techniques have been applied by Dutch astronomers since many years. They will now be able to contribute with their extensive knowledge of such systems to the next generation of astronomical interferometric

  17. Real-time pulse deinterleaving using digital delay line techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, L. F.; Palermo, T. J.

    This paper describes an implementation of a tracking pulse sorter based on predictive gating techniques. Real-time pulse sorters or pulse train gating devices have been utilized by the ELINT signal analyst for many years. The more elementary of these devices employed a retriggerable delay interval and an acceptance gate, which were used in predictive fashion to track pulse trains whose PRIs fall within the limits of the programmed delay interval. This design utilizes the pulse hit/miss history of individual track files in a variation of a sequential observer detection algorithm. Use of a digital delay line with pulse history allows multiple pulse trains to be tracked simultaneously and independently without interference. The design also provides flexibility in lock-on and track criteria to allow maintenance of acquisition probability and false alarm rate in dense signal environments and with low SNRs. The hardware provides time interval resolution to 12.5 nsec and covers a PRI range of 50 microsec to 50 msec.

  18. A current controlled variable delay superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlage, S.M.; Snortland, H.J.; Beasley, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a device concept for a current-controlled variable delay for superconducting transmission line. The device makes use of the change in kinetic inductance of a superconducting transmission line under the application of a DC bias current. The relevant materials parameters and several promising superconducting materials have been identified

  19. Delays in switching patients onto second-line antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: South Africa has one of the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes globally. In addition to increasing access to ART, it is important that the health system also focuses on the appropriate management of patients who fail first-line ART. Delays in switching patients onto second-line ART can adversely ...

  20. Delay-Line Three-Dimensional Position Sensitive Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Manhee

    High-resistivity silicon(Si) in large volumes and with good charge carrier transport properties has been produced and achieved success as a radiation detector material over the past few years due to its relatively low cost as well as the availability of well-established processing technologies. One application of that technology is in the fabrication of various position-sensing topologies from which the incident radiation's direction can be determined. We have succeeded in developing the modeling tools for investigating different position-sensing schemes and used those tools to examine both amplitude-based and time-based methods, an assessment that indicates that fine position-sensing can be achieved with simpler readout designs than are conventionally deployed. This realization can make ubiquitous and inexpensive deployment of special nuclear materials (SNM) detecting technology becomes more feasible because if one can deploy position-sensitive semiconductor detectors with only one or two contacts per side. For this purpose, we have described the delay-line radiation detector and its optimized fabrication. The semiconductor physics were simulated, the results from which guided the fabrication of the guard ring structure and the detector electrode, both of which included metal-field-plates. The measured improvement in the leakage current was confirmed with the fabricated devices, and the structures successfully suppressed soft-breakdown. We also demonstrated that fabricating an asymmetric strip-line structure successfully minimizing the pulse shaping and increases the distance through which one can propagate the information of the deposited charge distribution. With fabricated delay-line detectors we can acquire alpha spectra (Am-241) and gamma spectra (Ba-133, Co-57 and Cd-109). The delay-line detectors can therefore be used to extract the charge information from both ion and gamma-ray interactions. Furthermore, standard charge-sensitive circuits yield high SNR

  1. Realization of compact tractor beams using acoustic delay-lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A.; Ghobrial, A.; Cox, L.; Caleap, M.; Croxford, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2017-01-01

    A method for generating stable ultrasonic levitation of physical matter in air using single beams (also known as tractor beams) is demonstrated. The method encodes the required phase modulation in passive unit cells into which the ultrasonic sources are mounted. These unit cells use waveguides such as straight and coiled tubes to act as delay-lines. It is shown that a static tractor beam can be generated using a single electrical driving signal, and a tractor beam with one-dimensional movement along the propagation direction can be created with two signals. Acoustic tractor beams capable of holding millimeter-sized polymer particles of density 1.25 g/cm3 and fruit-flies (Drosophila) are demonstrated. Based on these design concepts, we show that portable tractor beams can be constructed with simple components that are readily available and easily assembled, enabling applications in industrial contactless manipulation and biophysics.

  2. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  3. Ultra-precision turning of complex spiral optical delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Po; Fang, Fengzhou; Wang, Qichang

    2011-11-01

    Optical delay line (ODL) implements the vertical or depth scanning of optical coherence tomography, which is the most important factor affecting the scanning resolution and speed. The spinning spiral mirror is found as an excellent optical delay device because of the high-speed and high-repetition-rate. However, it is one difficult task to machine the mirror due to the special shape and precision requirement. In this paper, the spiral mirror with titled parabolic generatrix is proposed, and the ultra-precision turning method is studied for its machining using the spiral mathematic model. Another type of ODL with the segmental shape is also introduced and machined to make rotation balance for the mass equalization when scanning. The efficiency improvement is considered in details, including the rough cutting with the 5- axis milling machine, the machining coordinates unification, and the selection of layer direction in turning. The onmachine measuring method based on stylus gauge is designed to analyze the shape deviation. The air bearing is used as the measuring staff and the laser interferometer sensor as the position sensor, whose repeatability accuracy is proved up to 10nm and the stable feature keeps well. With this method developed, the complex mirror with nanometric finish of 10.7nm in Ra and the form error within 1um are achieved.

  4. New β-delayed proton lines from 23Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsebom, Oliver Sølund; Fynbo, H.; Jokinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the β -delayed proton spectrum of 23 Al. Higher statistics compared to previous measurements allow us to identify new proton lines in the energy range 1--2 MeV. A statistical analysis of the observed β strength shows that the B (GT) values are fully consistent...

  5. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  6. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  7. New β-delayed proton lines from 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsebom, O.S.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K.; Jokinen, A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aeystoe, J.; Madurga, M.; Tengblad, O.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the β-delayed proton spectrum of 23 Al. Higher statistics compared to previous measurements allow us to identify new proton lines in the energy range 1-2 MeV. A statistical analysis of the observed β strength shows that the B (GT) values are fully consistent with having a Porter-Thomas distribution. This is indicative of chaotic behaviour and implies that only the average β strength carries physical meaning. (orig.)

  8. Toeless pulse shaping with a single delay-line network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Binns, D.C.

    1976-04-01

    New unipolar delay-line clippers producing negligible cancellation remnant have been developed. Near perfect clipping is achieved using a combination of several types of coaxial cable tranformers working as a phase inverter, a new pulse adder, or an impedance transformer. Only passive elements are used in the bridge network. The construction is simple and the performance is extremely stable and wide in dynamic range and frequency band width. Completely symmetrical bipolar pulses are also easily obtained using this technique

  9. Delay estimation on a railway-line with smart use of micro-simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper formulates a delay propagation model that estimates total railway line delay as a polynomial function of a single primary delay. The estimate is derived from a finite series of delays over a horizon that spans two dimensions: the length of the railway line and the number of trains in t...

  10. Optical True Time Delay for Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2×2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim

    2003-01-01

    We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.

  11. Estimating Angle of Arrival (AOA for Wideband Signal by Sensor Delay Line (SDL and Tapped Delay Line (TDL Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassim Sayed Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angle of arrival (AOA estimation for wideband signal becomes more necessary for modern communication systems like Global System for Mobile (GSM, satellite, military applications and spread spectrum (frequency hopping and direct sequence. Most of the researchers are focusing on how to cancel the effects of signal bandwidth on AOA estimation performance by using a transversal filter (tap delay line (TDL. Most of the researchers were using two elements array antenna to study these effects. In this research, a general case of proposed (M array elements is used. A transversal filter (TDL in phase adaptive array antenna system is used to calculate the optimum number of taps required to compensate these effect. The proposed system uses a phase adaptive array antenna in conjunction with LMS algorithm to work an angle of arrival (AOA estimator for wideband signals rather than interference canceller. An alternative solution to compensate for the effect of signal bandwidth is proposed by using sensor delay line (SDL instead of fixed delay unit since it has variable time sampling in the time domain and not fixed time delay, depending on the angle of arrival of received signals. The proposed system has the ability to estimate two parameters for received signals simultaneously (the output Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and AOA, unlike others systems which estimate AOA only. The comparison of the simulation results with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC technique showed that the proposed system gives good results for estimating AOA and the output SNR for wideband signals. (SDL processor shows better performance result than (TDL processor. MUSIC technique with both (SDL and (TDL processors shows unacceptable results for estimating (AOA for the wideband signal.

  12. Control of operating parameters of laser ceilometers with the application of fiber optic delay line imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A. A.; Klochkov, D. V.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mihaylenko, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the problem of control and verification of the laser ceilometers basic performance parameters and describes an alternative method based on the use of multi-length fiber optic delay line, simulating atmospheric track. The results of the described experiment demonstrate the great potential of this method for inspection and verification procedures of laser ceilometers.

  13. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  14. New approach to design and performance assessment of delay lines for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Dvorak, Z.; Cejnar, F.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation and analysis are discussed of the dynamic adsorption of rare gases in the delay lines of nuclear power plants. The method of statistical momenta was used for deriving relations for the calculation of penetration curves of radioactive isotopes of rare gases through a delay line. Relations were also derived for the calculation of the capacity of delay line adsorption beds for both continuous and discontinuous operation. The procedures for the design and the derivation of the function of delay lines take into account the actual conditions of delay line operation in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjia; Ashrafi, Reza; Adams, Rhys; Glesk, Ivan; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Chen, Lawrence R

    2016-07-26

    An optical true time delay line (OTTDL) is a basic photonic building block that enables many microwave photonic and optical processing operations. The conventional design for an integrated OTTDL that is based on spatial diversity uses a length-variable waveguide array to create the optical time delays, which can introduce complexities in the integrated circuit design. Here we report the first ever demonstration of an integrated index-variable OTTDL that exploits spatial diversity in an equal length waveguide array. The approach uses subwavelength grating waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which enables the realization of OTTDLs having a simple geometry and that occupy a compact chip area. Moreover, compared to conventional wavelength-variable delay lines with a few THz operation bandwidth, our index-variable OTTDL has an extremely broad operation bandwidth practically exceeding several tens of THz, which supports operation for various input optical signals with broad ranges of central wavelength and bandwidth.

  16. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Magnonic Crystal as a Delay Line for Low-Noise Auto-Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Magnonic crystal as a delay line for low-noise auto-oscillator Elena Bankowski and Thomas Meitzler U.S. Army TARDEC, Warren, Michigan 48397, USA...authors propose to use the magnonic crystal patterned on the YIG magnetic film as an efficient delay line in the feedback loop of tunable auto-oscillator...increasing the thickness of such delay line as compare to the YIG film with no pattern. In turn, use of this magnonic crystal opens a way to improve

  18. Active high-power RF pulse compression using optically switched resonant delay lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1996-11-01

    The authors present the design and a proof of principle experimental results of an optically controlled high power rf pulse compression system. The design should, in principle, handle few hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band. The system is based on the switched resonant delay line theory. It employs resonant delay lines as a means of storing rf energy. The coupling to the lines is optimized for maximum energy storage during the charging phase. To discharge the lines, a high power microwave switch increases the coupling to the lines just before the start of the output pulse. The high power microwave switch, required for this system, is realized using optical excitation of an electron-hole plasma layer on the surface of a pure silicon wafer. The switch is designed to operate in the TE 01 mode in a circular waveguide to avoid the edge effects present at the interface between the silicon wafer and the supporting waveguide; thus, enhancing its power handling capability

  19. Development of a non-delay-line constant-fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Zhao Bo; Zhang Chi

    2002-01-01

    A Non-Delay-Line Constant-Fraction Discriminator (CFD) timing circuit is introduced. The delay line in the CFD is replaced with a low pass filter in this simplified circuit. The timing resolution of the CFD is better than 150 ps

  20. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  1. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  2. Mixed Modeling of a SAW Delay Line Using VHDL-AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for aerospace applications we have created a model of a SAW Delay line using VHDL. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. The model includes optimization for the number of finger pairs in the IDTs and for the aperture height. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C.; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; Siverd, R.; Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A.; Kaspi, S.; Bord, D. J.; Che, X.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the Hβ emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II λ4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Marie Curie Fellow at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Siverd, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 5301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan - Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H{beta} emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II {lambda}4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  5. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design .... To find the quality of non-robust tests, a fuzzy delay ..... Dubois D and Prade H 1989 Processing Fuzzy temporal knowledge. IEEE Transactions ...

  6. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  7. A digital TDC with a reduced number of delay line cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujrad, A.; Bloyet, D.; Tripon, M.

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear physics experiments, a decision maker named as 'trigger' gives a bit pattern which allows the fired detectors identification. As the data acquisition dead time is greater than the time between physical events, timing information is essential. We add to the trigger function a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) in order to make a separation between events. The paper describes the architecture chosen for the TDC and illustrates the contribution of each element to the TDC performance. An eight-bit counter is used for the dynamic range of the TDC (in microsecond) associated to a delay line improving the resolution (in nanosecond). The study shows that exploiting the two system clock states (high and low) allows to reduce the number of delay line cells. The Differential Nonlinearity Measurements are given for different resolutions (1, 2 and 5 ns) and illustrate the clock period, the clock duty cycle and the delay line contributions to the TDC performances

  8. A monolithic constant-fraction discriminator using distributed R-C delay-line shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Xu, M.

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic, CMOS, constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) was fabricated in the Orbit Semiconductor, 1.2 μ N-well process. This circuit uses an on-chip, distributed, R-C delay-line to realize the constant-fraction shaping. The delay-line is constructed from a narrow, 500-μ serpentine layer of polysilicon above a wide, grounded, second layer of polysilicon. This R-C delay-line generates about 1.1 ns of delay for 5 ns risetime signals with a slope degradation of only ≅ 15% and an amplitude reduction of about 6.1%. The CFD also features an automatic walk adjustment. The entire circuit, including the delay line, has a 200 μ pitch and is 950 μ long. The walk for a 5 ns risetime signal was measured as ± 100 ps over the 100:1 dynamic range from -15 mV to -1.5 mV. to -1.5 V. The CFD consumes 15 mW

  9. Multimoded rf delay line distribution system for the Next Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tantawi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The delay line distribution system is an alternative to conventional pulse compression, which enhances the peak power of rf sources while matching the long pulse of those sources to the shorter filling time of accelerator structures. We present an implementation of this scheme that combines pairs of parallel delay lines of the system into single lines. The power of several sources is combined into a single waveguide delay line using a multimode launcher. The output mode of the launcher is determined by the phase coding of the input signals. The combined power is extracted from the delay line using mode-selective extractors, each of which extracts a single mode. Hence, the phase coding of the sources controls the output port of the combined power. The power is then fed to the local accelerator structures. We present a detailed design of such a system, including several implementation methods for the launchers, extractors, and ancillary high power rf components. The system is designed so that it can handle the 600 MW peak power required by the Next Linear Collider design while maintaining high efficiency.

  10. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.

  11. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)

  12. Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with improved structural stability and acoustic directivity for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young; Kumar, Akhil; Xu, Song; Zou, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. However, as its length increases to provide longer delay time, the delay line becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In addition, the small cross-section area of the delay line results in a large acoustic acceptance angle and therefore poor directivity. To address these two issues, this paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, a new tapered design for the input terminal of the delay line was also investigate to improve its acoustic directivity by reducing the acoustic acceptance angle. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays.

  13. Constructing Hopf bifurcation lines for the stability of nonlinear systems with two time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste

    2018-03-01

    Although the plethora real-life systems modeled by nonlinear systems with two independent time delays, the algebraic expressions for determining the stability of their fixed points remain the Achilles' heel. Typically, the approach for studying the stability of delay systems consists in finding the bifurcation lines separating the stable and unstable parameter regions. This work deals with the parametric construction of algebraic expressions and their use for the determination of the stability boundaries of fixed points in nonlinear systems with two independent time delays. In particular, we concentrate on the cases for which the stability of the fixed points can be ascertained from a characteristic equation corresponding to that of scalar two-delay differential equations, one-component dual-delay feedback, or nonscalar differential equations with two delays for which the characteristic equation for the stability analysis can be reduced to that of a scalar case. Then, we apply our obtained algebraic expressions to identify either the parameter regions of stable microwaves generated by dual-delay optoelectronic oscillators or the regions of amplitude death in identical coupled oscillators.

  14. A clock and data recovery method based on phase detector implemented by delay chain in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Mingpu; Wu Jie; Zhang Jie

    2009-01-01

    A clock and data recovery method based on charge pump PLL was developed to archive medium data rate serial digital communication with simple line transceivers. The phase detector was realized by FPGA. A delay chain was constructed by delay elements with the same fixed delay. Every output of the delay elements was latched by the VCO output clock when the input signal went through the delay chain. The latched result was used to detect the data transition, which reflected the phase difference between the input signal and the VCO output clock. The VCO control voltage was adjust by charge pump to reduce the phase difference and archive phase lock. The loop filter was a passive filter,parameters of which were calculated from parameters of the delay chain and VCO. The experimental result shows that the clock of a 64Mbps transmission was recovered with a jitter less than 200 ps. (authors)

  15. Synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line using strong mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Hui; Wang, An-Bang; Feng, Ye; Wang, Yang

    2010-07-01

    This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication.

  16. Synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line using strong mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Hui, Li; An-Bang, Wang; Ye, Feng; Yang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication. (general)

  17. Characteristics of a delay-line readout in a cylindrical drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.; Ahmed, M.W.; Dzemidzic, M.; Empl, A.; Hungerford, E.V.; Lan, K.J.; Wilson, J.; Cooper, M.D.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Haim, D.; Kim, G.J.; Koetke, D.D.; Tribble, R.E.; Van Ausdeln, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, construction, and operational characteristics of a delay-line readout implemented on the cathode foils of a cylindrical drift chamber system. The readout was used to determine the position of an event along the length of the 1.74 m drift wires in the MEGA detectors used at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The performance of the system is interpreted by comparison to a PSPICE simulation, and to simple analytical models

  18. Delay-line cables for the fast bumpers in the PS.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    For 'continuous transfer' to the SPS, the beam accelerated in the PS is shaved off over several turns, so as to form a continuous sequence of bunches several times the length of the PS circumference. Fast bumpers, powered in a 'staircase' way, displace the PS beam stepwise towards the ejection septum. Each step lasts 2.1 microsec and the cable drums in this picture contain some of the bumper delay-lines of altogether 10 km.

  19. Measuring a Fiber-Optic Delay Line Using a Mode-Locked Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meirong; McKee, Michael R.; Pak, Kyung S.; Yu, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a laboratory setup for determining the optical length of a fiber-optic delay line at a precision greater than that obtainable by use of optical time-domain reflectometry or of mechanical measurement of length during the delay-line-winding process. In this setup, the delay line becomes part of the resonant optical cavity that governs the frequency of oscillation of a mode-locked laser. The length can then be determined from frequency-domain measurements, as described below. The laboratory setup is basically an all-fiber ring laser in which the delay line constitutes part of the ring. Another part of the ring - the laser gain medium - is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a diode laser at a wavelength of 980 nm. The loop also includes an optical isolator, two polarization controllers, and a polarizing beam splitter. The optical isolator enforces unidirectional lasing. The polarization beam splitter allows light in only one polarization mode to pass through the ring; light in the orthogonal polarization mode is rejected from the ring and utilized as a diagnostic output, which is fed to an optical spectrum analyzer and a photodetector. The photodetector output is fed to a radio-frequency spectrum analyzer and an oscilloscope. The fiber ring laser can generate continuous-wave radiation in non-mode-locked operation or ultrashort optical pulses in mode-locked operation. The mode-locked operation exhibited by this ring is said to be passive in the sense that no electro-optical modulator or other active optical component is used to achieve it. Passive mode locking is achieved by exploiting optical nonlinearity of passive components in such a manner as to obtain ultra-short optical pulses. In this setup, the particular nonlinear optical property exploited to achieve passive mode locking is nonlinear polarization rotation. This or any ring laser can support oscillation in multiple modes as long as sufficient gain is present to overcome

  20. Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasegh, Nastaran [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: vasegh@eetd.kntu.ac.ir; Sedigh, Ali Khaki [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.

  1. Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasegh, Nastaran; Sedigh, Ali Khaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.

  2. Optics of Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Delay Lines and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Mundy, Lee; Fixsen, Dale; Sampler, Henry; Mentzell, Eric; Veach, Todd; Silverberg, Robert F.; Furst, Stephen; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the optics of Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) as it gets ready for launch. BETTII is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared (30-90 microns) interferometer mission with capabilities of spatially resolved spectroscopy aimed at studying star formation and galaxy evolution. The instrument collects light from its two arms, makes them interfere, divides them into two science channels (30-50 microns and 60-90 microns), and focuses them onto the detectors. It also separates out the NIR light (1-2.5 microns) and uses it for tip-tilt corrections of the telescope pointing. Currently, all the optical elements have been fabricated, heat treated, coated appropriately and are mounted on their respective assemblies. We are presenting the optical design challenges for such a balloon borne spatio-spectral interferometer, and discuss how they have been mitigated. The warm and cold delay lines are an important part of this optics train. The warm delay line corrects for path length differences between the left and the right arm due to balloon pendulation, while the cold delay line is aimed at introducing a systematic path length difference, thereby generating our interferograms from where we can derive information about the spectra. The details of their design and the results of the testing of these opto-mechanical parts are also discussed. The sensitivities of different optical elements on the interferograms produced have been determined with the help of simulations using FRED software package. Accordingly, an alignment plan is drawn up which makes use of a laser tracker, a CMM, theodolites and a LUPI interferometer.

  3. A Neutron Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector with Cross Delay Line Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Kevin D.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Feller, W. Bruce; Iverson, Erik B.; Martin, Adrian; Robertson, J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Microchannel plates containing neutron absorbing elements such as boron and gadolinium in the bulk glass are used as the sensing element in high spatial resolution, high rate neutron imaging systems. In this paper we describe one such device, using both 10 B and natural Gd, which employs cross delay line signal readout, with time-of-flight capability. This detector has a measured spatial resolution under 40 m FWHM, thermal neutron efficiency of 19%, and has recorded rates in excess of 500 kHz. A physical and functional description is presented, followed by a discussion of measurements of detector performance and a brief survey of some practical applications.

  4. Optical Time Division Switching Using Multiple Stages of Fiber Optic Delay Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanke, Ronald Anthony

    Optical Time Slot Interchanges (OTSIs) can be realized by guided wave LiNbO_3 optical switches performing space division switching of optical fiber delay lines. In this dissertation the problems of reducing the total length of fiber required and also of improving the SNR characteristics of this OTSI function are addressed. Several new OTSI architectures are proposed to reduce the total fiber length while still obtaining excellent SNR characteristics. These reduced fiber architectures include the Distributed Input Delay, Distributed Output Delay, the 2-Stage decomposition and the Distributed Input/Output Delay architectures. A Parallel Feedback (PFB) OTSI architecture is proposed that achieves the theoretical minimum number of delay fibers and the theoretical minimum total length of delay fiber for a given OTSI function. Broadcast OTSI architectures are proposed that enable the data in an incoming time slot to be broadcast to one or more outgoing time slots. These broadcast OTSI architectures include the Time-Dup-Time (TDT) system, Passive Splitter/Active Combiner (PS/AC) equivalents of the point -to-point reduced fiber architectures, and the broadcast PFB architecture. For each of the point-to-point and the broadcast OTSI architectures proposed, a detailed characterization of the architecture is performed including an analysis of number of fibers, total fiber length, number of optical switches and drivers, attenuation and SNR characteristics. This dissertation also proposes several new techniques for improving the system SNR and for calibration of the OTSI architectures. A cascaded noise reduction and a differential attenuation compensation technique are used to achieve a significantly higher system SNR at the output of the OTSI. In-situ calibration techniques are discussed to determine the optimum operating voltages for the LiNbO _3 switches when alternating between states every time slot. These techniques attempt to compensate for an output power drift problem

  5. 75 FR 78928 - Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River Barges on Lake Michigan, Delay of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...-AA17 Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River Barges on Lake Michigan, Delay of Effective Date AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of delay of effective date and reopening of the comment... 46 CFR part 45 as amended by the final rule published in the November 18, 2010, Federal Register (75...

  6. Ultra-Wide Band Non-reciprocity through Sequentially-Switched Delay Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedka, Mathew M; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Qiang Mark; Wang, Yuanxun Ethan

    2017-01-06

    Achieving non-reciprocity through unconventional methods without the use of magnetic material has recently become a subject of great interest. Towards this goal a time switching strategy known as the Sequentially-Switched Delay Line (SSDL) is proposed. The essential SSDL configuration consists of six transmission lines of equal length, along with five switches. Each switch is turned on and off sequentially to distribute and route the propagating electromagnetic wave, allowing for simultaneous transmission and receiving of signals through the device. Preliminary experimental results with commercial off the shelf parts are presented which demonstrated non-reciprocal behavior with greater than 40 dB isolation from 200 KHz to 200 MHz. The theory and experimental results demonstrated that the SSDL concept may lead to future on-chip circulators over multi-octaves of frequency.

  7. Clock-frequency and temperature margins of a high-temperature superconductor delay-line memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, W.; Tahara, S.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a 10 GHz 32-bit delay-line memory, using a semiconductor crossbar switch and a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ coplanar delay line. For use in the high-speed (≥10 GHz) cell-buffer storage of large-throughput (≥1 Tbit/s) asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching systems, this memory must be fairly reliable. To evaluate the reliability of the operation, therefore, we measured the clock-frequency and temperature margins and the temperature dependence of the bit-error rate. At 64 K, this memory has a capacity of 32 bits with a clock frequency of 9.89±0.11 GHz. In general, clock frequencies of communication systems are strictly managed so that the margins are less than 10 -6 . Therefore, the frequency margin of this memory (∼2x10 -2 )) is wide enough for use in communication systems. The temperature margin was 71.5±4.3 K at 10 GHz and 33 bits. This memory offered error-free operation (BER -13 ) at 71.5 ±3.5 K. These temperature margins are wide enough to be controlled by a cryocooler. These results show that the memory offers reliability and that it can be applied to high-speed ATM cell-buffer storage. (author)

  8. Research On Variable-Length Transfer Delay and Delayed Signal Cancellation Based PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    large frequency drifts are anticipated and a high accuracy is required. To the best of authors' knowledge, the small-signal modeling of a variable-length delay-based PLL has not yet been conducted. The main aim of this paper is to cover this gap. The tuning procedure and analysis of these PLLs...

  9. Spectrum optimization-based chaotification using time-delay feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiaxi; Xu Daolin; Zhang Jing; Liu Chunrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A time-delay feedback controller is designed for chaotification. ► A spectrum optimization method is proposed to determine chaotification parameters. ► Numerical examples verify the spectrum optimization- based chaotification method. ► Engineering application in line spectrum reconfiguration is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a spectrum optimization method is developed for chaotification in conjunction with an application in line spectrum reconfiguration. A key performance index (the objective function) based on Fourier spectrum is specially devised with the idea of suppressing spectrum spikes and broadening frequency band. Minimization of the index empowered by a genetic algorithm enables to locate favorable parameters of the time-delay feedback controller, by which a line spectrum of harmonic vibration can be transformed into a broad-band continuous spectrum of chaotic motion. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the method and to demonstrate its effectiveness of chaotifying a 2-DOFs linear mechanical system.

  10. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  11. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  12. Peculiar time dependence of unexpected lines in delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of V, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Nissar; Karn, Ranjeet K.; Marketos, Pan; Nandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of highly charged ions of V, Fe and Ni show a few lines at energies higher than the H-like Lyman α-line of the respective projectile ions. These can only be attributed to heavier ions. Further the time dependence of such unexpected lines display a peculiar behavior. This work presents the experimental observations systematically

  13. Four-deep charge-time and pulse-width scaling discriminator for delay line MWPC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Grigorian, A.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A discriminator has been developed for digitizing both intercepted total charge and location of electromagnetic shower and particle trajectories in multi-wire proportional chambers read by delay lines. Determination of shower trajectory is aided by video signal integration followed by centroid-locating discrimination. Calibrated run-down of the signal integrating capacitor gives the charge information above a given threshold level. The discriminator is designed to handle up to four shower-induced video signals per event by incorporating steering circuits within the module. Each video signal is examined for time over an adjustable threshold. Video pulses with separation of less than 20 nsec are treated as a single pulse. Counter-logic circuits indicate the number of video signals digitized. These signal processing circuits provide a first level of data sifting which otherwise must be carried out with additional discriminator channels and added complexity in data recognition

  14. Dynamic measurements at THz frequencies with a fast rotary delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Markov, Andrey; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication, characterization, and applications of a fast rotary linear optical delay line (FRLODL) for THz time-domain spectroscopy are presented. The FRLODL features two reflective surfaces with spatially separated incoming and outgoing beams. It has been manufactured using CNC machining. A linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle allows a straightforward extraction of the conversion factor between the acquisition time (in ms) and the terahertz pulse time (in ps). The FRLODL has been tested using rotation speeds of up to 48 Hz, corresponding to an acquisition rate of up to 192 Hz with four blades incorporated on the same disk. At high speeds we observe a decrease of the bandwidth due to the limitations of the electronics, in particular, the transimpedance amplifier. An error analysis is performed by experimentally evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio and the dynamic range. With regard to the applications of the FRLODL, we first present observation of the evaporation of liquids, namely water, acetone and methanol. We then demonstrate monitoring of the spray painting process. Finally, detection of fast moving objects at 1 m/s and their thickness characterization are presented.

  15. Nuclei far from the beta stability line. High-energy beta decay and delayed-particle emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.G.; Hornshj, P.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in on-line mass separation together with improved proton accelerators now permit the production of secondary ion-beams of the order of 10 11 atoms per second. Applications to the study of delayed-proton and delayed-alpha emission are discussed. These effects have been used for the estimation of alpha-emission strength functions at 4-6 MeV excitation energy, and for the determination of level densities through fluctuation analysis

  16. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Analog Group Delay Equalizers Design Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laipert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a design method of the analog all-pass filter designated for equalization of the group delay frequency response of the analog filter. This method is based on usage of evolutionary algorithm, the Differential Evolution algorithm in particular. We are able to design such equalizers to be obtained equal-ripple group delay frequency response in the pass-band of the low-pass filter. The procedure works automatically without an input estimation. The method is presented on solving practical examples.

  18. [Effects of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current in HEK293 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Lin, Kun; Wei, Zhixiong; Chen, Qian; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Yang

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) in HEK293 cell line. HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with HERG channel cDNA plasmid pcDNA3.1 via Lipofectamine. Allitridum was added to the extracellular solution by partial perfusion after giga seal at the final concentration of 30 µmol/L. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the HERG currents and gating kinetics before and after allitridum exposure at room temperature. The amplitude and density of IHERG were both suppressed by allitridum in a voltage-dependent manner. In the presence of allitridum, the peak current of IHERG was reduced from 73.5∓4.3 pA/pF to 42.1∓3.6 pA/pF at the test potential of +50 mV (P<0.01). Allitridum also concentration-dependently decreased the density of the IHERG. The IC50 of allitridum was 34.74 µmol/L with a Hill coefficient of 1.01. Allitridum at 30 µmol/L caused a significant positive shift of the steady-state activation curve of IHERG and a markedly negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of IHERG, and significantly shortened the slow time constants of IHERG deactivation. Allitridum can potently block IHERG in HEK293 cells, which might be the electrophysiological basis for its anti-arrhythmic action.

  19. Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with 3D-printed micro linkers and tapered input for improved structural stability and acoustic directivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y; Kumar, A; Xu, S; Zou, J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. To achieve deeper imaging depth and wider field of view, a longer delay time and therefore delay length are required. However, as the length of the delay line increases, it becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, the improvement of the acoustic acceptance angle of the silicon acoustic delay lines was also investigated to better suppress the reception of unwanted ultrasound signals outside of the imaging plane. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays. (paper)

  20. Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekle, Dawn J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

  1. Microcomb-Based True-Time-Delay Network for Microwave Beamforming With Arbitrary Beam Pattern Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoxiao; Xuan, Yi; Bao, Chengying; Li, Shangyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhou, Bingkun; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2018-06-01

    Microwave phased array antennas (PAAs) are very attractive to defense applications and high-speed wireless communications for their abilities of fast beam scanning and complex beam pattern control. However, traditional PAAs based on phase shifters suffer from the beam-squint problem and have limited bandwidths. True-time-delay (TTD) beamforming based on low-loss photonic delay lines can solve this problem. But it is still quite challenging to build large-scale photonic TTD beamformers due to their high hardware complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate a photonic TTD beamforming network based on a miniature microresonator frequency comb (microcomb) source and dispersive time delay. A method incorporating optical phase modulation and programmable spectral shaping is proposed for positive and negative apodization weighting to achieve arbitrary microwave beam pattern control. The experimentally demonstrated TTD beamforming network can support a PAA with 21 elements. The microwave frequency range is $\\mathbf{8\\sim20\\ {GHz}}$, and the beam scanning range is $\\mathbf{\\pm 60.2^\\circ}$. Detailed measurements of the microwave amplitudes and phases are performed. The beamforming performances of Gaussian, rectangular beams and beam notch steering are evaluated through simulations by assuming a uniform radiating antenna array. The scheme can potentially support larger PAAs with hundreds of elements by increasing the number of comb lines with broadband microcomb generation.

  2. Advanced materials for the optical delay line of frequency pulse modulator on the basis of semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrarov, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper some materials which can be sued as an optical delay line of the pulse frequency modulator are considered. The structure and the principle are described as a modulator consisting of a laser diode with two Fabry Perot resonators and an optical wave guide providing a feedback loop. The optical wave guide fulfills the function of delay line and links the two resonators. The pulse sequence of the radiation of the semiconductor laser arises due to failure and recovery of optical generation. The pulse frequency modulation can be carried out by the action of electrical tension field on the electro optic martial of the wave guide. The selection of three electro-optic crystals for making of the optical wave guide of the considered modulator is justified. (author)

  3. Printed low velocity delay lines for cathode readout of proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, R.; Chase, R.L.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

    1974-01-01

    A readout which simultaneously insures a correct electric field, a satisfactory induced signal, the delay function itself, and low particle scattering is described for multiwire proportional chambers. (U.S.)

