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Sample records for delaware bay two-way

  1. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  2. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  3. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Grabs 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  6. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  9. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR...

  10. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  11. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  12. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...

  13. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  14. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  15. Summary of the 1998 Spawning Survey of Horseshoe Crabs Along the Delaware Bay Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The spawning survey of horseshoe crabs was conducted along the shores of Delaware Bay for the ninth year. Counts of spawning horseshoe crabs was performed by trained...

  16. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  17. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  18. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  20. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  1. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  2. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360, West...

  3. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  4. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  5. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  6. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  7. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  8. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  9. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  10. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  11. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  12. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  13. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  14. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to...

  15. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  16. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  17. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 01 January 1984 - 01 December 1984 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  18. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from 23 February 1976 - 23 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from February 23, 1976 to September 23, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  19. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  20. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  1. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  2. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p < 0.05) in one or more Chesapeake regions of concern (Anacostia River [Al: 206 vs. 62.1 mug/g dw; Ba: 3.31 vs. 0.823 mug/g dw; Mn: 65.4 vs. 22.9 mug/g dw] and Elizabeth River [Al: 165 vs. 63.5 mug/g dw; Hg: 1.24 vs. 0.599 mug/g dw; Pb 1.47 vs. 0.543 mug/g dw]). When compared to the coastal Inland Bays reference area, feathers of nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p < 0.05) of Ba (1.90 vs. 0.660 mug/g dw), Fe (258 vs. 109 mug/g dw), Mn (18.5 vs. 4.66 mug/g dw), Mo (0.130 vs. 0.040 mug/g dw), Pb (1.96 vs. 0.624 mug/g dw), and V (0.671 vs. 0.325 mug/g dw), presumably due to extensive metal-working and petroleum refinery activities. Concentrations of Hg in nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  4. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  5. Inventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay, vol. 2, November 1972 (NODC Accession 7310520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the second section of a three part study describing the history, land use, and legal mechanisms which operate in the tideland region of the lower Delaware...

  6. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  8. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  9. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  10. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  11. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  12. IR_ROUTES_CALIB.SHP: Shot-point calibrated trackline navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  13. JD105HYPACK.SHP: Parsed HYPACK navigation from April 15, 2010 of U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  14. IR_SEISNAV.SHP: Unique shot point navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  15. Preliminary assessment of the effects of Delaware Bay water and a known endocrine disrupting compound on horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) using proteomics and observation of embryonic development and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The eggs, larvae, and juveniles of horseshoe crabs (L. polyphemus) contribute significantly to the forage base of many species in Delaware Bay. The eggs also provide...

  16. Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Millsboro Townsend’s 1 21.8 6 0.1 0 18 Inc. Vlmssic 0.06 3.1 1.36 0.064 0.066 18 Food Colonial 9.7 6.85 9.7 2.2 OA 18 East Moble Home Pk. Rehoboth 0.95...Delaware," Proceedings of the Third Annual National Beach Preservation Technology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL pp 280-294. Andres, A. S. (1992...Wen, C., Kao, J., Wang, L., and Liaw, C. (1984). "Effect of salinity on reaeration coefficient of receiving waters," Water Science and Technology , 16

  17. Faunal community use of enhanced and natural oyster reefs in Delaware Bay: A field study and classroom inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Jenny L.

    In addition to its value as a fisheries resource, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is a reef building, cornerstone species that provides ecosystem services to the environment. Oysters provide habitat for associated resident and transient species. With widespread declines in oyster populations, restoration efforts have focused on improving oyster stocks and enhancing the ecosystem services they provide. Community-based oyster restoration programs engage the public and local community in planning, construction and/or monitoring of restoration projects. Since 2007, a K-12 student centered community-based restoration venture, Project PORTS, Promoting Oyster Restoration Through Schools, has been working to educate students, promote stewardship values, and enhance oyster habitat in the Delaware Bay. The overarching goals of the present study were to (1) assess fish and macroinvertebrate utilization on the Project PORTS community-created, subtidal, low-relief oyster restoration area in the Delaware Bay, and (2) convert the data collected into a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) activity that can be implemented in the classroom. I examined six subtidal natural oyster reefs of varying oyster densities and one community-based restoration reef as habitat for fishes and invertebrates. Sampling methods on these low-relief reefs consisted of otter trawl tows and benthic habitat tray collections. Results revealed that the enhancement area supported a diverse faunal community consistent with nearby, natural oyster habitats. Data collected during the field study were then transformed into an educational lesson plan, "One Fish, Two Fish-Assessing Habitat Value of Restored Oyster Reefs", that fulfilled national and state (NJ) curriculum standards. The lesson was piloted in a middle school classroom and student learning was evaluated through summative assessments pre and post-participation in the activity. Results of the assessments indicated that

  18. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  19. Beach characteristics mitigate effects of onshore wind on horseshoe crab spawning: Implications for matching with shorebird migration in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Weber, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of food availability by unfavorable physical processes at energetically demanding times can limit recruitment of migratory species as predicted by the match-mismatch hypothesis. Identification and protection of disruption-resistant habitat could contribute to system resilience. For example, horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning and shorebird stopover must match temporally in Delaware Bay for eggs to be available to shorebirds. Onshore winds that generate waves can create a mismatch by delaying horseshoe crab spawning. We examined effects of beach characteristics and onshore winds on spawning activity at five beaches when water temperatures were otherwise consistent with early spawning activity. Onshore winds resulted in reduced spawning activity during the shorebird stopover, when spawning typically peaks in late May. During the period with high onshore wind, egg density was highest on the foreshore exposed to the lowest wave heights. Onshore wind was low in early June, and spawning and egg densities were high at all sites, but shorebirds had departed. Beaches that can serve as a refuge from wind and waves can be identified by physical characteristics and orientation to prevailing winds and should receive special conservation status, especially in light of predicted increases in climate change-induced storm frequency. These results point to a potential conservation strategy that includes coastal management for adapting to climate change-induced mismatch of migrations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Animal Conservation ?? 2011 The Zoological Society of London.

  20. IndianRivBayYSI.xls: Temperature, conductivity and salinity data collected with a YSI 600 XLM multi-parameter sonde in Indian River Bay, Delaware, from April 12 to April 15, 2010 on U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  1. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  2. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established.

