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Sample records for delaware river-perry lake

  1. Concentrations and transport of atrazine in the Delaware River-Perry Lake system, northeast Kansas, July 1993 through September 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L.M.; Brewer, L.D.; Foley, G.A.; Morgan, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    northeastern parts of the Delaware River Basin had the largest monthly and annual mean atrazine concentrations. Time- weighted, annual mean atrazine concentrations did not exceed the MCL in water from any sampling site for either the 1993 or 1994 crop years (April-March); however, concentrations were during 1994 than during 1993. Time-weighted, annual mean concentrations in water from among the 11 sampling sites during the 1993 crop year ranged from 0.27 to 1.5 ug/L and from 0.36 to 2.8 ug/L during the 1994 crop year. Furthermore, concentrations in samples from the outflow of Perry Lake were larger during the first 6 months of the 1995 crop year than during the previous year. Flow-weighted, annual mean atrazine concentrations were larger than time-weighted, annual mean concentrations in water from all sampling sites upstream of Perry Lake, and samples from several sites had concentrations were substantially larger than the MCL. This difference explained why time-weighted, annual mean concentrations in the outflow of Perry Lake were larger than corresponding time-weighted concentrations in water from sampling sites upstream of Perry Lake. Flow- weighted, annual mean concentrations in water from among the 11 sampling sites during the 1993 crop year ranged from 1.0 to 4.4 ug/L and from 1.0 to 8.9 ug/L during the 1994 crop year. Statistically significant linear-regression equations were identified relating the percentage of subbasin in cropland to time- and flow-weighted, average annual mean atrazine concentrations. The relations indicate that time-weighted, average annual mean atrazine concentrations may not exceed the MCL in water from subbasins with at least about 70-percent cropland. However, flow-weighted, average annual mean atrazine concentrations may exceed the MCL when the percentage of cropland is greater than about 40 percent. Approximately 90 percent of the annual atrazine load is transport from May through July. Atrazine loads and yields were larger during the 1993

  2. Comparison of Two Cell Lysis Procedures for Recovery of Microcystins in Water Samples from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware, with Microcystin Producing Cyanobacterial Accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Humphries, Edythe; Whereat, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A collaboration was developed between Abraxis, LLC, the State of Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Division of Water Resources Environmental Laboratory, the University of Delaware, and the United States Geological Survey to investigate the efficacy of the QuikLyse procedure developed by Abraxis, LLC as an alternative cell-lysis technique suitable for use with an existing liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry research method developed at the United States Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory to analyze cyanotoxins. A comparison of three sequential freeze/thaw cycles versus QuikLyse, a proprietary chemical lysis procedure was conducted on four water samples collected from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware. Results from the Abraxis Microcystins-DM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry were tabulated as a function of the cell lysis technique. Stastical comparison of percent relative standard deviations showed no significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between both cell-lysis techniques when measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for three of the four samples.

  3. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Grabs 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  6. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  7. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Elk Lake Dam (NDI ID Number PA-01102, DER ID Number 64-4), Delaware River Basin, Elk Lake Run, Wayne County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    about 3 feet of the surface of the water." According to the PWSC, the lake was acquired circa 1898 by the Lake Lodore Improvement Company, along with...lake was in dispute. The dispute was apparently settled by jury trial in 1962. As described by the present Owner, the Lake Lodore Improvement Company

  9. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  10. National Dam Inspection Program. Beaver Lake Lodge Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00300, PennDER I.D. Number 52-93), Delaware River Basin, Raymondskill Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    FIGURES APPENDIX F - GEOLOGY PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM BEAVER LAKE LODGE DAM NDI NO. PA-00300, PENNDER NO. 52-93...Tavern Pond. The facilities on Dwarfskill Creek are Crescent Lake Dam and Gold Key Lake. Log Tavern Pond and Gold Key Lake are both natural lakes with no...Figure 2). e. Downstream Channel. Discharges from both spillways at Beaver Lake Lodge Dam flow through a comparatively flat valley for a distance of

  11. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  12. Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  13. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  14. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on ... Newark Christiana Care Health System Lewis B. Flinn Library 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road / PO BOX 6001 Newark, ...

  15. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  16. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  17. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  18. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR...

  19. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  20. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  1. Evaluation of HCMM satellite data for estuarine tidal circulation patterns and thermal inertia soil moisture measurements. [Delaware Bay, Cooper River, and the Potomac River estuaries; Luverne, Minnesota, soil moisture, and water temperature of Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Matson, M.; Pritchard, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Digital thermal maps of the Cooper River (SC) and the Potomac River estuaries were prepared from heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) tapes. Tidal phases were correctly interpreted and verified. Synoptic surface circulation patterns were charted by location thermal fronts and water mass boundaries within the estuaries. Thermal anomalies were detected adjacent of a conventional power plant on the Potomac. Under optimum conditions, estuaries as small as the Cooper River can be monitored for generalized thermal/tidal circulation patterns by the HCMM-type IR sensors. The HCMM thermal inertia approach to estimating soil moisture at the Luverne (MN) test site was found to be unsatisfactory as a NESS operational satellite technique because of cloud cover interference. Thermal-IR data show similar structure of the Baltimore and Washington heat islands when compared to NOAA AVHRR thermal-IR data. Thermal anomalies from the warm water discharge water of a nuclear power plant were mapped in Lake Anna, Virginia.

  2. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  3. Lake Aquilla - Habitat Survey Hill County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geography. Newark, DE: University of Delaware (http://climate.geog.udel.edu/~wimp/). Accessed August, 2016. ERDC/EL TR-17-16 77 Appendix A: Soils of Lake...PERSON a. REPORT UNCLASSIFIED b. ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 154 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . 239.18

  4. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  5. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  6. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  7. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  8. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  9. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  10. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  11. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  12. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  13. 2007 Delaware Coastal Programs Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  14. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. 2007 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  16. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  18. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  19. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  20. Flood Plain Information, Delhi New York, West Branch Delaware River and Little Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    1,383.9 1,382.4 1,391.3 Little Delaware River Back River Road 0.15 1,346.4 1,346.9 1,352.1 College Golf Course Footbridge 0.28 1,349.4 1,350.0 1,353.2...College Golf Course Footbridge 0.36 1,353.7 1,353.6 1,356.1 Bridge by USGS Gaging Station 1.79 1,395.9 1,396.9 1,403.6 N.Y. Rte. 28 5.93 1,533.9

  1. Smoke-free law did affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2005-01-01

    A paper recently published in the journal Tobacco Control purports to show that the implementation of a smoking prohibition in Delaware had no statistically significant effect on the revenues of three gaming facilities in that state. After correcting for evident errors in that analysis, I find that the smoke-free law did affect revenues from gaming in Delaware. Total gaming revenues are estimated to have declined by at least $6 million per month after the implementation of Delaware*s Clean In...

  2. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  3. Agusta Bluff, A Late Site on the Leaf River, Perry County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (*Won De EelVm__ READ IST1RUVCTIOWSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETNG FORM . REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3...Pleistocene environments are not well understoo;d howOver, pollen analyses indicate that climatic events of the Ice Age deprt’sce.,d floral and faunal...Sunfish), Petromyzontldae (lamprey), Lepisosteidac (gar), Clupeidae (shad), Umbridae (mudminnow), Esocidae (pickerel), Catostomidae (sucker

  4. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  5. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to…

  6. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  7. 3.0 Foundation programs for the Delaware CEMRI framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    A complete review of all the national monitoring programs that could possibly contribute to the Delaware River Basin (DRB) CEMRI Framework is beyond the scope of this report. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment developed a Web-based annotated inventory of such monitoring programs for the mid-Atlantic region. Olsen et al. (...

  8. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  9. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  10. Spatial pattern of hormone and antibiotic concentrations in surface waters in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicunas, R.; Inamdar, S. P.; Dutta, S.; Aga, D.; Zimmerman, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality surveys of the U.S. have confirmed the presence of hormones and antibiotics in some surface waters. Although the reported concentrations of these substances are extremely low, there is substantial concern about their effect on aquatic species. For example, chronic exposure to estradiol (E2β) concentrations as low as 40 ng/L have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Furthermore, there is potential for contaminants to enter our drinking supply. Significant sources of hormones and antibiotics include discharge from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and wastewater treatment plants as well as runoff from agricultural land receiving application of animal manure. Since Sussex County, Delaware is one of the leading poultry producing counties in the nation, and many farmers in the state use poultry litter as fertilizer for their crops, it is critical to study the concentrations of contaminants in surface waters. Fifty surface water (streams, lakes, and ponds) sampling locations throughout the state of Delaware were chosen based on DNREC (Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control) data. Locations with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus levels were assumed to be associated with agriculture and wastewater sources and therefore were likely to be contaminated with hormones and antibiotics. The first set of sampling occurred in April representing high-flow conditions, and the second set will occur in September representing low-flow conditions. Water samples will be screened through the cost-effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method followed by more rigorous analyses of selected samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). ELISA screening includes estradiol (E2β), sulfamethazine and triclosan, while LC/MS/MS will quantify both free and conjugated forms of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3), as well as selected sulfa and tetracycline antibiotics. Initial ELISA results

  11. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) for all criteria pollutants of the national ambient air quality... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements,'' that is located in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State...

  12. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  13. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1)...

  14. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Delaware River in New Hope, PA. The safety zone... downriver of the bridge in New Hope, PA. DATES: This rule is effective from June 15, 2010 through July...

  15. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...

  16. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  17. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  18. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  19. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The University of Delaware

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware along with MAGPI (Metropolitan Area GigaPoP in Philadelphia for Internet2) and Internet2 are excited to host "Network Delaware Day: Advancing Research and Education Initiatives Across the First State." Discover the power of advanced networking opportunities in research and education throughout the First State.

  20. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  1. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  2. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  3. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  4. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A., E-mail: kschum@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 278 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States); Schumacher, Thomas, E-mail: schumact@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19711 (United States); Agbemabiese, Lawrence, E-mail: agbe@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 272 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  5. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  6. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  7. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  8. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  9. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... Regulation 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) found...

  10. Inventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay, vol. 2, November 1972 (NODC Accession 7310520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the second section of a three part study describing the history, land use, and legal mechanisms which operate in the tideland region of the lower Delaware...

  11. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional...

  12. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  13. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  14. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  16. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  17. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  18. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  20. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  1. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  2. Three Year Investigation Of Mosquito Breeding In Natural And Impounded Tidal Marshes In Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1953 to 1955 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cooperative investigation of...

  3. Summary of the 1998 Spawning Survey of Horseshoe Crabs Along the Delaware Bay Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The spawning survey of horseshoe crabs was conducted along the shores of Delaware Bay for the ninth year. Counts of spawning horseshoe crabs was performed by trained...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  6. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ca :1 0 0 $ 41 >0 I pI1C 3 c a x oa C4 i-i :4n .- kip 0 *1 4+4 A.>A 44 C)p 0)- 144 to ~ 5 -4$ %4 a Lo 0 1 0) C: Go 14 V2 U) 4 14 1* 4 t $4 U 4 Cd 0 g a...a bank building to a private residence, this brick structure survives as an example of Greek Revival architecture. Nat. Reg. DK 116 Thorne Mansion...of Sydenham Thorne , an Anglican minister and co-founder of Milford, A.William Burton, Governor of Delaware and John M. Clayton, Secretary of State

  7. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  8. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  10. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  11. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  12. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  13. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  14. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  15. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... public notice of a proposed lease area for commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and... from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and another from Occidental Development & Equities, LLC...

  16. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360, West...

  17. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  18. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  19. Matemáticas de Infantil en Delaware, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Fábrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Estados Unidos se encuentra en momento de cambio en el sistema educativo. La implantación de los estándares comunes para todas las etapas de educación obligatoria proporciona una estructura normalizada para todo el territorio estadounidense. En este documento, se presenta un ejemplo de cómo trabajar los estándares matemáticos en una clase bilingüe de alumnos de 5 a 6 años. La implementación difiere de estado a estado. En este caso concreto se sigue un currículo bastante estricto, con un material pautado y guías del profesor. No obstante, el maestro/a siempre puede complementar este currículo con otros talleres y juegos matemáticos. Arte, juegos de mesa y actividades motrices, entre otros, ayudan a los alumnos/as a entender y, lo más importante, a aplicar las capacidades matemáticas trabajadas.Mathematics in a Kindergarten School in Delaware, USA. The education system in United States of America is undergoing significant changes. The implementation of the new Common Core Standards in K - 12 provides for a unified structure for the entire territory. This article presents examples of how to work those new standards for mathematics in a bilingual kindergarten classroom.The implementation differs from State to State. In this specific case we follow a very strict curriculum, which includes learning materials and teacher guides. Nevertheless, teachers can always complement the curriculum with any other mathematic workshops and games. Art, board games and motor activities, among others, can help students understand - and more importantly - to apply the mathematic skills learned.