  4. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Huawei Wang; Jun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  5. Event-Based Stabilization over Networks with Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates asymptotic stabilization for linear systems over networks based on event-driven communication. A new communication logic is proposed to reduce the feedback effort, which has some advantages over traditional ones with continuous feedback. Considering the effect of time-varying transmission delays, the criteria for the design of both the feedback gain and the event-triggering mechanism are derived to guarantee the stability and performance requirements. Finally, the proposed techniques are illustrated by an inverted pendulum system and a numerical example.

  6. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection: An observer based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper consider the problem of fault detection and isolation in continuous- and discrete-time systems while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detections and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability...... conditions are given for the formulated design problems together with methods for appropriate design of observer based fault detectors. The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems . Moreover, certain indirect fault detection methods such as unknown input observers...

  7. Prediction-Based Control for Nonlinear Systems with Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Estrada-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has two primary objectives. First, it presents a state prediction strategy for a class of nonlinear Lipschitz systems subject to constant time delay in the input signal. As a result of a suitable change of variable, the state predictor asymptotically provides the value of the state τ units of time ahead. Second, it proposes a solution to the stabilization and trajectory tracking problems for the considered class of systems using predicted states. The predictor-controller convergence is proved by considering a complete Lyapunov functional. The proposed predictor-based controller strategy is evaluated using numerical simulations.

  8. Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015

  9. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  10. Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy using an optical fiber delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Ruxton, Keith; Johnstone, Walter; Lengden, Michael; Duffin, Kevin

    2009-06-08

    A new fiber-optic technique to eliminate residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is presented. The modulated laser output is split to pass in parallel through the gas measurement cell and an optical fiber delay line, with the modulation frequency / delay chosen to introduce a relative phase shift of pi between them. The two signals are balanced using a variable attenuator and recombined through a fiber coupler. In the absence of gas, the direct laser intensity modulation cancels, thereby eliminating the high background. The presence of gas induces a concentration-dependent imbalance at the coupler's output from which the absolute absorption profile is directly recovered with high accuracy using 1f detection.

  11. Role of delay-based reward in the spatial cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Bing-Hong; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Strategy selection in games, a typical decision making, usually brings noticeable reward for players which have discounted value if the delay appears. The discounted value is measure: earning sooner with a small reward or later with a delayed larger reward. Here, we investigate effects of delayed rewards on the cooperation in structured population. It is found that delayed reward supports the spreading of cooperation in square lattice, small-world and random networks. In particular, intermediate reward differences between delays impel the highest cooperation level. Interestingly, cooperative individuals with the same delay time steps form clusters to resist the invasion of defects, and cooperative individuals with lowest delay reward survive because they form the largest clusters in the lattice.

  12. Nucleolar re-activation is delayed in mouse embryos cloned from two different cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarcova, Olga; Dinnyes, A.; Polgar, Z.

    2009-01-01

    displayed early NPBs transformation. In conclusion, despite normal onset of EGA in cloned embryos, activation of functional nucleoli was one cell cycle delayed in NT embryos. NT-MEF embryos displayed normal targeting but delayed activation of nucleolar proteins. Contrary, in NT-HM1 embryos, both......Aim of this study was to evaluate and compare embryonic genome activation (EGA) in mouse embryos of different origin using nucleolus as a marker. Early and late 2-cell and late 4-cell stage embryos, prepared by in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PG), and nuclear transfer...... ofmouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and mouse HM1 emryonic stem cells (HM1), were processed for autoradiography following 3H-uridine incubation (transcriptional activity), transmission electron microscopy (ultrastructure) and immunofluorescence (nucleolar proteins; upstream binding factor, UBF...

  13. Arduino Based RFID Line Switching Using SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of line switching cannot be overemphasized as they are used to connect and disconnect substations to and from a distribution grid. At the cradle of technology line switching was achieved via the use of manual switches or fuses which could endanger life as a result of electrocution when expose during maintenance. This ill prompted the development of automated line switching using relays and contactors. With time this tends to fail as a result of wearing of the contact which is as a result of arcing and low voltage. To avert all these ills this paper presents Arduino based Radio Frequency Identification RFID line switching using Solid State Relay SSR. This is to ensure the safety of operators or technologist and to also avert the problem associated with relays and contactors using SSR. This was achieved using RFID RC-522 reader ardriuno Uno SSR and other discrete components. The system was tested and worked perfectly reducing the risk of electrocution and eliminating damage wearing of the contacts common with contactors and relays.

  14. A Design of First-Order Delay-Line DPLL in 1.2μm CMOS Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Ikuo; Nakashi, Kenichi; Ushida, Mitsuhiko; Taniguchi, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a CMOS 1st-order delay-line DPLL in l.2μm technology for clock regeneration. We have employed a parallel-architecture PC (Phase Comparator) to improve the speed and a DCO (Digitally Controlled Oscillator) without timing hazard. And we have also laid it out in 1.2μm CMOS, and simulated its performance by SPICE as well as logic simulation. Results show that the DPLL operates up to 60MHz, and that lock-in ranges are +5/-5% for regular" 10" input and +5/-5% for 2^13-1 PRBS (P...

  15. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  16. Hockey lines for simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topps, David; Ellaway, Rachel; Kupsh, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Simulation-based health professional education is often limited in accommodating large numbers of students. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands. We needed to find ways to make simulation sessions more accommodating for larger groups of learners, so that more than a few individuals could be active in a simulation scenario at any one time. Moreover, we needed to make the experience meaningful for all participating learners. We used the metaphor of (ice) hockey lines and substitution 'on the fly' to effectively double the numbers of learners that can be actively engaged at once. Team players must communicate clearly, and observe keenly, so that currently playing members understand what is happening from moment to moment and incoming substitutes can take over their roles seamlessly. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands We found that this hockey lines approach to simulation-based team scenarios will raise learners' levels of engagement, reinforce good crew resource management (CRM) practices, enhance closed-loop communication, and help learners to understand their cognitive biases and limitations when working in high-pressure situations. During our continuing refinement of the hockey-lines approach, we developed a number of variations on the basic activity model, with various benefits and applications. Both students and teachers have been enthusiastically positive about this approach when it was introduced at our various courses and participating institutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Impact of Delays of Freight Trains in JIT System on Example One Track Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlugoš Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the problem between freight trains operated by Metrans Danube, a.s. and passenger trains operated by Regiojet, a.s on the line Bratislava – Dunajská Streda - Komárno. It is very important to emphasize this problem because, nowadays, mostly freight trains across the Europe drive in just in time system, it means, that shipments are delivered at exact time and place on time. At this line there are many problems not only this track line is single track, so it is necessary to cross the trains very often in traffic points which maximum 2 traffic tracks but also organizing of transport is more complicated which is provided by Railway infrastructure manager – this case is very important example when railway traffic technology slows down all processes in the logistic chain.

  18. Irradiation combined with SU5416: Microvascular changes and growth delay in a human xenograft glioblastoma tumor line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuuring, Janneke; Bussink, Johan; Bernsen, Hans; Peeters, Wenny; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and the antiangiogenic compound SU5416 was tested and compared with irradiation alone in a human glioblastoma tumor line xenografted in nude mice. The aim of this study was to monitor microenvironmental changes and growth delay. Methods and materials: A human glioblastoma xenograft tumor line was implanted in nude mice. Irradiations consisted of 10 Gy or 20 Gy with and without SU5416. Several microenvironmental parameters (tumor cell hypoxia, tumor blood perfusion, vascular volume, and microvascular density) were analyzed after imunohistochemical staining. Tumor growth delay was monitored for up to 200 days after treatment. Results: SU5416, when combined with irradiation, has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation alone. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment showed a decreased vascular density during treatment with SU5416. In tumors regrowing after reaching only a partial remission, vascular characteristics normalized shortly after cessation of SU5416. However, in tumors regrowing after reaching a complete remission, permanent microenvironmental changes and an increase of tumor necrosis with a subsequent slower tumor regrowth was found. Conclusions: Permanent vascular changes were seen after combined treatment resulting in complete remission. Antiangiogenic treatment with SU5416 when combined with irradiation has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation or antiangiogenic treatment alone

  19. Investigation of the network delay on Profibus-DP based network

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, C.; Gürdal, O.; Sayan, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model of the network-induced delay control systems (NDCS) is given. Also the role of the NDCS’s components such as controller, sensor and network environment on the network-induced delay are included in the mathematical model of the system. The network delay is investigated on Profibus-DP based network application and experimental results obtained are presented graphically. The experimental results obtained show that the network induced delay is randomly changed according to ...

  20. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and di...

  1. Information spreading in Delay Tolerant Networks based on nodes' behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2014-07-01

    Information spreading in DTNs (Delay Tolerant Networks) adopts a store-carry-forward method, and nodes receive the message from others directly. However, it is hard to judge whether the information is safe in this communication mode. In this case, a node may observe other nodes' behaviors. At present, there is no theoretical model to describe the varying rule of the nodes' trusting level. In addition, due to the uncertainty of the connectivity in DTN, a node is hard to get the global state of the network. Therefore, a rational model about the node's trusting level should be a function of the node's own observing result. For example, if a node finds k nodes carrying a message, it may trust the information with probability p(k). This paper does not explore the real distribution of p(k), but instead presents a unifying theoretical framework to evaluate the performance of the information spreading in above case. This framework is an extension of the traditional SI (susceptible-infected) model, and is useful when p(k) conforms to any distribution. Simulations based on both synthetic and real motion traces show the accuracy of the framework. Finally, we explore the impact of the nodes' behaviors based on certain special distributions through numerical results.

  2. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy has establishments located in various regions of the country and they include front-end fuel cycle facilities, nuclear power stations, back-end fuel cycle facilities and facilities for research and societal applications. These facilities handle naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and a variety of man-made radionuclides. These radionuclides are handled with utmost care so that they do not affect adversely the occupational workers or the members of public residing nearby. There is safety culture of the highest standard existing in all DAE establishments and it matches with the international standards. In addition, there is a perpetual environmental monitoring program carried out by the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) located at all DAE establishments. The environmental data generated by such program is studied regularly by experts to ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements in the country are of international standards and ensure adequate protection of workers and members of public. In addition to such continued monitoring program and studies being carried out for the ongoing projects, base-line studies are carried out for all the new projects of the DAE. The purpose of the base-line studies is to establish a detailed base-line data set for a new DAE location well before the foundation stone is laid, so that the data collected when there is no departmental activity can be compared with the data generated later by the ESL. The data so generated is site specific and it varies from place to place depending upon the location of the site, e.g., inland or coastal, the presence of water bodies and pattern of irrigation, the geological characteristics of the location, the local culture and habits of the people, population density and urban or rural background. The data to be recorded as base-line data is generated over a period of at least one year covering all the seasons

  3. Micro-simulation based analysis of railway lines robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    train course that can represent the total train delay along the line. Dispatching measures in case of disturbance are excluded by applying First-In First-Out rule in simulations. The benefits of modifications to the track infrastructure, the timetable, and the signaling system, in terms of consecutive...

  4. Robustness of delayed multistable systems with application to droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Denis; Schiffer, Johannes; Ortega, Romeo

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the problem of phase-locking in droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids with delays, the recently developed theory of input-to-state stability (ISS) for multistable systems is extended to the case of multistable systems with delayed dynamics. Sufficient conditions for ISS of delayed systems are presented using Lyapunov-Razumikhin functions. It is shown that ISS multistable systems are robust with respect to delays in a feedback. The derived theory is applied to two examples. First, the ISS property is established for the model of a nonlinear pendulum and delay-dependent robustness conditions are derived. Second, it is shown that, under certain assumptions, the problem of phase-locking analysis in droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids with delays can be reduced to the stability investigation of the nonlinear pendulum. For this case, corresponding delay-dependent conditions for asymptotic phase-locking are given.

  5. A MWPC with a cathode coupled delay line read-out as radioactivity detector for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1981-01-01

    A non selective method for the isolation of DNA repair-deficient mutants in mammalian cells is discussed. The method requires radioactive labelling of the short DNA sequences synthesized during repair of damaged regions. Mutants should be recognized by the absence of radioactive incorporation into their DNA. A multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) is proposed as a suitable radioactivity detector. The performance of a MWPC prototype with a cathode coupled delay line read-out is described and is shown to be adequate for this application. The main advantages of a MWPC are reviewed with respect to other methods used for β - radioactivity counting of biological samples, such as liquid scintillators or autoradiography: the proposed detection method is non destructive for the cells, which are being kept alive for further biological studies, furthermore many cell clones can be screened within a reasonable time. (orig.)

  6. A hemispherical photoelectron spectrometer with 2-dimensional delay-line detector and integrated spin-polarization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plucinski, L.; Oelsner, A.; Matthes, F.; Schneider, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectron spectrometers usually allow detection of either spin-resolved energy-distribution curves (EDCs) at single emission angle, or 2D angle-vs.-energy images without spin-resolution. We have combined the two detection schemes into one spectrometer system which permits simultaneous detection of a 1D spin-resolved EDC and a 2D angular map. A state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer is used as an energy filter. Its original scintillator detector has been replaced by a delay-line-detector (DLD), and part of the electron beam is allowed to pass through to reach the spin-polarized low energy electron diffraction (SPLEED) spin-detector mounted subsequently. The electron-optics between DLD and SPLEED contains a 90 o deflector to feature simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane spin components. These electron-optics have been optimized for high transmission to reduce acquisition times in the spin-resolved mode.

  7. On the impact of fiber-delay-lines (FDL) in an all-optical network (AON) bottleneck without wavelength conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay-Losada, Pablo Jesus; Sahin, Gokhan

    2014-08-01

    Random access memories (RAM) are fundamental in conventional electronic switches and routers to manage short-term congestion and to decrease data loss probabilities. Switches in all-optical networks (AONs), however, do not have access to optical RAM, and therefore are prone to much higher loss levels than their electronic counterparts. Fiber-delay-lines (FDLs), able to delay an optical data packet a fixed amount of time, have been proposed in the literature as a means to alleviate those high loss levels. However, they are extremely bulky to manage, so their usage introduces a trade-off between practicality and performance in the design and operation of the AON. In this paper we study the influence that FDLs have in the performance of flows crossing an all-optical switch that acts as their bottleneck. We show how extremely low numbers of FDLs (e.g., 1 or 2) can help in reducing losses by several orders of magnitude in several illustrative scenarios with high aggregation levels. Our results therefore suggest that FDLs can be a practical means of dealing with congestion in AONs in the absence of optical RAM buffers or of suitable data interchange protocols specifically designed for AONs.

  8. A novel line segment detection algorithm based on graph search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-dan; Liu, Guo-ying; Song, Xu

    2018-02-01

    To overcome the problem of extracting line segment from an image, a method of line segment detection was proposed based on the graph search algorithm. After obtaining the edge detection result of the image, the candidate straight line segments are obtained in four directions. For the candidate straight line segments, their adjacency relationships are depicted by a graph model, based on which the depth-first search algorithm is employed to determine how many adjacent line segments need to be merged. Finally we use the least squares method to fit the detected straight lines. The comparative experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm has achieved better results than the line segment detector (LSD).

  9. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don’t include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:28931066

  10. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-01-01

    Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays). By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  11. Finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with mixed delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays. By means of a simple feedback controller and novel finite time synchronization analysis methods, several new criteria are derived to ensure the finite time synchronization of MCGNNs with mixed delays. The obtained criteria are very concise and easy to verify. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  12. Carry-chain propagation delay impacts on resolution of FPGA-based TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lei; Yang Junfeng; Song Kezhu

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of carry chains in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is introduced in this paper. The propagation delay time of the rising and falling edges in the carry chains are calculated according to the architecture and they are predicted not equal in most cases. Tests show that the measuring results of the propagation delay time in EP3C120F484C8N series FPGA of Altera are in line with the inference. The difference of propagation delay time results in different accuracies of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC). This phenomenon shall be considered in the design of TDC implemented in FPGA. It can ensure better accuracy. (authors)

  13. MEMS-based transmission lines for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Fu, Jiahui; Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Huajuan; Lee, Jongchul

    2003-04-01

    This paper mainly presents a briefly review for recent progress in MEMS-based transmission lines for use in microwave and millimeterwave range. MEMS-based transmission lines including different transmission line structure such as membrane-supported microstrip line microstrip line, coplanar microshield transmission line, LIGA micromachined planar transmission line, micromachined waveguides and coplanar waveguide are discussed. MEMS-based transmission lines are characterized by low propagation loss, wide operation frequency band, low dispersion and high quality factor, in addition, the fabrication is compatible with traditional processing of integrated circuits (IC"s). The emergence of MEMS-based transmission lines provided a solution for miniaturizing microwave system and monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  14. Study of Relationship Between Illness Perception and Delay in Seeking Help for Breast Cancer Patients Based on Leventhal's Self-Regulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Seyedeh Maryam; Ozgoli, Giti; Solhi, Mahnaz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer patients is delay in seeking help. Leventhal's self-regulation model provides an appropriate framework to assess delay in seeking help. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between "illness perception" and "help seeking delay" in breast cancer patients based on Leventhal's self-regulation model. In this correlational descriptive study with convenience sampling conducted in 2013, participants were 120 women with breast cancer who were diagnosed in the last year and referred to chemotherapy and radiotherapy centers in Rasht, Iran. Data collection scales included demographic data, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R)and a researcher made questionnaire to measure the delay in seeking help. Pre-hospital delay (help seeking delay) was evaluated in 3 phases (assessment, disease, behavior). The data were analyzed using SPSS-19. The mean (SD) age calculated for the patients was 47.3±10.2. Some 43% of the patients had a high school or higher education level and 82% were married. The "pre-hospital delay" was reported ≥3 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that none of the illness perception components were correlated with appraisal and behavioral delay phases. In the illness delay phase, "time line" (p-value =0.04) and "risk factors"(p-value=0.03) had significant effects on reducing and "psychological attributions" had significant effects on increasing the delay (p-value =0.01). "Illness coherence" was correlated with decreased pre-hospital patient delay (p-valueperceptions of breast cancer influences delay in seeking help. In addition to verifying the validity of Leventhal's self-regulation model in explaining delay in seeking help, the results signify the importance of the "illness delay phase" (decision to seek help) and educational interventions-counseling for women in the community.

  15. Event-based simulation of networks with pulse delayed coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Pulse-mediated interactions are common in networks of different nature. Here we develop a general framework for simulation of networks with pulse delayed coupling. We introduce the discrete map governing the dynamics of such networks and describe the computation algorithm for its numerical simulation.

  16. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  17. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  18. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  19. Control-based method to identify underlying delays of a nonlinear dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongchuan; Frasca, Mattia; Liu, Fang

    2008-10-01

    We suggest several stationary state control-based delay identification methods which do not require any structural information about the controlled systems and are applicable to systems described by delayed ordinary differential equations. This proposed technique includes three steps: (i) driving a system to a steady state; (ii) perturbing the control signal for shifting the steady state; and (iii) identifying all delays by detecting the time that the system is abruptly drawn out of stationarity. Some aspects especially important for applications are discussed as well, including interaction delay identification, stationary state convergence speed, performance comparison, and the influence of noise on delay identification. Several examples are presented to illustrate the reliability and robustness of all delay identification methods suggested.

  20. dq-Frame Cascaded Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    on their position in the PLL structure. Inspired from the concept of delayed signal cancellation (DSC), the idea of cascaded DSC (CDSC) has recently been introduced as an effective solution to improve the performance of the PLL under adverse grid conditions. However, the focus has been on the application of CDSC...... operator as the pre-filtering stage of PLL, and little work has been conducted on its application as the in-loop filtering stage of PLL. This paper provides a detailed analysis and design of dqCDSC-PLL (PLL with in-loop dq-frame CDSC operator). The study is started with an overview of this PLL...

  1. Radiological engineering evaluation of the delay time line air scrubber located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huneycutt, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of an air scrubber to an already existing delay line and whether it would scrub 11 CO 2 . There were three main objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine the scrubbing efficiency of the scrubber. The scrubbing efficiency was then used to predict the dose rates in the scrubber area and compare those values with measurements from radiological surveys. The third objective was to determine if the shield blocks were effective in reducing the dose rates in the scrubber area. The activities were measured before and during scrubber operation and this information was used to calculate the scrubbing efficiency and the efficiency of 11 CO 2 removal was determined to be around 50%. Microshield was then used to predict dose rates and compared those values with measurements from radiological surveys. This was also used to determine the that the shield blocks around the scrubber were effective in reducing the dose rates from the radiation field produced by the radionuclides in the scrubber

  2. Delay-based virtual congestion control in multi-tenant datacenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Zhu, Danhong; Zhang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    With the evolution of cloud computing and virtualization, the congestion control of virtual datacenters has become the basic issue for multi-tenant datacenters transmission. Regarding to the friendly conflict of heterogeneous congestion control among multi-tenant, this paper proposes a delay-based virtual congestion control, which translates the multi-tenant heterogeneous congestion control into delay-based feedback uniformly by setting the hypervisor translation layer, modifying three-way handshake of explicit feedback and packet loss feedback and throttling receive window. The simulation results show that the delay-based virtual congestion control can effectively solve the unfairness of heterogeneous feedback congestion control algorithms.

  3. Transmission Delay Based Control over Networks with Wireless Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the mobility of computers during communication, the TCP connections between fixed host and mobile host may often traverse wired and wireless networks, and the recovery of losses due to wireless transmission error is much different from congestion control. The paper analyzes the side effect of RTT estimation while making the TCP source to handle congestion and wireless error losses properly. Then present a strategy using information feedback by the last hop acknowledgement and monitoring the queuing level of the wired bottleneck link by calculating the changes in transmission delay along the path. With the identification of the early stage of congestion, it can respond to wired congestion quickly while keeping wireless link more reliable, and make TCP react to the different packets losses more appropriately.

  4. An overview of the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbin

    2012-01-01

    Industrial plant maintenance is an area which has enormous potential to be improved. It is also an area attracted significant attention from mathematical modellers because of the random phenomenon of plant failures. This paper reviews the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance modelling, which is one of the mathematical techniques for optimising inspection planning and related problems. The delay-time is a concept that divides a plant failure process into two stages: from new until the point of an identifiable defect, and then from this point to failure. The first stage is called the normal working stage and the second stage is called the failure delay-time stage. If the distributions of the two stages can be quantified, the relationship between the number of failures and the inspection interval can be readily established. This can then be used for optimizing the inspection interval and other related decision variables. In this review, we pay particular attention to new methodological developments and industrial applications of the delay-time-based models over the last few decades. The use of the delay-time concept and modeling techniques in other areas rather than in maintenance is also reviewed. Future research directions are also highlighted. - Highlights: ► Reviewed the recent advances in delay-time-based maintenance models and applications. ► Compared the delay-time-based models with other models. ► Focused on methodologies and applications. ► Pointed out future research directions.

  5. Improved delayed signal cancellation-based SRF-PLL for unbalanced grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messo, Tuomas; Sihvo, Jussi; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Problems with power quality in the grid have gained a lot of attention recently due to rapid increase in the amount of grid-connected power converters. The converter should produce sinusoidal currents also during abnormal conditions, such as unbalanced grid voltages. Several methods, like...... the delayed signal cancellation-based method (DSC), have been proposed to alleviate the detrimental effect of unbalance. This paper proposes an improvement to a delayed signal cancellation based synchronization algorithm for unbalanced grids. The proposed PLL structure employs only half of the delay required...

  6. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  7. Numerical Solution of Piecewise Constant Delay Systems Based on a Hybrid Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Marzban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient numerical scheme for solving delay differential equations with a piecewise constant delay function is developed in this paper. The proposed approach is based on a hybrid of block-pulse functions and Taylor’s polynomials. The operational matrix of delay corresponding to the proposed hybrid functions is introduced. The sparsity of this matrix significantly reduces the computation time and memory requirement. The operational matrices of integration, delay, and product are employed to transform the problem under consideration into a system of algebraic equations. It is shown that the developed approach is also applicable to a special class of nonlinear piecewise constant delay differential equations. Several numerical experiments are examined to verify the validity and applicability of the presented technique.

  8. Impact of MAC Delay on AUV Localization: Underwater Localization Based on Hyperbolic Frequency Modulation Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungryul; Yoo, Younghwan

    2018-01-26

    Medium Access Control (MAC) delay which occurs between the anchor node's transmissions is one of the error sources in underwater localization. In particular, in AUV localization, the MAC delay significantly degrades the ranging accuracy. The Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB) definition theoretically proves that the MAC delay significantly degrades the localization performance. This paper proposes underwater localization combined with multiple access technology to decouple the localization performance from the MAC delay. Towards this goal, we adopt hyperbolic frequency modulation (HFM) signal that provides multiplexing based on its good property, high-temporal correlation. Owing to the multiplexing ability of the HFM signal, the anchor nodes can transmit packets without MAC delay, i.e., simultaneous transmission is possible. In addition, the simulation results show that the simultaneous transmission is not an optional communication scheme, but essential for the localization of mobile object in underwater.

  9. Generalized synchronization-based multiparameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut K.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a nonlinear active observer based generalized synchronization scheme for multiparameter estimation in time-delayed systems with periodic time delay. A sufficient condition for parameter estimation is derived using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The suggested tool proves to be globally and asymptotically stable by means of Krasovskii-Lyapunov method. With this effective method, parameter identification and generalized synchronization of modulated time-delayed systems with all the system parameters unknown, can be achieved simultaneously. We restrict our study for multiple parameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems with single state variable only. Theoretical proof and numerical simulation demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique. The block diagram of electronic circuit for multiple time delay system shows that the method is easily applicable in practical communication problems.

  10. Dynamic IQC-Based Control of Uncertain LFT Systems With Time-Varying State Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Wu, Fen

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new exact-memory delay control scheme for a class of uncertain systems with time-varying state delay under the integral quadratic constraint (IQC) framework. The uncertain system is described as a linear fractional transformation model including a state-delayed linear time-invariant (LTI) system and time-varying structured uncertainties. The proposed exact-memory delay controller consists of a linear state-feedback control law and an additional term that captures the delay behavior of the plant. We first explore the delay stability and the L 2 -gain performance using dynamic IQCs incorporated with quadratic Lyapunov functions. Then, the design of exact-memory controllers that guarantee desired L 2 -gain performance is examined. The resulting delay control synthesis conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which are convex on all design variables including the scaling matrices associated with the IQC multipliers. The IQC-based exact-memory control scheme provides a novel approach for delay control designs via convex optimization, and advances existing control methods in two important ways: 1) better controlled performance and 2) simplified design procedure with less computational cost. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach have been demonstrated through numerical studies.

  11. An Analysis of Delay-based and Integrator-based Sequence Detectors for Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    -signal cancellation operators are the main members of the delay-based sequence detectors. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and experimental comparative study between integrator and delay based sequence detectors. The theoretical analysis is conducted based on the small-signal modelling......Detecting and separating positive and negative sequence components of the grid voltage or current is of vital importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, HVDC systems, etc. To this end, several techniques have been proposed in recent years. These techniques can be broadly...... classified into two main classes: The integrator-based techniques and Delay-based techniques. The complex-coefficient filter-based technique, dual second-order generalized integrator-based method, multiple reference frame approach are the main members of the integrator-based sequence detector and the delay...

  12. A Novel Assembly Line Balancing Method Based on PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly line is widely used in manufacturing system. Assembly line balancing problem is a crucial question during design and management of assembly lines since it directly affects the productivity of the whole manufacturing system. The model of assembly line balancing problem is put forward and a general optimization method is proposed. The key data on assembly line balancing problem is confirmed, and the precedence relations diagram is described. A double objective optimization model based on takt time and smoothness index is built, and balance optimization scheme based on PSO algorithm is proposed. Through the simulation experiments of examples, the feasibility and validity of the assembly line balancing method based on PSO algorithm is proved.

  13. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  14. The structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. Reconstructed velocity-delay maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grier, C.J.; Peterson, B.M.; Pogge, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velo...

  15. Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.

    2016-02-01

    Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface

  16. Multiple-region directed functional connectivity based on phase delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem

    2017-03-01

    Network analysis is increasingly advancing the field of neuroimaging. Neural networks are generally constructed from pairwise interactions with an assumption of linear relations between them. Here, a high-order statistical framework to calculate directed functional connectivity among multiple regions, using wavelet analysis and spectral coherence has been presented. The mathematical expression for 4 regions was derived and used to characterize a quartet of regions as a linear, combined (nonlinear), or disconnected network. Phase delays between regions were used to obtain network's temporal hierarchy and directionality. The validity of the mathematical derivation along with the effects of coupling strength and noise on its outcomes were studied by computer simulations of the Kuramoto model. The simulations demonstrated correct directionality for a large range of coupling strength and low sensitivity to Gaussian noise compared with pairwise coherences. The analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI data of 40 healthy young subjects to characterize the ventral visual system, motor system and default mode network (DMN). It was shown that the ventral visual system was predominantly composed of linear networks while the motor system and the DMN were composed of combined (nonlinear) networks. The ventral visual system exhibits its known temporal hierarchy, the motor system exhibits center ↔ out hierarchy and the DMN has dorsal ↔ ventral and anterior ↔ posterior organizations. The analysis can be applied in different disciplines such as seismology, or economy and in a variety of brain data including stimulus-driven fMRI, electrophysiology, EEG, and MEG, thus open new horizons in brain research. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1374-1386, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  18. Operation Modes and Control Schemes for Internet-Based Teleoperation System with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆军; 宋爱国

    2003-01-01

    Teleoperation system plays an important role in executing task under hazard environment. As the computer networks such as the Internet are being used as the communication channel of teleoperation system, varying time delay causes the overall system unstable and reduces the performance of transparency. This paper proposed twelve operation modes with different control schemes for teleoperation on the Internet with time delay. And an optimal operation mode with control scheme was specified for teleoperation with time delay, based on the tradeoff between passivity and transparency properties. It experimentally confirmed the validity of the proposed optimal mode and control scheme by using a simple one DOF master-slave manipulator system.

  19. Robust synchronization of delayed neural networks based on adaptive control and parameters identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jin; Chen Tianping; Xiang Lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates synchronization dynamics of delayed neural networks with all the parameters unknown. By combining the adaptive control and linear feedback with the updated law, some simple yet generic criteria for determining the robust synchronization based on the parameters identification of uncertain chaotic delayed neural networks are derived by using the invariance principle of functional differential equations. It is shown that the approaches developed here further extend the ideas and techniques presented in recent literature, and they are also simple to implement in practice. Furthermore, the theoretical results are applied to a typical chaotic delayed Hopfied neural networks, and numerical simulation also demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique

  20. Low Emissions and Delay Optimization for an Isolated Signalized Intersection Based on Vehicular Trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    Full Text Available A traditional traffic signal control system is established based on vehicular delay, queue length, saturation and other indicators. However, due to the increasing severity of urban environmental pollution issues and the development of a resource-saving and environmentally friendly social philosophy, the development of low-carbon and energy-efficient urban transport is required. This paper first defines vehicular trajectories and the calculation of vehicular emissions based on VSP. Next, a regression analysis method is used to quantify the relationship between vehicular emissions and delay, and a traffic signal control model is established to reduce emissions and delay using the enumeration method combined with saturation constraints. Finally, one typical intersection of Changchun is selected to verify the model proposed in this paper; its performance efficiency is also compared using simulations in VISSIM. The results of this study show that the proposed model can significantly reduce vehicle delay and traffic emissions simultaneously.

  1. Low Emissions and Delay Optimization for an Isolated Signalized Intersection Based on Vehicular Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ciyun; Gong, Bowen; Qu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A traditional traffic signal control system is established based on vehicular delay, queue length, saturation and other indicators. However, due to the increasing severity of urban environmental pollution issues and the development of a resource-saving and environmentally friendly social philosophy, the development of low-carbon and energy-efficient urban transport is required. This paper first defines vehicular trajectories and the calculation of vehicular emissions based on VSP. Next, a regression analysis method is used to quantify the relationship between vehicular emissions and delay, and a traffic signal control model is established to reduce emissions and delay using the enumeration method combined with saturation constraints. Finally, one typical intersection of Changchun is selected to verify the model proposed in this paper; its performance efficiency is also compared using simulations in VISSIM. The results of this study show that the proposed model can significantly reduce vehicle delay and traffic emissions simultaneously.

  2. Exponential Antisynchronization Control of Stochastic Memristive Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays Based on Novel Delay-Dependent or Delay-Independent Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential antisynchronization in mean square of memristive neural networks with stochastic perturbation and mixed time-varying delays is studied in this paper. Then, two kinds of novel delay-dependent and delay-independent adaptive controllers are designed. With the ability of adapting to environment changes, the proposed controllers can modify their behaviors to achieve the best performance. In particular, on the basis of the differential inclusions theory, inequality theory, and stochastic analysis techniques, several sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the exponential antisynchronization between the drive system and response system. Furthermore, two numerical simulation examples are provided to the validity of the derived criteria.

  3. Eigenspace-Based Minimum Variance Adaptive Beamformer Combined with Delay Multiply and Sum: Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Orooji, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Delay and sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in linear-array photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a result of its simple implementation. However, it leads to a low resolution and high sidelobes. Delay multiply and sum (DMAS) was used to address the incapabilities of DAS, providing a higher image quality. However, the resolution improvement is not well enough compared to eigenspace-based minimum variance (EIBMV). In this paper, the EIBMV beamformer has been combined with DMAS algebra...

  4. Integration Processes of Delay Differential Equation Based on Modified Laguerre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeguo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose long-time convergent numerical integration processes for delay differential equations. We first construct an integration process based on modified Laguerre functions. Then we establish its global convergence in certain weighted Sobolev space. The proposed numerical integration processes can also be used for systems of delay differential equations. We also developed a technique for refinement of modified Laguerre-Radau interpolations. Lastly, numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of the proposed method and coincide well with analysis.