  3. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  4. Age and sex specific timing, frequency, and spatial distribu-tion of horseshoe crab spawning in Delaware Bay: Insights from a large-scale radio telemetry array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. SMITH, Lorne J. BROUSSEAU, Mary T. MANDT, Michael J. MILLARD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To study horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning behavior and migration over a large-spatial extent (>100 km, we arrayed fixed station radio receivers throughout Delaware Bay and deployed radio transmitters and archival tags on adult horseshoe crabs prior to their spawning season. We tagged and released 160 females and 60 males in 2004 and 217 females in 2005. The array covered approximately 140 km of shoreline. Recapture rates were >70% with multi-year recaptures. We categorized adult age by carapace wear. Older females tended to spawn earlier in the season and more frequently than young females, but those tendencies were more apparent in 2004 when spawning overall occurred earlier than in 2005 when spawning was delayed possibly due to decreased water temperatures. Timing of initial spawning within a year was correlated with water temperature. After adjusting for day of first spring tide, the day of first spawning was 4 days earlier for every 1 degree (°C rise in mean daily water temperature in May. Seventy nine % of spawning occurred during nighttime high tides. Fifty five % of spawning occurred within 3 d of a spring tide, which was slightly higher than the 47% expected if spawning was uniformly distributed regardless of tidal cycle. Within the same spawning season, males and females were observed spawning or intertidally resting at more than one beach separated by >5 km. Between years, most (77% did not return to spawn at the same beach. Probability of stranding was strongly age dependent for males and females with older adults experiencing higher stranding rates. Horseshoe crabs staging in the shallow waters east of the channel spawned exclusively along the eastern (NJ shoreline, but those staging west of the channel spawned throughout the bay. Overall, several insights emerged from the use of radio telemetry, which advances our understanding of horseshoe crab ecology and will be useful in conserving the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab

  5. JD103GPS_LINES_SPLITS.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  6. JD105GPS_LINES_SPLIT.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  7. JD105GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  8. JD104GPS_LINES.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  9. JD104GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  10. MRGWCON_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface processed with a varying water conductivity value from Indian River Bay, Delaware, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in April 2010 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  11. JD103GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  12. MRGAPR14_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  13. MRGAPR13_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  14. MRGAPR15_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  15. IR_100SHOT_SORT.SHP: Point shapefile (100 shot interval) of navigation for chirp seismic data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  16. An age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay area to assess harvest and egg availability for shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this simulation study was to create an age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphenols) in the Delaware Bay region using best available estimates of age-specific mortality and recent harvest levels. Density dependence was incorporated using a spatial model relating egg mortality with abundance of spawning females. Combinations of annual female harvest (0, 50, 100, and 200 thousand), timing of female harvest (before or after spawning), and three levels of density-dependent egg mortality were simulated. The probability of the population increasing was high (> 80%) with low and medium egg mortality and harvest less than 200 thousand females per year. Under the high egg mortality case, the probability of the population increasing was < 50% regardless of harvest. Harvest occurring after spawning increased the probability of population growth. The number of eggs available to shorebirds was highest when egg mortality was lowest and female abundance was at its highest levels. Although harvest and egg mortality influenced population growth and food availability to shorebirds, sensitivity and elasticity analyses showed that early-life stage mortality, age 0 mortality in particular, was the most important parameter for population growth. Our modeling results indicate areas where further research is needed and suggest effective management will involve a combination of harvest management and actions to increase early juvenile survival. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  17. Habitat use by Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa): Experiments with oyster racks and reefs on the beach and intertidal of Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P < 0.0002). In 2016, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks and over 68 for other treatments (P < 0.0001). Treatment, date, and number of non-Knot shorebirds explained 60% (2013) and 69% (2016) of the variation in Red Knot numbers. Red Knots avoided the sections with racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.

  18. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  19. Two-Way communication with energy exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Simeone, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    The conventional assumption made in the design of communication systems is that the energy used to transfer information between a sender and a recipient cannot be reused for future communication tasks. A notable exception to this norm is given by passive RFID systems, in which a reader can transfer...... both information and energy via the transmitted radio signal. Conceivably, any system that exchanges information via the transfer of given physical resources (radio waves, particles, qubits) can potentially reuse, at least part, of the received resources for communication later on. In this paper, a two......-way communication system is considered that operates with a given initial number of physical resources, referred to as energy units. The energy units are not replenished from outside the system, and are assumed, for simplicity, to be constant over time. A node can either send an “on” symbol (or “1”), which costs...

  20. Two-way quantum communication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, A M; Lo, H K; Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie W.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-01-01

    We consider communication between two parties using a bipartite quantum operation, which constitutes the most general quantum mechanical model of two-party communication. We primarily focus on the simultaneous forward and backward communication of classical messages. For the case in which the two parties share unlimited prior entanglement, we give inner and outer bounds on the achievable rate region that generalize classical results due to Shannon. In particular, using a protocol of Bennett, Harrow, Leung, and Smolin, we give a one-shot expression in terms of the Holevo information for the entanglement-assisted one-way capacity of a two-way quantum channel. As applications, we rederive two known additivity results for one-way channel capacities: the entanglement-assisted capacity of a general one-way channel, and the unassisted capacity of an entanglement-breaking one-way channel.

  1. Translational Medicine: A two-way road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of translational research is to test, in humans, novel therapeutic strategies developed through experimentation. Translational research should be regarded as a two-way road: Bench to Bedside and Bedside to Bench. However, Bedside to Bench efforts have regrettably been limited because the scientific aspects are poorly understood by full time clinicians and the difficulty of dealing with humans poorly appreciated by basic scientists. Translational research would be most useful to the scientific community at large if journals would foster specific interest for the publication of ex vivo human observation. The review process for such work should be assigned to clinical scientists competent not only in the intricacies of molecular or cell biology but also intimate with the reality of Internal Review Boards, ethics committees, Governmental Regulatory Agencies and most importantly the humane aspects of dealing with sick individuals and their families. This approach may focus both basic and clinical scientists and those struggling to fill the gap between them on the effective treatment of diseases affecting women, men and children making translational research more than an interesting concept.

  2. Two-way cable television system characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Paul T.

    1995-11-01

    This presentation is a report of the testing activities of the CableLabs Network Integrity Working Group. The working group consisted of several CableLabs member companies which conducted rf analog and digital bit-error testing at five CATV networks in the U.S. and Canada. The purpose of the working group was to measure the reliability and availability of the contemporary CATV network as specified by traditional switched access telephony performance parameters. Transmission data was collected for both forward and reverse (sub- split) paths of the rf broadband network, in both traditional and hybrid fiber/coax architectures, and for baseline and controlled variation events. The basic premise of this testing was to ascertain which cable television network elements adversely affected transmission of a 'generic' digital communications system and how they can be managed or controlled. The digital transmission utilized in the test was a QPSK modulated, T-1 rate (1.544 Mbit/second), modem without error correction. The intent was not to derive the necessary modulation technique and error correction scheme to properly operate in every cable television system, but rather to determine the principal sources of impairments existing in these networks and deduce corrective measures. The full report of the Network Integrity Working Group is published by CableLabs, Inc., and is titled, 'Two-Way Cable Television System Characterization -- Final Report', April 1995.