  20. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  1. 77 FR 28489 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... to the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum... Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial... amend the regulation that establishes controls for NO X emissions from industrial boilers and...

  2. 77 FR 3211 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries... amends Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial boilers and process heaters at petroleum refineries by including a NO X emission limit for...

  3. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... revision amends the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from industrial cleaning solvents... meet the requirements to implement reasonably available control technology (RACT) controls on emission... developments and expand VOC emission controls. The revision is part of Delaware's strategy to achieve...

  4. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  5. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  6. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  7. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... notice provides BOEMRE's determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind... 21653). Bluewater Wind Delaware, LLC submitted the only valid expression of commercial interest in...

  8. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  9. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  10. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  11. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  12. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... expeditiously as practicable in a given area.\\21\\ Thus, assuming no presumptions under 40 CFR 51.1002, a state... in a given nonattainment area.\\35\\ \\34\\ See 40 CFR 51.1008. \\35\\ See 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule... Plan for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Nonattainment Area for the...

  13. State of Delaware Science Curriculum Framework Content Standards [and] Performance Indicators, 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    Part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school districts in their development of a standards-based curriculum, this document presents the eight science standards for middle school. The standards for grades 6-8 are: (1) nature and application of science and technology; (2) materials…

  14. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  15. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control... published in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). C... compounds. Dated: September 7, 2012. Shawn M. Garvin, Regional Administrator, Region III. 40 CFR part 52...

  16. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  17. Synopsis of the University of Delaware's Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    This brief paper presents background information and a description of the organizational structure and educational objectives of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, formerly the Delaware PLATO project, whose name was changed to reflect the University's ongoing commitment to providing leadership in educational computing following the…

  18. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  19. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  20. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  1. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  2. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  3. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  4. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  5. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  6. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  7. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  10. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  11. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  12. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  13. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 56th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2009 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2008, to November 30, 2009.During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 50.89 inches (in.) or 116 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high throughout the year and did not decline below 80 percent of combined capacity at any time. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree and the Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP).Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 25 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days.During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master.As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  14. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  15. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  16. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  17. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Viburnum prunifolium), pecans ( Carya adult Delaware settlers. Nor is their use of the illinoensis ), persimmon (Diospyro virginiana), cabin divergent from...preparations Sycamore Platanus occidentails xaxakw "tree" Chips of heartwood boiled to make a tea Pecans Carya illinoensis KIT:m Nuts eaten in fall I...Bark used to sweeten and preserve fat; inner bark used to repair baskets Hickory Carya hickori t~tpan%.ma;i "bitter nut tree" Used in basketry and for

  18. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  19. Revenue management education (RevME), 30 April-2 May 2015, University of Delaware, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Koupriouchina, Larissa; van der Rest, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2015-01-01

    On 30 April–2 May, 2015, an inaugural Revenue Management Education Workshop on teaching Revenue Management (RM) was held at the University of Delaware. Made possible through generous support from Hyatt, the initiative was launched by Prof. Dr. Zvi Schwartz in order to facilitate a dialog among a selected group of hospitality RM educators and key industry players including: major international hotel chains, RM related technology and service providers and leading hospitality educators from worl...

  20. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  1. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  3. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  4. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  5. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  6. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-06-09

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  7. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  8. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  9. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  10. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  11. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  12. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  13. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  14. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  15. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  16. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  17. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  18. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  19. Health Service Utilization of Children in Delaware Foster Care, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erin K; McDuffie, May Joan; Gifford, Katie; Zorc, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Children in foster care represent some of the most vulnerable children in the U.S. Their higher prevalence of a range of physical and behavioral health problems can lead to greater health care utilization and higher costs. However, many children in foster care have undiagnosed conditions and unmet needs. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of health services accessed by children in foster care in Delaware. The data serves as a baseline and informs current efforts to improve the health care of children in foster care. We analyzed rates of emergency room visits, behavioral health visits, hospitalizations, and costs of care for children in foster care and made comparisons with other children participating in Medicaid. We also looked at utilization before and after entry into care and assessed rates of appropriate medical screening for children on entering foster care. This study was conducted as part of a larger analysis guided by the Delaware Task Force on the Health of Children in Foster Care with funding appropriated by the Delaware General Assembly. Using a unique identification number, we linked Medicaid claims data with demographic information and characteristics associated with foster care from the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families. We examined diagnoses, patterns of utilization, and costs for children in foster care (n = 1,458) and a comparable cohort of other children in Medicaid (n = 124,667) during fiscal years 2013 and 2014. Compared with other children in Medicaid, children in foster care had similar rates of emergency department utilization, but relatively high rates of outpatient behavioral health visits. Similarly, compared with other children in Medicaid, those in foster care had particularly high rates of psychotropic drug utilization. Entry into foster care was associated with increased utilization of overall health care services, including receipt of well-child care. However, just 31 percent

  20. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  1. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  2. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  3. Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Millsboro Townsend’s 1 21.8 6 0.1 0 18 Inc. Vlmssic 0.06 3.1 1.36 0.064 0.066 18 Food Colonial 9.7 6.85 9.7 2.2 OA 18 East Moble Home Pk. Rehoboth 0.95...Delaware," Proceedings of the Third Annual National Beach Preservation Technology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL pp 280-294. Andres, A. S. (1992...Wen, C., Kao, J., Wang, L., and Liaw, C. (1984). "Effect of salinity on reaeration coefficient of receiving waters," Water Science and Technology , 16

  4. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  5. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  6. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  7. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  8. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  9. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  10. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-06-09

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  11. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  12. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  13. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore... more commercial leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Delaware... offshore wind facility proposed on the OCS, about 12.5 miles off of Rehoboth Beach. The agreement...

  14. A numerical model to evaluate potential impacts of sea-level rise on groundwater resources in the Delaware coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C.; McKenna, T. E.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise on the U.S. East Coast has accelerated much faster than in other parts of the world. In Delaware, the estimated sea level could rise as high as 1.5 meters by the year 2100 based on the information in IPCC (2007) and CCSP (2009). In this study, we used a 3-D variable-density groundwater flow model to study the movement of the fresh-water/salt-water interface and water table changes due to sea-level rise. Rather than developing a site-specific model, we analyzed the geospatial features of a serious of sub-watersheds along the coastline of the Delaware Estuary in Delaware using ArcGIS and constructed a representative model to capture the generalized flow patterns and saltwater intrusion rates that occur in typical area. Different scenarios with varying parameters were simulated. The simulation results were then applied to the Delaware River region to evaluate potential impacts of groundwater level changes on the potential land lose.

  15. Uniting Rural, Urban and Suburban America! Live Internet-Based Paraeducator and Teacher Training in Idaho, Utah, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, David E.; Morgan, Robert L.

    This paper describes Project Impact*Net, a model project for delivering training to paraeducators and teachers in light of requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The project delivered four semester-length courses to instructional sites serving 69 participants in Delaware, Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Utah. The Project Impact*Net delivery system…

  16. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans... Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Galva, Illinois. The negative determination...

  17. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  18. Boat Dwellers of Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    IN the south of Shandong Province, Weishan Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China. Under the bright blue sky, it gleams like a large mirror. "As the sun is about to set, Weishan Lake is quiet…" Humming

  19. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  20. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  1. Eurytemora carolleeae in the Laurentian Great Lakes revealed by phylogenetic and morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Adrian A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Keeler, Kevin M.; Armenio, Patricia M.; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, specimens of Eurytemora have been reported asEurytemora affinis since its invasion in the late 1950s. During an intensive collection of aquatic invertebrates for morphological and molecular identification in Western Lake Erie in 2012-2013, several specimens of Eurytemora were collected. Analysis of these specimens identified them as the recently described species Eurytemora carolleeaeAlekseev and Souissi 2011. This result led us to assess E. carolleeae’s identifying features, geographic distribution and historical presence in the Laurentian Great Lakes in view of its recent description in 2011. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequences ofEurytemora specimens were identified as closer (2 - 4% different) to recently describedE. carolleeae than to most E. affinis sequences (14% different). Eurytemora from other areas of the Great Lakes and from North American rivers as far west as South Dakota (Missouri River) and east to Delaware (Christina River) also keyed to E. carolleeae. Morphological analysis of archival specimens from 1962 and from all the Great Lakes was identified as E. carolleeae. Additionally, Eurytemora drawings in previous publications were reassessed to determine if the species was E. carolleeae and are reported here. Additional morphological characters that may distinguish North AmericanE. carolleeae from other taxa are also described. We conclude that E. carolleeae is the correct name for the species of Eurytemora that has inhabited the Great Lakes since its invasion, as established by both morphological and COI sequence comparisons to reference keys and sequence databases in present and archival specimens.

  2. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  3. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Helena; Kirchman, David L.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA), we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1) than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1). Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the Delaware

  4. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Osterholz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA, we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1 than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1. Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the

  5. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  6. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  7. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  8. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  9. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  10. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967 (NODC Accession 7000769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967. Data were submitted by the National Marine...

  11. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 01 January 1984 - 01 December 1984 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  12. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from 23 February 1976 - 23 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from February 23, 1976 to September 23, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  13. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  14. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  15. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  16. Some hydrological impacts of climate change for the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    To gain insight into possible impacts of climate change on water availability in the Delaware River, two models are linked. The first model is a monthly water balance model that converts the temperature and precipitation values generated by a random number generator to monthly streamflow values. The monthly streamflow values are input to a second model that simulates the operation of reservoirs and diversions within the basin. The output for the two linked models consists of time series of reservoir levels and streamflow at key points in the basin. Model results for a base case, in which monthly temperature and precipitation statistics are unchanged from historical records, are compared to several changed-climate scenarios under a standard set of rules of operation.

  17. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  18. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  19. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  20. Understanding water column and streambed thermal refugia for endangered mussels in the Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A; Voytek, Emily B; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Rosenberry, Donald O; Lane, John W

    2013-10-15

    Groundwater discharge locations along the upper Delaware River, both discrete bank seeps and diffuse streambed upwelling, may create thermal niche environments that benefit the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). We seek to identify whether discrete or diffuse groundwater inflow is the dominant control on refugia. Numerous springs and seeps were identified at all locations where dwarf wedgemussels still can be found. Infrared imagery and custom high spatial resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors reveal complex thermal dynamics at one of the seeps with a relatively stable, cold groundwater plume extending along the streambed/water-column interface during midsummer. This plume, primarily fed by a discrete bank seep, was shown through analytical and numerical heat-transport modeling to dominate temperature dynamics in the region of potential habitation by the adult dwarf wedgemussel.

  1. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  2. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  4. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  6. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  7. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  8. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  9. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  10. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  11. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    wildflowers and their related organisms. Fig buttercup’s early growth period allows it to become well established before native spring plants begin...pest of waterways from coastal Virginia to Florida and west to Texas, with a disjunct population in California . It exhibits both aquatic and...University of California -Davis database, and Washington State Department of Ecology. 112 INVASIVE SPECIES GUIDEBOOK FOR DOD INSTALLATIONS IN THE DELAWARE

  12. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  13. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  14. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  15. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  16. Lake Transect : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Lists of the plant species found at...

  17. Lake Transect : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. Lists of the plant species found at...

  18. Lake Transect : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. Lists of the plant species found...

  19. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  20. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  1. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  2. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  3. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  4. WHISKER LAKE WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.

  5. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Cottingham

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  6. CORPORATE LAW - MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS - DELAWARE COURT OF CHANCERY IMPOSES REVLON DUTIES ON BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN MIXED CASH-STOCK STRATEGIC MERGER. - In re Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. Shareholder Litigation, No. 6164-VCP, 2011 WL 2028076 (Del. Ch. May 24, 2011)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    In Revlon Inc v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc, the Delaware Supreme Court held that, when a Delaware corporation sells itself for cash, its directors are transformed "from defenders of the corporate bastion to auctioneers...

  7. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  8. Tewaukon – Clouds LakeLake Elsie – Storm Lake and Wild Rice Refuges Narrative Reports : 1939-1956 : From Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These narrative reports summarize refuge activities from 1939 to 1956 for Lake Tewaukon Refuge, Clouds Lake Refuge, Lake Elsie Refuge, Storm Lake Refuge, Wild Rice...