  5. Finite-Time Stabilization and Adaptive Control of Memristor-Based Delayed Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Guodong

    Finite-time stability problem has been a hot topic in control and system engineering. This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization issue of memristor-based delayed neural networks (MDNNs) via two control approaches. First, in order to realize the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, a delayed state feedback controller is proposed. Then, a novel adaptive strategy is applied to the delayed controller, and finite-time stabilization of MDNNs can also be achieved by using the adaptive control law. Some easily verified algebraic criteria are derived to ensure the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, and the estimation of the settling time functional is given. Moreover, several finite-time stability results as our special cases for both memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) without delays and neural networks are given. Finally, three examples are provided for the illustration of the theoretical results.Finite-time stability problem has been a hot topic in control and system engineering. This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization issue of memristor-based delayed neural networks (MDNNs) via two control approaches. First, in order to realize the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, a delayed state feedback controller is proposed. Then, a novel adaptive strategy is applied to the delayed controller, and finite-time stabilization of MDNNs can also be achieved by using the adaptive control law. Some easily verified algebraic criteria are derived to ensure the stabilization of MDNNs in finite time, and the estimation of the settling time functional is given. Moreover, several finite-time stability results as our special cases for both memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) without delays and neural networks are given. Finally, three examples are provided for the illustration of the theoretical results.

  6. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  7. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y-J; Agrawal, A K; Dyke, S J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  8. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Schweder, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  9. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Schweder, Tore

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  10. Line impedance estimation using model based identification technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Agelidis, Vassilios; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the line impedance can be used by the control of numerous grid-connected systems, such as active filters, islanding detection techniques, non-linear current controllers, detection of the on/off grid operation mode. Therefore, estimating the line impedance can add extra functions...... into the operation of the grid-connected power converters. This paper describes a quasi passive method for estimating the line impedance of the distribution electricity network. The method uses the model based identification technique to obtain the resistive and inductive parts of the line impedance. The quasi...

  11. State Estimation-based Transmission line parameter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Andrés Olarte Dussán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two state-estimation-based algorithms for identifying transmission line parameters. The identification technique used simultaneous state-parameter estimation on an artificial power system composed of several copies of the same transmission line, using measurements at different points in time. The first algorithm used active and reactive power measurements at both ends of the line. The second method used synchronised phasor voltage and current measurements at both ends. The algorithms were tested in simulated conditions on the 30-node IEEE test system. All line parameters for this system were estimated with errors below 1%.

  12. Implementing Evidence-Based Neonatal Skin Care With Parent-Performed, Delayed Immersion Baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jeanette; Rapkin, Gloria

    2017-12-01

    There has been a recent trend toward delaying newborn baths because of mounting evidence that delayed bathing promotes breastfeeding, decreases hypothermia, and allows for more parental involvement with newborn care. A multidisciplinary team from a maternal-new-born unit at a military medical center designed and implemented an evidence-based practice change from infant sponge baths shortly after birth to delayed immersion baths. An analysis of newborn temperature data showed that newborns who received delayed immersion baths were less likely to be hypothermic than those who received a sponge bath shortly after birth. Furthermore, parents reported that they liked participating in bathing their newborns and that they felt prepared to bathe them at home. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Quasidistributed temperature sensor based on dense wavelength-division multiplexing optical fiber delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun; Yang, Ning; Fan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    We report on a fiber-optic delay-based quasidistributed temperature sensor with high precision. The device works by detecting the delay induced by the temperature instead of the spectrum. To analyze the working principle of this sensor, the thermal dependence of the fiber-optic delay was theoretically investigated and the delay-temperature coefficient was measured to be 42.2 ps/km°C. In this sensor, quasidistributed measurement of temperature could be easily realized by dense wavelength-division multiplexing and wavelength addressing. We built and tested a prototype quasidistributed temperature sensor with eight testing points equally distributed along a 32.61-km-long fiber. The experimental results demonstrate an average error of economic temperature measurements.

  14. Implementation of EPICS based Control System for Radioisotope Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Mult-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been operating 100 MeV proton linear accelerator . For operating 100 MeV linac, various control system has been implemented such as vacuum, power supply, RCCS and etc. KOMAC is operating two beam lines so that clients can use 100 MeV proton beam for their experiment. KOMAC sends beam to beam line and target room using two dipole magnets and several quadrupole magnets. As demand for experiments and Radius Isotope using beam is increased, another beam line is under construction and RI beam line control system is need. To synchronize with KOMAC control system, RI beam line control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) software. The beam is transported to RI beam line to control magnet power supply and vacuum. Implementation of RI beam line control system is presented and some preliminary results are reported. The base RI beam line control system is implemented. It can control beam direction and vacuum. Comparing archived data and current data, RI beam line and control system will be improved. In the future, scroll pump and gate control system will be implemented using programmable logic controller PLC. RI beam interlock sequence will be added to KOMAC interlock system to protect linac.

  15. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles

  16. A Minor Modification of Leading Edge Discriminator Circuitry with a Delay Line for Baseline Restoration of Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, N

    2003-01-01

    Multi-channel neutron time-of-flight detector arrays LaNSA, T-ion, Medusa, and Mandala, have been used for neutron spectroscopy in inertial confinement fusion experiments. These multi-channel neutron detector arrays consist of many identical scintillation detectors (842 ∼ 1024 channel), data acquisition electronics (discriminators, time-to digital converters, and controller). Each detector element is operated in neutron counting mode. Time-of-flight of individual detected neutrons are recorded by time to digital converters. The energy of each detected neutrons is determined from its time-of-flight. The accurate time measurement (Δt ∼ 0.5 ns) and straightforward statistical features of the data obtained with these systems provides good integrity and reliability. The elements detector used in these systems are organic scintillators coupled with photo multiplier tubes. A scintillation detector operated in particle-counting mode requires finite recovery time after each detection event. The recovery time is determined by the time responses of scintillators, photo multiplier tubes, and the dead times of following discriminators and time-to digital converters. The harsh gamma ray background environment of fast ignitor experiments requires detectors that have fast recovery times. In high intensity laser experiments (I > 10 19 W/cm 2 ), strong gamma ray bursts are produced by relativistic laser plasma interactions. Prior to the neutron signal, these strong gamma ray bursts hit the detectors and interfere with the detection of following neutron signals. In these situations, the recovery time of the system after preceding gamma ray bursts is determined mainly by the base line shift of the PMT signal (due to slower decay components of scintillators ''after glow''). Discriminators cannot detect following signal pulses until the proceeding burst decays below its threshold voltage. The base line shift caused by the after glow prolongs the recovery time of the discriminators

  17. A low delay transmission method of multi-channel video based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weijian; Wei, Baozhi; Li, Xiaobin; Wang, Quan; Hu, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    In order to guarantee the fluency of multi-channel video transmission in video monitoring scenarios, we designed a kind of video format conversion method based on FPGA and its DMA scheduling for video data, reduces the overall video transmission delay.In order to sace the time in the conversion process, the parallel ability of FPGA is used to video format conversion. In order to improve the direct memory access (DMA) writing transmission rate of PCIe bus, a DMA scheduling method based on asynchronous command buffer is proposed. The experimental results show that this paper designs a low delay transmission method based on FPGA, which increases the DMA writing transmission rate by 34% compared with the existing method, and then the video overall delay is reduced to 23.6ms.

  18. Time Domain Analysis of Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects Based on Transmission Line ‎Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haji Nasiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time domain analysis of multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR interconnects, based on ‎transmission line modeling (TLM using a six-order linear parametric expression, has been ‎presented for the first time. We have studied the effects of interconnect geometry along with ‎its contact resistance on its step response and Nyquist stability. It is shown that by increasing ‎interconnects dimensions their propagation delays are increased and accordingly the system ‎becomes relatively more stable. In addition, we have compared time responses and Nyquist ‎stabilities of MLGNR and SWCNT bundle interconnects, with the same external dimensions. ‎The results show that under the same conditions, the propagation delays for MLGNR ‎interconnects are smaller than those of SWCNT bundle interconnects are. Hence, SWCNT ‎bundle interconnects are relatively more stable than their MLGNR rivals.‎

  19. Engineering fluidic delays in paper-based devices using laser direct-writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J W; Katis, I N; Eason, R W; Sones, C L

    2015-10-21

    We report the use of a new laser-based direct-write technique that allows programmable and timed fluid delivery in channels within a paper substrate which enables implementation of multi-step analytical assays. The technique is based on laser-induced photo-polymerisation, and through adjustment of the laser writing parameters such as the laser power and scan speed we can control the depth and/or the porosity of hydrophobic barriers which, when fabricated in the fluid path, produce controllable fluid delay. We have patterned these flow delaying barriers at pre-defined locations in the fluidic channels using either a continuous wave laser at 405 nm, or a pulsed laser operating at 266 nm. Using this delay patterning protocol we generated flow delays spanning from a few minutes to over half an hour. Since the channels and flow delay barriers can be written via a common laser-writing process, this is a distinct improvement over other methods that require specialist operating environments, or custom-designed equipment. This technique can therefore be used for rapid fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices that can perform single or multistep analytical assays.

  20. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Wireless overhead line temperature sensor based on RF cavity resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, Maryam; Nezhad, Abolghasem Zeidaabadi; Bridges, Greg E; Thomson, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of maximizing power transfer through overhead transmission lines necessitates the use of dynamic power control to keep transmission line temperatures within acceptable limits. Excessive conductor operating temperatures lead to an increased sag of the transmission line conductor and may reduce their expected life. In this paper, a passive wireless sensor based on a resonant radio frequency (RF) cavity is presented which can be used to measure overhead transmission line temperature. The temperature sensor does not require a power supply and can be easily clamped to the power line with an antenna attached. Changing temperature causes a change of cavity dimensions and a shift in resonant frequency. The resonant frequency of the cavity can be interrogated wirelessly. This temperature sensor has a resolution of 0.07 °C and can be interrogated from distances greater than 4.5 m. The sensor has a deviation from linearity of less than 2 °C. (paper)

  2. Robust decentralised PI based LFC design for time delay power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevrani, Hassan; Hiyama, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two robust decentralised proportional integral (PI) control designs are proposed for load frequency control (LFC) with communication delays. In both methodologies, the PI based LFC problem is reduced to a static output feedback (SOF) control synthesis for a multiple delay system. The first one is based on the optimal H ∞ control design using a linear matrix inequalities (LMI) technique. The second control design gives a suboptimal solution using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities (ILMI) algorithm via the mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique. The control strategies are suitable for LFC applications that usually employ PI control. The proposed control strategies are applied to a three control area power system with time delays and load disturbance to demonstrate their robustness

  3. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  4. Real-time traffic signal optimization model based on average delay time per person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic signal control is very important for relieving urban traffic congestion. Many existing traffic control models were formulated using optimization approach, with the objective functions of minimizing vehicle delay time. To improve people’s trip efficiency, this article aims to minimize delay time per person. Based on the time-varying traffic flow data at intersections, the article first fits curves of accumulative arrival and departure vehicles, as well as the corresponding functions. Moreover, this article transfers vehicle delay time to personal delay time using average passenger load of cars and buses, employs such time as the objective function, and proposes a signal timing optimization model for intersections to achieve real-time signal parameters, including cycle length and green time. This research further implements a case study based on practical data collected at an intersection in Beijing, China. The average delay time per person and queue length are employed as evaluation indices to show the performances of the model. The results show that the proposed methodology is capable of improving traffic efficiency and is very effective for real-world applications.

  5. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  6. Simulation Based Optimization for World Line Card Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based decision support system is one of the commonly used tool to examine complex production systems. The simulation approach provides process modules which can be adjusted with certain parameters by using data relatively easily obtainable in production process. World Line Card production system simulation is developed to evaluate the optimality of existing production line via using discrete event simulation model with variaty of alternative proposals. The current production system is analysed by a simulation model emphasizing the bottlenecks and the poorly utilized production line. Our analysis identified some improvements and efficient solutions for the existing system.

  7. Joint Angle and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output Based on ESPRIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xudong, Wang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a novel ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output (MDJAFE). The algorithm can estimate the joint angles and frequencies, since the use of multiple output makes the estimation accuracy greatly improved when compared with a conventional algorithm. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  8. Chaos Control and Synchronization of Cellular Neural Network with Delays Based on OPNCL Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Tang; Xing-Yuan, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The problem of chaos control and complete synchronization of cellular neural network with delays is studied. Based on the open plus nonlinear closed loop (OPNCL) method, the control scheme and synchronization scheme are designed. Both the schemes can achieve the chaos control and complete synchronization of chaotic neural network respectively, and their validity is further verified by numerical simulation experiments. (general)

  9. Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Vo Hong, E-mail: vo@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research - University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Priami, Corrado, E-mail: priami@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research - University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Department of Mathematics, University of Trento (Italy); Zunino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zunino@unitn.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento (Italy)

    2014-10-07

    We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models.

  10. Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Li Ning; Huang Xia; Song Xiao-Na

    2012-01-01

    A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security. (general)

  11. Image encryption based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Huang, Xia; Li, Ning; Song, Xiao-Na

    2012-05-01

    A new image encryption scheme is proposed based on a delayed fractional-order chaotic logistic system. In the process of generating a key stream, the time-varying delay and fractional derivative are embedded in the proposed scheme to improve the security. Such a scheme is described in detail with security analyses including correlation analysis, information entropy analysis, run statistic analysis, mean-variance gray value analysis, and key sensitivity analysis. Experimental results show that the newly proposed image encryption scheme possesses high security.

  12. A Fault Prognosis Strategy Based on Time-Delayed Digraph Model and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the interlinking of process equipments in process industry, event information may propagate through the plant and affect a lot of downstream process variables. Specifying the causality and estimating the time delays among process variables are critically important for data-driven fault prognosis. They are not only helpful to find the root cause when a plant-wide disturbance occurs, but to reveal the evolution of an abnormal event propagating through the plant. This paper concerns with the information flow directionality and time-delay estimation problems in process industry and presents an information synchronization technique to assist fault prognosis. Time-delayed mutual information (TDMI is used for both causality analysis and time-delay estimation. To represent causality structure of high-dimensional process variables, a time-delayed signed digraph (TD-SDG model is developed. Then, a general fault prognosis strategy is developed based on the TD-SDG model and principle component analysis (PCA. The proposed method is applied to an air separation unit and has achieved satisfying results in predicting the frequently occurred “nitrogen-block” fault.

  13. Delay-area trade-off for MPRM circuits based on hybrid discrete particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhidi; Wang Zhenhai; Wang Pengjun

    2013-01-01

    Polarity optimization for mixed polarity Reed—Muller (MPRM) circuits is a combinatorial issue. Based on the study on discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) and mixed polarity, the corresponding relation between particle and mixed polarity is established, and the delay-area trade-off of large-scale MPRM circuits is proposed. Firstly, mutation operation and elitist strategy in genetic algorithm are incorporated into DPSO to further develop a hybrid DPSO (HDPSO). Then the best polarity for delay and area trade-off is searched for large-scale MPRM circuits by combining the HDPSO and a delay estimation model. Finally, the proposed algorithm is testified by MCNC Benchmarks. Experimental results show that HDPSO achieves a better convergence than DPSO in terms of search capability for large-scale MPRM circuits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Passivity analysis of memristor-based impulsive inertial neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Jian, Jigui

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on delay-dependent passivity analysis for a class of memristive impulsive inertial neural networks with time-varying delays. By choosing proper variable transformation, the memristive inertial neural networks can be rewritten as first-order differential equations. The memristive model presented here is regarded as a switching system rather than employing the theory of differential inclusion and set-value map. Based on matrix inequality and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method, several delay-dependent passivity conditions are obtained to ascertain the passivity of the addressed networks. In addition, the results obtained here contain those on the passivity for the addressed networks without impulse effects as special cases and can also be generalized to other neural networks with more complex pulse interference. Finally, one numerical example is presented to show the validity of the obtained results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A mathematical model for camera calibration based on straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. G. Tommaselli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In other to facilitate the automation of camera calibration process, a mathematical model using straight lines was developed, which is based on the equivalent planes mathematical model. Parameter estimation of the developed model is achieved by the Least Squares Method with Conditions and Observations. The same method of adjustment was used to implement camera calibration with bundles, which is based on points. Experiments using simulated and real data have shown that the developed model based on straight lines gives results comparable to the conventional method with points. Details concerning the mathematical development of the model and experiments with simulated and real data will be presented and the results with both methods of camera calibration, with straight lines and with points, will be compared.

  16. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Ayub

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network (DTN multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  17. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Qaisar; Ngadi, Asri; Rashid, Sulma; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl) parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl) is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R) for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  18. Mode Switching for the Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channel Based on Delay and Channel Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect channel state information degrades the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications; its effects on single-user (SU and multiuser (MU MIMO transmissions are quite different. In particular, MU-MIMO suffers from residual interuser interference due to imperfect channel state information while SU-MIMO only suffers from a power loss. This paper compares the throughput loss of both SU and MU-MIMO in the broadcast channel due to delay and channel quantization. Accurate closed-form approximations are derived for achievable rates for both SU and MU-MIMO. It is shown that SU-MIMO is relatively robust to delayed and quantized channel information, while MU-MIMO with zero-forcing precoding loses its spatial multiplexing gain with a fixed delay or fixed codebook size. Based on derived achievable rates, a mode switching algorithm is proposed, which switches between SU and MU-MIMO modes to improve the spectral efficiency based on average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, normalized Doppler frequency, and the channel quantization codebook size. The operating regions for SU and MU modes with different delays and codebook sizes are determined, and they can be used to select the preferred mode. It is shown that the MU mode is active only when the normalized Doppler frequency is very small, and the codebook size is large.

  19. Criterial noise effects on rule-based category learning: the impact of delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Ing, A David; Maddox, W Todd

    2009-08-01

    Variability in the representation of the decision criterion is assumed in many category-learning models, yet few studies have directly examined its impact. On each trial, criterial noise should result in drift in the criterion and will negatively impact categorization accuracy, particularly in rule-based categorization tasks, where learning depends on the maintenance and manipulation of decision criteria. In three experiments, we tested this hypothesis and examined the impact of working memory on slowing the drift rate. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of drift by inserting a 5-sec delay between the categorization response and the delivery of corrective feedback, and working memory demand was manipulated by varying the number of decision criteria to be learned. Delayed feedback adversely affected performance, but only when working memory demand was high. In Experiment 2, we built on a classic finding in the absolute identification literature and demonstrated that distributing the criteria across multiple dimensions decreases the impact of drift during the delay. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the effect of drift during the delay is moderated by working memory. These results provide important insights into the interplay between criterial noise and working memory, as well as providing important constraints for models of rule-based category learning.

  20. DL-ReSuMe: A Delay Learning-Based Remote Supervised Method for Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Aboozar; Belatreche, Ammar; Li, Yuhua; Maguire, Liam P

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown the potential capability of spiking neural networks (SNNs) to model complex information processing in the brain. There is biological evidence to prove the use of the precise timing of spikes for information coding. However, the exact learning mechanism in which the neuron is trained to fire at precise times remains an open problem. The majority of the existing learning methods for SNNs are based on weight adjustment. However, there is also biological evidence that the synaptic delay is not constant. In this paper, a learning method for spiking neurons, called delay learning remote supervised method (DL-ReSuMe), is proposed to merge the delay shift approach and ReSuMe-based weight adjustment to enhance the learning performance. DL-ReSuMe uses more biologically plausible properties, such as delay learning, and needs less weight adjustment than ReSuMe. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DL-ReSuMe approach achieves learning accuracy and learning speed improvements compared with ReSuMe.

  1. An alternative approach to spectrum base line estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukvic, S.; Spasojevic, Dj.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new form of merit function which measures agreement between a large number of data and the model function with a particular choice of parameters. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed merit function on the common problem of finding the base line of a spectrum. When the base line is expected to be a horizontal straight line, the use of minimization algorithms is not necessary, i.e. the solution is achieved in a small number of steps. We discuss the advantages of the proposed merit function in general, when explicit use of a minimization algorithm is necessary. The hardcopy text is accompanied by an electronic archive, stored on the SAE homepage at http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/saa/sab/content/lower.htm. The archive contains fully functional demo program with tutorial, examples and Visual Basic source code of the key subroutine

  2. Synchronization stability of memristor-based complex-valued neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhu, Song; Ye, Er

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamical property of a class of memristor-based complex-valued neural networks (MCVNNs) with time delays. By constructing the appropriate Lyapunov functional and utilizing the inequality technique, sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee exponential synchronization of the coupled systems based on drive-response concept. The proposed results are very easy to verify, and they also extend some previous related works on memristor-based real-valued neural networks. Meanwhile, the obtained sufficient conditions of this paper may be conducive to qualitative analysis of some complex-valued nonlinear delayed systems. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synchronization approach for chaotic time-varying delay system based on Wirtinger inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanshan Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel control approach based on Wirtinger inequality is designed for nonlinear chaos synchronization time delay system. In order to reduce the conservatism for the stability criterion, a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional with triple-integral term is constructed. The improved Wirtinger inequality is used to reduce the conservative which is caused by Jensen inequality, and a stability criterion is proposed by reciprocally convex method. Furthermore, a state feedback controller is designed to synchronize the master-slave systems based on the proposed criteria through cone complementary linearization approach. Finally, a simulation for Lorenz chaos time delay system is given to prove the validity based on the proposed synchronization control approach.

  4. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilu; Li, Xinghua; Li, Haopeng; Su, Zhikun; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-10-12

    In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter's pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA). In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  5. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  6. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Services and PPP Software Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Astudillo, Jorge; Lau, Lawrence; Tang, Yu-Ting; Moore, Terry

    2018-02-14

    As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS) tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm) with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  7. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP Services and PPP Software Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mendez Astudillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  8. Determination of delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on in-pile oscillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedvab, Y.; Reiss, I.; Bettan, M.; Harari, R.; Grober, A.; Ettedgui, H.; Caspi, E. N.

    2006-01-01

    A method for determining delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on measuring power oscillations in a non-critical reactor is presented. This method is unique in the sense that the delayed neutrons source is derived from the dynamic behavior of the reactor, which serves as the measurement system. An algorithm for analyzing power oscillation measurements was formulated, which avoids the need for a multi-parameter non-linear fit process used by other methods. Using this algorithm results of two sets of measurements performed in IRR-I and IRR-II (Israeli Research Reactors I and II) are presented. The agreement between measured values from both reactors and calculated values based on Keepin (and JENDL-3.3) group parameters is very good. (authors)

  9. A 2.9 ps equivalent resolution interpolating time counter based on multiple independent coding lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szplet, R; Jachna, Z; Kwiatkowski, P; Rozyc, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, operation and test results of a time counter that has an equivalent resolution of 2.9 ps, a measurement uncertainty at the level of 6 ps, and a measurement range of 10 s. The time counter has been implemented in a general-purpose reprogrammable device Spartan-6 (Xilinx). To obtain both high precision and wide measurement range the counting of periods of a reference clock is combined with a two-stage interpolation within a single period of the clock signal. The interpolation involves a four-phase clock in the first interpolation stage (FIS) and an equivalent coding line (ECL) in the second interpolation stage (SIS). The ECL is created as a compound of independent discrete time coding lines (TCL). The number of TCLs used to create the virtual ECL has an effect on its resolution. We tested ECLs made from up to 16 TCLs, but the idea may be extended to a larger number of lines. In the presented time counter the coarse resolution of the counting method equal to 2 ns (period of the 500 MHz reference clock) is firstly improved fourfold in the FIS and next even more than 400 times in the SIS. The proposed solution allows us to overcome the technological limitation in achievable resolution and improve the precision of conversion of integrated interpolators based on tapped delay lines. (paper)

  10. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  11. Robust passive control for Internet-based switching systems with time-delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Zhihong [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang Hao [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: ehao79@163.com; Yang Shuanghua [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, based on remote control and local control strategy, a class of hybrid multi-rate control models with time-delay and switching controllers are formulated and the problem of robust passive control for this discrete system is investigated. By Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and applying it to a descriptor model transformation some new sufficient conditions in form of LMIs are derived. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.

  12. Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast amount of large-scale and genome-wide time-resolved data is becoming increasing available, which provides the golden opportunity to unravel the challenging reverse-engineering problem of time-delayed gene regulatory networks. Results In particular, this methodological paper aims to reconstruct regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data by using delayed correlations between genes, i.e., pairwise overlaps of expression levels shifted in time relative each other. We have thus developed a novel model-free computational toolbox termed TdGRN (Time-delayed Gene Regulatory Network to address the underlying regulations of genes that can span any unit(s of time intervals. This bioinformatics toolbox has provided a unified approach to uncovering time trends of gene regulations through decision analysis of the newly designed time-delayed gene expression matrix. We have applied the proposed method to yeast cell cycling and human HeLa cell cycling and have discovered most of the underlying time-delayed regulations that are supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence and that are remarkably consistent with the current knowledge on phase characteristics for the cell cyclings. Conclusion We established a usable and powerful model-free approach to dissecting high-order dynamic trends of gene-gene interactions. We have carefully validated the proposed algorithm by applying it to two publicly available cell cycling datasets. In addition to uncovering the time trends of gene regulations for cell cycling, this unified approach can also be used to study the complex

  13. Randomized trial of a population-based, home-delivered intervention for preschool language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Tobin, Sherryn; Levickis, Penny; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Zens, Naomi; Goldfeld, Sharon; Le, Ha; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena

    2013-10-01

    Population approaches to lessen the adverse impacts of preschool language delay remain elusive. We aimed to determine whether systematic ascertainment of language delay at age 4 years, followed by a 10-month, 1-on-1 intervention, improves language and related outcomes at age 5 years. A randomized trial nested within a cross-sectional ascertainment of language delay. Children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 years entered the trial. Children randomly allocated to the intervention received 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. The primary outcomes were receptive and expressive language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Preschool, 2(nd) Edition) and secondary outcomes were child phonological skills, letter awareness, pragmatic skills, behavior, and quality of life. A total of 1464 children were assessed for language delay at age 4 years. Of 266 eligible children, 200 (13.6%) entered the trial, with 91 intervention (92% of 99) and 88 control (87% of 101) children retained at age 5 years. At age 5 years, there was weak evidence of benefit to expressive (adjusted mean difference, intervention - control, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.5 to 4.4; P = .12) but not receptive (0.6; 95% CI -2.5 to 3.8; P = .69) language. The intervention improved phonological awareness skills (5.0; 95% CI 2.2 to 7.8; P language intervention was successfully delivered by non-specialist staff, found to be acceptable and feasible, and has the potential to improve long-term consequences of early language delay within a public health framework.

  14. Multiagent System-Based Distributed Coordinated Control for Radial DC Microgrid Considering Transmission Time Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on a multi-agent based distributed coordinated control for radial DC microgrid considering trans-mission time delays. Firstly, a two-level multi-agent system is constructed, where local control is formulated based on local states and executed by means of the first-level agent......, and dis-tributed coordinated control law is formulated based on wide-area information and executed by means of the secondary- level agent in order to improve the voltage control performances. Afterwards, the research mainly focuses on designing the local controller and the distributed coordinated...

  15. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  16. EVALUATION OF ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING METHODS USING AN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP AND TECHNIQUE FOR ORDER PREFERENCES BY SIMILARITY TO IDEAL SOLUTION (TOPSIS BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines are special flow-line production systems which are of great importance in the industrial production of high quantity standardized commodities. In this article, assembly line balancing problem is formulated as a multi objective (criteria problem where four easily quantifiable objectives (criteria's are defined. Objectives (criteria's included are line efficiency, balance delay, smoothness index, and line time. And the value of these objectives is calculated by five different heuristics. In this paper, focus is made on the prioritization of assembly line balancing (ALB solution methods (heuristics and to select the best of them. For this purpose, a bench mark assembly line balancing problem is solved by five different heuristics and the value of objectives criteria's (performance measures of the line is determined. Finally the prioritization of heuristics is carried out through the use of AHP-TOPSIS based approach by solving an example.

  17. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Ottesen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  18. Hardware Implementation of a Modified Delay-Coordinate Mapping-Based QRS Complex Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Zemva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modified delay-coordinate mapping-based QRS complex detection algorithm, suitable for hardware implementation. In the original algorithm, the phase-space portrait of an electrocardiogram signal is reconstructed in a two-dimensional plane using the method of delays. Geometrical properties of the obtained phase-space portrait are exploited for QRS complex detection. In our solution, a bandpass filter is used for ECG signal prefiltering and an improved method for detection threshold-level calculation is utilized. We developed the algorithm on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (sensitivity of 99.82% and positive predictivity of 99.82% and tested it on the long-term ST database (sensitivity of 99.72% and positive predictivity of 99.37%. Our algorithm outperforms several well-known QRS complex detection algorithms, including the original algorithm.

  19. On the impact of information delay on location-based relaying: a markov modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2012-01-01

    For centralized selection of communication relays, the necessary decision information needs to be collected from the mobile nodes by the access point (centralized decision point). In mobile scenarios, the required information collection and forwarding delays will affect the reliability of the col......For centralized selection of communication relays, the necessary decision information needs to be collected from the mobile nodes by the access point (centralized decision point). In mobile scenarios, the required information collection and forwarding delays will affect the reliability...... of the collected information and hence will influence the performance of the relay selection method. This paper analyzes this influence in the decision process for the example of a mobile location-based relay selection approach using a continuous time Markov chain model. The model is used to obtain optimal relay...

  20. Distance Constrained Based Adaptive Flocking Control for Multiagent Networks with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flocking control of multiagent system is a new type of decentralized control method, which has aroused great attention. The paper includes a detailed research in terms of distance constrained based adaptive flocking control for multiagent system with time delay. Firstly, the program on the adaptive flocking with time delay of multiagent is proposed. Secondly, a kind of adaptive controllers and updating laws are presented. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the distance between agents can be larger than a constant during the motion evolution. What is more, velocities of each agent come to the same asymptotically. Finally, the analytical results can be verified by a numerical example.

  1. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  2. Extinction ratio enhancement of SOA-based delayed-interference signal converter using detuned filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Kumar, S.; Yan, L.-S.; Willner, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally >3 dB extinction ratio improvement at the output of SOA-based delayed-interference signal converter (DISC) using optical off-centered filtering. Through careful modeling of the carrier and the phase dynamics, we explain in detail the origin of sub-pulses in the wavelength converted output, with an emphasis on the time-resolved frequency chirping of the output signal. Through our simulations we conclude that the sub-pulses and the main-pulses are oppositely chirped, which is also verified experimentally by analyzing the output with a chirp form analyzer. We propose and demonstrate an optical off-center filtering technique which effectively suppresses these sub-pulses. The effects of filter detuning and phase bias adjustment in the delayed-interferometer are experimentally characterized and optimized, leading to a >3 dB extinction ratio enhancement of the output signal.

  3. Eigenspace-based minimum variance adaptive beamformer combined with delay multiply and sum: experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Orooji, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    Delay and sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in linear-array photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a result of its simple implementation. However, it leads to a low resolution and high sidelobes. Delay multiply and sum (DMAS) was used to address the incapabilities of DAS, providing a higher image quality. However, the resolution improvement is not well enough compared to eigenspace-based minimum variance (EIBMV). In this paper, the EIBMV beamformer has been combined with DMAS algebra, called EIBMV-DMAS, using the expansion of DMAS algorithm. The proposed method is used as the reconstruction algorithm in linear-array PAI. EIBMV-DMAS is experimentally evaluated where the quantitative and qualitative results show that it outperforms DAS, DMAS and EIBMV. The proposed method degrades the sidelobes for about 365 %, 221 % and 40 %, compared to DAS, DMAS and EIBMV, respectively. Moreover, EIBMV-DMAS improves the SNR about 158 %, 63 % and 20 %, respectively.

  4. A general framework for global asymptotic stability analysis of delayed neural networks based on LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, global asymptotic stability is discussed for neural networks with time-varying delay. Several new criteria in matrix inequality form are given to ascertain the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of equilibrium point for neural networks with time-varying delay based on Lyapunov method and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique. The proposed LMI approach has the advantage of considering the difference of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory efforts, which is also computationally efficient as it can be solved numerically using recently developed interior-point algorithm. In addition, the proposed results generalize and improve previous works. The obtained criteria also combine two existing conditions into one generalized condition in matrix form. An illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results

  5. Emergence of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted both academic and industrial interest due to their extraordinary characteristics, such as high efficiency, low driving voltage, bright luminance, lower power consumption and potentially long lifetime. In this invited review, the fundamental concepts of TADF have been firstly introduced. Then, main approaches to realize WOLEDs based on TADF have been summarized. More specifically, the recent development of WOLEDs based on all TADF emitters, WOLEDs based on TADF and conventional fluorescence emitters, hybrid WOLEDs based on blue TADF and phosphorescence emitters and WOLEDs based on TADF exciplex host and phosphorescence dopants is highlighted. In particular, design strategies, device structures, working mechanisms and electroluminescent processes of the representative WOLEDs based on TADF are reviewed. Finally, challenges and opportunities for further enhancement of the performance of WOLEDs based on TADF are presented.

  6. Image Mosaic Method Based on SIFT Features of Line Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  7. Global model of zenith tropospheric delay proposed based on EOF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Langlang; Chen, Peng; Wei, Erhu; Li, Qinzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the main error budgets in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Many empirical correction models have been developed to compensate this delay, and models which do not require meteorological parameters have received the most attention. This study established a global troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) model, called Global Empirical Orthogonal Function Troposphere (GEOFT), based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF, also known as geographically weighted PCAs) analysis method and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere data from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that ZTD variation could be well represented by the characteristics of the EOF base function Ek and associated coefficients Pk. Here, E1 mainly signifies the equatorial anomaly; E2 represents north-south asymmetry, and E3 and E4 reflects regional variation. Moreover, P1 mainly reflects annual and semiannual variation components; P2 and P3 mainly contains annual variation components, and P4 displays semiannual variation components. We validated the proposed GEOFT model using tropospheric delay data of GGOS ZTD grid data and the tropospheric product of the International GNSS Service (IGS) over the year 2016. The results showed that GEOFT model has high accuracy with bias and RMS of -0.3 and 3.9 cm, respectively, with respect to the GGOS ZTD data, and of -0.8 and 4.1 cm, respectively, with respect to the global IGS tropospheric product. The accuracy of GEOFT demonstrating that the use of the EOF analysis method to characterize ZTD variation is reasonable.