  3. The Analysis of Two-Way Functional Data Using Two-Way Regularized Singular Value Decompositions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2009-12-01

    Two-way functional data consist of a data matrix whose row and column domains are both structured, for example, temporally or spatially, as when the data are time series collected at different locations in space. We extend one-way functional principal component analysis (PCA) to two-way functional data by introducing regularization of both left and right singular vectors in the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the data matrix. We focus on a penalization approach and solve the nontrivial problem of constructing proper two-way penalties from oneway regression penalties. We introduce conditional cross-validated smoothing parameter selection whereby left-singular vectors are cross- validated conditional on right-singular vectors, and vice versa. The concept can be realized as part of an alternating optimization algorithm. In addition to the penalization approach, we briefly consider two-way regularization with basis expansion. The proposed methods are illustrated with one simulated and two real data examples. Supplemental materials available online show that several "natural" approaches to penalized SVDs are flawed and explain why so. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  4. Achievable Rates for Two-Way Wire-Tap Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Tekin, Ender

    2007-01-01

    We consider two-way wire-tap channels, where two users are communicating with each other in the presence of an eavesdropper, who has access to the communications through a multiple-access channel. We find achievable rates for two different scenarios, the Gaussian two-way wire-tap channel, (GTW-WT), and the binary additive two-way wire-tap channel, (BATW-WT). It is shown that the two-way channels inherently provide a unique advantage for wire-tapped scenarios, as the users know their own transmitted signals and in effect help encrypt the other user's messages, similar to a one-time pad. We compare the achievable rates to that of the Gaussian multiple-access wire-tap channel (GMAC-WT) to illustrate this advantage.

  5.  HOMEinTOUCH Designing two-way Ambient Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Hansen, Aviaja Borup; Nielsen, Kaspar Rosengreen

    2008-01-01

    Digital Picture Frames has received attention both research wise and by consumers, who are increasingly buying existing solutions. In this paper we investigate how to design improved picture frames through providing means for two-way communication and through exploring the potential in providing...... automatically generated context information. We report on the design and trial use of a HOMEinTOUCH, an experience prototype of a picture frame for domestic environment, supporting two-way communication and context-information around pictures. We tested this prototype, as well as two other commercial products...

  6. Virtual Classrooms: Educational Opportunity through Two-Way Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Vicki M.; Christianson, J. Scott

    This book describes in non-technical language how a small school can greatly expand its course offerings by forming a two-way interactive television (I-TV) network with surrounding school districts. I-TV is the linkage of 3 to 10 school districts over fiber optic, coaxial cable, or dedicated copper telephone lines which enables participating…

  7. Lung Disease, Indigestion, and Two-Way Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Callingham, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the responses of 115 school students to two problems based on information provided in two-way tables. In each case the question asks if one of the variables involved depends on the other. Contextual knowledge might suggest a dependent relationship in both but in one problem the data show independence while in the other the…

  8. Two-Way Regularized Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmee; Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun

    2017-01-01

    Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is a useful tool for investigating the interrelationships among dummy-coded categorical variables. MCA has been combined with clustering methods to examine whether there exist heterogeneous subclusters of a population, which exhibit cluster-level heterogeneity. These combined approaches aim to classify either observations only (one-way clustering of MCA) or both observations and variable categories (two-way clustering of MCA). The latter approach is favored because its solutions are easier to interpret by providing explicitly which subgroup of observations is associated with which subset of variable categories. Nonetheless, the two-way approach has been built on hard classification that assumes observations and/or variable categories to belong to only one cluster. To relax this assumption, we propose two-way fuzzy clustering of MCA. Specifically, we combine MCA with fuzzy k-means simultaneously to classify a subgroup of observations and a subset of variable categories into a common cluster, while allowing both observations and variable categories to belong partially to multiple clusters. Importantly, we adopt regularized fuzzy k-means, thereby enabling us to decide the degree of fuzziness in cluster memberships automatically. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach through the analysis of simulated and real data, in comparison with existing two-way clustering approaches.

  9. Transfer as a two-way process: testing a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Admiraal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory research is to test the model of training transfer as a two-way process. Design/methodology/approach - Based on self-report data gathered from 58 to 44 respondents in a field experiment, it is argued that there is not just learning in the context of training

  10. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  11. Creating Two-Way Dual Language Schools through Effective Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Baeza, Louisa

    2001-01-01

    Two-way dual language schools promote second language learning for all and develop limited-English-proficient students' primary language literacy. Effective schools demonstrate the difference between being educated in a second language and merely speaking more than one language. (SK)

  12. Methods for obtaining two way memory effect and stressed two way memory effect of CuAlNi single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Various training methods for two way memory effect (TWME) and stressed two way memory effect (STWME) were tried on Cu-13.4Al-4.0Ni (mass fraction, %) single crystals by applying tensile stress along 〈001〉 direction of β phase. The training method of cooling with load can induce a lot of martensite prone to stabilize, thus cause large residual deformation, wide hysteresis and small TWME. Training with constant load can produce STWME larger than 8% with the least residual deformation. By training procedure of martensite reorientation below Mf followed by thermal cycling, the TWME is relatively large with very small residual deformation and with comparatively narrow hysteresis of two-way memory. The obtained two-way memory curve after such training is not a closed loop, and the obtained TWME is not stable. However, these can be improved by thermal cycling. Training with martensite reorientation below Mf and thermal cycling under relatively low constant stress throughout the whole training procedure is the optimum way of obtaining TWME, and more than 1.7% TWME can be obtained. The thermomechanical history of the sample has a pronounced effect on the training result. Thermomechanical cycling has a softening effect on martensite.

  13. A two-way regularization method for MEG source reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2012-09-01

    The MEG inverse problem refers to the reconstruction of the neural activity of the brain from magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements. We propose a two-way regularization (TWR) method to solve the MEG inverse problem under the assumptions that only a small number of locations in space are responsible for the measured signals (focality), and each source time course is smooth in time (smoothness). The focality and smoothness of the reconstructed signals are ensured respectively by imposing a sparsity-inducing penalty and a roughness penalty in the data fitting criterion. A two-stage algorithm is developed for fast computation, where a raw estimate of the source time course is obtained in the first stage and then refined in the second stage by the two-way regularization. The proposed method is shown to be effective on both synthetic and real-world examples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2012.