  9. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  10. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  12. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  13. Bridging the GAPS from Space: A Research/Educational Partnership in the Upper Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Robin, J.; Minelli, S.; Katsaros, M.; Peterec, I.; Sandt, K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program is currently developing scientific protocols to inventory and monitor the natural resources of 270 park units at the national level. These are aimed at providing critical tools needed by park managers for effective decision-making regarding the management and stewardship of the resources they are charged with protecting. We are currently developing a satellite-based regional land cover and land use monitoring protocol that addresses the immediate needs of the NPS I&M. This is a pilot project that examines land cover/use changes in and around the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area national parks from Landsat data for the period 1984 to 2005, in one the fastest growing regions in the country. The products resulting from the application of the protocols are then used to guide the simulation of land cover/use changes within a simple Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model called GAPS in order to better understand the consequences of the measured land cover/use change on the water and energy cycles of the parks and surrounding areas. The data needed for product validation and model parameterization are being acquired with the assistance of students and educators from area schools using protocols established through the GLOBE program. Through focused workshops organized in collaboration with NPS educational specialists and PA regional educational service agencies called Intermediate Units, and participation in hands-on field measurement campaigns, students and educators are learning about satellite remote sensing interpretation, land cover classification, and how to measure/monitor changes in land cover/use in their communities. Students will also assist in the model simulations using the data they acquire in the field. This partnership between the Principal Investigator, the NPS, Intermediate Units and area students and educators is

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. SATELLITE LAKES OF LAKE VICTORIA BASIN (TANZANIAN SIDE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake ... species of blue green algae such as Spirulina spp. are sources of ... scientific and conservation interests. This study ...

  18. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  19. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  20. Lake Erie Fish Community Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  1. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  2. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  3. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  4. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  5. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  6. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  7. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  10. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  11. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  12. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  13. Interesting Ziandao Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    LOCATED in Chun’an County, Zhejiang Province, Qiandao Lake (Lake of a Thousand Isles) is a state-level scenic spot and a bright pearl of the golden tourism line between Hangzhou’s West Lake and Anhui’s Huangshan Mountain. Last autumn, we went to Chun’an. It took only three to four hours by coach to travel from Hangzhou to Chun’an. Flanked by mountains on the west, the small county faces water on the east. A street goes across the county; it takes less than half an hour to walk from one end to the other. Small restaurants and shops line the western side of the road,

  14. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  17. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  18. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  19. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  20. 78 FR 53467 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ..., as well as areas along the coasts of the Great Lakes, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The... reclassified from T08P (an otherwise protected area) to T08 (a System unit). T11, T11P: SOUTH PADRE ISLAND UNIT... break between the Laguna Madre and South Padre Island that is visible on the base imagery. T12:...

  1. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  2. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  3. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  4. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  5. in lake chamo, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    zooplankton until they move to the littoral regions and start feeding .... Fish collected during the spawning season (i.e.,. March-June .... females, but sampling in the estuary downstream ... same size could be first-time spawners in Lake. Chamo ...

  6. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  7. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  8. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p < 0.05) in one or more Chesapeake regions of concern (Anacostia River [Al: 206 vs. 62.1 mug/g dw; Ba: 3.31 vs. 0.823 mug/g dw; Mn: 65.4 vs. 22.9 mug/g dw] and Elizabeth River [Al: 165 vs. 63.5 mug/g dw; Hg: 1.24 vs. 0.599 mug/g dw; Pb 1.47 vs. 0.543 mug/g dw]). When compared to the coastal Inland Bays reference area, feathers of nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p < 0.05) of Ba (1.90 vs. 0.660 mug/g dw), Fe (258 vs. 109 mug/g dw), Mn (18.5 vs. 4.66 mug/g dw), Mo (0.130 vs. 0.040 mug/g dw), Pb (1.96 vs. 0.624 mug/g dw), and V (0.671 vs. 0.325 mug/g dw), presumably due to extensive metal-working and petroleum refinery activities. Concentrations of Hg in nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  9. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  10. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  11. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  12. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  13. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  14. Host-feeding patterns of suspected West Nile virus mosquito vectors in Delaware, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; Williams, Gregory M

    2005-06-01

    Paucity of data on host-feeding patterns and behavior of 43 mosquito species that are reported as suspected West Nile virus (WN) vectors has limited full evaluation of their vectorial capacity. Recent studies addressing this issue need additional confirmation and should also be expanded to include collections of species or subpopulations attracted to humans. We used 4 types of collection methods to collect mosquitoes, including omnidirectional Fay-Prince traps, Centers for Disease Control-type light traps, gravid traps, and human-landing collections. Mosquitoes were collected during 2 full WN transmission seasons in 2001 and 2002, at 9 different sites across Delaware. We collected from various habitats, including salt marshes, brackish water areas, woodlands, a tire dump, a racetrack, and a mushroom farm. Blood-meal analyses were performed on parous mosquitoes by using a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We tested primarily for 5 common host species, including rabbits, dogs, deer, horses, and chickens. We obtained substantial host-feeding data from 8 mosquito species. The most mammalophilic species were Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Aedes albopictus, whereas the most ornithophilic species was Culex pipiens. Aedes albopictus was the most anthropophilic species, whereas Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans exhibited relatively low attraction to humans. Culex salinarius was the species with the most diverse host-feeding activity. Based on feeding behavior, Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius appear to be the most likely bridge vectors. Other species may have opportunities to be bridge vectors under special circumstances, as discussed in the paper.

  15. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  16. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this scenario yet exist, it is only a

  18. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  19. New technique to isolate anthocyanins from Delaware grapes by forming an aluminium complex using a Discovery DPA-6S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takayuki; Koi, Yoriko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    An aluminium complex of crude Delaware grape anthocyanins, bearing an ortho-dihydroxyl group on the B ring and/or a p-coumaroyl group as an ester with flavocommelin, was formed and isolated by ethanol precipitation. Using a Discovery DPA-6S short column, selected anthocyanins were isolated to give cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy3G, 48.2% yield with 95.2% purity) and cyanidin 3-(6-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) (Cy3-pC·G, 44.9% yield with 91.4% purity) from natural Delaware grape skin extracts without ODS-HPLC column chromatography. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the complex pigment was 3.4 ± 0.10 μmol TE/mg. Moreover, isolated pure anthocyanins from the complex pigment showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity [4.5 ± 0.08 μmol TE/mg (Cy3G) and 4.5 ± 0.04 μmol TE/mg (Cy3-pC·G), (p<0.05)].

  20. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  1. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  2. Effects of climatic change and climatic variability on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thornthwaite moisture index is useful as an indicator of the supply of water in an area relative to the demand under prevailing climatic conditions. This study examines the effects of long-term changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin. Temperature and precipitation estimates for doubled-CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index for steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions and for gradual changes from present to doubled-CO2 conditions. Results of the study indicate that temperature and precipitation under doubled-CO2 conditions will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying significantly drier conditions in the Delaware River basin than currently exist. The amount of decrease depends, however, on the GCM climatic-change scenario used. The results also indicate that future changes in the moisture index will be partly masked by natural year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. Radiochronology of lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erten, H.N. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Zurich, Constance, from the Sea of Marmara and from southern Turkey, northern Cyprus and eastern Spain were dated using natural {sup 210}Pb, fallout {sup 137}Cs and cosmic-ray produced {sup 7}Be radionuclides. Constant activity regions in the uppermost sections of sediments from Lake Zurich and the Sea of Marmara were attributed to post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb in the former case and to bioturbation in the latter. A serious discrepancy exists between the {sup 210}Pb dating of Sea of Marmara sediments and those obtained by organic carbon based methods. The elements Zn, Cu, P and Pb were enriched in the upper sections of the sediment cores corresponding to the last 200 years. The increased metallurgical activities as a result of reforms in the Ottoman Army during the 18th century could be the most likely cause. (Author).

  4. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  5. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  6. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  7. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  8. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  9. A Report on the Impact of Special Education on Minority Students in the Brandywine, Christina, Colonial, and Red Clay Consolidated School Districts in Delaware, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cherritta L.

    The study evaluated special education services to minority students in four Delaware school districts (Brandywine, Christina, Colonial, and Red Clay). The study identified three major concerns: (1) reduction of the high percentage of minorities in special education, (2) employment of minority professionals in special education, (3) and services to…

  10. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  11. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  12. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  13. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  14. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  15. Limited Regulation of Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Ontario,, Cedar Point in Ohio, Presque Isle in Pennsylvania and Hamlin in New York. Recreational boating is a significant activity on Lake Erie . Along...RD-Al47 936 LIMITED REGULATION OF LAKE ERIE (U) INTERNATIONAL LAKE i/i ERIE REGULATION STUDY BOARD NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/2 N lhhhhh..hEmhhI...o lake Erie ’Governmen of 4,- % * L CTE " 84100400 .- Canad Unite Stte INTRNAIONL OIN COMISIO 4WD’ This document hais been ow for public rleoe and so

  16. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs.

  17. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Milovan; Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstru...

  18. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs).

  19. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Maryland and Delaware, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Nayegandhi, Amar; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline beachface, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA

  1. Swash-Induced Infiltration in a Sandy Beach Aquifer, Cape Henlopen, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Michael, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge has been shown to be an important source of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic compounds to the coastal ocean. Physical flow and mixing dynamics in the intertidal zone may influence these contaminant fluxes; however the mechanisms that contribute to mixing of saltwater and through-flowing freshwater are not well understood. A study of wave swash-induced infiltration at two sites on Cape Henlopen, Delaware, was performed to quantify effects of swash zone width and tidal elevation on the flux of seawater into the beach aquifer. Porewater salinity measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined intertidal freshwater-seawater mixing zone. High-frequency pressure and soil moisture measurements from shore-perpendicular arrays across the beachface were used to infer influx rates. Measurements were conducted at two sites, one with larger waves and a wide swash zone, and the other with smaller waves and a narrow swash zone. Infiltration occurred during the rising tide at the leading edge of the swash zone and increased in magnitude from low tide to high tide. Infiltration rates were on average 2.2 times greater near mean high water than near mean low water. Measurements revealed that swash zone width influences infiltration: influx rates associated with the beach with a wider swash zone were 2.7 times higher than those of a beach with a narrower swash zone. The field observations are roughly consistent with estimates from analytical models, which are highly sensitive to uncertain model parameters. Pressure measurements during rising tide also indicate changes in hydraulic gradients due to infiltrated seawater. Flow beneath the sensor array was initially seaward and as the swash zone tracked up the beachface, a groundwater mound formed that resulted in net landward flow in the vicinity of the sensor array. The results demonstrate the role of wave swash in driving beach seawater infiltration, indicate spatial trends in flux across the

  2. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  3. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  4. LAKE AFDERA: A THREATENED SALINE LAKE IN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lake's geological history of having marine inputs from the Red Sea (Gionfiantini et al., 1973). Unlike the other ... area) at the shore where one of the hot springs joins the lake. It is not known ... that goes to the Red Sea port of Assab. One of the ...

  5. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  6. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  7. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  8. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  9. Delaware GK-12: Improvement of Science Education in Vocational Technical High Schools Through Collaborative Learning and Coteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Skalak, K.; Watson, G.; Scantlebury, K.; Allen, D.; Quillen, A.

    2006-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware (UD) in partnership with the New Castle County Vocational Technical School District (NCCoVoTech) in Delaware has initiated a GK-12 Program. In each of year this program, nine full time UD graduate students in the sciences, who have completed all or most of their coursework, will be selected to serve as fellows. Participation in the GK-12 program benefits the graduate fellows in many ways. In addition to gaining general insight into current issues of science education, the fellows enhance their experience as scientific researchers by directly improving their ability to effectively communicate complex quantitative and technical knowledge to an audience with multiple and diverse learning needs. In the first year of this project, fellows have been paired with high school science teachers from NCCoVoTech. These pairs, along with the principal investigators (PIs) of this program have formed a learning community that is taking this opportunity to examine and to reflect on current issues in science education while specifically addressing critical needs in teaching science in vocational technical high schools. By participating in summer workshops and follow-up meetings facilitated by the PIs, the fellows have been introduced to a number of innovative teaching strategies including problem-based learning (PBL). Fellow/teacher pairs have begun to develop and teach PBL activities that are in agreement with State of Delaware science standards and that support student learning through inquiry. Fellows also have the opportunity to engage in coteaching with their teacher partner. In this "teaching at the elbow of another", fellows will gain a better understanding of and appreciation for the complexities and nuances of teaching science in vocational technical high schools. While not taught as a stand-alone course in NCCoVoTech high schools, earth science topics are integrated into the science curriculum at

  10. Conclusion: Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Degermendzhi, Andrei G.

    2017-01-01

    The term meromixis was introduced more than 80 years ago to denote lakes that do not annually mix completely. Since then our understanding of meromictic lakes has considerably advanced. Physical processes support the difference in water density between deep (monimolimnion ) and surface (mixolimnion

  11. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kirillin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion and bottom sediment transport and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche characteristics in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, a large intermountain lake known to have high seiche amplitudes. To examine spatial characteristics of different seiche modes we used the original procedure of determining the seiche frequencies from the primitive equation model output with subsequent derivation of the spatial seiche structure at fixed frequencies akin the tidal harmonic analysis. The proposed procedure revealed specific seiche oscillation features in Flathead Lake including maximum surface level amplitudes of the first fundamental mode in straights around the largest island; several higher modes appearing locally in the vicinity of the river inflow; the "Helmholtz" open harbor mode, with the period approximately twice that of the longest seiche mode, generated by a large shallow bay connected to the main lake basin; and several rotating seiche modes potentially affecting the lake-wide circulation. We discuss the lake management problems related to of the spatial seiche distribution, such as shoreline erosion, floods and transport of sediments and invasive species in Flathead Lake.