  8. Geodesy and astrometry by transatlantic long base line interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, W.H.; Langley, R.B.; Petrachenko, W.T.; Kouba, J.

    1979-01-01

    We report geodetic and astrometric results from the analysis of fringe frequency observations from a series of three long base line interferometry (LBI) experiments carried out in 1973 between the 46-m antenna of the Algonquin Radio Observatory, Lake Traverse, Canada, and the 25-m antenna at Chilbolton Field Station, Chilbolton, England. The rms deviation from the mean of the estimates of the length and orientation of the 5251-km equatorial component of the base line from all three experiments is 1.05-m and 0.015'', respectively. The experiments also yielded positions of five extragalactic radio sources. The reported positions, each of which is from only a single experiment, have uncertainties of about 0.2'' in declination (except for low declination sources) and about 0.01 s in right ascension. The LBI determination of the length and orientation of the equatorial component of the base line is compared to the corresponding values derived from Naval Weapons Laboratory 9D (NWL-9D) coorinates for the antennae. The two length measurements agree in scale within quoted experimental errors; however, the NWL-9D coordinate frame is found to be rotated 0.867'' +- 0.1'' to the east relative to the average terrestrial frame of the Bureau Internationale de l'Heure (BIH),(LBI coordinate frame). This is in good agreement with the expected misalignment of 0.65'' +- 0.2''. The differences in the rates of the clocks used at each end of the base line were also determined and compared to Loran-C observations

  9. Echocardiographic effects of changing atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy based on displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Risum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial.......In studies showing benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), individual atrioventricular (AV) delays have been optimized using echocardiography. However, the method for AV delay optimization remains controversial....

  10. Fournier?s gangrene - delayed pedicle flap based upon the anterior abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Sliwinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a poly-microbial necrotizing fasciitis that involves the perineum and/or external genitalia. Urgent surgical debridement is well recognized as essential acute treatment yet unique challenges arise for plastic surgical reconstruction to obtain a complete functional recovery. This case describes a successful delayed pedicle flap repair based upon the anterior abdominal wall. Case description A 24 year old man was admitted to ICU ten days after elective circumcision with Fournier’s gangrene. He underwent a number of surgical debridements, and was referred for plastic surgical management. He had penile reconstruction using a random pattern abdominal flap, which was performed as a three stage procedure including flap vascular delay technique. Discussion Perineal and penile skin loss can be significant and is difficult to repair. Various techniques have been used to reconstruct lost tissue: skin grafts, transposition of the testes and spermatic cords to the thigh, flaps, and other types of pediculated myocutaneous flaps. Muscle flap reconstruction provides an environment that allows for complete regeneration of the urethral epithelium but is bulky and unsightly. Skin grafts contract and may produce painful and dysfunctional reconstructions. This novel technique produces a functional, and aesthetic reconstruction. Conclusion Penile skin recovery following Fournier’s gangrene recovery is problematic. This case demonstrates the functionality of a delayed flap repair using the anterior abdominal wall.

  11. Research and Design on Trigger System Based on Acoustic Delay Correlation Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exterior trajectory test, there usually needs a muzzle or a gun muzzle trigger system to be used as start signal for other measuring device, the customary trigger systems include off- target, infrared and acoustic detection system. But inherent echo reflection of the acoustic detection system makes the original signal of sound trigger submerged in various echo interference for bursts and shooting in a closed room, so that it can’t produce accurate trigger. In order to solve this defect, this paper analyzed the mathematical model based on acoustic delay correlation filtering in detail, then put forward the constraint condition with minimum path for delay correlation filtering. In this constraint condition, delay correlation filtering can do de-noising operation accurately. In order to verify accuracy and actual performance of the model, a MEMS sound sensor was used to implement mathematical model onto project, experimental results show that this system can filter out the every path sound bounce echoes of muzzle shock wave signal and produce the desired trigger signal accurately.

  12. Delayed Awakening from Anesthesia Following Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders, Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed awakening from anesthesia remains one of the biggest challenges that involve anesthesiologists. Most commonly, delayed awakening is due to drugs effects persistence. Metabolic (like hypo- hyperglycemia, electrolyte, acid-base disorders and hypothermia may cause delayed emergence from anesthesia. Structural disorders of cerebral nervous system (like increase in intracranial pressure, brain ischemia and psychological disorders can be regarded as other uncommon causes of this condition. Hypokalemia is induced by low potassium intake, excessive excretion from gastrointestinal (GI and kidneys (like using diuretics or a shift from extracellular space into intracellular space. Cases:  In these two reported cases, although proper measures had been taken to reverse the effects of anesthetic drugs, the patients did not regain their consciousness as fast as expected. The only significant finding in postoperative tests, along with respiratory alkalosis, was low serum potassium level (K=2.5 and K=2.9 in the first and the second patients, respectively. Correction of serum potassium (to K=3.3 and K=3.2 in the first and the second, respectively improved patients level of consciousness, and they were discharged from intensive care unit (ICU with good general condition. Conclusion: During surgery; pain, stress, sympathetic increase, catecholamine release and the consequent β-stimulation, certain drugs, and respiratory alkalosis due to hyperventilation may cause acute shift of potassium into the cells, which will be intensified in the patients with preoperative hypokalemia. Hypokalemia induces consciousness impairment and increases muscle relaxation, both of which affect patient awakening. Serum potassium evaluation is recommended in cases of delayed emergence from anesthesia.

  13. Design and FPGA Implementation of Variable Cutoff Frequency Filter based on Continuously Variable Fractional Delay Structure and Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Dhabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and FPGA implementation of interpolated continuously variable fractional delay structure based filter (ICVFD filter with fine control over the cutoff frequency. In the ICVFD filter, each unit delay of the prototype lowpass filter is replaced by a continuously variable fractional delay (CVFD element proposed in this paper. The CVFD element requires the same number of multiplications as that of the second-order fractional delay structure used in the existing fractional delay structure based variable filter (FDS based filter, however it provides fractional delays corresponding to the higher-order fractional delay structures. Hence, the proposed ICVFD filter provides wider cutoff frequency range compared to the FDS based filter. The ICVFD filter is also capable of providing variable bandpass and highpass responses. We use two-stage approach for the FPGA implementation of the ICVFD filter. First, we use pipelining stages to shorten the critical path and improve the operating frequency. Then, we make use of specific hardware resource, i.e. RAM-based Shift Register (SRL to further improve the operating frequency and resource usage.

  14. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  15. A comparative study of Kalman filter and Linear Matrix Inequality based H infinity filter for SPND delay compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, P.K.; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.; Roy, Kallol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Derivation for delay compensation algorithm using recursive Kalman filter. • Derivation for delay compensation algorithm using Linear Matrix Inequality based H infinity filter. • Process modeling suitable for delay compensation. • Dynamic tuning of the delay compensation algorithm for both Kalman and H infinity filter. • Simulations and trade-off curve for Kalman and H infinity filter. - Abstract: This paper deals with delay compensation of vanadium Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) based H-infinity filtering method and compares the results with Kalman filtering method. The entire study is established upon the framework of neutron flux estimation in large core Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) in which delayed SPNDs such as vanadium SPNDs are used as in-core flux monitoring detectors. The use of vanadium SPNDs are limited to 3-D flux mapping despite of providing better Signal to Noise Ratio as compared to other prompt SPNDs, due to their small prompt component in the signal. The use of an appropriate delay compensation technique has been always considered to be an effective strategy to build a prompt and accurate estimate of the neutron flux. We also indicate the noise-response trade-off curve for both the techniques. Since all the delay compensation algorithms always suffer from noise amplification, we propose an efficient adaptive parameter tuning technique for improving performance of the filtering algorithm against noise in the measurement.

  16. A Parametric Learning and Identification Based Robust Iterative Learning Control for Time Varying Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A parametric learning based robust iterative learning control (ILC scheme is applied to the time varying delay multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO linear systems. The convergence conditions are derived by using the H∞ and linear matrix inequality (LMI approaches, and the convergence speed is analyzed as well. A practical identification strategy is applied to optimize the learning laws and to improve the robustness and performance of the control system. Numerical simulations are illustrated to validate the above concepts.

  17. Accuracy of depolarization and delay spread predictions using advanced ray-based modeling in indoor scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the prediction accuracy of an advanced deterministic propagation model in terms of channel depolarization and frequency selectivity for indoor wireless propagation. In addition to specular reflection and diffraction, the developed ray tracing tool considers penetration through dielectric blocks and/or diffuse scattering mechanisms. The sensitivity and prediction accuracy analysis is based on two measurement campaigns carried out in a warehouse and an office building. It is shown that the implementation of diffuse scattering into RT significantly increases the accuracy of the cross-polar discrimination prediction, whereas the delay-spread prediction is only marginally improved.

  18. Fuzzy model-based adaptive synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasegh, Nastaran; Majd, Vahid Johari

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy model-based synchronization of a class of first order chaotic systems described by delayed-differential equations is addressed. To design the fuzzy controller, the chaotic system is modeled by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system considering the properties of the nonlinear part of the system. Assuming that the parameters of the chaotic system are unknown, an adaptive law is derived to estimate these unknown parameters, and the stability of error dynamics is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive synchronization approach.

  19. Global exponential stability of inertial memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays and impulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Tingwen; He, Xing; Li, Chuandong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the global exponential stability of inertial memristor-based neural networks with impulses and time-varying delays. We construct inertial memristor-based neural networks based on the characteristics of the inertial neural networks and memristor. Impulses with and without delays are considered when modeling the inertial neural networks simultaneously, which are of great practical significance in the current study. Some sufficient conditions are derived under the framework of the Lyapunov stability method, as well as an extended Halanay differential inequality and a new delay impulsive differential inequality, which depend on impulses with and without delays, in order to guarantee the global exponential stability of the inertial memristor-based neural networks. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NASH BARGAINING BASED BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO FOR DELAY CRITICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Kulkarni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively regulate the existing resources, dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio needs to adopt the effective resource allocation strategies. Multimedia applications require large bandwidth and have to meet the delay constraints while maintaining the data quality. Game theory is emerging as an effective analytical tool for the analysis of available resources and its allocation. This paper addresses resource allocation schemes employing bargaining game model for Multi-carrier CDMA based Cognitive Radio. Resource allocation scheme is designed for transmission of video over cognitive radio networks and aim to perform bandwidth allocation for different cognitive users. Utility function based on bargaining model is proposed. Primary user utility function includes the pricing factor and an upbeat factor that can be adjusted by observing the delay constraints of the video. Allocated bandwidth to the secondary user can be adjusted by changing the upbeat factor. Throughput in the proposed scheme is increased by 2% as compared to other reported pricing based resource allocation schemes. The edge PSNR of reconstructed video obtained as 32.6dB resulting to optimum decoding of the video at the receiver. The study also shows upbeat factor can be used to enhanced capacity of the network.

  1. Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc; Sancho, Juan; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Dolfi, Daniel

    2010-10-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to process broadband microwave signals, using all-optically tunable true time delay in optical fibers. The configuration to achieve true time delay basically consists of two main stages: photonic RF phase shifter and slow light, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers. Dispersion properties of fibers are controlled, separately at optical carrier frequency and in the vicinity of microwave signal bandwidth. This way time delay induced within the signal bandwidth can be manipulated to correctly act as true time delay with a proper phase compensation introduced to the optical carrier. We completely analyzed the generated true time delay as a promising solution to feed phased array antenna for radar systems and to develop dynamically reconfigurable microwave photonic filters.

  2. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzans, Aris; Teder, Allan; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  3. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  4. A method to achieve large tunable delays based on EIT in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes.......We propose a scheme for reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based EIT for slow light. Field propagation calculations show superior performance in delay compared to traditionally investigated EIT schemes....

  5. Factors Responsible for the Diagnostic Delay in Oral Cancer Patients: A Hospital Based Sociodemographic Study in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramitasri Bhattacharyya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oral cancer is a challenging health problem globally. Delay in diagnosis is an important factor in determining the outcome of the disease. It is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity of oral cancer patients. Present observational study was conducted with the objective of finding the factors responsible for delay in diagnosis of oral cancer in patients. Materials and Methods Hospital based observational study where patient register was used as data source from 15th Nov, 2013-15th Jan, 2014. Results Among the causes for delay in reporting to hospital, financial constraint (84% and illiteracy (56.5% have been found to contribute the most. The risk of primary delay is 3.53 times more among illiterate in comparison with literate. Age, gender, stage of cancer, religion, caste, tobacco use and delayed referral from the first physician were the other factors found to be significant in relation to primary delay. Discussion Early diagnosis is a major factor for favorable outcome of a disease and several factors hinder early diagnosis. Some of these factors can be easily modified through Information, Education and Communication (IEC. Conclusion Some important factors that lead to delay are identified and some of them are preventable. So, IEC regarding cancer among general population will not only provide knowledge to them, but also will break myths regarding cancer and reduce the burden of disease. These identified predictors of delay may be used for designing an educational intervention program for patients with oral cancers.

  6. Chaos based video encryption using maps and Ikeda time delay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, D.; Ganesan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Chaos based cryptosystems are an efficient method to deal with improved speed and highly secured multimedia encryption because of its elegant features, such as randomness, mixing, ergodicity, sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters. In this paper, two chaos based cryptosystems are proposed: one is the higher-dimensional 12D chaotic map and the other is based on the Ikeda delay differential equation (DDE) suitable for designing a real-time secure symmetric video encryption scheme. These encryption schemes employ a substitution box (S-box) to diffuse the relationship between pixels of plain video and cipher video along with the diffusion of current input pixel with the previous cipher pixel, called cipher block chaining (CBC). The proposed method enhances the robustness against statistical, differential and chosen/known plain text attacks. Detailed analysis is carried out in this paper to demonstrate the security and uniqueness of the proposed scheme.

  7. H∞ state estimation of stochastic memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Cao, Jinde; Kurths, Jürgen; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of H ∞ state estimation for a class of stochastic memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solution, the stochastic memristor-based neural networks are transformed into systems with interval parameters. The present paper is the first to investigate the H ∞ state estimation problem for continuous-time Itô-type stochastic memristor-based neural networks. By means of Lyapunov functionals and some stochastic technique, sufficient conditions are derived to ensure that the estimation error system is asymptotically stable in the mean square with a prescribed H ∞ performance. An explicit expression of the state estimator gain is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Compared with other results, our results reduce control gain and control cost effectively. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pinning synchronization of memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanyu; Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Li, Yueheng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays via pinning control is investigated. A novel pinning method is introduced to synchronize two memristor-based neural networks which denote drive system and response system, respectively. The dynamics are studied by theories of differential inclusions and nonsmooth analysis. In addition, some sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee asymptotic synchronization and exponential synchronization of memristor-based neural networks via the presented pinning control. Furthermore, some improvements about the proposed control method are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the effectiveness of the obtained results is demonstrated by numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Padé approximation of delays in cooperative ACC based on string stability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, H.; Ploeg, J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) improves road throughput by employing intervehicle wireless communications. The inherent communication time delay and vehicle actuator delay significantly limit the minimum intervehicle distance in view of string stability requirements. Hence, controller

  10. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  11. Parameter Estimation of a Delay Time Model of Wearing Parts Based on Objective Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wearing parts of a system have a very high failure frequency, making it necessary to carry out continual functional inspections and maintenance to protect the system from unscheduled downtime. This allows for the collection of a large amount of maintenance data. Taking the unique characteristics of the wearing parts into consideration, we establish their respective delay time models in ideal inspection cases and nonideal inspection cases. The model parameters are estimated entirely using the collected maintenance data. Then, a likelihood function of all renewal events is derived based on their occurring probability functions, and the model parameters are calculated with the maximum likelihood function method, which is solved by the CRM. Finally, using two wearing parts from the oil and gas drilling industry as examples—the filter element and the blowout preventer rubber core—the parameters of the distribution function of the initial failure time and the delay time for each example are estimated, and their distribution functions are obtained. Such parameter estimation based on objective data will contribute to the optimization of the reasonable function inspection interval and will also provide some theoretical models to support the integrity management of equipment or systems.

  12. Probabilistic Routing Based on Two-Hop Information in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an opportunistic routing protocol in delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs where the end-to-end path between source and destination nodes may not exist for most of the time. Probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity (PRoPHET is an efficient history-based routing protocol specifically proposed for DTNs, which only utilizes the delivery predictability of one-hop neighbors to make a decision for message forwarding. In order to further improve the message delivery rate and to reduce the average overhead of PRoPHET, in this paper we propose an improved probabilistic routing algorithm (IPRA, where the history information of contacts for the immediate encounter and two-hop neighbors has been jointly used to make an informed decision for message forwarding. Based on the Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE simulator, the performance of IPRA has been evaluated via extensive simulations. The results show that IPRA can significantly improve the average delivery rate while achieving a better or comparable performance with respect to average overhead, average delay, and total energy consumption compared with the existing algorithms.

  13. Family homework and school-based sex education: delaying early adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-11-01

    Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  14. D-DSC: Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding for Internet of Sensing Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Metin; Kuscu, Murat; Dinc, Ergin; Akan, Ozgur B

    2018-01-01

    Spatial correlation between densely deployed sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be exploited to reduce the power consumption through a proper source coding mechanism such as distributed source coding (DSC). In this paper, we propose the Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding (D-DSC) to improve the energy efficiency of the classical DSC by employing the decoding delay concept which enables the use of the maximum correlated portion of sensor samples during the event estimation. In D-DSC, network is partitioned into clusters, where the clusterheads communicate their uncompressed samples carrying the side information, and the cluster members send their compressed samples. Sink performs joint decoding of the compressed and uncompressed samples and then reconstructs the event signal using the decoded sensor readings. Based on the observed degree of the correlation among sensor samples, the sink dynamically updates and broadcasts the varying compression rates back to the sensor nodes. Simulation results for the performance evaluation reveal that D-DSC can achieve reliable and energy-efficient event communication and estimation for practical signal detection/estimation applications having massive number of sensors towards the realization of Internet of Sensing Things (IoST).

  15. Radiological reference base line establishment around CENM site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhoukhi, T.; Dehbi, N.; Amechmachi, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As for any installation presenting risks for its surrounding, CENM (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Maamora) that accommodates TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor and related laboratories is subjected to a statutory requirement stipulating that the CNESTEN (Centre National De L'Energie Des Sciences Et Des Techniques Nucleaires) that is in charge the operating of CENM must define its own environmental monitoring program assuring that the nuclear installation is in appropriateness with its environment. In this frame , since 1996 the team of USE (Unite Surveillance de L'Environnement) is conducting periodic work consisting in in-situ measurement of ambient gamma rays and collect of environmental samples and their preparation for adequate analysis form required for each radioactive measurement system. This first step of the environmental monitoring program allows establishing the radiological base line on the CENM's site. This base line is necessary to inform on the present radiological state in order to detect any change of this state consequently to the operating of the reactor or the arrival of abnormal radioactive panache from any source.

  16. Nonlinear smith-predictor based control strategy for a unicycle mobile robot subject to transport delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Aguirre, A.; Velasco-Villa, M.; Del Muro Cuellar, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper consider the remote control of an unicycle mobile robot subject to transport delay. The communication delay effects are considered by means of a discrete time approach that allows to solve the path tracking problem in terms of the delayed input. The causality problem involved in the

  17. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Beille, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berling, D.; Loegel, B. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [EPM-MATFORMAG, Laboratoire dElaboration par Procede Magnetique, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe ac <100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL close-quote s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  19. 19 CFR 142.50 - Line Release data base corrections or changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line Release data base corrections or changes. 142...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.50 Line Release data base corrections... numbers or bond information on a Line Release Data Loading Sheet as soon as possible. Notification shall...

  20. Model-predictive control based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model for electrical vehicles delayed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) play a significant role in different applications, such as commuter vehicles and short distance transport applications. This study presents a new structure of model-predictive control based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, linear matrix inequalities, and a non......-quadratic Lyapunov function for the speed control of EVs including time-delay states and parameter uncertainty. Experimental data, using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75), is applied to test the performance and robustness of the suggested controller in the presence of time-varying parameters. Besides, a comparison...... is made between the results of the suggested robust strategy and those obtained from some of the most recent studies on the same topic, to assess the efficiency of the suggested controller. Finally, the experimental results based on a TMS320F28335 DSP are performed on a direct current motor. Simulation...

  1. Convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks (MCNNs) with time delays. Based on a realistic memristor model, an MCNN is modeled using a differential inclusion. The essential boundedness of its global solutions is proven. The state of MCNNs is further proven to be convergent to a critical-point set located in saturated region of the activation function, when the initial state locates in a saturated region. It is shown that the state convergence time period is finite and can be quantitatively estimated using given parameters. Furthermore, the positive invariance and attractivity of state in non-saturated regions are also proven. The simulation results of several numerical examples are provided to substantiate the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observer-based output feedback control of networked control systems with non-uniform sampling and time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Su; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jian

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problem of observer-based output feedback control for networked control systems with non-uniform sampling and time-varying transmission delay. The sampling intervals are assumed to vary within a given interval. The transmission delay belongs to a known interval. A discrete-time model is first established, which contains time-varying delay and norm-bounded uncertainties coming from non-uniform sampling intervals. It is then converted to an interconnection of two subsystems in which the forward channel is delay-free. The scaled small gain theorem is used to derive the stability condition for the closed-loop system. Moreover, the observer-based output feedback controller design method is proposed by utilising a modified cone complementary linearisation algorithm. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the validity and superiority of the proposed method.

  3. Dynamic Game Behavior of Retailers Considering the Quality of Substitute Products Based on Delay Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Binshuo; Ma, Junhai

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road project, i.e. the Belt and Road (B&R), more goods will flow around the world. With this trading platform, people can buy products at relatively cheap prices, and it is easier for people to buy various goods. The quality and quantity of products thus attract more and more attention in the supply chains. This paper discusses the quantity decision by considering the product quality in parallel supply chains where two manufacturers produce substitute products and then sell them to their downstream retailers separately. In terms of the changing quantity, as well as the different quality, this paper establishes a dynamic game model to explore the dynamic behavior when the optimal profits of two retailers have been calculated. The dynamic behaviors of the system, such as stable region, bifurcation and chaos, strange attractors and the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) are analyzed. The effect of the quantity adjustment parameter on the stability of the supply chain system is investigated through numerical simulations. Furthermore, a dynamic game model is established based on the quality delay decision, to investigate the influence of the quality delay parameter on the dynamic game model and the profits. Finally, the optimal decisions are obtained and analyzed.

  4. Area efficient decimation filter based on merged delay transformation for wireless applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, U.; Siddiq, F.; Muhammad, T.; Jamal, H.

    2013-01-01

    Expected by 2014 is the 4G standard for cellular wireless communications, which will improve bandwidth, connectivity and roaming for mobile and stationary devices, 4G and other wireless systems are currently hot topics of research and development in the communication field. In wireless technologies like Global System for Mobile (GSM), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Wi-Fi, decimation filters are essential part of transceivers being used. This paper describes a decimation filter which is efficient in terms of both the power consumption and the area used. The architecture is based upon Merged Delay Transformation (MDT). The existing Merged Delay Transformed Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) architecture is power efficient but requires larger area. The proposed and existing filters were implemented on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The computational cost of the proposed filter is reduced to (3N/2 + 1) and M-1 times reduction in the number of multipliers in comparison to the existing FIR filter is achieved. The power consumption and speed remain nearly the same. (author)

  5. Bit-level plane image encryption based on coupled map lattice with time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiupin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Most of the existing image encryption algorithms had two basic properties: confusion and diffusion in a pixel-level plane based on various chaotic systems. Actually, permutation in a pixel-level plane could not change the statistical characteristics of an image, and many of the existing color image encryption schemes utilized the same method to encrypt R, G and B components, which means that the three color components of a color image are processed three times independently. Additionally, dynamical performance of a single chaotic system degrades greatly with finite precisions in computer simulations. In this paper, a novel coupled map lattice with time-varying delay therefore is applied in color images bit-level plane encryption to solve the above issues. Spatiotemporal chaotic system with both much longer period in digitalization and much excellent performances in cryptography is recommended. Time-varying delay embedded in coupled map lattice enhances dynamical behaviors of the system. Bit-level plane image encryption algorithm has greatly reduced the statistical characteristics of an image through the scrambling processing. The R, G and B components cross and mix with one another, which reduces the correlation among the three components. Finally, simulations are carried out and all the experimental results illustrate that the proposed image encryption algorithm is highly secure, and at the same time, also demonstrates superior performance.

  6. Learning Automata Based Caching for Efficient Data Access in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective data access is one of the major challenges in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs that are characterized by intermittent network connectivity and unpredictable node mobility. Currently, different data caching schemes have been proposed to improve the performance of data access in DTNs. However, most existing data caching schemes perform poorly due to the lack of global network state information and the changing network topology in DTNs. In this paper, we propose a novel data caching scheme based on cooperative caching in DTNs, aiming at improving the successful rate of data access and reducing the data access delay. In the proposed scheme, learning automata are utilized to select a set of caching nodes as Caching Node Set (CNS in DTNs. Unlike the existing caching schemes failing to address the challenging characteristics of DTNs, our scheme is designed to automatically self-adjust to the changing network topology through the well-designed voting and updating processes. The proposed scheme improves the overall performance of data access in DTNs compared with the former caching schemes. The simulations verify the feasibility of our scheme and the improvements in performance.

  7. Delay-Dependent Exponential Optimal Synchronization for Nonidentical Chaotic Systems via Neural-Network-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiag Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach is presented to realize the optimal exponential synchronization of nonidentical multiple time-delay chaotic (MTDC systems via fuzzy control scheme. A neural-network (NN model is first constructed for the MTDC system. Then, a linear differential inclusion (LDI state-space representation is established for the dynamics of the NN model. Based on this LDI state-space representation, a delay-dependent exponential stability criterion of the error system derived in terms of Lyapunov's direct method is proposed to guarantee that the trajectories of the slave system can approach those of the master system. Subsequently, the stability condition of this criterion is reformulated into a linear matrix inequality (LMI. According to the LMI, a fuzzy controller is synthesized not only to realize the exponential synchronization but also to achieve the optimal performance by minimizing the disturbance attenuation level at the same time. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  8. Robust control for a biaxial servo with time delay system based on adaptive tuning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien

    2009-07-01

    A robust control method for synchronizing a biaxial servo system motion is proposed in this paper. A new network based cross-coupled control and adaptive tuning techniques are used together to cancel out the skew error. The conventional fixed gain PID cross-coupled controller (CCC) is replaced with the adaptive cross-coupled controller (ACCC) in the proposed control scheme to maintain biaxial servo system synchronization motion. Adaptive-tuning PID (APID) position and velocity controllers provide the necessary control actions to maintain synchronization while following a variable command trajectory. A delay-time compensator (DTC) with an adaptive controller was augmented to set the time delay element, effectively moving it outside the closed loop, enhancing the stability of the robust controlled system. This scheme provides strong robustness with respect to uncertain dynamics and disturbances. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed control structure adapts to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.

  9. Linear-control-based synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Zhong, Song

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of linear-control-based synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays. Within the new framework, closed loop control for each dynamic node is realized through linear state feedback around its own arena in a decentralized way, where the feedback matrix is determined through consideration of the coordination of the node dynamics, the inner connected matrix and the outer connected matrix. Unlike previously existing results, the feedback gain matrix here is decoupled from the inner matrix; this not only guarantees the flexible choice of the gain matrix, but also leaves much space for inner matrix configuration. Synchronization of coexisting attractor networks with time delays is made possible in virtue of local interaction, which works in a distributed way between individual neighbours, and the linear feedback control for each node. Provided that the network is connected and balanced, synchronization will come true naturally, where theoretical proof is given via a Lyapunov function. For completeness, several illustrative examples are presented to further elucidate the novelty and efficacy of the proposed scheme. (general)

  10. On the delay effects of different channels in Internet-based networked control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Bo; Kim, Jongrae; Sun, Xi-Ming; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    The sensor-to-controller and the controller-to-actuator delays in networked control systems (NCSs) are investigated for the first time with respect to their different effects on the system performance. This study starts with identifying the delay-independent and delay-dependent control laws in NCSs, and confirms that only two delay-dependent control laws can cause different delay effects in different channels. The conditions under which the different delays in different channels can cause different effects are then given for both delay-dependent control laws. The results are verified by numerical examples. Potentially, these results can be regarded as important design principles in the practical implementation of NCSs.

  11. The Automated Threaded Fastening Based on On-line Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ivan Giannoccaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of the thread fastenings have been known and used for decades with the purpose of joining one component to another. Threaded fastenings are popular because they permit easy disassembly for maintenance, repair, relocation and recycling. Screw insertions are typically carried out manually. It is a difficult problem to automat. As a result there is very little published research on automating threaded fastenings, and most research on automated assembly focus on the peg-in-hole assembly problem. This paper investigates the problem of automated monitoring of the screw insertion process. The monitoring problem deals with predicting integrity of a threaded insertion, based on the torque vs. insertion depth curve generated during the insertions. The authors have developed an analytical model to predict the torque signature signals during self-tapping screw insertions. However, the model requires parameters on the screw dimensions and plate material properties are difficult to measure. This paper presents a study on on-line identification during screw fastenings. An identification methodology for two unknown parameter estimation during a self-tapping screw insertion process is presented. It is shown that friction and screw properties required by the model can be reliably estimated on-line. Experimental results are presented to validate the identification procedure.

  12. Linear-Array Photoacoustic Imaging Using Minimum Variance-Based Delay Multiply and Sum Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Kratkiewicz, Karl; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    In Photoacoustic imaging (PA), Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamformer is a common beamforming algorithm having a simple implementation. However, it results in a poor resolution and high sidelobes. To address these challenges, a new algorithm namely Delay-Multiply-and-Sum (DMAS) was introduced having lower sidelobes compared to DAS. To improve the resolution of DMAS, a novel beamformer is introduced using Minimum Variance (MV) adaptive beamforming combined with DMAS, so-called Minimum Variance-Based D...

  13. LiDAR-IMU Time Delay Calibration Based on Iterative Closest Point and Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-08

    The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.

  14. Does delay in diagnosing colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients affect tumor stage and survival? A population-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing colorectal cancer (CRC at an early stage improves survival. To what extent any delay affects outcome once patients are symptomatic is still unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate the association between diagnostic delay and survival in symptomatic patients with early stage CRC and late stage CRC. Methods Prospective population-based observational study evaluating daily clinical practice in Northern Holland. Diagnostic delay was determined through questionnaire-interviews. Dukes' stage was classified into two groups: early stage (Dukes A or B and late stage (Dukes C or D cancer. Patients were followed up for 3.5 years after diagnosis. Results In total, 272 patients were available for analysis. Early stage CRC was present in 136 patients while 136 patients had late stage CRC. The mean total diagnostic delay (SE was 31 (1.5 weeks in all CRC patients. No significant difference was observed in the mean total diagnostic delay in early versus late stage CRC (p = 0.27. In early stage CRC, no difference in survival was observed between patients with total diagnostic delay shorter and longer than the median (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank p = 0.93. In late stage CRC, patients with a diagnostic delay shorter than the median had a shorter survival than patients with a diagnostic delay longer than the median (log-rank p = 0.01. In the multivariate Cox regression model with survival as dependent variable and median delay, age, open access endoscopy, number and type of symptoms as independent variables, the odd's ratio for survival in patients with long delay (>median versus short delay (≤median was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.1 to 3.0; p = 0.01. Tumor-site was not associated with patient survival. When separating late stage CRC in Dukes C and Dukes D tumors, a shorter delay was associated with a shorter survival in Dukes D tumors only and not in Dukes C tumors. Conclusion In symptomatic CRC patients, a longer diagnostic and

  15. Two-Year Outcomes of a Population-Based Intervention for Preschool Language Delay: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Levickis, Penny; Tobin, Sherryn; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zens, Naomi; Le, Ha N D; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown short-term benefits to phonology, letter knowledge, and possibly expressive language from systematically ascertaining language delay at age 4 years followed by the Language for Learning intervention. Here, we report the trial's definitive 6-year outcomes. Randomized trial nested in a population-based ascertainment. Children with language scores >1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 were randomized, with intervention children receiving 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. Primary outcome was receptive/expressive language. Secondary outcomes were phonological, receptive vocabulary, literacy, and narrative skills; parent-reported pragmatic language, behavior, and health-related quality of life; costs of intervention; and health service use. For intention-to-treat analyses, trial arms were compared using linear regression models. Of 1464 children assessed at age 4, 266 were eligible and 200 randomized; 90% and 82% of intervention and control children were retained respectively. By age 6, mean language scores had normalized, but there was little evidence of a treatment effect for receptive (adjusted mean difference 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.2 to 5.7; P = .20) or expressive (0.8; 95% CI -1.6 to 3.2; P = .49) language. Of the secondary outcomes, only phonological awareness skills (effect size 0.36; 95% CI 0.08-0.65; P = .01) showed benefit. Costs were higher for intervention families (mean difference AU$4276; 95% CI: $3424 to $5128). Population-based intervention targeting 4-year-old language delay was feasible but did not have lasting impacts on language, possibly reflecting resolution in both groups. Long-term literacy benefits remain possible but must be weighed against its cost. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Statistical Delay QoS Provisioning for Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Sharing Based Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the statistical delay quality-of-service (QoS provisioning framework for the energy-efficient spectrum-sharing based wireless ad hoc sensor network (WAHSN, which is characterized by the delay-bound violation probability. Based on the established delay QoS provisioning framework, we formulate the nonconvex optimization problem which aims at maximizing the average energy efficiency of the sensor node in the WAHSN while meeting PU’s statistical delay QoS requirement as well as satisfying sensor node’s average transmission rate, average transmitting power, and peak transmitting power constraints. By employing the theories of fractional programming, convex hull, and probabilistic transmission, we convert the original fractional-structured nonconvex problem to the additively structured parametric convex problem and obtain the optimal power allocation strategy under the given parameter via Lagrangian method. Finally, we derive the optimal average energy efficiency and corresponding optimal power allocation scheme by employing the Dinkelbach method. Simulation results show that our derived optimal power allocation strategy can be dynamically adjusted based on PU’s delay QoS requirement as well as the channel conditions. The impact of PU’s delay QoS requirement on sensor node’s energy efficiency is also illustrated.