  14. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  15. Two way time transfer results at NRL and USNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Landis, G. Paul

    1993-06-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a two way time transfer modem system for the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). Two modems in conjunction with a pair of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and a communication satellite can achieve sub nanosecond time transfer. This performance is demonstrated by the results of testing at and between NRL and USNO. The modems use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) methods to separate their signals through a single path in the satellite. Each modem transmitted a different Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) code and received the others PRN code. High precision time transfer is possible with two way methods because of reciprocity of many of the terms of the path and hardware delay between the two modems. The hardware description was given in a previous paper.

  16. Two way time transfer results at NRL and USNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Landis, G. Paul

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a two way time transfer modem system for the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). Two modems in conjunction with a pair of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and a communication satellite can achieve sub nanosecond time transfer. This performance is demonstrated by the results of testing at and between NRL and USNO. The modems use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) methods to separate their signals through a single path in the satellite. Each modem transmitted a different Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) code and received the others PRN code. High precision time transfer is possible with two way methods because of reciprocity of many of the terms of the path and hardware delay between the two modems. The hardware description was given in a previous paper.

  17. Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Sandwiched Slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Pachpande, Jivan Vilas

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents the details of the findings of a study focused on evaluating the structural behavior of three-dimensional (3D) cementitious sandwich panels with Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) foam core for two-way slab applications. In this study, both theoretical and finite element numerical analysis procedures were adopted to predict the performance of such slabs under out-of-plane loading conditions. The results from theoretical and finite element analysis were verified by compariso...

  18. Two-Way Immersion 101: Designing and Implementing a Two-Way Immersion Education Program at the Elementary Level

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Christian, Donna

    2002-01-01

    In the United States, two-way immersion (TWI) is an educational approach that integrates native English speakers and native speakers of another language (usually Spanish) for content and literacy instruction in both languages. In recent years, the number of TWI programs has grown rapidly. This report examines key issues to consider when planning elementary level TWI programs, noting the fundamental characteristics that must be in place for the development of successful programs. Suggestions a...

  19. Improve the teaching quality by two-way education mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching activities contain teaching and learning, and both teachers and students have to work hard to improve the quality of teaching. This essay introduced the basic conception of “two-way and five-ring” mode first, and expatiated on the structure of this mode. The author used her own experiences to combine the teaching mode with the real situation of military school, emphasized teaching itself and talked about some spe-cific plans. This will give a certain extend help in improving the quality of teaching in military school.

  20. Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexical need as a two-way reality cognition tool In this paper a concept of lexical need is introduced and its application in research of cognitive aspects of translation is discussed. Further discussion elaborates mechanisms of development of translator’s lexical space in the course of translation. Authors discuss the importance and special nature of low-frequency lexical units and difficulties encountered when studying their usage and suggest that the lexical need concept help these studies. Lexical need analysis can be also used to learn specifics of translator’s lexical space and then to take measures for selection of translators and improvement of their skills.

  1. Two-way radios and scanners for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    Discover a fun new hobby with helpful possibilities Get directions, talk to folks overseas, or find out whether the fish are biting Want to check out the morning news in London, help out in emergencies, or tune in to the big race? Two-way radios open up a world of possibilities - literally. This handy guide tells you about the equipment you need, fills you in on radio etiquette, shows you how to stay legal, and gives you lots of cool ideas for family-friendly radio activities. Discover how to * Use the right radio lingo * Choose and operate different types of radios * Get a license if you n

  2. Decoy States and Two Way Quantum Key Distribution Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaari, J S; Ali, Sellami

    2010-01-01

    We study the possible application of the decoy state method on a basic two way quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme to extend its distance. Noting the obvious advantage of such a QKD scheme in allowing for single as well as double photon contributions, we derive relevant lower-bounds on the corresponding gains in a practical decoy state implementation using two intensities for decoy states. We work with two different approaches in this vein and compare these with an ideal infinite decoy state case as well as the simulation of the original LM05.

  3. Database Security Two Way Authentication Using Graphical Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Gupta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As data represent a key asset for today's organizations. The problem is that how to protect this data from attackers, theft and misuse is at the forefront of any organization’s mind. Even though today several data security techniques are available to protect database and computing infrastructure, many such as network security and firewalls tools are unable to prevent attacks from insider. Insider is a person working in organization who can try to access the sensitive data. This paper proposes a two-way authentication method which fuses knowledge-based secret and personal trait information

  4. The Two Way Wiretap Channel: Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gamal, Aly El; Youssef, Moustafa; Gamal, Hesham El

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the two way wiretap channel in which two legitimate users, Alice and Bob, wish to exchange messages securely in the presence of a passive eavesdropper Eve. In the full duplex scenario, where each node can transmit and receive simultaneously, we obtain new achievable secrecy rate regions based on the idea of allowing the two users to jointly optimize their channel prefixing distributions and binning codebooks; in addition to key sharing. The new regions are shown to be strictly larger than the known ones for a wide class of discrete memoryless and Gaussian channels. In the half duplex case, where a user can only transmit or receive on any given degree of freedom, we introduce the idea of randomized scheduling and establish the significant gain it offers in terms of the achievable secrecy sum-rate. We further develop an experimental setup based on a IEEE 802.15.4-enabled sensor boards to validate our theoretical analysis. Using this testbed, it is shown that one can exploit the two way natur...

  5. Distributed Space Time Coding for Wireless Two-way Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Muralidharan, Vijayvaradharaj T

    2012-01-01

    We consider the wireless two-way relay channel, in which two-way data transfer takes place between the end nodes with the help of a relay. For the Denoise-And-Forward (DNF) protocol, it was shown by Koike-Akino et. al. that adaptively changing the network coding map used at the relay greatly reduces the impact of Multiple Access interference at the relay. The harmful effect of the deep channel fade conditions can be effectively mitigated by proper choice of these network coding maps at the relay. Alternatively, in this paper we propose a Distributed Space Time Coding (DSTC) scheme, which effectively removes most of the deep fade channel conditions at the transmitting nodes itself without any CSIT and without any need to adaptively change the network coding map used at the relay. It is shown that the deep fades occur when the channel fade coefficient vector falls in a finite number of vector subspaces of $\\mathbb{C}^2$, which are referred to as the singular fade subspaces. DSTC design criterion referred to as ...

  6. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  7. Two-way frequency trasfer on a multiplexed fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Calosso, Claudio; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Levi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a two-way frequency transfer technique on an optical fiber network, and demonstrate a remote comparison between optical frequencies at the 1E-21 stability level. The characterization was performed on a 47 km optical fiber that is part of the metropolitan fiber network for Internet data traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous sampling of the optical phase at the two ends of the link, that is made possible by the use of digital electronics based on an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This scheme is robust, versatile and reproducible, and can be easily upgraded to enable time transfer as well. The remote comparison of optical frequencies through optical fibers without active stabilization offers several advantages with respect to traditional Doppler cancellation schemes.