  12. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  13. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. Lake-floor sediment texture and composition of a hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake, Lake Rotomahana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittari, A.; Muir, S. L.; Hendy, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Young volcanic lakes undergo a transition from rapid, post-eruptive accumulation of volcaniclastic sediment to slower pelagic settling under stable lake conditions, and may also be influenced by sublacustrine hydrothermal systems. Lake Rotomahana is a young (129 year-old), hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake formed after the 1886 Tarawera eruption, and provides a unique insight into the early evolution of volcanic lake systems. Lake-bottom sediment cores, 20-46 cm in length, were taken along a transect across the lake and characterised with respect to stratigraphy, facies characteristics (i.e., grain size, componentry) and pore water silica concentrations. The sediments generally comprise two widespread facies: (i) a lower facies of light grey to grey, very fine lacustrine silt derived from the unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits that mantled the catchment area immediately after the eruption, which were rapidly reworked and redeposited into the lake basin; and (ii) an upper facies of dark, fine-sandy diatomaceous silt, that settled from the pelagic zone of the physically stable lake. Adjacent to sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, the upper dark facies is absent, and the upper part of the light grey to grey silt is replaced by a third localised facies comprised of hydrothermally altered pale yellow to yellowish brown, laminated silt with surface iron-rich encrustations. Microspheres, which are thought to be composed of amorphous silica, although some may be halloysite, have precipitated from pore water onto sediment grains, and are associated with a decrease in pore water silicon concentration. Lake Rotomahana is an example of a recently-stabilised volcanic lake, with respect to sedimentation, that shows signs of early sediment silicification in the presence of hydrothermal activity.

  16. Benthic organisms data collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 1957-06-19 to 1978-07-20 (NCEI Accession 8000013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 19 June 1957 to...

  17. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  18. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1971-04-01 to 1972-10-01 (NCEI Accession 7300061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms from 01 April 1971 to 01 October 1972. Data were collected by the...

  20. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  1. IR_ROUTES_CALIB.SHP: Shot-point calibrated trackline navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  2. JD105HYPACK.SHP: Parsed HYPACK navigation from April 15, 2010 of U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  3. IR_SEISNAV.SHP: Unique shot point navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  4. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1986-09-14 to 1986-10-23 (NCEI Accession 8700163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data...

  5. Preliminary assessment of the effects of Delaware Bay water and a known endocrine disrupting compound on horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) using proteomics and observation of embryonic development and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The eggs, larvae, and juveniles of horseshoe crabs (L. polyphemus) contribute significantly to the forage base of many species in Delaware Bay. The eggs also provide...

  6. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  7. Phosphorous Loading in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H.; Halliday, B.; Lane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphate movement from different sources into Lake Champlain is a problem. Excess phosphate generates algae growth causing eutrophication. This excessive growth known as algae blooms leads to poor water quality (State of Lake Report, 2015). Phosphate moves primarily by attachment to soil particles (Busman, Lamb, 09). Historically its movement has been limited to spring, summer and fall. Spring runoff is thought to contribute the most phosphate to Lake Champlain (Jensen, Tiessen, 11). With changes in global and local temperatures effecting weather patterns and the winter season, does phosphate continue to move into Lake Champlain during the winter months? Water samples from two tributaries to Lake Champlain were collected biweekly year around for the past three years. These samples were then tested for total suspended solids and phosphate levels. The results indicate that phosphate loading occurs throughout the year even during the winter months.

  8. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  9. 78 FR 53675 - Safety Zone; Lake Erie Heritage Foundation, Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... vicinity of Put-In-Bay, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment near Put-In-Bay. This temporary safety zone is necessary...

  10. 14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and... Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall conform to the flow...

  11. Less Mixing Can Affect Lake s Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Sohn

    2005-01-01

    Lakescanbelikebowlsofsoupinthemicrowave:Theyneedalittlestirringeverynowandthen.Otherwise,alltheheatendsupontop.That’sexactlywhat’shappenedinrecentyearstoAfrica'sLakeTanganyika,scientistsarereporting.Risingwatertemperatureshaveinterferedwiththelake’snormal

  12. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  13. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  14. Ground-Water Quality in the Delaware River Basin, New York, 2001 and 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 require that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the Delaware River Basin in New York, water samples were collected from December 2005 to February 2006 from 10 wells finished in bedrock. Data from 9 samples collected from wells finished in sand and gravel in July and August 2001 for the National Water Quality Assessment Program also are included. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures. Samples were analyzed for more than 230 properties and compounds, including physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Concentrations of most compounds were less than drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health; many of the organic analytes were not detected in any sample. Drinking-water standards that were exceeded at some sites include those for color, turbidity, pH, aluminum, arsenic, iron, manganese, radon-222, and bacteria. pH ranged from 5.6 to 8.3; the pH of nine samples was less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standard range of 6.5 to 8.5. Water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (hardness 120 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 or less). The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentrations was bicarbonate. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. The

  15. Analysis of Drought in Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The drought situation and causes in Poyang Lake were analyzed.[Method] In response to the drought in Poyang Lake in ten years ago and in recent 10 years,the causes of drought in Poyang Lake were discussed.[Result] Drought occurred frequently in Poyang Lake and the consecutive serious drought occurred now and then.The water level in Poyang Lake since 21st century was lower.The drought in Poyang Lake was due to reduction of precipitation,low water level in Yangtze River and "five lakes",hydraulic ...

  16. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  17. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  18. Possible temperate lakes on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; MacKenzie, Shannon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We analyze southern mid-latitude albedo-dark features on Titan observed by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). In exploring the nature of these features we consider their morphology, albedo, and specular reflectivity. We suggest that they represent candidates for potential temperate lakes. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes would indicate that surface liquid can accumulate and remain stable away from Titan's poles. Candidate lakes were identified by looking for possible shorelines with lacustrine morphology. Then, we applied an atmospheric correction that empirically solved for their surface albedo. Finally, we looked for a specular reflection of the sky in the identified candidates. Using this prescription, we find two candidates that remain as potential temperature lakes. If candidate features do represent temperate lakes on Titan, they have implications for formation mechanisms such as clouds and rainfall or, in low elevation areas, percolation and subsurface flow. Clouds were observed near candidate lake locations on the T66 flyby and this latitude band showed many clouds during southern summer. Our techniques can be applied to areas of Titan that lack RADAR coverage to search for mid- and low-latitude lakes in the future.

  19. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Ashroe Dam (NJ00023), Delaware River Basin, Branch of Big Flat Brook, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    discharges into the spillway riser. A toe drain ) system which involved 4-inch diameter perforated asbestos-cement pipes and a rock fill toe blanket...repaired by the placement of cobbles and boulders. There appeared to be no warning system in effect. SECTION 5 HYDRAULIC/HYDROLOGIC Available...r* T oLAVE ASI-4FOE 4’,4 625- 1 5LRlCC PO H’ cI.AES i AS AD0’ IPTV ~ S~IA AWVIN SCOUT LIESERVATION AT LAI-E Asl4jzoe ("s7--12z) P-~ATe:P MAY, 1969

  1. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Valentine Dam (NJ00297) Delaware River Basin, Branch of the Pequest River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    B WOODEN STOPLOG (4’xlx2) HOUSE a15 Via T CHANNEL SECTION APPROX. 900’ DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SEEPAGELAKE VALENTINE 15 WOODEN FOOTBRIDGE r(4’xl’xe... FOOTBRIDGE (Wooden Deck) ]HOUSE HOUSE PLAN cufl DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION 11/9/79 Anderson- Nichols 5 Ca, Inc [U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DIST PHIL ADELPH4IA CORPS

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Seneca Lake Dam (NJ00768), Delaware River Basin, Lubbers Run, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    CFIGURET2 CONCRET- B MASONRY SlOE WALL TIMBER a PLANK FOOTBRIDGE E L. 85 6,5 EL. 855 I7 I EL 854 25 9FLASHBOARD--/ I - 30 12" CONCRETE APRON NATURAL...February,1981 View of Seepage and Outlet Channel February 1981 View of Spillway and Footbridge February 1981 View of Downstream Road Bridge diI CHECk LIST

  3. National Dam Inspection Program. Keen Lake Dam (NDI Number PA-00092, Der Number 64-13), Delaware River Basin. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    flood plain within 1/2 mile of dam. No. Homes A- 5 j F~~ C/o w S // o Kee / ake Suree /I J- .9 PLAT A,- t ryr L- :10 ;L J&/ 5 Q s~odo1~ KM,,!/s L~/0040...l1h UlJI, 12 1 0 0 .71 RoUlINGi VIA LOSS [LOSS AVG IRES ISAME IOPT IF’iF’ L3TR 0.0 0.000 0.00 1 0 0 0 0 NSTPS NST[,L LAU AMS1K X ISK STOFRA IrI’RAT 1 0...OF RESERVOIR DEPT1I STORAbE OUTFLOW OVER TOP MAX OUTFLOW FAILORE PKF W.S.ELEV OVER DAK AC-FT CFS HOURS HOURS HOURS .39 1370,06 0.00 2442. 1044, 0,00

  4. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  5. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  6. Advance and application of lake optics research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The mainstreams of lake optics research in recent decades include optical properties of lakewater,observation, transmission and calculation of underwater radiation, determination of absorption coefficient S of yellow substance, influence of UV-B radiation of lake primary productivity by bio-optical model. Major lake optics applications, such as calculation of lake primary productivity and chl-a, analysis of factors restricting eutrophication, and protection against lake eutrophication are summarized.

  7. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  8. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  9. Bathymetric maps of Lake Becharof and the Ugashik Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to understand the production of smolts in a sockeye salmon nursery lake, it is mandatory to produce a bathymetric map. This must be detailed enough so that...

  10. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  11. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The...

  12. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The...

  13. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  14. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-02-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  15. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  16. Holocene lake deposits of Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Wünnemann; CHEN Fahu; F. Riedel; ZHANG Chengjun; S. Mischke; CHEN Guangjie; D. Demske; MING Jin

    2003-01-01

    A 9.25-m-long sediment core from Bosten Lake, Xinjiang, provides detailed information about changes in the water budget and biological acticity over the last 8400 calendar years. The chronology is constructed from six AMS radiocarbon dates on the terrestrial plant remains. Based on analyses of TOC, CO3, detrital compounds and biogenic SiO2, lake level fluctuations and periods of remarkably-negative water budget appeared at 8.4-8.2 cal ka, 7.38-7.25 cal ka, 5.7-5.5 cal ka, 3.7-3.4 cal ka and 3.3-2.9 cal ka, respectively. As they are in-phase with low lake levels at Sumxi Co and Bangong Co in western Tibet Plateau and with paleolakes in Inner Mongolia, a climate-induced change to somewhat drier andwarmer conditions is inferred. A further drop in lake level after 1320 AD of about 200 yr duration may be attributed to a negative water balance prior to the main phase of the Little Ice Age. Deep and stable lake phases of 1500 yr and 1800yr duration at 7.2-5.7 cal ka and 5.5-3.7 cal ka coincide with maximum moisture during the Holocene Megathermal in China. The long term trend towards ariditysince about 4.3 cal ka can clearly be recognised. The reduced water budget of Bosten Lake from 640-1200 AD may be attributed to local effects.