  17. Differential expression of conserved germ line markers and delayed segregation of male and female primordial germ cells in a hermaphrodite, the leech helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Weisblat, David A

    2014-02-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals.

  18. Comparison of multi-pole shaping and delay line clipping pre-amplifiers for position sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van

    1998-01-01

    NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates

  19. Involvement of cannabinoid system in the nucleus accumbens on delay-based decision making in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Zahra; Sadeghi, Bahman; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-01-30

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a fundamental role in decision making and anticipation of reward. In addition, exogenous cannabinoids affect the behavior of humans and animals including disruption of short-term memory and cognitive impairments. Therefore, in this study, cannabinoid agonist and antagonist were administrated into the NAc to determine the effect of cannabinoid activation in the entire NAc on delay-based decision making. Rats were trained on a cost-benefit T-maze decision making task in which the animals were well-trained to choose between a small/immediate reward and a large/delay reward. After training, the animals were implanted with guide cannulae in the NAc. On test day, they received cannabinoid agonist (Win 55,212-2; 10, 50 and 100μM) and/or antagonist (AM251; 45μM) into the NAc. Percentage of high reward choice and latency of reward achievement were evaluated. Results showed that cannabinoid agonist administration caused a decrease in high reward choice such that rats selected small/immediate reward instead of large/delay reward. Moreover, in agonist-treated animals latency of reward achievement increased. Effects of cannabinoid activation on delay-based decision making with equivalent delays demonstrated that if the delay was equated on both arm goals, animals still had a preference for the high/delay reward, showing the results was not caused by an impairment of spatial preference or memory. These finding clarified that cannabinoid system activation in the entire NAc plays a critical role in the regulation of delay-based decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.

  1. UFIR Filtering for GPS-Based Tracking over WSNs with Delayed and Missing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Uribe-Murcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, vehicles tracking is organized to increase safety by localizing cars using the Global Positioning System (GPS. The GPS-based system provides accurate tracking but is also required to be reliable and robust. As a main estimator, we propose using the unbiased finite impulse response (UFIR filter, which meets these needs as being more robust than the Kalman filter (KF. The UFIR filter is developed for vehicle tracking in discrete-time state-space over wireless sensor networks (WSNs with time-stamped data discretely delayed on k-step-lags and missing data. The state-space model is represented in a way such that the UFIR filter, KF, and H∞ filter can be used universally. Applications are given for measurement data, which are cooperatively transferred from a vehicle to a central station through several nodes with k-step-lags. Better tracking performance of the UFIR filter is shown experimentally.

  2. Optimal robust stabilizer design based on UPFC for interconnected power systems considering time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koofigar Hamid Reza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A robust auxiliary wide area damping controller is proposed for a unified power flow controller (UPFC. The mixed H2 / H∞ problem with regional pole placement, resolved by linear matrix inequality (LMI, is applied for controller design. Based on modal analysis, the optimal wide area input signals for the controller are selected. The time delay of input signals, due to electrical distance from the UPFC location is taken into account in the design procedure. The proposed controller is applied to a multi-machine interconnected power system from the IRAN power grid. It is shown that the both transient and dynamic stability are significantly improved despite different disturbances and loading conditions.

  3. A SURVEY ON DELAY AND NEIGHBOR NODE MONITORING BASED WORMHOLE ATTACK PREVENTION AND DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir T Bagade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, network layer attacks, for example wormhole attacks, disrupt the network routing operations and can be used for data theft. Wormhole attacks are of two types: hidden and exposed wormhole. There are various mechanisms in literature which are used to prevent and detect wormhole attacks. In this paper, we survey wormhole prevention and detection techniques and present our critical observations for each. These techniques are based on cryptographic mechanisms, monitoring of packet transmission delay and control packet forwarding behavior of neighbor nodes. We compare the techniques using the following criteria- extra resources needed applicability to different network topologies and routing protocols, prevention/detection capability, etc. We conclude the paper with potential research directions.

  4. Comparison of delay-interferometer and time-lens-based all-optical OFDM demultiplexers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ) based on time lenses. In the former scheme, cascaded delay-interferometers (DIs) are used to perform the O-DFT, with subsequent active optical gating to remove the intercarrier interference (ICI). Here a reduced-complexity partial O-DFT, realized by replacing a number of DIs with optical bandpass......In this paper we present the first detailed numerical comparison of two promising all-optical schemes to demultiplex orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The investigated schemes are the optical discrete Fourier transformation (O-DFT) and the optical spectral magnification (SM...... filters, is investigated. In the latter scheme the OFDM spectrum is magnified, allowing for simple optical bandpass filtering of the individual subcarriers with reduced ICI. Ideally only a single unit consisting of two time lenses is needed, reducing the complexity and potentially the energy consumption...

  5. Comparison of Delay-Interferometer and Time- Lens-Based All-Optical OFDM Demultiplexers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    (SM) based on time lenses. In the former scheme, cascaded delay-interferometers (DIs) are used to perform the O-DFT, with subsequent active optical gating to remove the intercarrier interference (ICI). Here, a reduced-complexity partial O-DFT, realized by replacing a number of DIs with optical......In this letter, we present the first detailed numerical comparison of two promising all-optical schemes to demultiplex orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The investigated schemes are the optical discrete Fourier transformation (O-DFT) and the optical spectral magnification...... bandpass filters, is investigated. In the latter scheme, the OFDM spectrum is magnified, allowing for simple optical bandpass filtering of the individual subcarriers with reduced ICI. Ideally, only a single unit consisting of two time lenses is needed, reducing the complexity and potentially the energy...

  6. Transmission Line Ampacity Improvements of AltaLink Wind Plant Overhead Tie-Lines Using Weather-Based Dynamic Line Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Gentle, Jake P.; Hill, Porter; McJunkin, Tim; Myers, Kurt S.; Abbound, Alex; Renwick, Rodger; Hengst, David

    2017-07-01

    Abstract—Overhead transmission lines (TLs) are conventionally given seasonal ratings based on conservative environmental assumptions. Such an approach often results in underutilization of the line ampacity as the worst conditions prevail only for a short period over a year/season. We presents dynamic line rating (DLR) as an enabling smart grid technology that adaptively computes ratings of TLs based on local weather conditions to utilize additional headroom of existing lines. In particular, general line ampacity state solver utilizes measured weather data for computing the real-time thermal rating of the TLs. The performance of the presented method is demonstrated from a field study of DLR technology implementation on four TL segments at AltaLink, Canada. The performance is evaluated and quantified by comparing the existing static and proposed dynamic line ratings, and the potential benefits of DLR for enhanced transmission assets utilization. For the given line segments, the proposed DLR results in real-time ratings above the seasonal static ratings for most of the time; up to 95.1% of the time, with a mean increase of 72% over static rating.

  7. H∞ Excitation Control Design for Stochastic Power Systems with Input Delay Based on Nonlinear Hamiltonian System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.

  8. Investigation on performance of all optical buffer with large dynamical delay time based on cascaded double loop optical buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Jun, Wang; Xiang-Jun, Xin; Xiao-Lei, Zhang; Chong-Qing, Wu; Kuang-Lu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Optical buffers are critical for optical signal processing in future optical packet-switched networks. In this paper, a theoretical study as well as an experimental demonstration on a new optical buffer with large dynamical delay time is carried out based on cascaded double loop optical buffers (DLOBs). It is found that pulse distortion can be restrained by a negative optical control mode when the optical packet is in the loop. Noise analysis indicates that it is feasible to realise a large variable delay range by cascaded DLOBs. These conclusions are validated by the experiment system with 4-stage cascaded DLOBs. Both the theoretical simulations and the experimental results indicate that a large delay range of 1–9999 times the basic delay unit and a fine granularity of 25 ns can be achieved by the cascaded DLOBs. The performance of the cascaded DLOBs is suitable for the all optical networks. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  9. The application of convolution-based statistical model on the electrical breakdown time delay distributions in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.

    2004-01-01

    The convolution-based model of the electrical breakdown time delay distribution is applied for statistical analysis of experimental results obtained in neon-filled diode tube at 6.5 mbar. At first, the numerical breakdown time delay density distributions are obtained by stochastic modeling as the sum of two independent random variables, the electrical breakdown statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. Then, the single characteristic breakdown time delay distribution is obtained as the convolution of these two random variables with previously determined parameters. These distributions show good correspondence with the experimental distributions, obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The shape of distributions is investigated, and corresponding skewness and kurtosis are plotted, in order to follow the transition from Gaussian to exponential distribution

  10. Market-based control strategy for long-span structures considering the multi-time delay issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongnan; Song, Jianzhu; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    To solve the different time delays that exist in the control device installed on spatial structures, in this study, discrete analysis using a 2 N precise algorithm was selected to solve the multi-time-delay issue for long-span structures based on the market-based control (MBC) method. The concept of interval mixed energy was introduced from computational structural mechanics and optimal control research areas, and it translates the design of the MBC multi-time-delay controller into a solution for the segment matrix. This approach transforms the serial algorithm in time to parallel computing in space, greatly improving the solving efficiency and numerical stability. The designed controller is able to consider the issue of time delay with a linear controlling force combination and is especially effective for large time-delay conditions. A numerical example of a long-span structure was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller, and the time delay was found to have a significant impact on the results.

  11. Performance Assessment of a Gnss-Based Troposphere Path Delay Estimation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Gilles; Avanzi, Alessandro; Graziani, Alberto; Tortora, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Error budgets of Deep Space Radio Science experiments are heavily affected by interplanetary and Earth transmission media, that corrupt, due to their non-unitary refraction index, the radiometric information of signals coming from the spacecraft. An effective removal of these noise sources is crucial to achieve the accuracy and signal stability levels required by radio science applications. Depending on the nature of these refractions, transmission media are divided into dispersive (that consists of ionized particles, i.e. Solar Wind and Ionosphere) and non-dispersive ones (the refraction is caused by neutral particles: Earth Troposphere). While dispersive noises are successfully removed by multifrequency combinations (as for GPS with the well-known ionofree combination), the most accurate estimation of tropospheric noise is obtained using microwave radiometers (MWR). As the use of MWRs suffers from strong operational limitations (rain and heavy clouds conditions), the GNSS-based processing is still widely adopted to provide a cost-effective, all-weather condition estimation of the troposphere path delay. This work describes the development process and reports the results of a GNSS analysis code specifically aimed to the estimation of the path delays introduced by the troposphere above deep space complexes, to be used for the calibration of Range and Doppler radiometric data. The code has been developed by the Radio Science Laboratory of the University of Bologna in Forlì, and is currently in the testing phase. To this aim, the preliminary output is compared to MWR measurements and IGS TropoSINEX products in order to assess the reliability of the estimate. The software works using ionofree carrier-phase observables and is based upon a double-difference approach, in which the GNSS receiver placed nearby the Deep Space receiver acts as the rover station. Several baselines are then created with various IGS and EUREF stations (master or reference stations) in order to

  12. Channel and delay estimation for base-station–based cooperative communications in frequency-selective fading channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A channel and delay estimation algorithm for both positive and negative delay, based on the distributed Alamouti scheme, has been recently discussed for base-station–based asynchronous cooperative systems in frequency-flat fading channels. This paper extends the algorithm, the maximum likelihood estimator, to work in frequency-selective fading channels. The minimum mean square error (MMSE performance of channel estimation for both packet schemes and normal schemes is discussed in this paper. The symbol error rate (SER performance of equalisation and detection for both time-reversal space-time block code (STBC and single-carrier STBC is also discussed in this paper. The MMSE simulation results demonstrated the superior performance of the packet scheme over the normal scheme with an improvement in performance of up to 6 dB when feedback was used in the frequency-selective channel at a MSE of 3 x 10–2. The SER simulation results showed that, although both the normal and packet schemes achieved similar diversity orders, the packet scheme demonstrated a 1 dB coding gain over the normal scheme at a SER of 10–5. Finally, the SER simulations showed that the frequency-selective fading system outperformed the frequency-flat fading system.

  13. Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.

  14. Bio-Inspired Vision-Based Leader-Follower Formation Flying in the Presence of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flocking starlings at dusk are known for the mesmerizing and intricate shapes they generate, as well as how fluid these shapes change. They seem to do this effortlessly. Real-life vision-based flocking has not been achieved in micro-UAVs (micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to date. Towards this goal, we make three contributions in this paper: (i we used a computational approach to develop a bio-inspired architecture for vision-based Leader-Follower formation flying on two micro-UAVs. We believe that the minimal computational cost of the resulting algorithm makes it suitable for object detection and tracking during high-speed flocking; (ii we show that provided delays in the control loop of a micro-UAV are below a critical value, Kalman filter-based estimation algorithms are not required to achieve Leader-Follower formation flying; (iii unlike previous approaches, we do not use external observers, such as GPS signals or synchronized communication with flock members. These three contributions could be useful in achieving vision-based flocking in GPS-denied environments on computationally-limited agents.

  15. Two reports: (i) Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission. (ii) Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Isaev, S.G.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Pshakin, G.M.

    1998-10-01

    The document includes the following two reports: 'Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission' and 'Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting. A separate abstract was prepared for each report

  16. Knowledge-based on-line vibration monitoring diagnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.G.; Karlsson, A.; Noeremark, A.

    1990-01-01

    ABB STAL developed some years ago a knowledge-based on-line vibration analysis system (working-name KOVA). KOVA is intended to work together with some type of vibration monitoring system, at present it is adapted to TVM 300. KOVA has no controlling function. It will only diagnose the actual situation and give the user explanations and proposals for actions to be taken. During the developing work, great experience has been gained of the features this type of system demands. This paper will present the outlines of the application and also discuss how to make diagnoses based both on general rules as well as on historical vibration cases for that particular unit (or identical units9. Another subject that this paper will outline, is the representation and evaluation of knowledge. KOVA serves as a decision-support system for the operator. Since KOVA will often give the operator more than one possible diagnosis as the cause of a fault, it is of great importance to give the operator comprehensive explanations and as many facts as possible. It is also important to rank the suggested diagnoses in some way. In KOVA these demands are effectively supported. The models and tools used to realize this functionality will be described in this paper

  17. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS ON SPREADSHEET-BASED AUTOMATIC TREND LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL HOMOCIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nowadays business applications working with data sets allow exports to the spreadsheet format. This fact is related to the experience of common business users with such products and to the possibility to couple what they have with something containing many models, functions and possibilities to process and represent data, by that getting something in dynamics and much more than a simple static less useful report. The purpose of Business Intelligence is to identify clusters, profiles, association rules, decision trees and many other patterns or even behaviours, but also to generate alerts for exceptions, determine trends and make predictions about the future based on historical data. In this context, the paper shows some practical results obtained after testing both the automatic creation of scatter charts and trend lines corresponding to the user’s preferences and the automatic suggesting of the most appropriate trend for the tested data mostly based on the statistical measure of how close they are to the regression function.

  18. Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Peter

    It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

  19. A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Impulsive Noise Detector with Application to Power-Line-Based Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Chien, Ying-Ren; Chen, Jie-Wei; Xu, Sendren Sheng-Dong

    2018-01-01

    For power-line-based sensor networks, impulsive noise (IN) will dramatically degrade the data transmission rate in the power line. In this paper, we present a multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based approach to detect IN in orthogonal frequency

  20. Output Information Based Fault-Tolerant Iterative Learning Control for Dual-Rate Sampling Process with Disturbances and Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of single-input single-output (SISO dual-rate sampling processes with disturbances and output delay, this paper presents a robust fault-tolerant iterative learning control algorithm based on output information. Firstly, the dual-rate sampling process with output delay is transformed into discrete system in state-space model form with slow sampling rate without time delay by using lifting technology; then output information based fault-tolerant iterative learning control scheme is designed and the control process is turned into an equivalent two-dimensional (2D repetitive process. Moreover, based on the repetitive process stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the stability of system and the design method of robust controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique. Finally, the flow control simulations of two flow tanks in series demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Inference of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on dynamic Bayesian network hybrid learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Xu, Jia-Meng; Li, Shan; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Rui-Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-06

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) research reveals complex life phenomena from the perspective of gene interaction, which is an important research field in systems biology. Traditional Bayesian networks have a high computational complexity, and the network structure scoring model has a single feature. Information-based approaches cannot identify the direction of regulation. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the above methods, this paper presents a novel hybrid learning method (DBNCS) based on dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to construct the multiple time-delayed GRNs for the first time, combining the comprehensive score (CS) with the DBN model. DBNCS algorithm first uses CMI2NI (conditional mutual inclusive information-based network inference) algorithm for network structure profiles learning, namely the construction of search space. Then the redundant regulations are removed by using the recursive optimization algorithm (RO), thereby reduce the false positive rate. Secondly, the network structure profiles are decomposed into a set of cliques without loss, which can significantly reduce the computational complexity. Finally, DBN model is used to identify the direction of gene regulation within the cliques and search for the optimal network structure. The performance of DBNCS algorithm is evaluated by the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli , and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the rationality of the algorithm design and the outstanding performance of the GRNs.

  2. A high-resolution programmable Vernier delay generator based on carry chains in FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Rihong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an architecture of a high-resolution delay generator implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip by exploiting the method of utilizing dedicated carry chains. It serves as the core component in various physical instruments. The proposed delay generator contains the coarse delay step and the fine delay step to guarantee both large dynamic range and high resolution. The carry chains are organized in the Vernier delay loop style to fulfill the fine delay step with high precision and high linearity. The delay generator was implemented in the EP3SE110F1152I3 Stratix III device from Altera on a self-designed test board. Test results show that the obtained resolution is 38.6 ps, and the differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity is in the range of [-0.18 least significant bit (LSB), 0.24 LSB]/(-0.02 LSB, 0.01 LSB) under the nominal supply voltage of 1100 mV and environmental temperature of 20  ° C. The delay generator is rather efficient concerning resource cost, which uses only 668 look-up tables and 146 registers in total.

  3. Delayed Match Retrieval: A Novel Anticipation-Based Visual Working Memory Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Guillory, Sylvia B.; Blaser, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We tested 8- and 10-month-old infants' visual working memory (VWM) for object-location bindings--"what is where"--with a novel paradigm, Delayed Match Retrieval, that measured infants' anticipatory gaze responses (using a Tobii T120 eye tracker). In an inversion of Delayed-Match-to-Sample tasks and with inspiration from the game…

  4. A high-resolution programmable Vernier delay generator based on carry chains in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Rihong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an architecture of a high-resolution delay generator implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip by exploiting the method of utilizing dedicated carry chains. It serves as the core component in various physical instruments. The proposed delay generator contains the coarse delay step and the fine delay step to guarantee both large dynamic range and high resolution. The carry chains are organized in the Vernier delay loop style to fulfill the fine delay step with high precision and high linearity. The delay generator was implemented in the EP3SE110F1152I3 Stratix III device from Altera on a self-designed test board. Test results show that the obtained resolution is 38.6 ps, and the differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity is in the range of [-0.18 least significant bit (LSB), 0.24 LSB]/(-0.02 LSB, 0.01 LSB) under the nominal supply voltage of 1100 mV and environmental temperature of 2 0°C. The delay generator is rather efficient concerning resource cost, which uses only 668 look-up tables and 146 registers in total.

  5. Compressed air leak detection based on time delay estimation using a portable multi-sensor ultrasonic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Pingping; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Fan, Zichuan

    2013-01-01

    The conventional ultrasonic method for compressed air leak detection utilizes a directivity-based ultrasonic leak detector (DULD) to locate the leak. The location accuracy of this method is low due to the limit of the nominal frequency and the size of the ultrasonic sensor. In order to overcome this deficiency, a method based on time delay estimation (TDE) is proposed. The method utilizes three ultrasonic sensors arranged in an equilateral triangle to simultaneously receive the ultrasound generated by the leak. The leak can be located according to time delays between every two sensor signals. The theoretical accuracy of the method is analyzed, and it is found that the location error increases linearly with delay estimation error and the distance from the leak to the sensor plane, and the location error decreases with the distance between sensors. The average square difference function delay estimator with parabolic fitting is used and two practical techniques are devised to remove the anomalous delay estimates. Experimental results indicate that the location accuracy using the TDE-based ultrasonic leak detector is 6.5–8.3 times as high as that using the DULD. By adopting the proposed method, the leak can be located more accurately and easily, and then the detection efficiency is improved. (paper)

  6. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31 Cl, 27 P and 28 P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31 Cl and 27 P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31 Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25 Si. In 27 P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28 P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17 Ne and 33 Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17 Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17 Ne and 33 Ar were resolved

  7. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  8. Vehicle Position Estimation Based on Magnetic Markers: Enhanced Accuracy by Compensation of Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun-Sub Byun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The real-time recognition of absolute (or relative position and orientation on a network of roads is a core technology for fully automated or driving-assisted vehicles. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a self-positioning system based on a magnetic marker reference sensing method for an autonomous vehicle. Specifically, the estimation accuracy of the magnetic sensing ruler (MSR in the up-to-date estimation of the actual position was successfully enhanced by compensating for time delays in signal processing when detecting the vertical magnetic field (VMF in an array of signals. In this study, the signal processing scheme was developed to minimize the effects of the distortion of measured signals when estimating the relative positional information based on magnetic signals obtained using the MSR. In other words, the center point in a 2D magnetic field contour plot corresponding to the actual position of magnetic markers was estimated by tracking the errors between pre-defined reference models and measured magnetic signals. The algorithm proposed in this study was validated by experimental measurements using a test vehicle on a pilot network of roads. From the results, the positioning error was found to be less than 0.04 m on average in an operational test.

  9. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  10. Synchronization of map-based neurons with memory and synaptic delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausedo-Solorio, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42074 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pisarchik, A.N., E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Centre for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, Campus Montegancedo, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-13

    Synchronization of two synaptically coupled neurons with memory and synaptic delay is studied using the Rulkov map, one of the simplest neuron models which displays specific features inherent to bursting dynamics. We demonstrate a transition from lag to anticipated synchronization as the relationship between the memory duration and the synaptic delay time changes. The neuron maps synchronize either with anticipation, if the memory is longer than the synaptic delay time, or with lag otherwise. The mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between the memory and synaptic delay independently of the coupling strength. Frequency entrainment and phase-locking phenomena as well as a transition from regular spikes to chaos are demonstrated with respect to the coupling strength. - Highlights: • We study synchronization of neurons with memory and synaptic delay in the map model. • Neurons synchronize either with anticipation or with lag depending on delay time. • Mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between memory and synaptic delay. • Frequency entrainment and phase locking are studied with respect to the coupling.

  11. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  12. Organizing of delay, input gate and memory of proportional chamber channel basing on D-trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Kuzichev, V.F.; Rabin, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    Economical organization of delay, input gate and proportional chamber (PC) channel memory on the 155 TM2 D trigger basis is described. The channel consists of an amplifier; delay element permitting to synchronize PC signal and recording strobe-signal; input gate, where coincidence of the above signals occurs; memory element, where the data from a wire are recorded and stored; read gate through which the data are transmitted for further processing. Presented is one of the versions of circuit solution for delay element, input gate and momory element. Flowsheet peculiarity is the simplicity of fabrication and tuning as well as low cost of the device

  13. On-line mixture-based alternative to logistic regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Ivan; Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2016), s. 417-437 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03564S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : on-line modeling * on-line logistic regression * recursive mixture estimation * data dependent pointer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZS/suzdaleva-0464463.pdf

  14. LINE-BASED REGISTRATION OF DSM AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Avbelj

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion techniques require a good registration of all the used datasets. In remote sensing, images are usually geo-referenced using the GPS and IMU data. However, if more precise registration is required, image processing techniques can be employed. We propose a method for multi-modal image coregistration between hyperspectral images (HSI and digital surface models (DSM. The method is divided in three parts: object and line detection of the same object in HSI and DSM, line matching and determination of transformation parameters. Homogeneous coordinates are used to implement matching and adjustment of transformation parameters. The common object in HSI and DSM are building boundaries. They have apparent change in height and material, that can be detected in DSM and HSI, respectively. Thus, before the matching and transformation parameter computation, building outlines are detected and adjusted in HSI and DSM. We test the method on a HSI and two DSM, using extracted building outbounds and for comparison also extracted lines with a line detector. The results show that estimated building boundaries provide more line assignments, than using line detector.

  15. Toward heterogeneity in feedforward network with synaptic delays based on FitzHugh-Nagumo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying-Mei; Men, Cong; Zhao, Jia; Han, Chun-Xiao; Che, Yan-Qiu

    2018-01-01

    We focus on the role of heterogeneity on the propagation of firing patterns in feedforward network (FFN). Effects of heterogeneities both in parameters of neuronal excitability and synaptic delays are investigated systematically. Neuronal heterogeneity is found to modulate firing rates and spiking regularity by changing the excitability of the network. Synaptic delays are strongly related with desynchronized and synchronized firing patterns of the FFN, which indicate that synaptic delays may play a significant role in bridging rate coding and temporal coding. Furthermore, quasi-coherence resonance (quasi-CR) phenomenon is observed in the parameter domain of connection probability and delay-heterogeneity. All these phenomena above enable a detailed characterization of neuronal heterogeneity in FFN, which may play an indispensable role in reproducing the important properties of in vivo experiments.

  16. Gas-evolution oscillators. 10. A model based on a delay equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Eli, K.; Noyes, R.M. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1992-09-17

    This paper develops a simplified method to model the behavior of a gas-evolution oscillator with two differential delay equations in two unknowns consisting of the population of dissolved molecules in solution and the pressure of the gas.

  17. Gas-evolution oscillators. 10. A model based on a delay equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Eli, K.; Noyes, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified method to model the behavior of a gas-evolution oscillator with two differential delay equations in two unknowns consisting of the population of dissolved molecules in solution and the pressure of the gas

  18. Covariance-Based Estimation from Multisensor Delayed Measurements with Random Parameter Matrices and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caballero-Águila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal least-squares linear estimation problem is addressed for a class of discrete-time multisensor linear stochastic systems subject to randomly delayed measurements with different delay rates. For each sensor, a different binary sequence is used to model the delay process. The measured outputs are perturbed by both random parameter matrices and one-step autocorrelated and cross correlated noises. Using an innovation approach, computationally simple recursive algorithms are obtained for the prediction, filtering, and smoothing problems, without requiring full knowledge of the state-space model generating the signal process, but only the information provided by the delay probabilities and the mean and covariance functions of the processes (signal, random parameter matrices, and noises involved in the observation model. The accuracy of the estimators is measured by their error covariance matrices, which allow us to analyze the estimator performance in a numerical simulation example that illustrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Delay analysis of a point-to-multipoint spectrum sharing network with CSI based power allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we analyse the delay performance of a point-to-multipoint cognitive radio network which is sharing the spectrum with a point-to-multipoint primary network. The channel is assumed to be independent but not identically distributed and has Nakagami-m fading. A constraint on the peak transmit power of the secondary user transmitter (SU-Tx) is also considered in addition to the peak interference power constraint. Based on the constraints, a power allocation scheme which requires knowledge of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the interference links is derived. The SU-Tx is assumed to be equipped with a buffer and is modelled using the M/G/1 queueing model. Closed form expressions for the probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the packet transmission time is derived. Using the PDF, the expressions for the moments of transmission time are obtained. In addition, using the moments, the expressions for the performance measures such as the total average waiting time of packets and the average number of packets waiting in the buffer of the SU-Tx are also obtained. Numerical simulations corroborate the theoretical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Wet tropospheric delays forecast based on Vienna Mapping Function time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecka, Zofia; Kalita, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the dry part of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) is much easier to model than the wet part (ZTW). The aim of the research is applying stochastic modeling and prediction of ZTW using time series analysis tools. Application of time series analysis enables closer understanding of ZTW behavior as well as short-term prediction of future ZTW values. The ZTW data used for the studies were obtained from the GGOS service hold by Vienna technical University. The resolution of the data is six hours. ZTW for the years 2010 -2013 were adopted for the study. The International GNSS Service (IGS) permanent stations LAMA and GOPE, located in mid-latitudes, were admitted for the investigations. Initially the seasonal part was separated and modeled using periodic signals and frequency analysis. The prominent annual and semi-annual signals were removed using sines and consines functions. The autocorrelation of the resulting signal is significant for several days (20-30 samples). The residuals of this fitting were further analyzed and modeled with ARIMA processes. For both the stations optimal ARMA processes based on several criterions were obtained. On this basis predicted ZTW values were computed for one day ahead, leaving the white process residuals. Accuracy of the prediction can be estimated at about 3 cm.

  1. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  2. A system for gas electrical breakdown time delay measurements based on a microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorović, Miomir; Vasović, Nikola D; Ristić, Goran S

    2012-01-01

    A new system, called gasmem v1.0, for the measurements of gas electrical breakdown time delay (t d ), with significantly better characteristics than older systems, has been developed and realized. It is based on the PIC 18F4550 microcontroller and could measure the minimal t d of about 1.5 μs with the resolution of 83.33 ns. The relaxation (afterglow) period (τ) could vary from 1 to 2 32 ms (≈50 days). The successive series of t d measurements with various τ could be performed, giving very reliable t d data that are stored on the personal computer (PC) hard drive via the USB interface. The t d and τ values enable the drawing of memory curves ((t d ) = f(τ)) and the analysis of memory effects in the gases. The randomness of t d values measured by the gasmem system for more τ values was tested using the nonparametric Wald–Wolfowitz test showing the stochastic nature of obtained results. The memory curves obtained by this system have shown very high reproducibility. In addition, the system has a capability of operating as a stand-alone system (independently of a PC), with the possibility for the implementation of a touch screen for controlling the system and additional memory (e.g. memory card) for data storage

  3. A novel fair active queue management algorithm based on traffic delay jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Shun; Yu, Shao-Hua; Dai, Jin-You; Luo, Ting

    2009-11-01

    In order to guarantee the quantity of data traffic delivered in the network, congestion control strategy is adopted. According to the study of many active queue management (AQM) algorithms, this paper proposes a novel active queue management algorithm named JFED. JFED can stabilize queue length at a desirable level by adjusting output traffic rate and adopting a reasonable calculation of packet drop probability based on buffer queue length and traffic jitter; and it support burst packet traffic through the packet delay jitter, so that it can traffic flow medium data. JFED impose effective punishment upon non-responsible flow with a full stateless method. To verify the performance of JFED, it is implemented in NS2 and is compared with RED and CHOKe with respect to different performance metrics. Simulation results show that the proposed JFED algorithm outperforms RED and CHOKe in stabilizing instantaneous queue length and in fairness. It is also shown that JFED enables the link capacity to be fully utilized by stabilizing the queue length at a desirable level, while not incurring excessive packet loss ratio.

  4. Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent; Cuenot, Jean-Baptiste; Levy, Pascal; Rhodes, William T.

    2003-01-01

    We report that signal encoding with high-dimensional chaos produced by delayed feedback systems with a strong nonlinearity can be broken. We describe the procedure and illustrate the method with chaotic waveforms obtained from a strongly nonlinear optical system that we used previously to demonstrate signal encryption/decryption with chaos in wavelength. The method can be extended to any systems ruled by nonlinear time-delayed differential equations

  5. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B.; Lawal, Ibrahim A.; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  6. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Azmat Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP, video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node’s reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO, for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node’s compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2 and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6’s Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO.

  7. A TOTP-based enhanced route optimization procedure for mobile IPv6 to reduce handover delay and signalling overhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B; Lawal, Ibrahim A; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO).

  8. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions... to payment processes that automatically reject drawdown requests that fall outside a pre-determined...

  9. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  10. Neuro-economics in chicks: foraging choices based on amount, delay and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Kawamori, Ai; Bem-Sojka, Tiaza

    2008-06-15

    Studies on the foraging choices are reviewed, with an emphasis on the neural representations of elementary factors of food (i.e., amount, delay and consumption time) in the avian brain. Domestic chicks serve as an ideal animal model in this respect, as they quickly associate cue colors with subsequently supplied food rewards, and their choices are quantitatively linked with the rewards. When a pair of such color cues was simultaneously presented, the trained chicks reliably made choices according to the profitability of food associated with each color. Two forebrain regions are involved in distinct aspects of choices; i.e., nucleus accumbens-medial striatum (Ac-MSt) and arcopallium intermedium (AI), an association area in the lateral forebrain. Localized lesions of Ac-MSt enhanced delay aversion, and the ablated chicks made impulsive choices of immediate reward more frequently than sham controls. On the other hand, lesions of AI enhanced consumption-time aversion, and the ablated chicks shifted their choices toward easily consumable reward with their impulsiveness unchanged; delay and consumption time are thus doubly dissociated. Furthermore, chicks showed distinct patterns of risk-sensitive choices depending on the factor that varied at trials. Risk aversion occurred when food amount varied, whereas consistent risk sensitivity was not found when the delay varied; amount and delay were not interchangeable. Choices are thus deviated from those predicted as optima. Instead, factors such as amount, delay and consumption time could be separately represented and processed to yield economically sub-optimal choices.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY CORRECTION OF D-INSAR BASED ON SENTINEL-1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the Generic Atmospheric Correction Online Service for InSAR (GACOS tropospheric delay maps to correct the atmospheric phase delay of the differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR monitoring, and we improved the accuracy of subsidence monitoring using D-InSAR technology. Atmospheric phase delay, as one of the most important errors that limit the monitoring accuracy of InSAR, would lead to the masking of true phase in subsidence monitoring. For the problem, this paper used the Sentinel-1A images and the tropospheric delay maps got from GACOS to monitor the subsidence of the Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province. The conventional D-InSAR processing was performed using the GAMMA software. The MATLAB codes were used to correct the atmospheric delay of the D-InSAR results. The results before and after the atmospheric phase delay correction were verified and analyzed in the main subsidence area. The experimental results show that atmospheric phase influences the deformation results to a certain extent. After the correction, the measurement error of vertical deformation is reduced by about 18 mm, which proves that the removal of atmospheric effects can improve the accuracy of the D-InSAR monitoring.