  8. Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H

    2014-11-26

    Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1

  9. Overlay cognitive radio systems with adaptive two-way relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a spectrum sharing mechanism with a two-phase two-way relaying protocol for an overlay cognitive network. The system comprises two primary users (PUs) and two secondary users (SUs). One of the SUs acts as a relay for the PUs and gains spectrum sharing as long as he respects outage probability constraints of the primary system. Moreover, we consider that the relaying node performs an optimal power allocation scheme that minimizes the outage performance of the secondary receiver. Closed form expressions for the outage probability are derived for the cases of Decode-and-Forward (DF), Amplify-and-Forward (AF), and adaptive relaying. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Personality and having children: a two-way relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    Personality has been implicated in romantic and sexual relationships, but its association with childbearing is poorly understood. The authors assessed whether 3 personality traits--sociability, emotionality, and activity--predicted the probability of having children and whether having children predicted personality change. The participants were women and men from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (N = 1,839) who were followed for 9 years. High emotionality decreased the probability of having children, whereas high sociability and, in men, high activity increased this probability. Having children predicted increasing emotionality, particularly in participants with high baseline emotionality and two or more children. In men, having children increased sociability in those with high baseline sociability and decreased sociability in those with low baseline sociability. These findings suggest a two-way relationship between personality and having children.

  11. Two-Way Communication Using RFID Equipment and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedry, Thomas; Archer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be extended, according to a proposal, to enable short-range, two-way communication between electronic products and host computers. In one example of a typical contemplated application, the purpose of the short-range radio communication would be to transfer image data from a user s digital still or video camera to the user s computer for recording and/or processing. The concept is also applicable to consumer electronic products other than digital cameras (for example, cellular telephones, portable computers, or motion sensors in alarm systems), and to a variety of industrial and scientific sensors and other devices that generate data. Until now, RFID has been used to exchange small amounts of mostly static information for identifying and tracking assets. Information pertaining to an asset (typically, an object in inventory to be tracked) is contained in miniature electronic circuitry in an RFID tag attached to the object. Conventional RFID equipment and techniques enable a host computer to read data from and, in some cases, to write data to, RFID tags, but they do not enable such additional functions as sending commands to, or retrieving possibly large quantities of dynamic data from, RFID-tagged devices. The proposal would enable such additional functions. The figure schematically depicts an implementation of the proposal for a sensory device (e.g., a digital camera) that includes circuitry that converts sensory information to digital data. In addition to the basic sensory device, there would be a controller and a memory that would store the sensor data and/or data from the controller. The device would also be equipped with a conventional RFID chipset and antenna, which would communicate with a host computer via an RFID reader. The controller would function partly as a communication interface, implementing two-way communication protocols at all levels (including RFID if needed) between the

  12. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preshaw, P M; Alba, A L; Herrera, D; Jepsen, S; Konstantinidis, A; Makrilakis, K; Taylor, R

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10-15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear relationship between degree of hyperglycaemia and severity of periodontitis. The mechanisms that underpin the links between these two conditions are not completely understood, but involve aspects of immune functioning, neutrophil activity, and cytokine biology. There is emerging evidence to support the existence of a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with diabetes increasing the risk for periodontitis, and periodontal inflammation negatively affecting glycaemic control. Incidences of macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease are increased twofold and threefold, respectively, in diabetic individuals who also have severe periodontitis compared to diabetic individuals without severe periodontitis. Furthermore, the risk of cardiorenal mortality (ischaemic heart disease and diabetic nephropathy combined) is three times higher in diabetic people with severe periodontitis than in diabetic people without severe periodontitis. Treatment of periodontitis is associated with HbA(1c) reductions of approximately 0.4%. Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management.

  13. Two-Way Coupling Vortex Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the success of the discrete vortex method for the simulation of large-scale vortex structure.many researchers extend this method to two-phase flow simulations,especially,to the simulation of particle dispersion in mixing layer,which is characterized by large-scale vortex structure,But the previous work is limited to one-way couplin,which neglects the effect of particles on fluid flow.In this paper a discrete vortex method involving two-way coupling for two-phase flows is frist proposed and then used in numerical simulation of two-dimensional gas-particle mixin layers The numerical results show that the introduction of particles into the mixing layer has significant effects on the creation,development and merging process of large-scale vortex structures.It makes the mean size of large-scale vortex stucture large and the distance needed for development of large-scale vortex sturcture shorter.

  14. Diabetes and hepatitis C : A two-way association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salehi Hammerstad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and hepatitis C infection are both prevalent diseases worldwide, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most studies, but not all, have shown that patients with chronic hepatitis C are more prone to develop type 2 diabetes compared to healthy controls, as well as when compared to patients with other liver diseases including hepatitis B. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with type 2 diabetes may also be at higher risk for worse outcomes of their hepatitis C infection, including reduced rate of sustained virologic response, progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, and higher risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, hepatitis C infection and mainly its treatment, interferon α, can trigger the development of type 1 diabetes. In this review we discuss the existing data on this two-way association between diabetes and hepatitis C infection with emphasis on possible mechanisms. It remains to be determined whether the new curative therapies for chronic hepatitis C will improve outcomes in diabetic hepatitis C patients, and conversely whether treatment with Metformin will reduce complications from HCV infection. We propose an algorithm for diabetes screening and follow-up in hepatitis C patients.

  15. Coupled Two-Way Clustering Analysis of Gene Microarray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Domany, E

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel coupled two-way clustering approach to gene microarray data analysis. The main idea is to identify subsets of the genes and samples, such that when one of these is used to cluster the other, stable and significant partitions emerge. The search for such subsets is a computationally complex task: we present an algorithm, based on iterative clustering, which performs such a search. This analysis is especially suitable for gene microarray data, where the contributions of a variety of biological mechanisms to the gene expression levels are entangled in a large body of experimental data. The method was applied to two gene microarray data sets, on colon cancer and leukemia. By identifying relevant subsets of the data and focusing on them we were able to discover partitions and correlations that were masked and hidden when the full dataset was used in the analysis. Some of these partitions have clear biological interpretation; others can serve to identify possible directions for future research.