  17. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  18. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  19. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, Matthew W; Oliver, Matthew J; Cimino, Megan A; Fox, Dewayne A

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th) century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th) century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  20. Presbyterian Patriots: The Historical Context of the Shared History and Prevalent Ideologies of Delaware’s Ulster-Scots who took up Arms in the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    2, Georgia 1, and Delaware 1. 14 At full authorized strength a Continental Regiment was supposed to have eight companies, each made up of eight...associate from his alma mater at the University of Glasgow, Frances Hutcheson. Hutcheson‘s book An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty... Georgia Press, 1979. De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004. Dickinson, John and Lee, Richard Henry. Empire and

  1. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  2. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  3. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  4. Folsom Lake 2005 Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Folsom Lake in the fall of 2005 via an interagency agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps of...

  5. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  6. Bear study, Karluk Lake, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Based on observations, 117 bears were estimated to live in the Karluk Lake area. The estimate was lower than estimates from 1952, and 1954-1955. Annual loss to...

  7. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  8. Lake Ladora sampling plan, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Task plan from the U.S. Geological Survey for sampling Lake Ladora on the Rocky Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. During the review of the FY93 Surface-Water...

  9. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  10. Management recommendations: Benton Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Benton Lake Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  11. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  13. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  14. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  15. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  16. Limnology of selected lakes in Ohio, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Robert L.; Youger, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Water-quality reconnaissance by the U.S. Geological Survey and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the status of Ohio's lakes and reservoirs was begun in 1975 with studies of 17 lakes. Spring and summer data collections for each lake included: profile measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance; field and laboratory analyses of physical, biological, chemical organic characteristics; (nutrient), and concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents from composites of the water column; and physical and chemical data from major inflows.Light penetration (secchi disk) ranged from 9.4 feet (2.9 meters) in Lake Hope to 0.4 feet (0.1 meter) in Acton Lake. Seasonal thermal stratification or stability is shown for 10 lakes deeper than 15 feet (4.6 meters). Unstable or modified temperature profiles were observed in shallow lakes (depths less than 15 feet) or lakes controlled through subsurface release valves.Dissolved oxygen saturation ranged from 229 percent (20.8 milligrams per liter) in the epilimnion of Paint Creek Lake to zero in the bottom waters of all thermally stabilized lakes. Marked chemical and physical differences and nutrient uptake and recycling developed within different thermal strata. Anaerobic zones were frequently characterized by hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.Calcium was the dominant or codominant cation, and bicarbonate and(or) sulfate were the major anions in all lakes sampled. Only Hope and Vesuvius Lakes had soft water (hardness less than 61 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 ), and both lakes were further characterized by low pH (less than 7.0). Specific conductance ranged from 510 micromhos (Deer Creek and Salt Fork Lakes) to 128 micromhos (Lake Hope). Pesticide residues were detected in Acton Lake, and concentrations of one or more trace metals were at or above Ohio Environmental Protection Agency recommended limits in 11 lakes.Fecal coliform colony counts were below 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in

  17. Investigation of the dramatic changes in lake level of the Bosten Lake in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengjing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaode; Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bosten Lake, located in the arid region of northwest China, is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. Water resources in Bosten Lake are of great importance for the regional drinking water supply, agricultural irrigation, and economic development of Xinjiang province. In this study, the dynamics of the lake level in Bosten Lake were investigated from 1956 to 2010. We found that the lake level experienced three different periods of change due to the combined influences of climate variation and human activities. Generally, the lake level has shown a significant downward trend since the first observation started in 1956 and dropped to its lowest level in 1987. Thereafter, the lake level presented a continuous upward trend and rose to its highest value in 2002. Then, the level decreased dramatically from 2002 to 2010. A water balance model and the climate elasticity method were used to estimate the reasons for the lake level changes of Bosten Lake. The results showed that an increase in lake evaporation led to the continuous decrease in lake level from 1958 to 1987. Then, human-controlled lake outflow and increasing lake inflow together led to the increase in lake level from 1988 to 2002. During 2003 to 2010, the emergency project of transferring water to Tarim River led to the increase in lake outflow, while the lake inflow obviously decreased because of a decrease in precipitation. These factors resulted in a sharp decrease in the lake level from 2003 to 2010. The changes in lake level indicate changes in available water resources from Bosten Lake. This reason for the analysis of the change in lake level in this study is to support the water resources management of Bosten Lake.

  18. Integrating petroleum and sulfur data to map the Guadalupian-Ochoan (Middle to Upper Permian) Boundary of the Delaware Basis, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishron, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Basin of the Permian Basin is a classic intra-cratonic basin of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Hydrocarbon exploration and production have occurred in the region since the early 1920s, and, as a result, the formations related to these oil and gas reserves have been studied in great detail. Some formations in the Delaware Basin, however, have not been studied in such detail, and this thesis examines one, lesser-known unit that could have economic potential. The Lamar Limestone (Lamar Lime) of the Bell Canyon Formation has commonly been dismissed as a production interval; rather, it has been described as a source and seal rock for the Ramsey Sand of the lower Bell Canyon Formation. However, recent studies found that the Lamar Lime was contributing to production, and it has been described by Trentham (2006) as a potentia "mini Barnett" reservoir. The depths of these deposits are in a range that is ideal for oil accumulation. This study made use of data from wells and test holes drilled in the western Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas. Many oil and gas wells have been drilled in the western Delaware Basin, but they are concentrated in the north and east portions of Culberson County. In addition, sulfur wells were drilled in the area in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Analyses of the well logs of these wells and of core and outcrop studies were completed to gain a better understanding of the distribution and economic potential of the Lamar. Both datasets were combined to provide information not readily available in the oil and gas dataset. The Lamar Lime is an excellent marker bed because it underlies thick evaporites. The evaporite sequences are Ochoan in age, and, therefore, the contact of the Lamar Lime (Bell Canyon Formation) and the Castile Formation is the approximate boundary for the Guadalupian-Ochoan Series. The Castile Formation, the Salado Formation, and the Rustler Formation (from oldest to youngest) are the evaporite units that

  19. A census of colonially breeding waterbirds on Lake Louise and Skilak Lake, Alaska, 21-22 July 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents a census of colonial waterbird sites at Lake Louise and Slikak lake on 21 and 22 July 1981 respectively. Both Lake Louise and Skilak Lake are...

  20. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass

  1. Faunal community use of enhanced and natural oyster reefs in Delaware Bay: A field study and classroom inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Jenny L.

    In addition to its value as a fisheries resource, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is a reef building, cornerstone species that provides ecosystem services to the environment. Oysters provide habitat for associated resident and transient species. With widespread declines in oyster populations, restoration efforts have focused on improving oyster stocks and enhancing the ecosystem services they provide. Community-based oyster restoration programs engage the public and local community in planning, construction and/or monitoring of restoration projects. Since 2007, a K-12 student centered community-based restoration venture, Project PORTS, Promoting Oyster Restoration Through Schools, has been working to educate students, promote stewardship values, and enhance oyster habitat in the Delaware Bay. The overarching goals of the present study were to (1) assess fish and macroinvertebrate utilization on the Project PORTS community-created, subtidal, low-relief oyster restoration area in the Delaware Bay, and (2) convert the data collected into a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) activity that can be implemented in the classroom. I examined six subtidal natural oyster reefs of varying oyster densities and one community-based restoration reef as habitat for fishes and invertebrates. Sampling methods on these low-relief reefs consisted of otter trawl tows and benthic habitat tray collections. Results revealed that the enhancement area supported a diverse faunal community consistent with nearby, natural oyster habitats. Data collected during the field study were then transformed into an educational lesson plan, "One Fish, Two Fish-Assessing Habitat Value of Restored Oyster Reefs", that fulfilled national and state (NJ) curriculum standards. The lesson was piloted in a middle school classroom and student learning was evaluated through summative assessments pre and post-participation in the activity. Results of the assessments indicated that

  2. Hutton Lake NWR, Mortenson Lake NWR, and Bamforth Lake NWR : Annual water management plans, 2004 water use report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water use reports for 2004 and annual water management plans for 2005 for Mortenson Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Hutton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and Bamforth...

  3. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  4. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. 77 FR 23123 - Special Local Regulation; Smokin The Lake; Gulfport Lake; Gulfport, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Smokin The Lake; Gulfport Lake... persons on navigable waters during the Smokin The Lake high speed boat races on May 5 and 6, 2012. Entry... associated with the Smokin The Lake high speed boat races. Basis and Purpose On February 27, 2012, Smokin...

  7. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  8. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  9. Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such a

  10. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  11. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  12. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  13. Limnological monitoring of Lake Becherof, final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study are to evaluate the major ions of Lake Becharof; to begin to evaluate the trace metals of Lake Becharof; to evaluate the light...

  14. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXONOMIC LIST CLARKS HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera Class Turbellaria Ablabesmyia parajanta unidentified Planariidae A...HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera (continued) Planaria sp.,’ Bezzia sp. 2 unidentified Planariidae Chaoborus punctipennis unidentified

  15. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1939. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  16. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1944. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  17. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1946. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  18. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1950. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  19. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1951. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  20. Lake Erie Fish Community Data, 2013 - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  1. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  2. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1947. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  3. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1952. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  4. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1948. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  5. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1943. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  6. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1955. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  7. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1949. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  8. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1956. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  9. Togiak National Wildlife Refuge lake surveys, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary review of the data reveals that all lakes surveyed can be classified as having low conductibility, ranging from the low 20's for the Goodnews Lakes to...

  10. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  11. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1945. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  12. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  13. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  14. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  15. Estimating the volume of Alpine glacial lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial, moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes represent a potential glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) threat to downstream communities in many mountain regions. This has motivated the development of empirical relationships to predict lake volume given a measurement of lake surface area obtained from satellite imagery. Such relationships are based on the notion that lake depth, area and volume scale predictably. We critically evaluate the performance of these existing empirical relationships by examining a global database of glacial lake depths, areas and volumes. Results show that lake area and depth are not always well correlated (r2 = 0.38) and that although lake volume and area are well correlated (r2 = 0.91), and indeed are auto-correlated, there are distinct outliers in the data set. These outliers represent situations where it may not be appropriate to apply existing empirical relationships to predict lake volume and include growing supraglacial lakes, glaciers that recede into basins with complex overdeepened morphologies or that have been deepened by intense erosion and lakes formed where glaciers advance across and block a main trunk valley. We use the compiled data set to develop a conceptual model of how the volumes of supraglacial ponds and lakes, moraine-dammed lakes and ice-dammed lakes should be expected to evolve with increasing area. Although a large amount of bathymetric data exist for moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes, we suggest that further measurements of growing supraglacial ponds and lakes are needed to better understand their development.

  16. The Tomb Statues beside Dongqian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RaoRao

    2005-01-01

    Located 17 kilometers to the City of Ningbo, Dongqian Lake covers an area of 20 square kilometers, which is four only the biggest freshwater lake in Zhejiang Province but atso renowned for its gorgeous scenery. Recently, this beautiful lake once again caught people's eye because a large number of Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) gravestone statues were discovered among the mountains beside the lake area.

  17. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  18. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Summary of hydrologic modeling for the Delaware River Basin using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.; Claggett, Peter; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Colarullo, Susan J.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with these simulations, however, streamflow and the associated hydroclimatic variables of potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and snow accumulation and snowmelt must be simulated and compared to long-term, daily observations from sites. This report details model development and optimization, statistical evaluation of simulations for 57 basins ranging from 2 to 930 km2 and 11.0 to 99.5 percent forested cover, and how this statistical evaluation of daily streamflow relates to simulating environmental changes and management decisions that are best examined at monthly time steps normalized over multiple decades. The decision support system provides a database of historical spatial and climatic data for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover and general circulation model forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that were parameterized by using three hydrologic response units: forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. This integration enables the regional hydrologic modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model.

  20. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  1. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  2. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  3. Evaluation of a simple, point-scale hydrologic model in simulating soil moisture using the Delaware environmental observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legates, David R.; Junghenn, Katherine T.

    2017-02-01

    Many local weather station networks that measure a number of meteorological variables (i.e., mesonetworks) have recently been established, with soil moisture occasionally being part of the suite of measured variables. These mesonetworks provide data from which detailed estimates of various hydrological parameters, such as precipitation and reference evapotranspiration, can be made which, when coupled with simple surface characteristics available from soil surveys, can be used to obtain estimates of soil moisture. The question is Can meteorological data be used with a simple hydrologic model to estimate accurately daily soil moisture at a mesonetwork site? Using a state-of-the-art mesonetwork that also includes soil moisture measurements across the US State of Delaware, the efficacy of a simple, modified Thornthwaite/Mather-based daily water balance model based on these mesonetwork observations to estimate site-specific soil moisture is determined. Results suggest that the model works reasonably well for most well-drained sites and provides good qualitative estimates of measured soil moisture, often near the accuracy of the soil moisture instrumentation. The model exhibits particular trouble in that it cannot properly simulate the slow drainage that occurs in poorly drained soils after heavy rains and interception loss, resulting from grass not being short cropped as expected also adversely affects the simulation. However, the model could be tuned to accommodate some non-standard siting characteristics.