  12. Prediction-based control for LTI systems with uncertain time-varying delays and partial state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchappé, V.; Moulay, E.; Plestan, F.

    2018-06-01

    The stability of a prediction-based controller for linear time-invariant (LTI) systems is studied in the presence of time-varying input and output delays. The uncertain delay case is treated as well as the partial state knowledge case. The reduction method is used in order to prove the convergence of the closed-loop system including the state observer, the predictor and the plant. Explicit conditions that guarantee the closed-loop stability are given, thanks to a Lyapunov-Razumikhin analysis. Simulations illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Research on Adaptive Neural Network Control System Based on Nonlinear U-Model with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available U-model can approximate a large class of smooth nonlinear time-varying delay system to any accuracy by using time-varying delay parameters polynomial. This paper proposes a new approach, namely, U-model approach, to solving the problems of analysis and synthesis for nonlinear systems. Based on the idea of discrete-time U-model with time-varying delay, the identification algorithm of adaptive neural network is given for the nonlinear model. Then, the controller is designed by using the Newton-Raphson formula and the stability analysis is given for the closed-loop nonlinear systems. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the validity and applicability of the obtained results.

  14. Highly parallel line-based image coding for many cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng; Zhou, You; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Computers are developing along with a new trend from the dual-core and quad-core processors to ones with tens or even hundreds of cores. Multimedia, as one of the most important applications in computers, has an urgent need to design parallel coding algorithms for compression. Taking intraframe/image coding as a start point, this paper proposes a pure line-by-line coding scheme (LBLC) to meet the need. In LBLC, an input image is processed line by line sequentially, and each line is divided into small fixed-length segments. The compression of all segments from prediction to entropy coding is completely independent and concurrent at many cores. Results on a general-purpose computer show that our scheme can get a 13.9 times speedup with 15 cores at the encoder and a 10.3 times speedup at the decoder. Ideally, such near-linear speeding relation with the number of cores can be kept for more than 100 cores. In addition to the high parallelism, the proposed scheme can perform comparatively or even better than the H.264 high profile above middle bit rates. At near-lossless coding, it outperforms H.264 more than 10 dB. At lossless coding, up to 14% bit-rate reduction is observed compared with H.264 lossless coding at the high 4:4:4 profile.

  15. Delay-based Passenger Car Equivalent at Signalized Intersections in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Nassiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their different sizes and operational characteristics, vehicles other than passenger cars have a different influence on traffic operations especially at intersections. The passenger car equivalent (PCE is the parameter that shows how many passenger cars must be substituted for a specific heavy vehicle to represent its influence on traffic operation. PCE is commonly estimated using headway-based methods that consider the excess headway utilized by heavy vehicles. In this research, the PCE was estimated based on the delay parameter at three signalized intersections in Tehran, Iran. The data collected were traffic volume, travel time for each movement, signalization, and geometric design information. These data were analysed and three different models, one for each intersection, were constructed and calibrated using TRAF-NETSIM simulation software for unsaturated traffic conditions. PCE was estimated under different scenarios and the number of approach movements at each intersection. The results showed that for approaches with only one movement, PCE varies from 1.1 to 1.65. Similarly, for approaches with two and three movements, the PCE varies from 1.07 to 1.99 and from 0.76 to 3.6, respectively. In addition, a general model was developed for predicting PCE for intersections with all of the movements considered. The results obtained from this model showed that the average PCE of 1.5 is similar to the value recommended by the HCM (Highway Capacity Manual 1985. However, the predicted PCE value of 1.9 for saturated threshold is closer to the PCE value of 2 which was recommended by the HCM 2000 and HCM 2010.

  16. Allowing Brief Delays in Responding Improves Event-Based Prospective Memory for Young Adults Living with HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Doyle, Katie L.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Weber, Erica; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) tasks require individuals to remember to perform an action when they encounter a specific cue in the environment, and have clear relevance for daily functioning for individuals with HIV. In many everyday tasks, the individual must not only maintain the intent to perform the PM task, but the PM task response also competes with the alternative and more habitual task response. The current study examined whether event-based PM can be improved by slowing down the pace of the task environment. Fifty-seven young adults living with HIV performed an ongoing lexical decision task while simultaneously performing a PM task of monitoring for a specific word (which was focal to the ongoing task of making lexical decisions) or syllable contained in a word (which was nonfocal). Participants were instructed to refrain from making task responses until after a tone was presented, which occurred at varying onsets (0–1600ms) after each stimulus appeared. Improvements in focal and non-focal PM accuracy were observed with response delays of 600ms. Furthermore, the difference in PM accuracy between the low demand focal PM task and the resource demanding non-focal PM task was reduced by half across increasingly longer delays, falling from 31% at 0ms delay to only 14% at 1600ms delay. The degree of ongoing task response slowing for the PM conditions, relative to a control condition that did not have a PM task and made lexical decisions only, also decreased with increased delay. Overall, the evidence indicates that delaying the task responses of younger HIV-infected adults increased the probability that the PM relevant features of task stimuli were adequately assessed prior to the ongoing task response, and by implication that younger HIV infected adults can more adequately achieve PM goals when the pace of the task environment is slowed down. PMID:25116075

  17. Laser based thermo-conductometry as an approach to determine ribbon solid fraction off-line and in-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedey, Raphael; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Ribbon solid fraction is one of the most important quality attributes during roll compaction/dry granulation. Accurate and precise determination is challenging and no in-line measurement tool has been generally accepted, yet. In this study, a new analytical tool with potential off-line as well as in-line applicability is described. It is based on the thermo-conductivity of the compacted material, which is known to depend on the solid fraction. A laser diode was used to punctually heat the ribbon and the heat propagation monitored by infrared thermography. After performing a Gaussian fit of the transverse ribbon profile, the scale parameter σ showed correlation to ribbon solid fraction in off-line as well as in-line studies. Accurate predictions of the solid fraction were possible for a relevant range of process settings. Drug stability was not affected, as could be demonstrated for the model drug nifedipine. The application of this technique was limited when using certain fillers and working at higher roll speeds. This study showed the potentials of this new technique and is a starting point for additional work that has to be done to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Poverty Lines Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Application to Malaysian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Lazim

    2011-01-01

    Defining the poverty line has been acknowledged as being highly variable by the majority of published literature. Despite long discussions and successes, poverty line has a number of problems due to its arbitrary nature. This paper proposes three measurements of poverty lines using membership functions based on fuzzy set theory. The three…

  19. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  20. Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2017-08-17

    In this work, a universal methodology for ignition delay time (IDT) correlation of multicomponent fuel mixtures is reported. The method is applicable over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. n-Heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and their blends are investigated in this study because of their relevance to gasoline surrogate formulation. The proposed methodology combines benefits from the Livengood-Wu integral, the cool flame characteristics and the Arrhenius behavior of the high-temperature ignition delay time to suggest a simple and comprehensive formulation for correlating the ignition delay times of pure components and blends. The IDTs of fuel blends usually have complex dependences on temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and composition of the blend. The Livengood-Wu integral is applied here to relate the NTC region and the cool flame phenomenon. The integral is further extended to obtain a relation between the IDTs of fuel blends and pure components. Ignition delay times calculated using the proposed methodology are in excellent agreement with those simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model for n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and blends of these components. Finally, very good agreement is also observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.

  1. Stability Analysis of Positive Polynomial Fuzzy-Model-Based Control Systems with Time Delay under Imperfect Premise Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaomiao; Lam, Hak Keung; Song, Ge; Liu, Fucai

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability and positivity analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based ({PFMB}) control systems with time delay, which is formed by a polynomial fuzzy model and a polynomial fuzzy controller connected in a closed loop, under imperfect premise matching. To improve the design and realization flexibility, the polynomial fuzzy model and the polynomial fuzzy controller are allowed to have their own set of premise membership functions. A sum-of-squares (SOS)-based stability ana...

  2. A Sociability-Based Routing Scheme for Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbri Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing the best forwarders in Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs is crucial for minimizing the delay in packet delivery and for keeping the amount of generated traffic under control. In this paper, we introduce sociable routing, a novel routing strategy that selects a subset of optimal forwarders among all the nodes and relies on them for an efficient delivery. The key idea is that of assigning to each network node a time-varying scalar parameter which captures its social behavior in terms of frequency and types of encounters. This sociability concept is widely discussed and mathematically formalized. Simulation results of a DTN of vehicles in urban environment, driven by real mobility traces, and employing sociable routing, is presented. Encouraging results show that sociable routing, compared to other known protocols, achieves a good compromise in terms of delay performance and amount of generated traffic.

  3. Estimating ionospheric delay using kriging: 2. Impact on satellite-based augmentation system availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Blanch, Juan; Pandya, Nitin

    2011-12-01

    An augmentation of the Global Positioning System, the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) broadcasts, at each node of an ionospheric grid, an estimate of the vertical ionospheric delay and an integrity bound on the vertical delay error. To date, these quantities have been determined from a planar fit of slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using an obliquity factor specified by the standard thin shell model of the ionosphere. In a future WAAS upgrade (WAAS Follow-On Release 3), however, they will be calculated using an established, geo-statistical estimation technique known as kriging that generally provides higher estimate accuracy than planar fit estimation. This paper analyzes the impact of kriging on system availability. In a preliminary assessment, kriging is found to produce improvements in availability of up to 15%.

  4. Observer-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Time-Delays Modeled by Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the observer-based controller design problem for a class of nonlinear networked control systems with random time-delays. The nonlinearity is assumed to satisfy a global Lipschitz condition and two dependent Markov chains are employed to describe the time-delay from sensor to controller (S-C delay and the time-delay from controller to actuator (C-A delay, respectively. The transition probabilities of S-C delay and C-A delay are both assumed to be partly inaccessible. Sufficient conditions on the stochastic stability for the closed-loop systems are obtained by constructing proper Lyapunov functional. The methods of calculating the controller and the observer gain matrix are also given. Two numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Robust output observer-based control of neutral uncertain systems with discrete and distributed time delays: LMI optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the robust control problem of output dynamic observer-based control for a class of uncertain neutral systems with discrete and distributed time delays is considered. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization approach is used to design the new output dynamic observer-based controls. Three classes of observer-based controls are proposed and the maximal perturbed bound is given. Based on the results of this paper, the constraint of matrix equality is not necessary for designing the observer-based controls. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method

  6. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie

    2015-10-20

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  7. Master-slave exponential synchronization of delayed complex-valued memristor-based neural networks via impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Fang, Jian-An; Li, Huiyuan

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates master-slave exponential synchronization for a class of complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays via discontinuous impulsive control. Firstly, the master and slave complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays are translated to two real-valued memristor-based neural networks. Secondly, an impulsive control law is constructed and utilized to guarantee master-slave exponential synchronization of the neural networks. Thirdly, the master-slave synchronization problems are transformed into the stability problems of the master-slave error system. By employing linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique and constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some sufficient synchronization criteria are derived. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency domain based LS channel estimation in OFDM based Power line communications

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on low voltage power line communication (PLC) realization with an emphasis on channel estimation techniques. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme is preferred technology in PLC systems because of its effective combat with frequency selective fading properties of PLC channel. As the channel estimation is one of the crucial problems in OFDM based PLC system because of a problematic area of PLC signal attenuation and interference, the improved LS est...

  9. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  10. An integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance based on the delayed monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hui; Zhang, Guojun; Zhu, Haiping; Deng, Yuhao; He, Fei

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance decision. The proposal of delayed monitoring policy postpones the sampling process till a scheduled time and contributes to ten-scenarios of the production process, where equipment failure may occur besides quality shift. The equipment failure and the control chart alert trigger the corrective maintenance and the predictive maintenance, respectively. The occurrence probability, the cycle time and the cycle cost of each scenario are obtained by integral calculation; therefore, a mathematical model is established to minimize the expected cost by using the genetic algorithm. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment is conducted and compared with the integral calculation in order to ensure the analysis of the ten-scenario model. Another ordinary integrated model without delayed monitoring is also established as comparison. The results of a numerical example indicate satisfactory economic performance of the proposed model. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of model parameters. - Highlights: • We develop an integrated model of statistical process control and maintenance. • We propose delayed monitoring policy and derive an economic model with 10 scenarios. • We consider two deterioration mechanisms, quality shift and equipment failure. • The delayed monitoring policy will help reduce the expected cost

  11. A regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When developing new products, it is important for a designer to understand users’ perceptions and develop product form with the corresponding perceptions. In order to establish the mapping between users’ perceptions and product design features effectively, in this study, we presented a regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design. First according to the characteristics of design concept representation, product form features–product form feature lines were defined. Second, Kansei words were chosen to describe image perceptions toward product samples. Then, multiple linear regression and support vector regression were used to construct the models, respectively, that predicted users’ image perceptions. Using mobile phones as experimental samples, Kansei prediction models were established based on the front view form feature lines of the samples. From the experimental results, these two predict models were of good adaptability. But in contrast to multiple linear regression, the predict performance of support vector regression model was better, and support vector regression is more suitable for form regression prediction. The results of the case showed that the proposed method provided an effective means for designers to manipulate product features as a whole, and it can optimize Kansei model and improve practical values.

  12. Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejović, Milić M; Denić, Dragan B; Pejović, Momčilo M; Nešić, Nikola T; Vasović, Nikola

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.

  13. Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejovic, Milic M.; Denic, Dragan B.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Vasovic, Nikola [Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.

  14. Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejovic, Milic M.; Denic, Dragan B.; Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Vasovic, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.

  15. Closeness-Centrality-Based Synchronization Criteria for Complex Dynamical Networks With Interval Time-Varying Coupling Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myeongjin; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Min; Seuret, Alexandre

    2017-09-06

    This paper investigates synchronization in complex dynamical networks (CDNs) with interval time-varying delays. The CDNs are representative of systems composed of a large number of interconnected dynamical units, and for the purpose of the mathematical analysis, the leading work is to model them as graphs whose nodes represent the dynamical units. At this time, we take note of the importance of each node in networks. One way, in this paper, is that the closeness-centrality mentioned in the field of social science is grafted onto the CDNs. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and utilizing some mathematical techniques, the sufficient and closeness-centrality-based conditions for synchronization stability of the networks are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Ultimately, the use of the closeness-centrality can be weighted with regard to not only the interconnection relation among the nodes, which was utilized in the existing works but also more information about nodes. Here, the centrality will be added as the concerned information. Moreover, to avoid the computational burden causing the nonconvex term including the square of the time-varying delay, how to deal with it is applied by estimating it to the convex term including time-varying delay. Finally, two illustrative examples are given to show the advantage of the closeness-centrality in point of the robustness on time-delay.

  16. Stochastic bounded consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled data with general sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li; Xie Lin-Bo; Wen Ji-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unified framework for consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled data with a general sampling delay. First, a stochastic bounded consensus tracking protocol based on sampled data with a general sampling delay is presented by employing the delay decomposition technique. Then, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for guaranteeing leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises and a time-varying reference state to achieve mean square bounded consensus tracking. The obtained results cover no sampling delay, a small sampling delay and a large sampling delay as three special cases. Last, simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  18. Document localization algorithms based on feature points and straight lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoryukina, Natalya; Shemiakina, Julia; Arlazarov, Vladimir L.; Faradjev, Igor

    2018-04-01

    The important part of the system of a planar rectangular object analysis is the localization: the estimation of projective transform from template image of an object to its photograph. The system also includes such subsystems as the selection and recognition of text fields, the usage of contexts etc. In this paper three localization algorithms are described. All algorithms use feature points and two of them also analyze near-horizontal and near- vertical lines on the photograph. The algorithms and their combinations are tested on a dataset of real document photographs. Also the method of localization quality estimation is proposed that allows configuring the localization subsystem independently of the other subsystems quality.

  19. Models and synchronization of time-delayed complex dynamical networks with multi-links based on adaptive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Haipeng; Wei Nan; Li Lixiang; Xie Weisheng; Yang Yixian

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time-delay has been introduced in to split the networks, upon which a model of complex dynamical networks with multi-links has been constructed. Moreover, based on Lyapunov stability theory and some hypotheses, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks with different structures by designing effective controllers. The validity of the results was proved through numerical simulations of this Letter.

  20. Adaptive fuzzy observer-based stabilization of a class of uncertain time-delayed chaotic systems with actuator nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnazi, Reza; Haghani, Adel; Jeinsch, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    An observer-based output feedback adaptive fuzzy controller is proposed to stabilize a class of uncertain chaotic systems with unknown time-varying time delays, unknown actuator nonlinearities and unknown external disturbances. The actuator nonlinearity can be backlash-like hysteresis or dead-zone. Based on universal approximation property of fuzzy systems the unknown nonlinear functions are approximated by fuzzy systems, where the consequent parts of fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. The proposed method does not need the availability of the states and an observer based output feedback approach is proposed to estimate the states. To have more robustness and at the same time to alleviate chattering an adaptive discontinuous structure is suggested. Semi-global asymptotic stability of the overall system is ensured by proposing a suitable Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional candidate. The approach is applied to stabilize the time-delayed Lorenz chaotic system with uncertain dynamics amid significant disturbances. Analysis of simulations reveals the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of coping well with the modeling uncertainties, nonlinearities in actuators, unknown time-varying time-delays and unknown external disturbances while maintaining asymptotic convergence

  1. Dwell time-based stabilisation of switched delay systems using free-weighting matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru, Ahmet Taha; Delibaşı, Akın; Özbay, Hitay

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a quasi-convex optimisation method to minimise an upper bound of the dwell time for stability of switched delay systems. Piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are introduced and the upper bound for the derivative of Lyapunov functionals is estimated by free-weighting matrices method to investigate non-switching stability of each candidate subsystems. Then, a sufficient condition for the dwell time is derived to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the switched delay system. Once these conditions are represented by a set of linear matrix inequalities , dwell time optimisation problem can be formulated as a standard quasi-convex optimisation problem. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the improvements over previously obtained dwell time bounds. Using the results obtained in the stability case, we present a nonlinear minimisation algorithm to synthesise the dwell time minimiser controllers. The algorithm solves the problem with successive linearisation of nonlinear conditions.

  2. Predictor-based stabilization for chained form systems with input time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnif Faïçal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note addresses the stabilization problem of nonlinear chained-form systems with input time delay. We first employ the so-called σ-process transformation that renders the feedback system under a linear form. We introduce a particular transformation to convert the original system into a delay-free system. Finally, we apply a state feedback control, which guarantees a quasi-exponential stabilization to all the system states, which in turn converge exponentially to zero. Then we employ the so-called -type control to achieve a quasi-exponential stabilization of the subsequent system. A simulation example illustrated on the model of a wheeled mobile robot is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Lateralization of noise-burst trains based on onset and ongoing interaural delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Balakrishnan, Uma; Zurek, Patrick M

    2010-07-01

    The lateralization of 250-ms trains of brief noise bursts was measured using an acoustic pointing technique. Stimuli were designed to assess the contribution of the interaural time delay (ITD) of the onset binaural burst relative to that of the ITDs in the ongoing part of the train. Lateralization was measured by listeners' adjustments of the ITD of a pointer stimulus, a 50-ms burst of noise, to match the lateral position of the target train. Results confirmed previous reports of lateralization dominance by the onset burst under conditions in which the train is composed of frozen tokens and the ongoing part contains multiple ambiguous interaural delays. In contrast, lateralization of ongoing trains in which fresh noise tokens were used for each set of two alternating (left-leading/right-leading) binaural pairs followed the ITD of the first pair in each set, regardless of the ITD of the onset burst of the entire stimulus and even when the onset burst was removed by gradual gating. This clear lateralization of a long-duration stimulus with ambiguous interaural delay cues suggests precedence mechanisms that involve not only the interaural cues at the beginning of a sound, but also the pattern of cues within an ongoing sound.

  4. Design and implementation of channel estimation for low-voltage power line communication systems based on OFDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huidong; Hei Yong; Qiao Shushan; Ye Tianchun

    2012-01-01

    An optimized channel estimation algorithm based on a time-spread structure in OFDM low-voltage power line communication (PLC) systems is proposed to achieve a lower bit error rate (BER). This paper optimizes the best maximum multi-path delay of the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) algorithm in time-domain spread OFDM systems. Simulation results indicate that the BER of the improved method is lower than that of conventional LMMSE algorithm, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is lower than 0 dB. Both the LMMSE algorithm and the proposed algorithm are implemented and fabricated in CSMC 0.18 μm technology. This paper analyzes and compares the hardware complexity and performance of the two algorithms. Measurements indicate that the proposed channel estimator has better performance than the conventional estimator.

  5. A Novel Assembly Line Scheduling Algorithm Based on CE-PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread application of assembly line in enterprises, assembly line scheduling is an important problem in the production since it directly affects the productivity of the whole manufacturing system. The mathematical model of assembly line scheduling problem is put forward and key data are confirmed. A double objective optimization model based on equipment utilization and delivery time loss is built, and optimization solution strategy is described. Based on the idea of solution strategy, assembly line scheduling algorithm based on CE-PSO is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the standard PSO. Through the simulation experiments of two examples, the validity of the assembly line scheduling algorithm based on CE-PSO is proved.

  6. Observer-based adaptive control of chaos in nonlinear discrete-time systems using time-delayed state feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharrizi, Amin Yazdanpanah; Khaki-Sedigh, Ali; Sepehri, Nariman

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to adaptive control of chaos in a class of nonlinear discrete-time-varying systems, using a delayed state feedback scheme, is presented. It is discussed that such systems can show chaotic behavior as their parameters change. A strategy is employed for on-line calculation of the Lyapunov exponents that will be used within an adaptive scheme that decides on the control effort to suppress the chaotic behavior once detected. The scheme is further augmented with a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states that are required by the controller but are hard to measure. Simulation results for chaotic control problem of Jin map are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  8. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-05-01

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H 2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV). Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-Based Analysis On-Line Dialogue. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    An online dialogue on gender-based analysis (GBA) was held from February 15 to March 7, 2001. Invitations and a background paper titled "Why Gender-Based Analysis?" were sent to 350 women's organizations and individuals throughout Canada. Efforts were made to ensure that aboriginal and Metis women, visible minority women, and women with…

  10. Registration of Urban Aerial Image and LiDAR Based on Line Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional registration of a single aerial image with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data using linear features that regard line direction as a control or linear features as constraints in the solution, lacking the constraint of linear position leads to the error propagation of the adjustment model. To solve this problem, this paper presents a line vector-based registration mode (LVR in which image rays and LiDAR lines are expressed by a line vector that integrates the line direction and the line position. A registration equation of line vector is set up by coplanar imaging rays and corresponding control lines. Three types of datasets consisting of synthetic, theInternational Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS test project, and real aerial data are used. A group of progressive experiments is undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the LVR. Experimental results demonstrate that the integrated line direction and the line position contributes a great deal to the theoretical and real accuracies of the unknowns, as well as the stability of the adjustment model. This paper provides a new suggestion that, for a single image and LiDAR data, registration in urban areas can be accomplished by accommodating rich line features.

  11. Delayed initiation of radiotherapy for glioblastoma: how important is it to push to the front (or the back) of the line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Matceyevsky, Diana; Kanner, Andrew A; Bokstein, Felix; Corn, Benjamin W

    2011-10-01

    Glioblastoma is a malignant tumor characterized by a rapid proliferation rate. Contemporary multi-modality treatment consists of maximal surgical resection followed by radiation therapy (RT) combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The optimal timing of these different steps is not known. Four studies from the pre-temozolomide era, encompassing a total of 4,584 subjects, have examined the consequences of a delay between resection and starting RT. Whereas the two small single-institution studies found this delay to be detrimental, two large multi-institutional studies found delay to be either slightly beneficial or at least not harmful. Here, we critically compare the methodologies and results presented in these studies, and include a novel analysis of the combined datasets. We conclude that moderate wait periods (up to 4-6 weeks post-operatively) are safe and may be modestly beneficial. Conversely, there is no evidence to justify waiting longer than 6 weeks. Underlying radiobiological principles are discussed.

  12. Overlapping communities detection based on spectral analysis of line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chun; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Huang, Guoming; Wei, Jiaxuan

    2018-05-01

    Community in networks are often overlapping where one vertex belongs to several clusters. Meanwhile, many networks show hierarchical structure such that community is recursively grouped into hierarchical organization. In order to obtain overlapping communities from a global hierarchy of vertices, a new algorithm (named SAoLG) is proposed to build the hierarchical organization along with detecting the overlap of community structure. SAoLG applies the spectral analysis into line graphs to unify the overlap and hierarchical structure of the communities. In order to avoid the limitation of absolute distance such as Euclidean distance, SAoLG employs Angular distance to compute the similarity between vertices. Furthermore, we make a micro-improvement partition density to evaluate the quality of community structure and use it to obtain the more reasonable and sensible community numbers. The proposed SAoLG algorithm achieves a balance between overlap and hierarchy by applying spectral analysis to edge community detection. The experimental results on one standard network and six real-world networks show that the SAoLG algorithm achieves higher modularity and reasonable community number values than those generated by Ahn's algorithm, the classical CPM and GN ones.

  13. H∞ Control of Coronary Artery Input Time-Delay System via the Free-Matrix-Based Integral Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-sha Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ control for the coronary artery input time-delay system with external disturbance is of concern. To further reduce conservation, we utilize the free-matrix-based integral inequality, Wirtinger-based integral inequality, and reciprocal convex combination approach to construct Lyapunov-Krasovskii function (LKF. Then a sufficient condition for controller design which can guarantee robust synchronization the coronary artery system is represented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  14. Modified Firefly Algorithm based controller design for integrating and unstable delay processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Modified Firefly Algorithm has been used for optimizing the controller parameters of Smith predictor structure. The proposed algorithm modifies the position formula of the standard Firefly Algorithm in order to achieve faster convergence rate. Performance criteria Integral Square Error (ISE is optimized using this optimization technique. Simulation results show high performance for Modified Firefly Algorithm as compared to conventional Firefly Algorithm in terms of convergence rate. Integrating and unstable delay processes are taken as examples to indicate the performance of the proposed method.

  15. Robust master-slave synchronization for general uncertain delayed dynamical model based on adaptive control scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianbo; Zhou, Wuneng; Zhao, Shouwei; Yu, Weiqin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential synchronization problem for a class of uncertain delayed master-slave dynamical system is investigated by using the adaptive control method. Different from some existing master-slave models, the considered master-slave system includes bounded unmodeled dynamics. In order to compensate the effect of unmodeled dynamics and effectively achieve synchronization, a novel adaptive controller with simple updated laws is proposed. Moreover, the results are given in terms of LMIs, which can be easily solved by LMI Toolbox in Matlab. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A lattice hydrodynamic model based on delayed feedback control considering the effect of flow rate difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunong; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering not only the effect of flow rate difference but also the delayed feedback control signal which including more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. Furthermore, the critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of flow rate difference and the control signal. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.

  17. Beyond accessibility? Toward an on-line and memory-based model of framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    This theoretical article investigates the effects of media frames on individuals' judgments. In contrast to previous theorizing, we suggest that framing scholars should embrace both, on-line and memory-based judgment formation processes. Based on that premise, we propose a model that distinguishes between two phases of framing effects. Along the first phase, the media's framing contributes to the formation of an on-line or a memory-based judgment. The second phase describes six hypothetical r...

  18. Manufacturing lines under surplus-based control : multiple products and bounded buffers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkov, K.; Pogromskiy, A.Y.; Adan, I.J.B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Challenged by the scheduling complexity for production flow processes in industrial facilities, we study the performance of multi-product producing lines. We analyse the performance of multi-product lines that consist a number of machines and bounded buffers with preselected base stock levels. It is

  19. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  20. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  1. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing institutional-based pediatric rehabilitation services among caregivers of children with developmental delay in Southwestern Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. Settings: This study was conducted at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at tertiary care setup. Design: This was an observational study. Subjects and Methods: Children with developmental delay who were advised institutional-based rehabilitation were identified over span of 1 year. Those who failed to return for rehabilitation after the first visit were interviewed telephonically. The interview had semi-structured open-ended questions about their reasons for inability to avail services. Statistical Analysis: SPSS statistics 22 was used for descriptive analysis and correlation of variables. Results: Of 230 children with developmental delay visiting department in 1-year duration, 48 took regular rehabilitation. Parents of 129 children with complete records were asked regarding discontinuation. Factors cited by majority were long distance from institute and service at hospital. Other reasons for discontinuation were related to belief system, family issues, time issues, socioeconomic factors, etc. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with parental education (C = 0.488, P = 0.000 and financial issues. Location of family had significant association with long distance (C = 0.315, P = 0.000, parental education (C = 0.251, P = 0.003, and belief system (C = 0.265, P = 0.002. Conclusions: Distance from institute and quality of hospital service determined rehabilitation service use at a tertiary institute. Other factors such as socioeconomic status, family support, and

  3. Factors Influencing Institutional-Based Pediatric Rehabilitation Services among Caregivers of Children with Developmental Delay in Southwestern Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kriti; Siddharth, V

    2018-01-01

    A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. This study was conducted at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at tertiary care setup. This was an observational study. Children with developmental delay who were advised institutional-based rehabilitation were identified over span of 1 year. Those who failed to return for rehabilitation after the first visit were interviewed telephonically. The interview had semi-structured open-ended questions about their reasons for inability to avail services. SPSS statistics 22 was used for descriptive analysis and correlation of variables. Of 230 children with developmental delay visiting department in 1-year duration, 48 took regular rehabilitation. Parents of 129 children with complete records were asked regarding discontinuation. Factors cited by majority were long distance from institute and service at hospital. Other reasons for discontinuation were related to belief system, family issues, time issues, socioeconomic factors, etc. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with parental education (C = 0.488, P = 0.000) and financial issues. Location of family had significant association with long distance (C = 0.315, P = 0.000), parental education (C = 0.251, P = 0.003), and belief system (C = 0.265, P = 0.002). Distance from institute and quality of hospital service determined rehabilitation service use at a tertiary institute. Other factors such as socioeconomic status, family support, and social belief system must also be addressed while delivering institutional rehabilitation to children.

  4. Rolling bearing fault diagnosis based on time-delayed feedback monostable stochastic resonance and adaptive minimum entropy deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2017-08-01

    Rolling bearings are the key components in the modern machinery, and tough operation environments often make them prone to failure. However, due to the influence of the transmission path and background noise, the useful feature information relevant to the bearing fault contained in the vibration signals is weak, which makes it difficult to identify the fault symptom of rolling bearings in time. Therefore, the paper proposes a novel weak signal detection method based on time-delayed feedback monostable stochastic resonance (TFMSR) system and adaptive minimum entropy deconvolution (MED) to realize the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. The MED method is employed to preprocess the vibration signals, which can deconvolve the effect of transmission path and clarify the defect-induced impulses. And a modified power spectrum kurtosis (MPSK) index is constructed to realize the adaptive selection of filter length in the MED algorithm. By introducing the time-delayed feedback item in to an over-damped monostable system, the TFMSR method can effectively utilize the historical information of input signal to enhance the periodicity of SR output, which is beneficial to the detection of periodic signal. Furthermore, the influence of time delay and feedback intensity on the SR phenomenon is analyzed, and by selecting appropriate time delay, feedback intensity and re-scaling ratio with genetic algorithm, the SR can be produced to realize the resonance detection of weak signal. The combination of the adaptive MED (AMED) method and TFMSR method is conducive to extracting the feature information from strong background noise and realizing the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. Finally, some experiments and engineering application are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed AMED-TFMSR method in comparison with a traditional bistable SR method.

  5. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  6. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    of the estimation of the probability of critically delayed delivery beyond a specified threshold value given a certain production batch size and try to establish a relation to certain parameters that can be linked to the degree of regularity of the arrival stream of parts to the job/flow-shop. This last aspect...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  7. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  8. Risk Analysis Method Based on FMEA for Transmission Line in Lightning Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Yuan WANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Failure rate of transmission line and reliability of power system are significantly affected by Lightning meteorological factor. In view of the complexity and variability of Lightning meteorological factors, this paper presents lightning trip-out rate model of transmission line in considering distribution of ground flash density and lightning day hours. Meanwhile, presents a failure rate model of transmission line in different condition, and a risk analysis method for transmission line considering multiple risk factors based on risk quantification. This method takes Lightning meteorological factor as the main evaluation standard, and establishes risk degree evaluation system for transmission line including another five evaluation standard. Put forward the risk indicators by quantify the risk factors based on experience date of transmission line in service. Based on the risk indexes comprehensive evaluation is conducted, and the evaluation result closer to practice is achieved, providing basis for transmission line risk warning and maintenance strategy. Through the risk analysis for 220 kV transmission line in a certain power supply bureau, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated.