  16. Two-way conversations between cold atoms and semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Thomas [University of Tuebingen (Germany); University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Scott, Robin; Sinuco, German; Montgomery, Tom; Krueger, Peter; Fromhold, Mark [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Martin, Andrew [University of Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    There has been significant work in the past few years on hybrid devices which combine cold atoms with solid state structures. The hope is to create devices which combine the key advantages of both systems - the purity of a quantum coherent atom cloud, and the versatility of microchips - to study fundamental physics and further quantum technologies. To date there has been much success in manipulating cold atoms with microchips and semiconductors to create a measurable signal in the atom cloud. However, it has not been possible to perform the reverse procedure of using cold atoms to create a measurable signal in a solid state device. If this two-way coupling can be achieved, a range of possibilities open up such as long-term quantum memory chips. Here we use simulations to show that Fresnel zone plates could assist these efforts by strongly and coherently focusing ultracold atoms onto a semiconductor chip with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The atoms are shown to deplete the 2DEG, thereby strongly increasing its resistivity to measurable levels. The technique provides a solution to the long standing problem of short-range atom focusing while at the same time opening the door to a new form of non-destructive lithography which can create electronic components on a 50nm scale.

  17. Periodontitis and type II diabetes: a two-way relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Brian; Park, Boram; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-12-01

    For many years an association between diabetes and periodontitis has been suspected. In more recent times this relationship has been suggested to be bidirectional with each condition being able to influence the other. In this review the two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is considered. For this narrative review a very broad search strategy of the literature was developed using both EMBASE and MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases. The reference lists from the selected papers were also scanned, and this provided an additional source of papers for inclusion and further assessment. The data available suggest that diabetes is a risk as well as a modifying factor for periodontitis. Individuals with diabetes are more likely to have periodontitis and with increased severity when diabetes is uncontrolled/poorly controlled. Possible mechanisms of how diabetes affects periodontitis include adipokine-mediated inflammation, neutrophil dysfunction, uncoupling of bone and advanced glycation end-products-receptor for advanced glycation end-products interaction. Evidence is accruing to support how periodontitis can affect diabetes and complications associated with diabetes. There is some evidence demonstrating that periodontal therapy can result in a moderate improvement in glycaemic control. Available evidence indicates that diabetes and peridontitis are intricately interrelated and that each condition has the capacity to influence clinical features of each other.

  18. Coupled two-way clustering analysis of gene microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Gad; Levine, Erel; Domany, Eytan

    2000-10-01

    We present a coupled two-way clustering approach to gene microarray data analysis. The main idea is to identify subsets of the genes and samples, such that when one of these is used to cluster the other, stable and significant partitions emerge. The search for such subsets is a computationally complex task. We present an algorithm, based on iterative clustering, that performs such a search. This analysis is especially suitable for gene microarray data, where the contributions of a variety of biological mechanisms to the gene expression levels are entangled in a large body of experimental data. The method was applied to two gene microarray data sets, on colon cancer and leukemia. By identifying relevant subsets of the data and focusing on them we were able to discover partitions and correlations that were masked and hidden when the full dataset was used in the analysis. Some of these partitions have clear biological interpretation; others can serve to identify possible directions for future research.

  19. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on ... Newark Christiana Care Health System Lewis B. Flinn Library 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road / PO BOX 6001 Newark, ...

  20. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  1. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of... United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and... States after importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system, and components...

  2. Two-way Shape Memory Effect of NiTi under Compressive Loading Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Lee, Jung Ju

    In this study, the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) of a Ni-54.5 at.% Ti alloy was investigated experimentally to develop a NiTi linear actuator. The two-way shape memory effect was induced through a compressive shape memory cycle composed of four steps: (1) loading to maximum deformation; (2) unloading; (3) heating; (4) and cooling. Six types of specimens (one solid cylindrical and five tubular) were used to obtain the twoway shape memory strain and two-way recovery stress and to evaluate the actuating capacity. The two-way actuating strain showed a convergent tendency after several training cycles for the same maximum deformation. A maximum value of the two-way strain was obtained for 7% of maximum deformation, independently of the geometry of the tubular specimens. The two-way strains obtained by the shape memory cycles and two-way recovery stress linearly increase as a function of the maximum deformation and the two-way strain, respectively, and the geometry of specimen affects the two-way recovery stress. Although the results show that sufficient recovery stress can be generated by either the two-way shape memory process or by the one-way shape memory process, the two-way shape memory process can be applied more conveniently to actuating applications.

  3. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  4. Robustness of two-way quantum communication protocols against Trojan horse attack

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, F G; Li, X H; Zhou, H Y; Zhou, P

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the robustness of two-way quantum communication protocols against Trojan horse attack and introduce a novel attack, delay-photon Trojan horse attack. Moreover, we present a practical way for two-way quantum communication protocols to prevent the eavesdropper from stealing the information transmitted with Trojan horse attacks. It means that two-way quantum communication protocols is also secure in a practical application.

  5. A comparison of one-way video and two-way video educational videoteleconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Craig L.

    1995-05-01

    The literature reviewed in this study supported the effectiveness of educational videoteleconferencing; however, relatively little research was found comparing the two most interactive types of educational videoteleconferencing systems. An experimental research project was conducted, attempting to determine which educational videoteleconferencing system is more effective. Specifically, this project was designed to answer the following question: Is live two-way video with two-way audio more effective than live one-way video with two-way audio educational videoteleconferencing (EVC)?

  6. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  7. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution...-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components...

  8. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  9. Two-Way Text Messaging: An Interactive Mobile Learning Environment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of…

  10. The two-way feedback and passing-way of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liang; Zhang Kui; Zhang Renxiang

    2008-01-01

    Two-way feedback of human body was published in 1992. The sensation of two-way feedback of body is a spe-cial system of human reaction, which maintains and regulates symmetry and balance of human body. The human two-way feedback reacts to human health. For human overall health and delay decrepitude, it is necessary to pay attention to the stimulations (passive acceptance and initiative interventions) and relevant influences in human body and the stimu-lative effect. In this paper, the experimental research of stimulation and an example of two-way feedback in human body are given. And lay a foundation of prevention, medical treatment and hygiene of human overall health.

  11. A model of two-way selection system for human behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available Two-way selection is a common phenomenon in nature and society. It appears in the processes like choosing a mate between men and women, making contracts between job hunters and recruiters, and trading between buyers and sellers. In this paper, we propose a model of two-way selection system, and present its analytical solution for the expectation of successful matching total and the regular pattern that the matching rate trends toward an inverse proportion to either the ratio between the two sides or the ratio of the state total to the smaller group's people number. The proposed model is verified by empirical data of the matchmaking fairs. Results indicate that the model well predicts this typical real-world two-way selection behavior to the bounded error extent, thus it is helpful for understanding the dynamics mechanism of the real-world two-way selection system.