  4. Beach characteristics mitigate effects of onshore wind on horseshoe crab spawning: Implications for matching with shorebird migration in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Weber, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of food availability by unfavorable physical processes at energetically demanding times can limit recruitment of migratory species as predicted by the match-mismatch hypothesis. Identification and protection of disruption-resistant habitat could contribute to system resilience. For example, horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning and shorebird stopover must match temporally in Delaware Bay for eggs to be available to shorebirds. Onshore winds that generate waves can create a mismatch by delaying horseshoe crab spawning. We examined effects of beach characteristics and onshore winds on spawning activity at five beaches when water temperatures were otherwise consistent with early spawning activity. Onshore winds resulted in reduced spawning activity during the shorebird stopover, when spawning typically peaks in late May. During the period with high onshore wind, egg density was highest on the foreshore exposed to the lowest wave heights. Onshore wind was low in early June, and spawning and egg densities were high at all sites, but shorebirds had departed. Beaches that can serve as a refuge from wind and waves can be identified by physical characteristics and orientation to prevailing winds and should receive special conservation status, especially in light of predicted increases in climate change-induced storm frequency. These results point to a potential conservation strategy that includes coastal management for adapting to climate change-induced mismatch of migrations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Animal Conservation ?? 2011 The Zoological Society of London.

  5. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  6. Groundwater links between Kenyan Rift Valley lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Robert; Mwango, Fred; Muno, Fred Amstrong

    2006-01-01

    The series of lakes in the bottom of the Kenyan Rift valley are fed by rivers and springs. Based on the water balance, the relative positions determining the regional groundwater flow systems and the analysis of natural isotopes it can be shown that groundwater flows from lake Naivasha to lake Magadi, Elementeita, Nakuru and Bogoria.

  7. Preserving Urmia Lake in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    Urmia Lake, in north-western Iran, is an important internationally recognized natural area designated as a RAMSAR site and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Over the last 20 years, the surface area of Urmia Lake has declined by 80%. As a result, the salinity of the lake has sharply increased which is

  8. Lakes: recent research and restoration strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Pope; Jonathan W. Long

    2014-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range support thousands of montane lakes, from small, remote tarns to iconic destinations such as Lake Tahoe. Their beauty and recreational opportunities instill high social value, in particular by serving as destinations for hiking, camping, swimming, and fishing. Lakes also have high ecological value because they support a...

  9. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  10. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  11. Mechanism and control of lake eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Boqiang; YANG Liuyan; CHEN Feizhou; ZHU Guangwei; ZHANG Lu; CHEN Yiyu

    2006-01-01

    A review about lake naturally eutrophi- cating, the internal loading of nutrients from lake sediment as well as the mechanism of algal blooms and the control practices was made, especially the eutrophication problem of shallow lakes since sev- enty percent of fresh water lakes in China are shallow lakes. It was found that shallow lakes are apt toward eutrophication than deep lakes. Without any influ- ences of human activity, shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River are still easily eutrophicated, which may be owing to the effects of flood in this area. In shallow lakes, sediments are frequently disturbed by wind-wave and resuspended, which result in huge nutrients release to overlying water. This may be the major reason for higher in- ternal loading of nutrients in shallow lakes than in deep lakes. Algal bloom is an extreme response of lake ecosystem to the eutrophication. Appearance of algal blooms is related to physical condition of lakes, such as underwater radiation (or transparency), temperature, and hydrodynamic conditions, or related to geochemical conditions of lakes, like concentra- tions of nutrients and ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, as well as the physiological advantage of cyanobac- teria such as vacuole for moving towards the radiant energy-rich zone and the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) for resisting the harm of ultraviolet ra- diation. In shallow lakes, these advantages of cyanobacteria are favorable in the competition than in deep lakes. Also being the shallowness, it is more difficult to reduce nutrient loading and to control algae blooms in shallow lakes. For the control of eutrophi- cation, people should follow the sequence from pollution sources control, ecological restoration to catchment management. To control the internal nu- trient release, physical, chemical, biological tech- niques, and even bionic techniques could be selected. The idea of ecological restoration for a eutrophic lake is to shift the ecosystem

  12. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  13. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  14. Near the Lake and around the Lake: Artists and Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers several aspects of how Lake Baikal influences artists’ work:Baikal as a theme for painting and exhibiting;Creative events at Baikal;Baikal as a place where artists live;Half-amateur paintings for sale.

  15. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  16. Crustal structure between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lane R.

    1964-01-01

    Interpretation of a reversed seismic-refraction profile between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California, indicates velocities of 6.15 km/sec for the upper layer of the crust, 7.10 km/sec for an intermediate layer, and 7.80 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Phases interpreted to be reflections from the top of the intermediate layer and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were used with the refraction data to calculate depths. The depth to the Moho increases from about 30 km near Lake Mead to about 40 km near Mono Lake. Variations in arrival times provide evidence for fairly sharp flexures in the Moho. Offsets in the Moho of 4 km at one point and 2 1/2 km at another correspond to large faults at the surface, and it is suggested that fracture zones in the upper crust may displace the Moho and extend into the upper mantle. The phase P appears to be an extension of the reflection from the top of the intermediate layer beyond the critical angle. Bouguer gravity, computed for the seismic model of the crust, is in good agreement with the measured Bouguer gravity. Thus a model of the crustal structure is presented which is consistent with three semi-independent sources of geophysical data: seismic-refraction, seismic-reflection, and gravity.

  17. Detecting Magnetosomes in Freshwater Lakes and Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.; Kim, B.; Kopp, B.; Chen, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    We will present a summary of the work done to date on detecting magnetosomes in the lake sediments and water column of Lake Ely, a small post-glacial lake in northeastern Pennsylvania. To establish that magnetosomes dominate the magnetic mineralogy of the Lake Ely sediments we sampled the water column every meter down to its maximum depth of 23 m and measured the dissolved oxygen, sulfide, and iron, as well as the ARM of the material filtered from the water. We examined the water samples for magnetotactic bacteria. These results established an increase in the ARM of the filtered material at the oxic-anoxic transition. They also showed that the ARM was carried by magnetosomes produced by magnetotactic bacteria living in the water column at depths from 15-19 m. TEM of magnetic separates collected from the lake sediments show that magnetosomes are transferred to the sediments from the water column and are a significant fraction of the magnetic minerals in the sediments. We used a variety of mineral magnetic techniques to magnetically characterize the magnetosomes in the lake sediments. The delta-delta ratio test of low temperature behavior at the Verwey transition (Moskowitz et al., 1993) gave values of 1.2 to 1.5, lower than the theoretically predicted level of 2 for magnetosomes, but a numeric unmixing technique could resolve higher delta-delta ratios in the dark organic-rich layers in the sediments where magnetosomes were more prevalent. ARM/SIRM ratios of 0.15 to 0.35 with Raf values (the crossover of an IRM acquisition curve versus its alternating field demagnetization curve) of 0.45 to 0.5 are consistent with the presence of magnetosomes in the sediments, the water column, and in a sediment trap located at the bottom of the lake. IRM and ARM acquisition modeling of samples collected from a 160 cm piston core revealed two components of magnetization with coercivities of about 25 mT and 65 mT that are identified as Egli's (2004) biogenic soft (BS) and biogenic

  18. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  19. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  20. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Milovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstruction of the glacier which was formed here. Recent erosion processes are intensive in this area and have considerably changed post-Pleistocene morphology of the lake, as well as the cirque bottom.

  1. Genetic diversity of lake whitefish in lakes Michigan and Huron: sampling, standardization, and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; VanDeHey, Justin A.; Sloss, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    We combined data from two laboratories to increase the spatial extent of a genetic data set for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis from lakes Huron and Michigan and saw that genetic diversity was greatest between lakes, but that there was also structuring within lakes. Low diversity among stocks may be a reflection of relatively recent colonization of the Great Lakes, but other factors such as recent population fluctuation and localized stresses such as lamprey predation or heavy exploitation may also have a homogenizing effect. Our data suggested that there is asymmetrical movement of lake whitefish between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan; more genotypes associated with Lake Michigan were observed in Lake Huron. Adding additional collections to the calibrated set will allow further examination of diversity in other Great Lakes, answer questions regarding movement among lakes, and estimate contributions of stocks to commercial yields. As the picture of genetic diversity and population structure of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes region emerges, we need to develop methods to combine data types to help identify important areas for biodiversity and thus conservation. Adding genetic data to existing models will increase the precision of predictions of the impacts of new stresses and changes in existing pressures on an ecologically and commercially important species.

  2. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Stinchcomb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  3. Role of sea-level change in deep water deposition along a carbonate shelf margin, Early and Middle Permian, Delaware Basin: implications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.

    2015-04-01

    The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.

  4. An examination of perceived characteristics of career scientists and Delaware science students who do and do not participate in the Science Olympiad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsell, Thomas Sidney

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics possessed by career scientists and by middle and high school students who were considered good in science, as identified by their Science Olympiad coaches, judges, science teachers, and other students. The participants in this study included students who participated in the Science Olympiad and honors science students who had not participated in the Science Olympiad. The students in this study attended secondary schools within the State of Delaware. The adult participants were teachers, Science Olympiad coaches, and judges also from the State of Delaware. The participating scientists were either employed by a Delaware Hospital or by a company involved in medical research located in New Jersey. The framework for this study was developed around a descriptive research design utilizing four question surveys and interviews. For example, participants were asked to list the characteristics that they considered most evident among successful science students. They also listed the characteristics that Science Olympiad competitors demonstrated more frequently than the general student population. In this study the specific characteristics indicated by all groups surveyed were intelligence, task orientation, and problem-solving skills. Self-motivation was also strongly noted by all groups in their interviews. The data gathered suggested satisfaction from numerous rewards associated with participation in the Science Olympiad. Specifically mentioned rewards were medals, new knowledge, self-confidence, real life experience, problem-solving experience, a chance to do hands-on science, and completing tasks with a team. The primary recommendations for further research were: to investigate the possible influence of participation in the Science Olympiad on science as a career choice; a repeat of this study involving a larger and more diverse national group; and a study that further examines the characteristics of "good

  5. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  6. Long Lake banding project, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a banding project on Long Lake in 1965. The dates at the banding site were July 27th through August 8th. As in the past, the...

  7. The Lake Poets in Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李陈晶

    2015-01-01

    Romanticism is an essential part in English literature.In this new trend,the group of poets,also called the Lake Poets,used their finest poems to show respect to nature and life,to advocate human instincts and emotions and to look forward to new world.

  8. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Bloch, Paul; Makaula, Peter

    2011-01-01

    people in lake-shore communities and therefore we decided to summarise data collected from 1998 to 2007. Detailed knowledge of the transmission patterns is essential to design a holistic approach to schistosomiasis control involving the public health, fisheries and tourism sectors. On Nankumba Peninsula...

  9. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  10. Alternative Attractors of Shallow Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and shallow lakes can be very clear with abundant submerged plants, or very turbid due to a high concentration of phytoplankton and suspended sediment particles. These strongly contrasting ecosystem states have been found to represent alternative attractors with distinct stabilizing feedback mechanisms. In the turbid state, the development of submerged vegetation is prevented by low underwater light levels. The unprotected sediment frequently is resuspended by wave action and by fish searching for food causing a further decrease of transparency. Since there are no plants that could serve as refuges, zooplankton is grazed down by fish to densities insufficient to control algal blooms. In contrast, the clear state in eutrophic shallow lakes is dominated by aquatic macrophytes. The submerged macrophytes prevent sediment resuspension, take up nutrients from the water, and provide a refuge for zooplankton against fish predation. These processes buffer the impacts of increased nutrient loads until they become too high. Consequently, the response of shallow lakes to eutrophication tends to be catastrophic rather than smooth, and various lakes switch back and forth abruptly between a clear and a turbid state repeatedly without obvious external forcing. Importantly, a switch from a turbid to a stable clear state often can be invoked by means of biomanipulation in the form of a temporary reduction of the fish stock.