  9. Neural Network-Based Passive Filtering for Delayed Neutral-Type Semi-Markovian Jump Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Li, Fanbiao; Wu, Ligang; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the problem of exponential passive filtering for a class of stochastic neutral-type neural networks with both semi-Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays. Our aim is to estimate the states by designing a Luenberger-type observer, such that the filter error dynamics are mean-square exponentially stable with an expected decay rate and an attenuation level. Sufficient conditions for the existence of passive filters are obtained, and a convex optimization algorithm for the filter design is given. In addition, a cone complementarity linearization procedure is employed to cast the nonconvex feasibility problem into a sequential minimization problem, which can be readily solved by the existing optimization techniques. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  10. SIP-Based Single Neuron Stochastic Predictive Control for Non-Gaussian Networked Control Systems with Uncertain Metrology Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel data-driven single neuron predictive control strategy is proposed for non-Gaussian networked control systems with metrology delays in the information theory framework. Firstly, survival information potential (SIP, instead of minimum entropy, is used to formulate the performance index to characterize the randomness of the considered systems, which is calculated by oversampling method. Then the minimum values can be computed by optimizing the SIP-based performance index. Finally, the proposed strategy, minimum entropy method and mean square error (MSE are applied to a networked motor control system, and results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  11. Neural Network Based Finite-Time Stabilization for Discrete-Time Markov Jump Nonlinear Systems with Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization problem for discrete-time Markov jump nonlinear systems with time delays and norm-bounded exogenous disturbance. The nonlinearities in different jump modes are parameterized by neural networks. Subsequently, a linear difference inclusion state space representation for a class of neural networks is established. Based on this, sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee stochastic finite-time boundedness and stochastic finite-time stabilization of the closed-loop system. A numerical example is illustrated to verify the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  12. GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungyeon; Park, Byungjun; Lee, Seungrag; Won, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method. Our algorithm was verified for various fluorescence lifetimes and photon numbers. The GPU processing time was faster than the physical scanning time for images up to 800 × 800, and more than 149 times faster than a single core CPU. The frame rate of our system was demonstrated to be 13 fps for a 200 × 200 pixel image when observing maize vascular tissue. This system can be utilized for observing dynamic biological reactions, medical diagnosis, and real-time industrial inspection. PMID:28018724

  13. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 基于延时相关预处理的MUSIC算法%MUSIC algorithm based on delay correlation preprocessing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初萍; 司伟建

    2013-01-01

    针对MUSIC算法的分辨力受信噪比、快拍数及阵元数等因素限制的问题,利用各阵元接收数据的延时相关函数重新构造协方差矩阵,提出了基于延时相关预处理的MUSIC算法.根据阵元间的延时相关函数与原阵列流型及信号延时相关函数的关系,推导了4个与原阵列流型相同(共轭)的延时相关函数矩阵,分别对各矩阵求协方差并按规则求和得到新的协方差矩阵,之后对协方差矩阵进行特征分解,根据信号子空间处理稳健性高和噪声子空间处理估计精度高的特点构造谱函数进行谱峰搜索,实现DOA估计.通过仿真实验验证了本文算法的可行性和有效性.%To solve the problem that the resolution of MUSIC algorithm is limited by such factors as signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of snapshots and number of array elements, the covariance matrix was reconstructed with the delay correlation function of data received from each array element, and the MUSIC algorithm based on the delay correlation preprocessing was proposed. According to the relationship between the delay correlation function of array elements as well as the delay correlation function of original array manifold and signals, four delay correlation function matrixes which are as the same as the original array manifold were derived. The covariance of each matrix was attained, and the summation was performed according to the rules to obtain a new covariance matrix. Then the eigen-decomposition of covariance matrix was carried out. In addition; the spectrum function was established according to the characteristics of both high robustness of signal subspace processing and high estimation accuracy of noise subspace processing. Furthermore, the searching of spectrum peaks was performed, and the DOA estimation was realized. The feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm are testified with the simulation experiments.

  15. Airborne electromagnetic data levelling using principal component analysis based on flight line difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Peng, Cong; Lu, Yiming; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Kaiguang

    2018-04-01

    A novel technique is developed to level airborne geophysical data using principal component analysis based on flight line difference. In the paper, flight line difference is introduced to enhance the features of levelling error for airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data and improve the correlation between pseudo tie lines. Thus we conduct levelling to the flight line difference data instead of to the original AEM data directly. Pseudo tie lines are selected distributively cross profile direction, avoiding the anomalous regions. Since the levelling errors of selective pseudo tie lines show high correlations, principal component analysis is applied to extract the local levelling errors by low-order principal components reconstruction. Furthermore, we can obtain the levelling errors of original AEM data through inverse difference after spatial interpolation. This levelling method does not need to fly tie lines and design the levelling fitting function. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the levelling results of survey data, comparing with the results from tie-line levelling and flight-line correlation levelling.

  16. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Rezende Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured; aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE; diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent; aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply. Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n=20 and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n=10 were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n=10 and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05. Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p<0.0001. For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p=0.309. For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p=0.033. Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  17. Continued use of an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system in children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yenming J; Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chen, Chiu-Ping; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chien-Ling; Wu, Tang-Meng; Ho, Wen-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study developed an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system for special education children with developmental delay. To investigate whether perceived interactivity affects continued use of the system, this study developed a theoretical model of the process in which learners decide whether to continue using an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system. The technology acceptance model, which considers perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness, was extended by integrating perceived interaction (i.e., learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction) and then analyzing the effects of these perceptions on satisfaction and continued use. Data were collected from 150 participants (rehabilitation therapists, medical paraprofessionals, and parents of children with developmental delay) recruited from a single medical center in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling and partial-least-squares techniques were used to evaluate relationships within the model. The modeling results indicated that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were positively associated with both learner-instructor interaction and learner-system interaction. However, perceived playfulness only had a positive association with learner-system interaction and not with learner-instructor interaction. Moreover, satisfaction was positively affected by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness. Thus, satisfaction positively affects continued use of the system. The data obtained by this study can be applied by researchers, designers of computer game-based learning systems, special education workers, and medical professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. GDTN: Genome-Based Delay Tolerant Network Formation in Heterogeneous 5G Using Inter-UA Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Sharma, Vishal; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    With a more Internet-savvy and sophisticated user base, there are more demands for interactive applications and services. However, it is a challenge for existing radio access networks (e.g. 3G and 4G) to cope with the increasingly demanding requirements such as higher data rates and wider coverage area. One potential solution is the inter-collaborative deployment of multiple radio devices in a 5G setting designed to meet exacting user demands, and facilitate the high data rate requirements in the underlying networks. These heterogeneous 5G networks can readily resolve the data rate and coverage challenges. Networks established using the hybridization of existing networks have diverse military and civilian applications. However, there are inherent limitations in such networks such as irregular breakdown, node failures, and halts during speed transmissions. In recent years, there have been attempts to integrate heterogeneous 5G networks with existing ad hoc networks to provide a robust solution for delay-tolerant transmissions in the form of packet switched networks. However, continuous connectivity is still required in these networks, in order to efficiently regulate the flow to allow the formation of a robust network. Therefore, in this paper, we present a novel network formation consisting of nodes from different network maneuvered by Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The proposed model utilizes the features of a biological aspect of genomes and forms a delay tolerant network with existing network models. This allows us to provide continuous and robust connectivity. We then demonstrate that the proposed network model has an efficient data delivery, lower overheads and lesser delays with high convergence rate in comparison to existing approaches, based on evaluations in both real-time testbed and simulation environment.

  19. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  20. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  1. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point® (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of “friction and fantasy”. High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner’s hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician’s most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance

  2. pth moment exponential stability of stochastic memristor-based bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Chen, Yuanlong; Liu, Meichun

    2018-02-01

    Stochastic memristor-based bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays play an increasingly important role in the design and implementation of neural network systems. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, the issues of the pth moment exponential stability of stochastic memristor-based BAM neural networks are investigated. By using the stochastic stability theory, Itô's differential formula and Young inequality, the criteria are derived. Meanwhile, with Lyapunov approach and Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we derive some sufficient conditions for the mean square exponential stability of the above systems. The obtained results improve and extend previous works on memristor-based or usual neural networks dynamical systems. Four numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  4. Ergodicity of forward times of the renewal process in a block-based inspection model using the delay time concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenbin; Banjevic, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    The delay time concept and the techniques developed for modelling and optimising plant inspection practice have been reported in many papers and case studies. For a system subject to a few major failure modes, component based delay time models have been developed under the assumptions of an age-based inspection policy. An age-based inspection assumes that an inspection is scheduled according to the age of the component, and if there is a failure renewal, the next inspection is always, say τ times, from the time of the failure renewal. This applies to certain cases, particularly important plant items where the time since the last renewal or inspection is a key to schedule the next inspection service. However, in most cases, the inspection service is not scheduled according to the need of a particular component, rather it is scheduled according to a fixed calendar time regardless whether the component being inspected was just renewed or not. This policy is called a block-based inspection which has the advantage of easy planning and is particularly useful for plant items which are part of a larger system to be inspected. If a block-based inspection policy is used, the time to failure since the last inspection prior to the failure for a particular item is a random variable. This time is called the forward time in this paper. To optimise the inspection interval for block-based inspections, the usual criterion functions such as expected cost or down time per unit time depend on the distribution of this forward time. We report in this paper the development of a theoretical proof that a limiting distribution for such a forward time exists if certain conditions are met. We also propose a recursive algorithm for determining such a limiting distribution. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the existence of the limiting distribution.

  5. Optimal Placement of Actors in WSANs Based on Imposed Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs refer to a group of sensors and actors linked by wireless medium to probe environment and perform specific actions. Such certain actions should always be taken before a deadline when an event of interest is detected. In order to provide such services, the whole monitor area is divided into several virtual areas and nodes in the same area form a cluster. Clustering of the WSANs is often pursued to give that each actor acts as a cluster-head. The number of actors is related to the size and the deployment of WSANs cluster. In this paper, we find a method to determine the accurate number of actors which enables them to receive data and take actions in an imposed time-delay. The k-MinTE and the k-MaxTE clustering algorithm are proposed to form the minimum and maximum size of cluster, respectively. In those clustering algorithms, actors are deployed in such a way that sensors could route data to actors within k hops. Then, clusters are arranged by the regular hexagon. At last, we evaluate the placement of actors and results show that our approach is effective.

  6. H∞ Filtering for Discrete Markov Jump Singular Systems with Mode-Dependent Time Delay Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the H∞ filtering problem of discrete singular Markov jump systems (SMJSs with mode-dependent time delay based on T-S fuzzy model. First, by Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, a delay-dependent sufficient condition on H∞-disturbance attenuation is presented, in which both stability and prescribed H∞ performance are required to be achieved for the filtering-error systems. Then, based on the condition, the delay-dependent H∞ filter design scheme for SMJSs with mode-dependent time delay based on T-S fuzzy model is developed in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the result.

  7. A New Local Bipolar Autoassociative Memory Based on External Inputs of Discrete Recurrent Neural Networks With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Caigen; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Luo, Chaomin; Zhang, Huaguang

    In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.

  8. A Lifetime Optimization Algorithm Limited by Data Transmission Delay and Hops for Mobile Sink-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the lifetime of mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks and considering that data transmission delay and hops are limited in actual system, a lifetime optimization algorithm limited by data transmission delay and hops (LOA_DH for mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks is proposed. In LOA_DH, some constraints are analyzed, and an optimization model is proposed. Maximum capacity path routing algorithm is used to calculate the energy consumption of communication. Improved genetic algorithm which modifies individuals to meet all constraints is used to solve the optimization model. The optimal solution of sink node’s sojourn grid centers and sojourn times which maximizes network lifetime is obtained. Simulation results show that, in three node distribution scenes, LOA_DH can find the movement solution of sink node which covers all sensor nodes. Compared with MCP_RAND, MCP_GMRE, and EASR, the solution improves network lifetime and reduces average amount of node discarded data and average energy consumption of nodes.

  9. Registration of airborne LiDAR data and aerial images based on straight lines and POS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quanye; Xu, Biao; Cao, Hui

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a registration method which based on straight lines primitive. Firstly, 2D straight lines are extracted from aerial images using Canny operator and straight line fitting. In the similar way, 3D straight lines are extracted from LiDAR range images which derive from laser scanning point cloud. Secondly, 3D straight lines are projected to aerial images using collinearity equations and Position and Orientation System (POS) data. Then the corresponding lines are determined by straight line error. At last, each image's new exterior orientation elements are calculated by generalized point (straight line) photogrammetry.

  10. Spherical Projection Based Straight Line Segment Extraction for Single Station Terrestrial Laser Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.

  11. Synchronization of delay-coupled nonlinear oscillators: an approach based on the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Wim; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2009-09-01

    We consider the synchronization problem of an arbitrary number of coupled nonlinear oscillators with delays in the interconnections. The network topology is described by a directed graph. Unlike the conventional approach of deriving directly sufficient synchronization conditions, the approach of the paper starts from an exact stability analysis in a (gain, delay) parameter space of a synchronized equilibrium and extracts insights from an analysis of its bifurcations and from the corresponding emerging behavior. Instrumental to this analysis a factorization of the characteristic equation is employed that not only facilitates the analysis and reduces computational cost but also allows to determine the precise role of the individual agents and the topology of the network in the (in)stability mechanisms. The study provides an algorithm to perform a stability and bifurcation analysis of synchronized equilibria. Furthermore, it reveals fundamental limitations to synchronization and it explains under which conditions on the topology of the network and on the characteristics of the coupling the systems are expected to synchronize. In the second part of the paper the results are applied to coupled Lorenz systems. The main results show that for sufficiently large coupling gains, delay-coupled Lorenz systems exhibit a generic behavior that does not depend on the number of systems and the topology of the network, as long as some basic assumptions are satisfied, including the strong connectivity of the graph. Here the linearized stability analysis is strengthened by a nonlinear stability analysis which confirms the predictions based on the linearized stability and bifurcation analysis. This illustrates the usefulness of the exact linearized analysis in a situation where a direct nonlinear stability analysis is not possible or where it yields conservative conditions from which it is hard to get qualitative insights in the synchronization mechanisms and their scaling properties

  12. Analysis of the effects of time delay in clock recovery circuits based on Phase-locked loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Influence of time delay in a balanced optical phase-locked loops (OPLL) with a proportional integrator (Pl) filter is investigated using a delayed differential equation (DDE) is investigated. The limitations, which a time delay imposes on the Pl filter bandwidth, at increasing values of loop gain...

  13. AUTOMATIC GLOBAL REGISTRATION BETWEEN AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STRAIGHT LINE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic global registration approach for point clouds and remote sensing image based on straight line features is proposed which is insensitive to rotational and scale transformation. First, the building ridge lines and contour lines in point clouds are automatically detected as registration primitives by integrating region growth and topology identification. Second, the collinear condition equation is selected as registration transformation function which is based on rotation matrix described by unit quaternion. The similarity measure is established according to the distance between the corresponding straight line features from point clouds and the image in the same reference coordinate system. Finally, an iterative Hough transform is adopted to simultaneously estimate the parameters and obtain correspondence between registration primitives. Experimental results prove the proposed method is valid and the spectral information is useful for the following classification processing.

  14. Broadband Impedance Transformer Based on Asymmetric Coupled Transmission Lines in Nonhomogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new broadband quarter-wavelength impedance transformer based on an asymmetric coupled line section is presented. The bandwidth of the coupled line transformer is extended with the help of an interconnecting transmission line. An analytical model for the transformer is developed. The analysis...... of the structure reveals that a fractional bandwidth of more than 100% at –20 dB reflection level can be achieved with such a structure. An experimental transformer circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested. Theoretical and experimental results are fair agreement and confirm the established theory...

  15. Fabrication of a Delaying Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy-Based Esophageal Stent via Coating Elastic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwen Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent implantation can relieve esophageal stenosis and obstructions in benign esophageal strictures, and magnesium alloy stents are a good candidate because of biodegradation and biological safety. However, biodegradable esophageal stents show a poor corrosion resistance and a quick loss of mechanical support in vivo. In this study, we chose the elastic and biodegradable mixed polymer of Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(trimethylene carbonate (PTMC as the coated membrane on magnesium alloy stents for fabricating a fully biodegradable esophageal stent, which showed an ability to delay the degradation time and maintain mechanical performance in the long term. After 48 repeated compressions, the mechanical testing demonstrated that the PCL-PTMC-coated magnesium stents possess good flexibility and elasticity, and could provide enough support against lesion compression when used in vivo. According to the in vitro degradation evaluation, the PCL-PTMC membrane coated on magnesium was a good material combination for biodegradable stents. During the in vivo evaluation, the proliferation of the smooth muscle cells showed no signs of cell toxicity. Histological examination revealed the inflammation scores at four weeks in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group were similar to those in the control group (p > 0.05. The α-smooth muscle actin layer in the media was thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group (p < 0.05. Both the epithelial and smooth muscle cell layers were significantly thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group. The stent insertion was feasible and provided reliable support for at least four weeks, without causing severe injury or collagen deposition. Thus, this stent provides a new stent for the treatment of benign esophageal stricture and a novel research path in the development of temporary stents in other cases of benign stricture.

  16. Fixed-time synchronization of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying discrete delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-12-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the fixed-time synchronization of memristor-based BAM neural networks (MBAMNNs) with discrete delay. Fixed-time synchronization means that synchronization can be achieved in a fixed time for any initial values of the considered systems. In the light of the double-layer structure of MBAMNNs, we design two similar feedback controllers. Based on Lyapunov stability theories, several criteria are established to guarantee that the drive and response MBAMNNs can realize synchronization in a fixed time. In particular, by changing the parameters of controllers, this fixed time can be adjusted to some desired value in advance, irrespective of the initial values of MBAMNNs. Numerical simulations are included to validate the derived results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PSPICE simulation of bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Fan Yajun

    2010-01-01

    The operating principle of the bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line type is given. The output bipolar pulses are simulated by using PSPICE program on condition of different electric length and different impedance of the short-circuited coaxial transmission line. The bipolar pulses are generated by using unipolar pulse with pulse width of 2 ns in experiment, the experimental result fit well with the simulation result. (authors)

  18. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkun Wu; Liyi Li; Ziyin Lin; Bo Song; Zhuo Li; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong; Shu-Lin Bai

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The...

  19. SPHERE DAQ and off-line systems: implementation based on the qdpb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Design of the on-line data acquisition (DAQ) system for the SPHERE setup (LHE, JINR) is described. SPHERE DAQ is based on the qdpb (Data Processing with Branchpoints) system and configurable experimental data and CAMAC hardware representations. Implementation of the DAQ and off-line program code, depending on the SPHERE setup's hardware layout and experimental data contents, is explained as well as software modules specific for such implementation

  20. Reengineering a PC-based System into the Mobile Device Product Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stanislaw; Loughran, Neil

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing demand to port existing PC-based software systems to mobile device platforms. Systems running on mobile devices share basic characteristics with their PC-based counterparts, but differ from them in details of user interfaces, application models, etc. Systems running on mobile...... devices must also perform well using less memory than PC-based systems. Mobile devices themselves are different from each other in many ways, too. We describe how we made an existing PC-based City Guide System available on a wide range of mobile devices, in a cost-effective way. We applied "reengineering...... into a product line architecture" approach to achieve the goal. Our product line architecture facilitates reuse via generation. We generate specific City Guide Systems for target platforms including PC, Pocket PC and other mobile devices, from generic meta-components that form the City Guide System product line...

  1. Microscope self-calibration based on micro laser line imaging and soft computing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.

    2018-06-01

    A technique to perform microscope self-calibration via micro laser line and soft computing algorithms is presented. In this technique, the microscope vision parameters are computed by means of soft computing algorithms based on laser line projection. To implement the self-calibration, a microscope vision system is constructed by means of a CCD camera and a 38 μm laser line. From this arrangement, the microscope vision parameters are represented via Bezier approximation networks, which are accomplished through the laser line position. In this procedure, a genetic algorithm determines the microscope vision parameters by means of laser line imaging. Also, the approximation networks compute the three-dimensional vision by means of the laser line position. Additionally, the soft computing algorithms re-calibrate the vision parameters when the microscope vision system is modified during the vision task. The proposed self-calibration improves accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration, which is accomplished via external references to the microscope system. The capability of the self-calibration based on soft computing algorithms is determined by means of the calibration accuracy and the micro-scale measurement error. This contribution is corroborated by an evaluation based on the accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration.

  2. A delay time model for a mission-based system subject to periodic and random inspection and postponed replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inspection and replacement policy for a single component system that successively executes missions with random durations. The failure process of the system can be divided into two states, namely, normal and defective, following the delay time concept. Inspections are carried out periodically and immediately after the completion of each mission (random inspections). The failed state is always identified immediately, whereas the defective state can only be revealed by an inspection. If the system fails or is defective at a periodic inspection, then replacement is immediate. If, however, the system is defective at a random inspection, then replacement will be postponed if the time to the subsequent periodic inspection is shorter than a pre-determined threshold, and immediate otherwise. We derive the long run expected cost per unit time and then investigate the optimal periodic inspection interval and postponement threshold. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A delay time model of inspection is introduced for mission-based systems. • Periodic and random inspections are performed to check the state. • Replacement of the defective system at a random inspection can be postponed.

  3. Recurrent-Neural-Network-Based Multivariable Adaptive Control for a Class of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems With Time-Varying Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Lyang; Jan, Chau

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning, an approximate nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model is employed to represent a class of multivariable nonlinear dynamic systems with time-varying delay. It is known that the disadvantages of robust control for the NARMA model are as follows: 1) suitable control parameters for larger time delay are more sensitive to achieving desirable performance; 2) it only deals with bounded uncertainty; and 3) the nominal NARMA model must be learned in advance. Due to the dynamic feature of the NARMA model, a recurrent neural network (RNN) is online applied to learn it. However, the system performance becomes deteriorated due to the poor learning of the larger variation of system vector functions. In this situation, a simple network is employed to compensate the upper bound of the residue caused by the linear parameterization of the approximation error of RNN. An e -modification learning law with a projection for weight matrix is applied to guarantee its boundedness without persistent excitation. Under suitable conditions, the semiglobally ultimately bounded tracking with the boundedness of estimated weight matrix is obtained by the proposed RNN-based multivariable adaptive control. Finally, simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control.

  4. Linear-array photoacoustic imaging using minimum variance-based delay multiply and sum adaptive beamforming algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Kratkiewicz, Karl; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer is a common beamforming algorithm having a simple implementation. However, it results in a poor resolution and high sidelobes. To address these challenges, a new algorithm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS) was introduced having lower sidelobes compared to DAS. To improve the resolution of DMAS, a beamformer is introduced using minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming combined with DMAS, so-called minimum variance-based DMAS (MVB-DMAS). It is shown that expanding the DMAS equation results in multiple terms representing a DAS algebra. It is proposed to use the MV adaptive beamformer instead of the existing DAS. MVB-DMAS is evaluated numerically and experimentally. In particular, at the depth of 45 mm MVB-DMAS results in about 31, 18, and 8 dB sidelobes reduction compared to DAS, MV, and DMAS, respectively. The quantitative results of the simulations show that MVB-DMAS leads to improvement in full-width-half-maximum about 96%, 94%, and 45% and signal-to-noise ratio about 89%, 15%, and 35% compared to DAS, DMAS, MV, respectively. In particular, at the depth of 33 mm of the experimental images, MVB-DMAS results in about 20 dB sidelobes reduction in comparison with other beamformers. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Event-based state estimation for a class of complex networks with time-varying delays: A comparison principle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenbing [Department of Mathematics, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Wang, Zidong [Department of Computer Science, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Liu, Yurong, E-mail: yrliu@yzu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Communication Systems and Networks (CSN) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ding, Derui [Shanghai Key Lab of Modern Optical System, Department of Control Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Alsaadi, Fuad E. [Communication Systems and Networks (CSN) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-05

    The paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of time-delayed complex networks with event-triggering communication protocol. A novel event generator function, which is dependent not only on the measurement output but also on a predefined positive constant, is proposed with hope to reduce the communication burden. A new concept of exponentially ultimate boundedness is provided to quantify the estimation performance. By means of the comparison principle, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the estimation error is exponentially ultimately bounded, and then the estimator gains are obtained in terms of the solution of certain matrix inequalities. Furthermore, a rigorous proof is proposed to show that the designed triggering condition is free of the Zeno behavior. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed event-based estimator. - Highlights: • An event-triggered estimator is designed for complex networks with time-varying delays. • A novel event generator function is proposed to reduce the communication burden. • The comparison principle is utilized to derive the sufficient conditions. • The designed triggering condition is shown to be free of the Zeno behavior.

  6. Linear-array photoacoustic imaging using minimum variance-based delay multiply and sum adaptive beamforming algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Kratkiewicz, Karl; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer is a common beamforming algorithm having a simple implementation. However, it results in a poor resolution and high sidelobes. To address these challenges, a new algorithm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS) was introduced having lower sidelobes compared to DAS. To improve the resolution of DMAS, a beamformer is introduced using minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming combined with DMAS, so-called minimum variance-based DMAS (MVB-DMAS). It is shown that expanding the DMAS equation results in multiple terms representing a DAS algebra. It is proposed to use the MV adaptive beamformer instead of the existing DAS. MVB-DMAS is evaluated numerically and experimentally. In particular, at the depth of 45 mm MVB-DMAS results in about 31, 18, and 8 dB sidelobes reduction compared to DAS, MV, and DMAS, respectively. The quantitative results of the simulations show that MVB-DMAS leads to improvement in full-width-half-maximum about 96%, 94%, and 45% and signal-to-noise ratio about 89%, 15%, and 35% compared to DAS, DMAS, MV, respectively. In particular, at the depth of 33 mm of the experimental images, MVB-DMAS results in about 20 dB sidelobes reduction in comparison with other beamformers.

  7. Genomic prediction based on data from three layer lines using non-linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heyun; Windig, Jack J; Vereijken, Addie; Calus, Mario P L

    2014-11-06

    Most studies on genomic prediction with reference populations that include multiple lines or breeds have used linear models. Data heterogeneity due to using multiple populations may conflict with model assumptions used in linear regression methods. In an attempt to alleviate potential discrepancies between assumptions of linear models and multi-population data, two types of alternative models were used: (1) a multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model that modelled trait by line combinations as separate but correlated traits and (2) non-linear models based on kernel learning. These models were compared to conventional linear models for genomic prediction for two lines of brown layer hens (B1 and B2) and one line of white hens (W1). The three lines each had 1004 to 1023 training and 238 to 240 validation animals. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by estimating the correlation between observed phenotypes and predicted breeding values. When the training dataset included only data from the evaluated line, non-linear models yielded at best a similar accuracy as linear models. In some cases, when adding a distantly related line, the linear models showed a slight decrease in performance, while non-linear models generally showed no change in accuracy. When only information from a closely related line was used for training, linear models and non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel models performed similarly. The multi-trait GBLUP model took advantage of the estimated genetic correlations between the lines. Combining linear and non-linear models improved the accuracy of multi-line genomic prediction. Linear models and non-linear RBF models performed very similarly for genomic prediction, despite the expectation that non-linear models could deal better with the heterogeneous multi-population data. This heterogeneity of the data can be overcome by modelling trait by line combinations as separate but correlated traits, which avoids the occasional

  8. High temperature ultrasonic immersion measurements using a BS-PT based piezoelectric transducer without a delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is a key enabling technology required for in-service inspection of advanced sodium fast reactors at the hot stand-by operating mode (˜250C). Current work presents development of a single element, 2.4MHz, planar, ultrasonic immersion transducer for a potential application in ranging, inspection and imaging of the reactor components. The prototype immersion transducer is first tested in water for three thermal cycles up to 92C. The transducer is further evaluated for four thermal cycles in silicone oil, with total seven thermal cycles that exceeded operation period of 21 hours. Moreover, the preliminary data acquired for speed of sound in silicone oil indicates 24% reduction from 22C to 142C. Sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer is also measured as a function of temperature and demonstrates the effect of multiple thermal cycles on the transducer components.

  9. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  10. Identification of acoustic wave propagation in a duct line and its application to detection of impact source location based on signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yong Woo; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2010-01-01

    For the detection of the impact location in a pipeline system, the correlation method has been the conventional method. For the application of the correlation method, the diameter of a duct should be small so that the acoustic wave inside the duct can propagate with nondispersive characteristics, in the form of, for example, a plane wave. This correlation method calculates the cross-correlation between acoustic waves measured at two acceleration sensors attached to a buried duct. It also gives information about the arrival time delay of an acoustic wave between two sensors. These arrival time delays are used for the estimation of the impact location. However, when the diameter of the duct is large, the acoustic waves inside the duct propagate with dispersive characteristics owing to the reflection of the acoustic wave off of the wall of the duct. This dispersive characteristic is related to the acoustic modes inside a duct. Therefore, the correlation method does not work correctly for the detection of the impact location. This paper proposes new methods of accurately measuring the arrival time delay between two sensors attached to duct line system. This method is based on the time-frequency analyses of the short time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). These methods can discriminate direct waves (non-dispersive waves) and reflective waves (dispersive waves) from the measured wave signals through the time-frequency analysis. The direct wave or the reflective wave is used to estimate the arrival time delay. This delay is used for the identification of the impact location. This systematic method can predict the impact location due to the impact forces of construction equipment with more accuracy than the correlation method

  11. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  12. A Value-Based Business Approach to Product Line Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K. Agrawalla

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present conceptual paper is an attempt to provide a Value-Based Business Approach (VBBA to product line software engineering. It argues that Product line software engineering should be seen as a system and considered as a means towards the end of appropriating more and more value for the business firm; contingent upon the fact that it provides value to customer and customer's customers operating its value creating system with agility, speed, economy and innovation; getting governed by the positive sum value creation outlook and guided by value- based management. With our value-based business triad, the product line engineering process can hope to achieve simultaneously value, variety and volume, product differentiation and cost leadership enabling the business firm to land on the virtuous value spiral.

  13. A simulation-based approach for solving assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-09-01

    Assembly line balancing problem is directly related to the production efficiency, since the last century, the problem of assembly line balancing was discussed and still a lot of people are studying on this topic. In this paper, the problem of assembly line is studied by establishing the mathematical model and simulation. Firstly, the model of determing the smallest production beat under certain work station number is anysized. Based on this model, the exponential smoothing approach is applied to improve the the algorithm efficiency. After the above basic work, the gas stirling engine assembly line balancing problem is discussed as a case study. Both two algorithms are implemented using the Lingo programming environment and the simulation results demonstrate the validity of the new methods.

  14. Airborne LIDAR Power Line Classification Based on Spatial Topological Structure Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Li, K.; Zheng, D.; Fang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic extraction of power lines has become a topic of great importance in airborne LiDAR data processing for transmission line management. In this paper, we present a new, fully automated and versatile framework that consists of four steps: (i) power line candidate point filtering, (ii) neighbourhood selection, (iii) feature extraction based on spatial topology, and (iv) SVM classification. In a detailed evaluation involving seven neighbourhood definitions, 26 geometric features and two datasets, we demonstrated that the use of multi-scale neighbourhoods for individual 3D points significantly improved the power line classification. Additionally, we showed that the spatial topological features may even further improve the results while reducing data processing time.

  15. Manufacturing system design based on axiomatic design: Case of assembly line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, T.; Wafik, H.; Faouzi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a combined Production Line Design (PLD) process which includes many design aspects is presented, developed and validated. Design/methodology/approach: The PLD process is based on the SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) diagram and the Axiomatic Design (AD) method. Practical implications: For a purpose of validation, this proposed process has been applied in a manufacturing company and it has been validated by simulation. Findings: The results of the validation indicated that the production line designed by this process is outperformed the initial line of the company. Originality/value: Recently, the problems of production line design (PLD) have attracted the attention of many researchers. However, only a few studies have treated the PLD which includes all design aspects. In this work, a combined PLD process is presented. It should be noted that the proposed process is simple and effective.

  16. Manufacturing system design based on axiomatic design: Case of assembly line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, T.; Wafik, H.; Faouzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a combined Production Line Design (PLD) process which includes many design aspects is presented, developed and validated. Design/methodology/approach: The PLD process is based on the SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) diagram and the Axiomatic Design (AD) method. Practical implications: For a purpose of validation, this proposed process has been applied in a manufacturing company and it has been validated by simulation. Findings: The results of the validation indicated that the production line designed by this process is outperformed the initial line of the company. Originality/value: Recently, the problems of production line design (PLD) have attracted the attention of many researchers. However, only a few studies have treated the PLD which includes all design aspects. In this work, a combined PLD process is presented. It should be noted that the proposed process is simple and effective.

  17. Dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-02-17

    For several decades, evaporation phenomena have been intensively investigated for a broad range of applications. However, the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation has only been inductively inferred on the basis of experimental data and remains unclear. This study focuses on the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics. Considering the decrease in the Gibbs free energy of a system with different evaporation modes, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle during contact line depinning as a function of surface conditions. Comparison of experimentally measured and theoretically modeled receding contact angles indicated that the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation was caused by the most favorable thermodynamic process encountered during constant contact radius (CCR mode) and constant contact angle (CCA mode) evaporation to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation.

  18. A Novel Fault Line Selection Method Based on Improved Oscillator System of Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of fault line selection based on IOS is presented. Firstly, the IOS is established by using math model, which adopted TZSC signal to replace built-in signal of duffing chaotic oscillator by selecting appropriate parameters. Then, each line’s TZSC decomposed by db10 wavelet packet to get CFB with the maximum energy principle, and CFB was solved by IOS. Finally, maximum chaotic distance and average chaotic distance on the phase trajectory are used to judge fault line. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately judge fault line and healthy line in strong noisy background. Besides, the nondetection zones of proposed method are elaborated.

  19. Break-before-make CMOS inverter for power-efficient delay implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Janez; Raič, Dušan; Tuma, Tadej; Bűrmen, Árpád

    2014-01-01

    A modified static CMOS inverter with two inputs and two outputs is proposed to reduce short-circuit current in order to increment delay and reduce power overhead where slow operation is required. The circuit is based on bidirectional delay element connected in series with the PMOS and NMOS switching transistors. It provides differences in the dynamic response so that the direct-path current in the next stage is reduced. The switching transistors are never ON at the same time. Characteristics of various delay element implementations are presented and verified by circuit simulations. Global optimization procedure is used to obtain the most power-efficient transistor sizing. The performance of the modified CMOS inverter chain is compared to standard implementation for various delays. The energy (charge) per delay is reduced up to 40%. The use of the proposed delay element is demonstrated by implementing a low-power delay line and a leading-edge detector cell.

  20. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  1. A hybrid feature selection and health indicator construction scheme for delay-time-based degradation modelling of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Deng, Congying; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Rolling element bearings are mechanical components used frequently in most rotating machinery and they are also vulnerable links representing the main source of failures in such systems. Thus, health condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings have long been studied to improve operational reliability and maintenance efficiency of rotatory machines. Over the past decade, prognosis that enables forewarning of failure and estimation of residual life attracted increasing attention. To accurately and efficiently predict failure of the rolling element bearing, the degradation requires to be well represented and modelled. For this purpose, degradation of the rolling element bearing is analysed with the delay-time-based model in this paper. Also, a hybrid feature selection and health indicator construction scheme is proposed for extraction of the bearing health relevant information from condition monitoring sensor data. Effectiveness of the presented approach is validated through case studies on rolling element bearing run-to-failure experiments.