  12. The Asymptotic Standard Errors of Some Estimates of Uncertainty in the Two-Way Contingency Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morton B.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of conditional uncertainty, contingent uncertainty, and normed modifications of contingent uncertainity have been proposed for the two-way contingency table. The asymptotic standard errors of the estimates are derived. (Author)

  13. RUSSIAN-ENGLISH INTERACTIONS AS A TWO-WAY CHANNEL OF LINGUISTIC EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROTSENKO EKATERINA ALEXANDROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of Russian-English interactions during the last decades. Linguistic exchange is considered as a two- way channel of intercultural communication.

  14. Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Li, Zhengyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-08-01

    We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol by virtual photon subtraction. The virtual photon subtraction implemented via non-Gaussian post-selection not only enhances the entanglement of two-mode squeezed vacuum state but also has advantages in simplifying physical operation and promoting efficiency. In two-way protocol, virtual photon subtraction could be applied on two sources independently. Numerical simulations show that the optimal performance of renovated two-way protocol is obtained with photon subtraction only used by Alice. The transmission distance and tolerable excess noise are improved by using the virtual photon subtraction with appropriate parameters. Moreover, the tolerable excess noise maintains a high value with the increase in distance so that the robustness of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is significantly improved, especially at long transmission distance.

  15. Physical Layer Security for Two-Way Untrusted Relaying with Friendly Jammers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rongqing; Han, Lingyang song Zhu; Jiao, Bingli

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way relay network where two sources can communicate only through an untrusted intermediate relay, and investigate the physical layer security issue of this two-way relay scenario. Specifically, we treat the intermediate relay as an eavesdropper from which the information transmitted by the sources needs to be kept secret, despite the fact that its cooperation in relaying this information is essential. We indicate that a non-zero secrecy rate is indeed achievab...

  16. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  17. H09699: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay Entrance, Delaware, 1977-08-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H10533: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-04-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H10084: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-05-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H10079: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-04-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H10573: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-09-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H10931: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. H10935: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H10854: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  6. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  7. Hash-and-Forward Relaying for Two-Way Relay Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a communication network comprised of two nodes, which have no mutual direct communication links, communicating two-way with the aid of a common relay node (RN), also known as separated two-way relay (TWR) channel. We first recall a cut-set outer bound for the set of rates in the context of this network topology assuming full-duplex transmission capabilities. Then, we derive a new achievable rate region based on hash-and-forward (HF) relaying where the RN does not attempt to decode but instead hashes its received signal, and show that under certain channel conditions it coincides with Shannon's inner-bound for the two-way channel [1]. Moreover, for binary adder TWR channel with additive noise at the nodes and the RN we provide a detailed capacity achieving coding scheme based on structure codes.

  8. Relativity on a two-way moving sidewalk. Relativite sur un tapis roulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaccarini, Antoine (College Merici, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences)

    1989-01-01

    Some classical thought experiments in Special Relativity are performed on a two-way moving sidewalk. Since each of the two sides moves at constant speed, this device provides a simple, intuitive way to illustrate relative velocity, time dilation, and length contraction. It should, therefore allow for a better understanding of the basic concepts of the theory. Furthermore, being a closed system the two-way sidewalk exhibits some of the characteristics of a rotating disc, and might therefore be helpful in an introduction to General Relativity. (author).

  9. Perspektif Karyawan Perbankan pada Komunikasi Internal dengan Two-Way Symmetrical Communication dan Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the internal communication in the two branches of foreign banks in Kelapa Gading from the perspectives of two-way symmetrical communication and internal marketing. The second problem investigated is the effectiveness of the use of email as a means of internal communication. Data were collected through interviews and literature. The results showed that the perception of employees not in accordance with the concept of two-way communication and internal marketing, but this policy has led the organization to these concepts. In the use of email, employee perceptions still see that the email is an effective internal communication media despite having many weaknesses.

  10. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  11. The Promise and Potential of Two-Way Immersion in Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    Two-Way Immersion (TWI) is a method of instruction designed to facilitate the learning of a second language by non-native speakers. Unlike traditional methods of teaching a second language, TWI is grounded in the equal presence, respect, and value of the two languages and their related cultures. Moreover, the goal of TWI is the building of…

  12. Response of stiff piles to random two-way lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Byrne, B.W.; Houlsby, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    A model for predicting the accumulated rotation of stiff piles under random two-way loading is presented. The model is based on a strain superposition rule similar to Miner's rule and uses rainflow-counting to decompose a random time-series of varying loads into a set of simple load reversals...

  13. Discussing Difference: Color-Blind Collectivism and Dynamic Dissonance in Two-Way Immersion Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study (based on observational, interview, and picture-sort data) examines how teachers and students talk about cultural, linguistic, racial, and socioeconomic difference in two elementary Spanish-English two-way immersion programs. In addition, I analyze how those discourses are associated with both contextual conditions and…

  14. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  15. Two-way immersion – a teaching/learning method for bi-/plurilingual communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reseda Streb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-way Immersion is a very significant educational method for bi-/plurilingual communities, because it concentrates on equalty of both partner languages and cultures. How does this method works in practice? What are the challenges and advantages for the language learning process? These are the questions to be discussed in the present article. 

  16. GENERALIZED CONFIDENCE REGIONS OF FIXED EFFECTS IN THE TWO-WAY ANOVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan MU; Shifeng XIONG; Xingzhong XU

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the unbalanced two-way ANOVA model under heteroscedasticity. By taking the generalized approach, the authors derive the generalized p-values for testing the equality of fixed effects and the generalized confidence regions for these effects. The authors also provide their frequentist properties in large-sample cases. Simulation studies show that the generalized confidence regions have good coverage probabilities.

  17. Two-Way Tables: Issues at the Heart of Statistics and Probability for Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Some problems exist at the intersection of statistics and probability, creating a dilemma in relation to the best approach to assist student understanding. Such is the case with problems presented in two-way tables representing conditional information. The difficulty can be confounded if the context within which the problem is set is one where…

  18. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  19. A Minicomputer Software System for Administering Interactive Instructional Programs via Two-Way Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaty, Jayne W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a minicomputer software system for the administration of instructional programs combining interactive cable television and computer aided instruction for potentially large populations at relatively low cost. Both basic two-way cable television technology and the system developed by Michigan State University are discussed. (Author)

  20. Two-way causation in life satisfaction research : Structural equation models with granger causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two-way causation issues are the bete noire of life satisfaction research. As acknowledged in several landmark reviews, many variables routinely reported as causes or determinants of life satisfaction could equally well be consequences, or perhaps both causes and consequences (Diener, 1984; Diener,

  1. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  2. Analysis of Two Way Simply Supported Slabs With Central Sunk Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeevi. M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the sunken slabs are constructed with supporting beams, which leads to the uneconomy of the structure and difficult in arrangement of the centering work. In this view, it is considered to analyze a two way simply supported slab of different thicknesses with central sunk having one sunk depths.The objective of the paper is to analyze a two way simply supported slab having different thicknesses of 125,150,175,and 200mm with central sunk having depths of 250mm using Finite Element Analysis. This study significantly concludes that, adopting FE analysis using STAAD Pro for analysis of two-way sunken slab is advisable. By using FE analysis using STAAD Pro, we can avoid tedious and lengthy procedure of manual methods. From the chosen sunken slab it was observed that, there is decrease in sagging moments for sunk size of 0.25lx x 0.25ly with respect to two way slab without sunk.