  11. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  12. Health care M&A advisory alert: Delaware court decision illustrates importance of specialized due diligence on Medicare/Medicaid issues in health care acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaglia, Lawrence W; Herman, Dimitry S; Ziegler, Rachel Schneller

    2005-01-01

    Lawyers and clients contemplating a health care transaction must have a strong working knowledge not only of the applicable law, but also of the provider's needs and culture. As illustrated by a recent Delaware court decision, Interim Healthcare, Inc. et al. v. Spherion Corporation, parties engaging in health care provider acquisitions are well advised to select a team of experienced business and legal advisors with specialized knowledge in health care practices that can find and address any suspicious activities before it is too late.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of arsenic and radon in water from private wells in the Rancocas aquifer, southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.

    2016-10-12

    Water samples were collected and analyzed for arsenic and radon from 36 private, mostly domestic wells that tap the Rancocas aquifer in southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, during the summer of 2015. Both arsenic and radon are from natural mineral sources, in particular glauconitic and other marine-derived sediments, which are important components of the geologic formations comprising the Rancocas aquifer. Routine testing of domestic wells is not required in Delaware; as a result, many homeowners are not aware of potential water-quality problems with these chemicals in their well water. Arsenic has previously been detected at levels of potential concern for human health in this aquifer in adjacent parts of Maryland where it is referred to as the Aquia aquifer. Arsenic and radon also have previously been detected in several Rancocas aquifer wells in Delaware. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control intends to use the data from this project to better identify areas with potential for levels of concern for domestic well owners. This report includes chemical results and maps showing the distribution of sampled wells and concentrations of arsenic and radon. All data collected for this study also are available in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System database.Arsenic was detected above the minimum reporting limit of 0.1 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 34 of the 36 wells sampled with concentrations ranging from about 0.11 to 27 µg/L. In 15 of the samples, arsenic concentrations were at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 µg/L for public wells. Most of the higher concentrations are clustered along a band running from the southwest to northeast in the southern part of the study area.Radon, which is an inert gas derived from radium, was detected in all water samples with concentrations ranging from 85 to 1,870 picocuries per liter (p

  14. The Incidence of Drug- and Herbal and Dietary Supplement-Induced Liver Injury: Preliminary Findings from Gastroenterologist-Based Surveillance in the Population of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maricruz; Verma, Manisha; Beswick, David; Bey, Stephanie; Hossack, Jared; Merriman, Nathan; Shah, Ashish; Navarro, Victor

    2017-05-29

    The population-based incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the USA is not known. The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) accrues cases of hepatotoxicity due to medications and herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) from limited geographical areas. The current analysis was an ancillary study of DILIN aimed at determining the annual incidence of DILI in the USA on a population basis, through surveillance in the state of Delaware. At the outset of the study, there were 41 gastroenterologists in the state of Delaware and all agreed to participate in surveillance for DILI, which comprised active reporting of suspected cases to the DILIN. The gastroenterologists underwent training in the diagnosis of DILI and were provided with DILIN inclusion criteria. Only cases that met the DILIN laboratory inclusion criteria in 2014 were included in the incidence calculation, and these patients were invited to participate in the DILIN Prospective Study. The number of suspected cases that met inclusion criteria served as the numerator and the 2014 Delaware adult population as the denominator. During 2014, 23 patients were identified by the surveillance network, 20 of whom met DILIN laboratory inclusion criteria, leading to an incidence of 2.7 cases of DILI per 100,000 adult residents [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.9 per 100,000]. Fourteen subjects agreed to participate in the DILIN; six declined. Among enrolled cases, the mean age was 51 years, 57% were women, and 71% were white. Eight cases were attributed to antibiotics (36%) and other drugs (21%) and six to HDS (43%). The pattern of injury was hepatocellular in all HDS cases, but only 50% of conventional drug cases (p = 0.05), which more commonly presented with eosinophilia (p = 0.47) and higher alkaline phosphatase levels (p = 0.05). Half of patients were jaundiced, none developed liver failure, and all recovered without the need for transplantation. Prospective, gastroenterologist

  15. Vulnerbility of production wells in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system to saltwater intrusion from the Delaware River in Camden, Gloucester, and Salem Counties, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, Anthony S.; Voronin, Lois M.; Modica, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Delaware River in parts of Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey, and has more limited contact with the river in Salem County, New Jersey. The aquifer system is used widely for water supply, and 122 production wells that are permitted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection to pump more than 100,000 gallons per year in the three counties are within 2 miles of the river. During drought, saltwater may encroach upstream from the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay to areas where the aquifer system is recharged by induced infiltration through the Delaware River streambed. During the drought of the mid-1960's, water with a chloride concentration in excess of potability standards (250 mg/L (milligrams per liter)) encroached into the reach of the river that recharges the aquifer system. The vulnerability of the major production wells in the area to similar saltwater encroachment in the future is a concern to water managers. This vulnerability was evaluated by investigating two scenarios: (1) a one-time recurrence of the conditions approximating those that occurred in the1960's, and (2) the recurrence of those same conditions on an annual basis. Results of ground-water-flow simulation in conjunction with particle tracking and one-dimensional transport analysis indicate that the wells that are most vulnerable to saltwater intrusion are those in the Morris and Delair well fields in Camden County. A single 30-day event during which the concentration of dissolved chloride or sodium exceeds 2,098 mg/L or 407 mg/L, respectively, in the Delaware River would threaten the potability of water from these wells, given New Jersey drinking-water standards of 250 mg/L for dissolved chloride and 50 mg/L for dissolved sodium. This chloride concentration is about six times that observed in the river during the 1960's drought. An annually occurring 1-month event during which the concentrations of

  16. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  17. NREL/University of Delaware Offshore Wind R&D Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-393

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    Specifically, the work under this CRADA includes, but is not limited to, the development of test procedures for an offshore test site in Delaware waters; testing of installed offshore wind turbines; performance monitoring of those turbines; and a program of research and development on offshore wind turbine blades, components, coatings, foundations, installation and construction of bottom-fixed structures, environmental impacts, policies, and more generally on means to enhance the reliability, facilitate permitting, and reduce costs for offshore wind turbines. This work will be conducted both at NREL's National Wind Technology Center and participant facilities, as well as the established offshore wind test sites.

  18. Lake volume monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  19. Remote sensing of algal blooms by aircraft and satellite in Lake Erie and Utah Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    During late summer, when the surface waters of Lake Erie reach their maximum temperature, an algal bloom is likely to develop. Such phenomena, which characterize eutrophic conditions, have been noticed on other shallow lakes using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1). The concentration of the algae into long streamers provides additional information on surface circulations. To augment the ERTS Multispectral Scanner Subsystem data of Lake Erie, an aircraft was used to obtain correlative thermal-IR and additional multiband photographs. A large bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae observed in Utah Lake together with recent bloom history in Lake Erie is used to verify the Great Lakes bloom.

  20. Modeling forest carbon and nitrogen cycles based on long term carbon stock field measurement in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Pan, Y.; McCullough, K.; Plante, A. F.; Birdsey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Process-based models are a powerful approach to test our understanding of biogeochemical processes, to extrapolate ground survey data from limited plots to the landscape scale and to simulate the effects of climate change, nitrogen deposition, elevated atmospheric CO2, increasing natural disturbances and land use change on ecological processes. However, in most studies, the models are calibrated using ground measurements from only a few sites, though they may be extrapolated to much larger areas. Estimation accuracy can be improved if the models are parameterized using long-term carbon stock data from multiple sites representative of the simulated region. In this study, vegetation biomass and soil carbon stocks, and changes in these stocks over a recent decade, were measured in 61 forested plots located in three small watersheds in the Delaware River Basin (DRB). On average, total vegetation biomass was 160.2 Mg C ha-1 and the soil carbon stock was 76.6 Mg C ha-1, measured during 2012-2014. The biomass carbon stock increased by 2.45 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 from 2001-2003 to 2012-2014. This dataset was subsequently used to parameterize the PnET-CN model at the individual plot basis, and averaged parameters among plots were then applied to generate new watershed-scale model parameters for each of the three watersheds. The parameterized model was further validated by the field measurements in each of the major forest types. The spatial distribution of forest carbon pools and fluxes in three watersheds were mapped based on the simulation results from the newly parameterized PnET-CN model. The model will also be run under different scenarios to test the effects of climate change, altered atmospheric composition, land use change, and their interactions within the three watersheds and across the whole DRB.

  1. The impact of a statewide training to increase child care providers' knowledge of nutrition and physical activity rules in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Stefanie; Lessard, Laura; Dupont Phillips, Kate

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity has been recognized as a national problem of epidemic proportions. Child care represents an ideal venue in which to address this problem, as many young children spend a significant amount of time and consume the majority of their meals in this setting. Recognizing this opportunity, Delaware recently enacted reforms to statewide licensing regulations designed to improve the quality of the nutrition-, physical activity-, and screen viewing-related environments in child care settings. To facilitate the translation of these regulations into practices, a series of broad-scale trainings was held throughout the state. Attendance was required for all Child & Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-participating facilities, although child care providers from non-CACFP facilities also attended. Pre- and posttraining surveys were used to assess changes in providers' knowledge of the regulations and satisfaction with the training. In total 1094 presurveys and 1076 postsurveys were received. Participants were highly satisfied with the training format and content, including the instructors, materials, and schedule. Data analysis demonstrates improved knowledge of all 26 regulation components from presurvey to postsurvey. Family child care providers, providers with more years of experience, CACFP-participating facilities, and facilities with food service personnel scored significantly higher than their center staff, less experienced and non-CACFP counterparts, as well as those without food service personnel. Broad-scale, in-person training can effectively increase child care providers' knowledge of the regulations and is well received by this audience. Other states and jurisdictions seeking to improve nutrition, physical activity, and screen-viewing practices in child care settings should consider this model of quality improvement.

  2. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Epidemiology of West Nile virus: a silent epiornitic in Northern Delaware in 2007 without associated human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; O'Connor, Linda-Lou; Meredith, William H; Pesek, John D; Shriver, W Gregory

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study (2006-2007) of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in wild birds, mosquitoes, and sentinel chickens at 6 WNV-endemic sites in northern Delaware. We determined virus infection rates of Culex pipiens and other mosquito vectors as well as seroprevalence and antibody titers of amplifying hosts. Endemicity status varied widely among the 6 sites based on 3 criteria-mosquito infections, sentinel chicken seropositivity, and wild bird seropositivity. A highly endemic site would display at least 2 of the 3 criteria during each year of the study, while a site with just 1 positive criterion was considered to have low endemicity. Culex pipiens was the principal vector detected at 2 highly endemic sites in 2006 vs. 1 site in 2007. However, in 2006, we also found 2 other WNV-positive vector species as well as an unidentifiable Culex species at 1 highly endemic site, suggesting increased activity at the end of the 1st year of the study. Wild birds were early indicators of WNV at highly endemic sites in mid-July to early August of both 2006-2007. Mosquitoes were positive in mid- to late August, appearing concurrently with seroconverted sentinel chickens, with wild resident birds appearing approximately 4 wk prior to those indicators. Of birds tested with n > or = 9, Northern cardinals had the highest seropositivity rates (47%) followed by Carolina wrens (19%), house sparrows (13%), American robins (13%), tufted titmice (11%), and gray catbirds (9%). The overall seropositive rates in trapped birds increased from 5.0% in 2006 to 20.0% in 2007, while the geometric mean titers of all positive birds increased from 1:34 to 1:47 during the comparable periods. Based on these results, we suggest that an epiornitic in birds occurred in 2007, but that greatly reduced abundance of mosquito vectors caused by an extreme drought largely precluded human infection.

  4. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  5. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Voytek, Emily B.; Lane, John W.

    2016-10-01

    The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM) (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers), thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling), and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction) methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared) may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  6. Contrasting fish assemblages in free-flowing and impounded tributaries to the Upper Delaware River: Implications for conserving biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Keller, Walter D.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Moberg, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The Neversink River and the Beaver Kill in southeastern New York are major tributaries to the Delaware River, the longest undammed river east of the Mississippi. While the Beaver Kill is free flowing for its entire length, the Neversink River is subdivided by the Neversink Reservoir, which likely affects the diversity of local fish assemblages and health of aquatic ecosystems. The reservoir is an important part of the New York City waster-supply system that provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. Fish population and community data from recent quantitative surveys at comparable sites in both basins were assessed to characterize the differences between free-flowing and impounded rivers and the extent of reservoir effects to improve our capacity to define ecosystems responses that two modified flow-release programs (implemented in 2007 and 2011) should produce in the Neversink River. In general, the continuum of changes in fish assemblages which normally occur between headwaters and mouth was relatively uninterrupted in the Beaver Kill, but disrupted by the mid-basin impoundment in the Neversink River. Fish assemblages were also adversely affected at several acidified sites in the upper Neversink River, but not at most sites assessed herein. The reservoir clearly excluded diadromous species from the upper sub-basin, but it also substantially reduced community richness, diversity, and biomass at several mid-basin sites immediately downstream from the impoundment. There results will aid future attempts to determine if fish assemblages respond to more natural, yet highly regulated, flow regimes in the Neversink River. More important, knowledge gained from this study can help optimize use of valuable water resources while promoting species of special concern, such as American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and conserving biodiversity in Catskill Mountain streams.