  2. A Novel Switching-Based Control Framework for Improved Task Performance in Teleoperation System With Asymmetric Time-Varying Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Di-Hua; Xia, Yuanqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the adaptive control for task-space teleoperation systems with constrained predefined synchronization error, where a novel switched control framework is investigated. Based on multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals method, the stability of the resulting closed-loop system is established in the sense of state-independent input-to-output stability. Compared with previous work, the developed method can simultaneously handle the unknown kinematics/dynamics, asymmetric varying time delays, and prescribed performance control in a unified framework. It is shown that the developed controller can guarantee the prescribed transient-state and steady-state synchronization performances between the master and slave robots, which is demonstrated by the simulation study.

  3. Optimal Re-Routes and Ground Delays Using a Route-Based Aggregate Air Traffic Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluis

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is very complex and with a high level of uncertainty. For this reason, developing an automated conflict resolution tool at NAS level is presented as a big challenge. One way to address the problem is by using aggregate models, which can significantly reduce its dimension and complexity. Significant effort has been made to develop an air traffic aggregate model capable to effectively state and solve the problem. In this study, a Route-Based Aggregate Model is developed and tested. It consists in a modification of several existing models and overcomes some issues identified in previous aggregate models. It allows the implementation of Traffic Flow Management conventional controls, such as ground delay and rerouting. These control strategies can be used to avoid congestion conflicts based on sectors and airports capacity as well as regions affected by convective weather. The optimization problem is posed as a Linear Programming routine, which guarantees an optimal solution that minimizes the total accumulated delay required to avoid such capacity conflicts. The solutions can be directly translated into specific instructions at aircraft level, via modification of the times of departure and flight plans. The model is integrated with Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), a state of the art air traffic simulation tool, and uses its files as both input and output. This allows simulating in FACET the solution obtained from the aggregate domain. The approach is validated by applying it in three realistic scenarios at different scales. Results show that, for time horizons larger than 2 hours, the accuracy of the aggregate model is similar to other simulation tools. Also, the modified flight plans, the product of the disaggregated solution, reduce the number of capacity conflicts in the FACET simulation. Future research will study the robustness of these solutions and determine the most appropriate scenarios where to

  4. A Low Cost 3D Acquiring System for Mushroom Robot Based on Webcam and Line Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost 3D acquiring system for mushroom robot based on webcam and line laser. The system comprises Webcam, semiconductor line laser, motion platform and data process unit. The system can get the 3D information of the Pleurotus eryngii in bottle based on structured light scanning theory. Field test shows the accuracy of the height is less than 2mm and it can be use to locate the buds in the bottle correctly. It has the potention to fulfill the requirement of the location of the mushroom for thinning bud robot.

  5. New schemes for high-voltage pulsed generators based on stepped transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossamykin, V.S.; Gordeev, V.S.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    Wave processes were analyzed from the point of effective energy delivery in pulsed power systems based on transmission lines. A series of new schemes for the pulsed generators based on multistage stepped transmission lines both with the capacitive and inductive energy storage was found. These devices can provide voltage or current transformation up to 5-10 times due to wave processes if stage's characteristic impedances are in a certain correlation. The schemes suggested can be widely applied in the new powerful pulsed power accelerators. The theoretical conclusions are justified experimentally

  6. A compensation controller based on a regional pole-assignment method for AMD control systems with a time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuohua; Chen, Chaojun; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Active mass damper/driver (AMD) control system has been proposed as an effective tool for high-rise buildings to resist strong dynamic loads. However, such disadvantage as time-varying delay in AMD control systems impedes their application in practices. Time-varying delay, which has an effect on the performance and stability of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems, is considered in the paper. In addition, a new time-delay compensation controller based on regional pole-assignment method is presented. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed method is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance the performances of an AMD control system with time-varying delays.

  7. Simulation and Community-Based Instruction of Vending Machines with Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study evaluated the use of simulated instruction on vending machine use as an adjunct to community-based instruction with two moderately retarded children. Results showed concurrent acquisition of the vending machine skills across trained and untrained sites. (Author/DB)

  8. Delay analysis of a point-to-multipoint spectrum sharing network with CSI based power allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    and has Nakagami-m fading. A constraint on the peak transmit power of the secondary user transmitter (SU-Tx) is also considered in addition to the peak interference power constraint. Based on the constraints, a power allocation scheme which requires

  9. Research and application on imaging technology of line structure light based on confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Xiao, Zexin; Wang, Xiaofen

    2009-11-01

    In 2005, the theory of line structure light confocal microscopy was put forward firstly in China by Xingyu Gao and Zexin Xiao in the Institute of Opt-mechatronics of Guilin University of Electronic Technology. Though the lateral resolution of line confocal microscopy can only reach or approach the level of the traditional dot confocal microscopy. But compared with traditional dot confocal microscopy, it has two advantages: first, by substituting line scanning for dot scanning, plane imaging only performs one-dimensional scanning, with imaging velocity greatly improved and scanning mechanism simplified, second, transfer quantity of light is greatly improved by substituting detection hairline for detection pinhole, and low illumination CCD is used directly to collect images instead of photoelectric intensifier. In order to apply the line confocal microscopy to practical system, based on the further research on the theory of the line confocal microscopy, imaging technology of line structure light is put forward on condition of implementation of confocal microscopy. Its validity and reliability are also verified by experiments.

  10. Exploring Students’ Intention to Use LINE for Academic Purposes Based on Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willard Van De Bogart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The LINE application is often conceived as purely social space; however, the authors of this paper wanted to determine if it could be used for academic purposes. In this study, we examined how undergraduate students accepted LINE in terms of using it for classroom-related activities (e.g., submit homework, follow up course information queries, download materials and explored the factors that might affect their intention to use it. Data were collected from 144 undergraduate students enrolled in an English course that utilized some activities based on LINE app using a questionnaire developed from TAM. Data were analyzed to see if relationships existed among factors when LINE was used to organize classroom experiences. The findings revealed that perceived usefulness and attitude toward usage had positive relationships with intention to use while perceived ease of use was positively related to perceived usefulness. In contrast with TAM assertions, this study did not find any relationship between perceived ease of use and attitude toward usage. Also, the number of social networking sites that students are using had no relationship with intention to use. The study also suggested some kinds of LINE-based learning activities preferred by students, which would be proposed for future courses. This study revealed several useful implications that TAM can be employed as a useful theoretical framework to predict and understand users’ intention to use new technologies in education.

  11. Markerless tracking in nuclear power plants. A line segment-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Kimura, Taro; Tokumaru, Hiroki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Koda, Yuya

    2017-01-01

    To develop augmented reality-based support systems, a tracking method that measures the camera's position and orientation in real time is indispensable. A relocalization is one step that is used to (re)start the tracking. A line-segment-based relocalization method that uses a RGB-D camera and coarse-to-fine approach was developed and evaluated for this study. In the preparation stage, the target environment is scanned with a RGB-D camera. Line segments are recognized. Then three-dimensional positions of the line segments are calculated, and statistics of the line segments are calculated and stored in a database. In the relocalization stage, a few images that closely resemble the current RGB-D camera image are chosen from the database by comparing the statistics of the line segments. Then the most similar image is chosen using Normalized Cross-Correlation. This coarse-to-fine approach reduces the computational load to find the most similar image. The method was evaluated in the water purification room of the Fugen nuclear power plant. Results showed that the success rate of the relocalization is 93.6% and processing time is 45.7 ms per frame on average, which is promising for practical use. (author)

  12. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  13. Optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm...

  14. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  15. Theory of direct-interband-transition line shapes based on Mori's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam Nyung Yi; Jai Yon Ryu; Ok Hee Chung; Joung Young Sug; Sang Don Choi; Yeon Choon Chung

    1987-01-01

    A theory of direct interband optical transition in the electron-phonon system is introduced on the basis of the Kubo formalism and by using Mori's method of calculation. The line shape functions are introduced in two different ways and are compared with those obtained by Choi and Chung based on Argyres and Sigel's projection technique

  16. A Gossip-Based Optimistic Replication for Efficient Delay-Sensitive Streaming Using an Interactive Middleware Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X.; Karatza, Helen D.

    2010-06-01

    While sharing resources the efficiency is substantially degraded as a result of the scarceness of availability of the requested resources in a multiclient support manner. These resources are often aggravated by many factors like the temporal constraints for availability or node flooding by the requested replicated file chunks. Thus replicated file chunks should be efficiently disseminated in order to enable resource availability on-demand by the mobile users. This work considers a cross layered middleware support system for efficient delay-sensitive streaming by using each device's connectivity and social interactions in a cross layered manner. The collaborative streaming is achieved through the epidemically replicated file chunk policy which uses a transition-based approach of a chained model of an infectious disease with susceptible, infected, recovered and death states. The Gossip-based stateful model enforces the mobile nodes whether to host a file chunk or not or, when no longer a chunk is needed, to purge it. The proposed model is thoroughly evaluated through experimental simulation taking measures for the effective throughput Eff as a function of the packet loss parameter in contrast with the effectiveness of the replication Gossip-based policy.

  17. Blind Separation of Two Users Based on User Delays and Optimal Pulse-Shape Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless network is considered, in which two spatially distributed users transmit narrow-band signals simultaneously over the same channel using the same power. User separation is achieved by oversampling the received signal and formulating a virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system based on the resulting polyphase components. Because of oversampling, high correlations can occur between the columns of the virtual MIMO system matrix which can be detrimental to user separation. A novel pulse-shape waveform design is proposed that results in low correlation between the columns of the system matrix, while it exploits all available bandwidth as dictated by a spectral mask. It is also shown that the use of successive interference cancelation in combination with blind source separation further improves the separation performance.

  18. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.

  19. Efficacy of a collagen-based dressing in an animal model of delayed wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Y; Le Broc, D; Ségalen, C; Kurkdjian, E; Gouze, J N

    2016-07-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the efficacy of GBT013, a collagen-based dressing, for the treatment of chronic wounds, in a db/db mouse model of diabetes. Macroscopic and histologic analyses of db/db mice wound healing with GBT013 or saline gauze were assessed. The mRNA expression and the proliferation of dermal fibroblast were investigated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities were quantified. In db/db mice, GBT013 improves wound epithelialisation when compared with saline gauze. Histological analysis of scar tissue also shows an enhancement of remodelling associated with no sign of acute inflammation. In addition, GBT013 significantly decreases interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, significantly increases tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 fibroblast mRNA expression and significantly reduces in vitro MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities. Moreover, GBT013 allows cell growth inside the matrix and stimulates proliferation of human dermal fibroblast. By contributing to restore MMPs/TIMPs balance, GBT013 may function in all key stages of wound healing, such as inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodelling, and ultimately may provide a favourable environment for skin repair. This work was supported by Genbiotech, the R&D subsidiary of Laboratoires Genévrier, a pharmaceutical company.

  20. An on-line data acquisition system based on Norsk-Data ND-560 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Roy, A.; Dey, S.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed data acquisition system based on CAMAC for Norsk Data ND-560 computer operating in a multiuser environment. As opposed to the present trend, the system has been implemented with minimum hardware at CAMAC level taking advantage of the dual processors of ND-560. The package consists of several coordinated tasks running in the two CPUs which acquire data, record on tape, permit on-line analysis and display the data and perform related control operations. It has been used in several experiments at VECC and its performance in on-line experiments is reported. (orig.)

  1. Design of Meander-Line Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Based on Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Travassos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimization problem formulations to design meander-line antennas for passive UHF radio frequency identification tags based on given specifications of input impedance, frequency range, and geometric constraints. In this application, there is a need for directive transponders to select properly the target tag, which in turn must be ideally isotropic. The design of an effective meander-line antenna for RFID purposes requires balancing geometrical characteristics with the microchip impedance. Therefore, there is an issue of optimization in determining the antenna parameters for best performance. The antenna is analyzed by a method of moments. Some results using a deterministic optimization algorithm are shown.

  2. Control of single-phase islanded PV/battery minigrids based on power-line signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Pablo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation...... types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done in a specific manner to preserve its life-time, microgrid line voltage must be kept within the bounds and the energy offered by RES...

  3. Downward Price-Based Brand Line Extensions Effects on Luxury Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Royo-Vela, Marcelo; Voss, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to examine the brand concept consistency, the self-concept congruence and the resulting loyalty status of the consumers in order to evaluate whether a downward price-based line extensions in the luxury goods market has any negative or positive effect on them. By conducting focus group and in-depth interviews it was tried to filter out how brand concepts of luxury brands are perceived before and after a line extension. Results revealed that a crucial aspect for the evaluation ...

  4. GRILLIX. A 3D turbulence code for magnetic fusion devices based on a field line map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmeir, Andreas Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    The complex geometry in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks poses problems to existing turbulence codes. The usually employed field aligned coordinates become ill defined at the separatrix. Therefore the parallel code GRILLIX was developed, which is based on a field line map. This allows simulations in additional complex geometries, especially across the separatrix. A new discretisation, based on the support operator method, for the highly anisotropic diffusion was developed and applied to a simple turbulence model (Hasegawa-Wakatani).

  5. Risk-based equipment removal guide for on-line maintenance at PSE ampersand G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A.; Smith, C.; Pollock, J.

    1995-01-01

    On-line maintenance plays an important role in achieving safe and reliable power generation in a nuclear power plant. However, maintenance, if not properly planned and performed, may also be an important contributor to plant risk. Therefore, plant-specific procedures are needed for equipment removal from service to enhance the benefits of on-line maintenance and minimize the risks involved. The problem is to identify and implement the most effective on-line maintenance policy in the form of a proceduralized guide to assure plant safety under various operation and maintenance constraints. This paper presents a methodology to develop plant-specific on-line maintenance strategies and acceptance criteria using a multivariate safety approach based on risk assessment. Based on plant-specific data as modeled in the individual plant evaluation (IPE) and the updated probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the risk-based methodology is currently being applied to the development of proceduralized equipment removal guides at Hope Creek and Salem units 1 and 2 of Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G)

  6. LINE-BASED MULTI-IMAGE MATCHING FOR FAÇADE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Teo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research integrates existing LOD 2 building models and multiple close-range images for façade structural lines extraction. The major works are orientation determination and multiple image matching. In the orientation determination, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF is applied to extract tie points automatically. Then, tie points and control points are combined for block adjustment. An object-based multi-images matching is proposed to extract the façade structural lines. The 2D lines in image space are extracted by Canny operator followed by Hough transform. The role of LOD 2 building models is to correct the tilt displacement of image from different views. The wall of LOD 2 model is also used to generate hypothesis planes for similarity measurement. Finally, average normalized cross correlation is calculated to obtain the best location in object space. The test images are acquired by a nonmetric camera Nikon D2X. The total number of image is 33. The experimental results indicate that the accuracy of orientation determination is about 1 pixel from 2515 tie points and 4 control points. It also indicates that line-based matching is more flexible than point-based matching.

  7. On-line interprofessional learning: introducing constructivism through enquiry-based learning and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark

    2004-08-01

    Interest in on-line methods of learning has accelerated in recent years. There has also been an interest in developing student-centred approaches to learning and interprofessional education. This paper illustrates the issues in designing a large (more than 700 students), on-line, inter-professional module for third year, undergraduate students drawn from nine professional healthcare courses and from four campus sites. It uses an enquiry-based learning approach. The learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Schön are integrated with the on-line frameworks of Salmon and Collis et al., together with conclusions drawn from the literature and our own experiences, to produce a design that encourages students to learn through participation, re-iteration, peer-review and reflection. Consideration is given to improving student motivation and attitudes towards change, both in the design and the delivery of the module.

  8. Comparison of overhead line lightning performance based on two different tower geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Olason, Daniel; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    of the substation and transmission line is of great importance as it is a part of the 400 kV backbone between Sweden, Norway, Germany and the offshore wind farms in Horns Rev, Denmark. The new Eagle pylon has been designed with the focus of minimizing the visual impacted of overhead lines. A detailed lightning...... performance analysis of the existing Donau and the new Eagle pylon is therefore important in order to assess the risk of failure. The lightning strike analysis is based on the number of strikes expected to terminate on the line and an investigation of how many of these there may be expected to cause...... better protected from direct stroke than the phase conductors on the Donau pylon. Furthermore with respect to a backflash, the Eagle has a better performance than the Donau pylon. It is therefore concluded that the Eagle has a better lightning performance than the Donau....

  9. An Improved Seeding Algorithm of Magnetic Flux Lines Based on Data in 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will propose an approach to increase the accuracy and efficiency of seeding algorithms of magnetic flux lines in magnetic field visualization. To obtain accurate and reliable visualization results, the density of the magnetic flux lines should map the magnetic induction intensity, and seed points should determine the density of the magnetic flux lines. However, the traditional seeding algorithm, which is a statistical algorithm based on data, will produce errors when computing magnetic flux through subdivision of the plane. To achieve higher accuracy, more subdivisions should be made, which will reduce efficiency. This paper analyzes the errors made when the traditional seeding algorithm is used and gives an improved algorithm. It then validates the accuracy and efficiency of the improved algorithm by comparing the results of the two algorithms with results from the equivalent magnetic flux algorithm.

  10. Synthesis method based on solution regions for planar four bar straight line linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Rong, Yin; Cong, Mao; Jian you, Han; Tong, Yang; Juan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method for synthesizing and selecting desired four-bar straight line mechanisms based on solution regions is presented. Given two fixed pivots, the point position and direction of the target straight line, an infinite number of mechanism solutions can be produced by employing this method, both in the general case and all three special cases. Unifying the straight line direction and the displacement from the given point to the instant center into the same form with different angles as parameters, infinite mechanism solutions can be expressed with different solution region charts. The mechanism property graphs have been computed to enable the designers to find out the involved mechanism information more intuitively and avoid aimlessness in selecting optimal mechanisms

  11. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering.

  12. A Community-Based Event Delivery Protocol in Publish/Subscribe Systems for Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  13. A community-based event delivery protocol in publish/subscribe systems for delay tolerant sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nianbo; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Jinqi; Gong, Haigang

    2009-01-01

    The basic operation of a Delay Tolerant Sensor Network (DTSN) is to finish pervasive data gathering in networks with intermittent connectivity, while the publish/subscribe (Pub/Sub for short) paradigm is used to deliver events from a source to interested clients in an asynchronous way. Recently, extension of Pub/Sub systems in DTSNs has become a promising research topic. However, due to the unique frequent partitioning characteristic of DTSNs, extension of a Pub/Sub system in a DTSN is a considerably difficult and challenging problem, and there are no good solutions to this problem in published works. To ad apt Pub/Sub systems to DTSNs, we propose CED, a community-based event delivery protocol. In our design, event delivery is based on several unchanged communities, which are formed by sensor nodes in the network according to their connectivity. CED consists of two components: event delivery and queue management. In event delivery, events in a community are delivered to mobile subscribers once a subscriber comes into the community, for improving the data delivery ratio. The queue management employs both the event successful delivery time and the event survival time to decide whether an event should be delivered or dropped for minimizing the transmission overhead. The effectiveness of CED is demonstrated through comprehensive simulation studies.

  14. A Trajectory Correction based on Multi-Step Lining-up for the CLIC Main Linac

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    In the CLIC main linac it is very important to minimise the trajectory excursion and consequently the emittance dilution in order to obtain the required luminosity. Several algorithms have been proposed and lately the ballistic method has proved to be very effective. The trajectory method described in this Note retains the main advantages of the latter while adding some interesting features. It is based on the separation of the unknown variables like the quadrupole misalignments, the offset and slope of the injection straight line and the misalignments of the beam position monitors (BPM). This is achieved by referring the trajectory relatively to the injection line and not to the average pre-alignment line and by using two trajectories each corresponding to slightly different quadrupole strengths. A reference straight line is then derived onto which the beam is bent by a kick obtained by moving the first quadrupole. The other quadrupoles are then aligned on that line. The quality of the correction depends mai...

  15. Mixed H∞ and passive projective synchronization for fractional-order memristor-based neural networks with time delays via adaptive sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Song, Xiaona; Balsera, Ines Tejado

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the mixed H∞ and passive projective synchronization problem for fractional-order (FO) memristor-based neural networks with time delays. Our aim is to design a controller such that, though the unavoidable phenomena of time delay and external disturbances is fully considered, the resulting closed-loop system is stable with a mixed H∞ and passive performance level. By combining sliding mode control and adaptive control methods, a novel adaptive sliding mode control strategy is designed for the synchronization of time-delayed FO dynamic networks. Via the application of FO system stability theory, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Based on the conditions, a desired controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and also ensure a mixed H∞ and passive performance level is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  17. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  18. Magnetic Field Exposure Estimates Based on Power Lines Near Homes (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, A.; Feychting, M.

    1999-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have based their estimates of magnetic field exposure on the proximity to power lines. This has been done in three principally different ways, which differ in the amount of information that is used. These are: (1) distance; (2) distance and configuration (wire code); and (3) distance, configuration, and load (calculated field). It is presumed that the more information that is used, the more accurate is the exposure estimate. All these three approaches suffer from the limitation that they only account for exposure that is generated by power lines. The influence on the in-home magnetic field from sources other than the power line are not considered, nor is exposure experienced at places other than the home. This raises the following question. What is the implication for the result of the epidemiological study of the exposure misclassification that is introduced by basing magnetic field exposure estimation on power lines near homes? Although the necessary information is only partly at hand the answers to this question will be discussed. The basis will be some general epidemiological principles combined with data from a Swedish study on residential exposure and cancer risk. (author)

  19. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  20. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Villada, Carlos; Donoso, Yezid

    2016-03-25

    Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river's course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas' movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN)-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  1. Excessively delayed maternal reaction after their perception of decreased fetal movements in stillbirths: Population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Shigeki; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    Fetal movement is the most common method to evaluate fetal well-being. Furthermore, maternal perception of decreased fetal movements is associated with perinatal demise. Previously, we showed that perception of decreased fetal movements was the most common reason for mothers visiting the outpatient department among those who had stillbirths in our region. Further investigation of stillbirths with decreased fetal movements is essential to find a possible way of preventing stillbirth. To investigate maternal reaction time after their perceiving decreased fetal movements among stillbirths in our region of Japan. This is a population-based study of stillbirths in Shiga Prefecture, Japan conducted from 2007 to 2011. We sent a questionnaire to each obstetrician who had submitted the stillbirth certificate. We reviewed and evaluated the questionnaires returned from the obstetricians. There were 66 cases (35%) with decreased fetal movements among 188 stillbirths in Shiga during the study period. The number of maternal visits to outpatient department after perception of decreased fetal movements within 24h was only seven (11%) among 64 stillbirths diagnosed at outpatient department. We conclude that delayed maternal visit after perceiving decreased fetal movements is frequently observed in stillbirths. Promoting more thorough maternal education on fetal movements, including emphasizing earlier visitation after perceiving decreased fetal movements, may prevent stillbirths. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez-Villada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river’s course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas’ movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  3. Multiple Model-Based Synchronization Approaches for Time Delayed Slaving Data in a Space Launch Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inherent characteristics of the flight mission of a space launch vehicle (SLV, which is required to fly over very large distances and have very high fault tolerances, in general, SLV tracking systems (TSs comprise multiple heterogeneous sensors such as radars, GPS, INS, and electrooptical targeting systems installed over widespread areas. To track an SLV without interruption and to hand over the measurement coverage between TSs properly, the mission control system (MCS transfers slaving data to each TS through mission networks. When serious network delays occur, however, the slaving data from the MCS can lead to the failure of the TS. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose multiple model-based synchronization (MMS approaches, which take advantage of the multiple motion models of an SLV. Cubic spline extrapolation, prediction through an α-β-γ filter, and a single model Kalman filter are presented as benchmark approaches. We demonstrate the synchronization accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed MMS approaches using the Monte Carlo simulation with the nominal trajectory data of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I.

  4. A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Impulsive Noise Detector with Application to Power-Line-Based Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Chien, Ying-Ren

    2018-04-10

    For power-line-based sensor networks, impulsive noise (IN) will dramatically degrade the data transmission rate in the power line. In this paper, we present a multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based approach to detect IN in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based baseband power line communications (PLCs). Combining the MLP-based IN detection method with the outlier detection theory allows more accurate identification of the harmful residual IN. For OFDM-based PLC systems, the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the received signal makes detection of harmful residual IN more challenging. The detection mechanism works in an iterative receiver that contains a pre-IN mitigation and a post-IN mitigation. The pre-IN mitigation is meant to null the stronger portion of IN, while the post-IN mitigation suppresses the residual portion of IN using an iterative process. Compared with previously reported IN detectors, the simulation results show that our MLP-based IN detector improves the resulting bit error rate (BER) performance.

  5. Factors Influencing Institutional-Based Pediatric Rehabilitation Services among Caregivers of Children with Developmental Delay in Southwestern Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kriti; Siddharth, V.

    2018-01-01

    Context: A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. Settings: This study was conducted a...

  6. Gate-tunable current partition in graphene-based topological zero lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Ren, Yafei; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jung, Jeil; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate new mechanisms for gate-tunable current partition at topological zero-line intersections in a graphene-based current splitter. Based on numerical calculations of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and Landauer-Büttiker formula, we show that the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the order of a few Teslas allows for carrier sign dependent current routing. In the zero-field limit the control on current routing and partition can be achieved within a range of 10-90 % of the total incoming current by tuning the carrier density at tilted intersections or by modifying the relative magnitude of the bulk band gaps via gate voltage. We discuss the implications of our findings in the design of topological zero-line networks where finite orbital magnetic moments are expected when the current partition is asymmetric.

  7. Development of an Ethernet enabled microcontroller based module for Superconducting Cyclotron ECR beam line control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Koley, D.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2012-01-01

    An Ethernet enabled control and data acquisition module is developed for remote control and monitoring of the ECR beam line equipment of the Superconducting Cyclotron. The PIC microcontroller based module supports multiple general purpose analog and digital inputs and outputs for interfacing with various equipments and an embedded web server. The remote monitoring and control of the equipment are achieved through the web based user interface. The user authenticated access to control parameters and module configuration parameters ensures the operational safety of the equipment under control. This module is installed in Superconducting Cyclotron ECR beam line for the control and monitoring of vacuum pumping modules, comprising of pumps, gate valves and dual vacuum gauges. The installation of these modules results in a distributed control with localised field cabling and hence better fault diagnosis. (author)

  8. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach for Model-Based Testing of Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Weißleder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems tend to become more and more complex. This has a direct impact on system engineering processes. Two of the most important phases in these processes are requirements engineering and quality assurance. Two significant complexity drivers located in these phases are the growing number of product variants that have to be integrated into the requirements engineering and the ever growing effort for manual test design. There are modeling techniques to deal with both complexity drivers like, e.g., feature modeling and model-based test design. Their combination, however, has been seldom the focus of investigation. In this paper, we present two approaches to combine feature modeling and model-based testing as an efficient quality assurance technique for product lines. We present the corresponding difficulties and approaches to overcome them. All explanations are supported by an example of an online shop product line.

  9. Product line based ontology reuse in context-aware e-business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Improving the reusability of ontology is recognized as increasingly important due to the prevalence of OWL research and applications. But there exists no convincing methodology and tool support in this direction yet. In this paper, we apply ideas from the research and practice with software product...... lines in order to explore this issue. The ontology is developed and managed according to the commonalities and variabilities underlying a specific problem domain. Meta-ontology is used in order to improve the reusability, evolve-ability and customizability of ontology. Another advantage is being able...... to generate needed ontology with the created meta-ontology implemented with XVCL (XML based Variant Configuration Language) technology. We demonstrate our product line based reuse approach with an example B2C application....

  10. A stable murine-based RD114 retroviral packaging line efficiently transduces human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Maureen; Sattler, Rose; Grossman, I Robert; Bell, Anthony J; Skerrett, Donna; Baxi, Laxmi; Bank, Arthur

    2003-11-01

    Several barriers exist to high-efficiency transfer of therapeutic genes into human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) using complex oncoretroviral vectors. Human clinical trials to date have used Moloney leukemia virus-based amphotropic and gibbon ape leukemia virus-based envelopes in stable retroviral packaging lines. However, retroviruses pseudotyped with these envelopes have low titers due to the inability to concentrate viral supernatants efficiently by centrifugation without damaging the virus and low transduction efficiencies because of low-level expression of viral target receptors on human HSC. The RD114 envelope from the feline endogenous virus has been shown to transduce human CD34+ cells using transient packaging systems and to be concentrated to high titers by centrifugation. Stable packaging systems have potential advantages over transient systems because greater and more reproducible viral productions can be attained. We have, therefore, constructed and tested a stable RD114-expressing packaging line capable of high-level transduction of human CD34+ cells. Viral particles from this cell line were concentrated up to 100-fold (up to 10(7) viral particles/ml) by ultracentrifugation. Human hematopoietic progenitors from cord blood and sickle cell CD34+ cells were efficiently transduced with a Neo(R)-containing vector after a single exposure to concentrated RD114-pseudotyped virus produced from this cell line. Up to 78% of progenitors from transduced cord blood CD34+ cells and 51% of progenitors from sickle cell CD34+ cells expressed the NeoR gene. We also show transfer of a human beta-globin gene into progenitor cells from CD34+ cells from sickle cell patients with this new RD114 stable packaging system. The results indicate that this packaging line may eventually be useful in human clinical trials of globin gene therapy.

  11. Retrospective analysis of first-line treatment for follicular lymphoma based on outcomes and medical economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Manaka; Nakamura, Ayaka; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suemitsu, Junko; Hasebe, Shinji; Takeuchi, Kazuto; Yakushijin, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with indolent progression. Several treatment options are selected, based not only on disease status, quality of life (QOL), and age of patient, but also on recent increasing medical costs. We retrospectively analysed the first-line treatment of FL with regard to treatment outcomes and medical economics, and discuss the appropriate strategies for FL. Data on a total of 69 newly-diagnosed patients with FL was retrospectively collected from 2001 to 2015. The median age of the patients was 60 years and the median follow-up was 58 months. A total of 25 cases with FL were treated with R monotherapy, and 28 cases were treated with R-CHOP as first-line treatment. The factors affecting the decision of physicians to use R or R-CHOP treatment were serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and disease stage. The first-line treatment-associated survival did not show any statistical differences between R and R-CHOP. The average hospitalization and average of all medical costs during the first-line treatment were 4.1 days (R) versus 55.7 days (R-CHOP), and JPY 1,707,693 (USD 15,324) (R) versus JPY 2,136,117 (USD 19,170) (R-CHOP), respectively. R monotherapy for patients whose diseases show low tumor burden and who are not candidates for local treatment has benefits as a first-line treatment compared to R-CHOP, based on the patients' QOL and medical economics.

  12. Numerically-based ducted propeller design using vortex lattice lifting line theory

    OpenAIRE

    Stubblefield, John M.

    2008-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis used vortex lattice lifting line theory to model an axisymmetrical-ducted propeller with no gap between the duct and the propeller. The theory required to model the duct and its interaction with the propeller were discussed and implemented in Open-source Propeller Design and Analysis Program (OpenProp). Two routines for determining the optimum circulation distribution were considered, and a method based on calculus of variation...

  13. Implementation of a microcomputer based distance relay for parallel transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, A.G.; Jihuang, L.

    1986-01-01

    Distance relaying for parallel transmission lines is a difficult application problem with conventional phase and ground distance relays. It is known that for cross-country faults involving dissimilar phases and ground, three phase tripping may result. This paper summarizes a newly developed microcomputer based relay which is capable of classifying the cross-country fault correctly. The paper describes the principle of operation and results of laboratory tests of this relay

  14. Sustainable Entrepreneurship (SE): A Revised Model Based on Triple Bottom Line (TBL)

    OpenAIRE

    Izaidin Abdul Majid; Wei-Loon Koe

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the years, researchers have suggested several fields of entrepreneurship studies, such as regular entrepreneurship, green entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship and sustainable entrepreneurship. This literature review focused on sustainable entrepreneurship, in which a definition was proposed. Then, based upon the concept of triple bottom line, a revised model of sustainable entrepreneurship was suggested at the end of paper. The model consisted of four domains, namely economica...

  15. Problem-based learning in an on-line biotechnology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaney, James Daniel

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical tool that uses a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. PBL encourages student development of critical thinking skills, a high professional competency, problem-solving ability, knowledge acquisition, the ability to work productively as a team member and make decisions in unfamiliar situations, and the acquisition of skills that support self-directed life-long learning, metacognition, and adaptation to change. However, little research has focused on the use of PBL in on-line "virtual" classes. We conducted two studies exploring the use of PBL in an on-line biotechnology course. In the first study, ethical, legal, social, and human issues were used as a motivation for learning about DNA testing technologies, applications, and bioethical issues. In the second study, we combined PBL pedagogy with a rich multimedia environment of streaming video interviews, physical artifacts, and extensive links to articles and databases to create a multidimensional immersive PBL environment called "Robert's World". In "Robert's World", a man is determining whether to undergo a pre-symptomatic DNA test for an untreatable, incurable, fatal genetic disease for which he has a family history. In both studies, design and implementation issues of the on-line PBL environment are discussed, as are differences between on-line PBL and face-to-face PBL. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that PBL stimulates higher-order learning in students. However, in both studies, student performance on an exam testing acquisition of lower-order factual learning was lower for PBL students than for students who learned the same material through a traditional lecture-based approach. Possible reasons for this lower level of performance are explored. Student feedback expressed engagement with the issues and material covered, with reservations about some aspects of the PBL format, such as the lack of flexibility provided in cooperative

  16. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  17. Line-Based Registration of Panoramic Images and LiDAR Point Clouds for Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as the mobile mapping system (MMS, data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and a LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for the panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and the LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, with the latter being more reliable.

  18. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the "XL" USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF.

  19. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, S; Paone, N; Castellini, P

    2013-12-01

    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control.

  20. Discrete PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission lines loading in TNEP problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, lines adequacy rate has not been considered at the end of planning horizon, i.e. expanded network misses adequacy after some times and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm. Expanded network will possess a maximum adequacy to provide load demand and also the transmission lines overloaded later. The proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network and an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran, and the results are compared with the decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) technique. The results evaluation shows that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically. Also, it is shown that precision and convergence speed of the proposed DPSO based method for the solution of the STNEP problem is superior to DCGA approach.