  7. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Planning and implementing an honors degree in environmental science curricula: a case study from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2015-04-01

    Environmental degradation is undermining the sustainability of our planet. The multi-faceted nature of environmental stressors, which inherently couples human-environment interactions across space and time, necessitates that we train environmental scientists holistically within an interdisciplinary framework. Recruiting top-notch honors students to major in the environmental sciences is a critical step to ensure that we have the human capital to tackle complicated environmental problems successfully. Planning and implementing an honors degree is no trivial task. Based upon a recently completed and implemented set of programmatic revisions*, this poster showcases a successful example of an honors curriculum in environmental science to recruit and educate dynamic thinkers capable of improving the quality of our environment. The interdisciplinary environmental science program at the University of Delaware emphasizes the cross-cutting among earth's spheres through a core set of courses which employ a quantitative approach which is supplemented by several environmental policy courses. The core is coupled with six different thematic concentrations (students choose one) which permit the student to delve into a particular area of environmental science. The honors component of the degree consists of twelve additional credits. These credits are met through a specially designed introductory environmental course, a field experience requiring data collection, analysis, and write-up, a capstone course, and one other environmentally related course. The environmental sciences honors curriculum outlined in this poster may serve as a useful guide to others wishing to establish an honors program of their own in environmental science to recruit and prepare the next generation to mitigate environmental degradation. -------------- * Please note that the planning process for the environmental programs was and is the collective effort of many dedicated people. Current members of the

  9. Calculating Lake Morphology in the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, M.; Walker, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The morphology and surface area of a lake can be determined using simple mathematical formulas. These formulas can be plugged into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to calculate the circularity, smoothness, compactness and orientation of a lake or pond in remotely sensed imagery. The calculated output can then be used to differentiate circular lakes from elongated lakes, lakes with smooth shorelines from those with complex shorelines, and lake orientation; such information can then be used to classify and quantify different types of lakes in complex environments such as river deltas. The Colville River delta is located on the North Slope of Arctic Alaska. Previous studies have classified the delta's 230,000+ lakes into five types: 1. thermokarst (thaw) lakes, 2. oriented lakes, 3. perched lakes, 4 channel lakes and 5. ice-wedge polygon ponds. This study uses 2004 aerial photography and 2011 satellite imagery to quantify the different types of lake in the delta.

  10. Establishment patterns of water-elm at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen S. Doerr; Sanjeev Joshi; Richard F. Keim

    2015-01-01

    At Catahoula Lake in central Louisiana, an internationally important lake for water fowl, hydrologic alterations to the surrounding rivers and the lake itself have led to an expansion of water-elm (Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel.) into the lake bed. In this study, we used dendrochronology and aerial photography to quantify the expansion of water-elm in the lake and identify...

  11. 40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605... Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public... maintaining the public access and recreational facilities of this lake or other publicly owned...

  12. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, with respect to lake acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent, Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golfen group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golfen group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the lakes in this study appeared to be presently acidified.

  13. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A.; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Fielder, David G.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  14. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Fielder, David G; Madenjian, Charles P; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M; Krueger, Charles C; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  15. Lake ice cover and its influence on lake ecology in a Finnish lake district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäranta, Matti; Arvola, Lauri

    2014-05-01

    A wintertime research program on the physics and biology of lakes in Häme lake district in Finland has been performed in the last five years. The set of study lakes contains a wide spectrum in size, depth and trophic status. In this region the lakes freeze over annually for 4-6 months and the mean ice thickness is around 0.5 m. The ice sheet consists of congelation ice and snow-ice. The snow-ice fraction ranges from 0 to 90 per cent depending on the snow fall history and its magnitude makes a major contribution to the ice properties and conditions in the water body beneath the ice, in particular the mechanical strength and optical thickness are much less than for congelation ice. The e-folding depth of light intensity was 50-100 cm for congelation ice and 5-10 cm for snow. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the annual cycle of ice stratigraphy, temperature and thickness. The water bodies had a 1-4 m thick upper mixed layer thick thermocline, and in deeper lakes a lower homogeneous layer. Fall cooling process was crucial to determine the temperature of the lower layer at freeze-up, anything within 0-4°C. Oxygen concentration decreased in winter, especially close to the bottom sediments, and carbon dioxide concentration increased due to respiration activity. Phytoplankton production and biomass level were low or very low and, therefore, heterotrophic and mixotrophic species were abundant. Oxygen depletion in the hypolimnium had several chemical and ecological consequences, such as release of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. In spring, just before the ice-out, photosynthesis was at a high level beneath the ice due to improved light conditions and started to elevate the oxygen concentration in the topmost water layer. Primary production under the ice is limited or prohibited by low level of available light.

  16. Influence of littoral periphyton on whole-lake metabolism relates to littoral vegetation in humic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Jussi; Devlin, Shawn P; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2017-09-09

    The role of littoral habitats in lake metabolism has been underrated, especially in humic lakes, based on an assumption of low benthic primary production (PP) due to low light penetration into water. This assumption has been challenged by recent recognition of littoral epiphyton dominance of whole-lake PP in a small highly humic lake and of epiphyton as an important basal food source for humic lake biota. However, as these studies have mostly concerned single lakes, there is a need to test their wider generality. We studied the whole-lake PP and community respiration (CR) in eight small humic lakes in southern Finland during July 2015 using (14) C incorporation to measure pelagic PP and the changes in dissolved inorganic carbon in light and dark in situ incubations to measure CR and littoral PP by epiphyton. Changes in O2 concentration in both pelagic and littoral surface water were measured periodically from each lake and, additionally, continuously with a data logger from one lake during the study period. The results revealed that the littoral dominated whole-lake net primary production (NPP) in five of the eight lakes, which was supported by observed O2 supersaturation in the littoral surface water in most of the lakes. Calculated pelagic:littoral ratios by area correlated negatively with both littoral NPP and littoral contribution to whole-lake NPP. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between littoral proportion of whole-lake NPP and the fraction of lake surface area covered by littoral aquatic vegetation. This demonstrates that increased aquatic littoral vegetation cover increases the overall importance of the littoral to whole-lake PP in highly humic lakes. Littoral NPP also correlated strongly with littoral O2 saturation, and the continuously measured O2 revealed substantial temporal variation in O2 saturation, particularly in the littoral zone. Whole-lake gross primary production:community respiration (GPP:CR) ratios revealed that

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Ardoch Lake, Kellys Slough, Devils Lake National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ardoch Lake, Kellys Slough, Devils Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The...

  19. Record of glacial Lake Missoula floods in glacial Lake Columbia, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle A.; Clague, John J.

    2016-02-01

    During the last glaciation (marine oxygen isotope stage 2), outburst floods from glacial Lake Missoula deposited diagnostic sediments within glacial Lake Columbia. Two dominant outburst flood lithofacies are present within glacial Lake Columbia deposits: a flood expansion bar facies and a finer-grained hyperpycnite facies. We conclude that the flood sediments have a glacial Lake Missoula source because: (1) current indicators indicate westward flow through the lake, and upvalley flow followed by downvalley flow in tributary valleys; (2) no flood sediments are found north of a certain point; (3) there is a dominance of Belt-Purcell Supergroup clasts in a flood expansion bar; and (4) some of the finer-grained beds have a pink colour, reflective of glacial Lake Missoula lake-bottom sediments. A new radiocarbon age of 13,400 ± 100 14C BP on plant detritus found below 37 flood beds helps constrain the timing of outburst flooding from glacial Lake Missoula.

  20. Why study lakes? An overview of USGS lake studies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Elder, J.F.; Robertson, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Wisconsin’s 15,000 lakes are prominent features in its landscape and an important public resource. In the northern part of the State, the recent glaciation (ending about 10,000 years ago) created one of the densest clusters of lakes found anywhere in the world, containing lakes that occupy depressions in the glacial moraines and outwash deposits (fig. 1). This Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion contains more than 80 percent of the State’s lakes (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2001). South of this ecoregion, there are fewer lakes, but they still are common. Usually situated in agricultural or urban land- scapes, lakes in southern Wisconsin generally have higher levels of nutrients and alkalinity, and higher biological productivity than their northern counterparts. For most lakes in Wisconsin, phosphorus is the nutrient that limits algal growth (Lillie and Mason, 1983).

  1. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in North East Region 1 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  2. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  3. 1997-1998 lake water quality assessment for Upper Des Lacs Lake, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the data collected on Upper Des Lacs Lake as part of the State's Lake Water Quality Assessment Project. The Project is designed to characterize...

  4. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Upper Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  5. Water‐Data Report 3936360931115 SILVER LAKE AT SWAN LAKE NWR, WEST LEVEE, 2014-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2014 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393636093111501 SITE NAME: Silver Lake at Swan Lake NWR, West Levee COOPERATION: Swan...

  6. [Lake Andes Wetland Management District: Aerial Photograph Series, Lake County, SD, 1967-1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This series consists of 3 oblique aerial photographs from the Lake Andes Wetland Management District. All photographs were taken in Lake County, South Dakota in 1967...

  7. Ardoch Lake, Kellys Slough, Devils Lake National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ardoch Lake, Kellys Slough, Devils Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The...

  8. Environmental Assessment: Submerged Aquatic Plant Management of Banks Lake, Banks Lake NWR, Lakeland, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment is an analysis of five alternatives developed to address themanagement of the submerged aquatic plants of Banks Lake on Banks Lake...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Colorado Region 15 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Basin Region 16 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  11. Human impact on lake ecosystems: the case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human impact on lake ecosystems: the case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ... of aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, including vegetation, birds, fish and mammals. ... Keywords: agriculture, alien species, bioindicator species, environmental ...

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Colorado Region 14 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Mississippi Region 8 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Evolution of a Structure-Searchable Database into a Prototype for a High-Fidelity SmartPhone App for 62 Common Pesticides Used in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Barile, Benjamin; Givens, Aaron F

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic pesticides are widely used in the modern world for human benefit. They are usually classified according to their intended pest target. In Delaware (DE), approximately 42 percent of the arable land is used for agriculture. In order to manage insectivorous and herbaceous pests (such as insects, weeds, nematodes, and rodents), pesticides are used profusely to biologically control the normal pest's life stage. In this undergraduate project, we first created a usable relational database containing 62 agricultural pesticides that are common in Delaware. Chemically pertinent quantitative and qualitative information was first stored in Bio-Rad's KnowItAll® Informatics System. Next, we extracted the data out of the KnowItAll® system and created additional sections on a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet detailing pesticide use(s) and safety and handling information. Finally, in an effort to promote good agricultural practices, to increase efficiency in business decisions, and to make pesticide data globally accessible, we developed a mobile application for smartphones that displayed the pesticide database using Appery.io™; a cloud-based HyperText Markup Language (HTML5), jQuery Mobile and Hybrid Mobile app builder.

  15. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  16. Floodplain Lakes: Evolution and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Sonja; Hall, Roland; Gell, Peter

    2011-05-01

    PAGES International Floodplain Lakes Workshop; Fayetteville, Arkansas, 16-19 September 2010 ; Human alteration of the major rivers and floodplains of the world is a global concern because they sustain aquatic ecosystems and supply food and energy to society. When in flood stage, the influence of a river extends across the floodplain and can revitalize productive wetlands. The condition of many rivers has declined worldwide, but the degree of degradation is hard to assess due to natural variability of flow and uncertainty of baseline status. Evidence of changes over decades to millennia in river and wetland conditions, however, can be quantified from physical, chemical, and biological information archived in the accumulated sediments of floodplain lakes.

  17. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  18. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  19. Storm Warnings on Lake Balaton,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-06

    magnitude of this effect. Consequently, the employees of the Storm Warning Service decided in the course of the summer 1962, to set up a cup -type... anemometer on a passenger ship regularly passing between Si6fok and Balatonfired, and to take wind measurements along this route across the Lake in a...along this route. During the measurements, the reading of the anemometer was taken at intervals and noted together with the time of reading. Since the

  20. Lake Borgne Surge Barrier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Savant , and Darla C. McVan September 2010 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-10-10 September 2010 Lake...Borgne Surge Barrier Study S. Keith Martin, Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and...conducted by Keith Martin, Dr. Gaurav Savant , and Darla C. McVan. This work was conducted at the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) of the