  3. Cross-Layer Optimization of Two-Way Relaying for Statistical QoS Guarantees

    CERN Document Server

    lin, Cen; Tao, Meixia

    2012-01-01

    Two-way relaying promises considerable improvements on spectral efficiency in wireless relay networks. While most existing works focus on physical layer approaches to exploit its capacity gain, the benefits of two-way relaying on upper layers are much less investigated. In this paper, we study the cross-layer design and optimization for delay quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning in two-way relay systems. Our goal is to find the optimal transmission policy to maximize the weighted sum throughput of the two users in the physical layer while guaranteeing the individual statistical delay-QoS requirement for each user in the datalink layer. This statistical delay-QoS requirement is characterized by the QoS exponent. By integrating the concept of effective capacity, the cross-layer optimization problem is equivalent to a weighted sum effective capacity maximization problem. We derive the jointly optimal power and rate adaptation policies for both three-phase and two-phase two-way relay protocols. Numerical results...

  4. Rural Communities Communicating: The Emergence of Two-Way Interactive Video in Southwestern, Rural, Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael; And Others

    In three southwestern states, grassroots movements of citizens, educators, and local businesses developed and implemented two-way interactive television projects in their schools and communities. A descriptive multiple case study design was used to examine six project sites in New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma. Research questions were categorized in…

  5. More Powerful Tests of Simple Interaction Contrasts in the Two-Way Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Gregory R.; McNeish, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    For the two-way factorial design in analysis of variance, the current article explicates and compares three methods for controlling the Type I error rate for all possible simple interaction contrasts following a statistically significant interaction, including a proposed modification to the Bonferroni procedure that increases the power of…

  6. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  7. Fluid–particle flow simulations using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH–DEM and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, M.J.; Luding, S.; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    First, a meshless simulation method is presented for multiphase fluid–particle flows with a two-way coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) for the fluid and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid phase. The unresolved fluid model, based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations

  8. Mechanical Verification of a Two-Way Sliding Window Protocol (Full version including proofs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badban, Bahareh; Fokkink, Wan; Pol, van de Jaco

    2008-01-01

    We prove the correctness of a two-way sliding window protocol with piggybacking, where the acknowledgments of the latest received data are attached to the next data transmitted back into the channel. The window size of both parties are considered to be finite, though they can be of different sizes.

  9. Combating Inequalities in Two-Way Language Immersion Programs: Toward Critical Consciousness in Bilingual Education Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Soon, Claudia G.; Dorner, Lisa; Palmer, Deborah; Heiman, Dan; Schwerdtfeger, Rebecca; Choi, Jinmyung

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews critical areas of research on issues of equity/equality in the highly proclaimed and exponentially growing model of bilingual education: two-way immersion (TWI). There is increasing evidence that TWI programs are not living up to their ideal to provide equal access to educational opportunity for transnational emergent…

  10. Improving Bilingual Service Delivery in Catholic Schools through Two-Way Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin; Zehrbach, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Catholic elementary schools underserve Latino students, especially those who are bilingual. This paper presents a conceptual argument for Catholic elementary schools to improve this by pursuing the two-way immersion model of bilingual service delivery in Spanish and English. The argument is presented in three stages. First, we show that Catholic…

  11. Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs: Toward a More Inclusive Agenda in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2001-01-01

    Examines essential components of quality two-way bilingual immersion programs. Discusses language acquisition research underlying context-embedded content-area instruction in a second language; research on the benefits of bilingualism in terms of academic, cognitive, and metalinguistic development; and the link between bilingualism and positive…

  12. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  13. Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Donna; Montone, Chris; Carranza, Isolda; Lindholm, Kathryn; Proctor, Patrick

    The report presents results of a study of elementary and secondary school two-way bilingual immersion programs that focused on the program and contextual factors affecting student learning, student and teacher language use in the classroom, and teaching strategies used to promote target language use and increase language proficiency. The study…

  14. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  15. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  16. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  17. Coupled Two-Way Clustering Analysis of Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Kela, I; Domany, E; Notterman, D A; Getz, Gad; Gal, Hilah; Kela, Itai; Domany, Eytan; Notterman, Dan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present and review Coupled Two Way Clustering, a method designed to mine gene expression data. The method identifies submatrices of the total expression matrix, whose clustering analysis reveals partitions of samples (and genes) into biologically relevant classes. We demonstrate, on data from colon and breast cancer, that we are able to identify partitions that elude standard clustering analysis.

  18. An experimental study of the two-way shape memory effect in a NiTi tubular actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Ik; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Chang Ho; Lim, Jae Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ti-54.5 Ni(wt%) alloy was investigated experimentally to develop a NiTi linear actuator. The two-way shape memory effect was induced through a compressive shape memory cycle comprising four steps: (1) loading to maximum deformation; (2) unloading (3) heating and (4) cooling. Six types of specimen (one solid cylindrical and five tubular) were used to obtain the two-way shape memory strain and two-way recovery stress and to evaluate the actuating capacity. The two-way actuating strain showed a saturated tendency after several training cycles for the same maximum deformation. A maximum value of the two-way strain was obtained for 7% of maximum deformation, independently of the geometry of the tubular specimens. The two-way strains obtained by the shape memory cycles and two-way recovery stress linearly increase as a function of the maximum deformation and the two-way strain, respectively, and the geometry of specimen affects the two-way recovery stress. Although the results show that sufficient recovery stress can be generated by either the two-way shape memory process or by the one-way shape memory process, the two-way shape memory process can be applied more conveniently to actuating applications.

  19. Two-way nesting in split-explicit ocean models: Algorithms, implementation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreu, Laurent; Marchesiello, Patrick; Penven, Pierrick; Cambon, Gildas

    2012-06-01

    A full two-way nesting approach for split-explicit, free surface ocean models is presented. It is novel in three main respects: the treatment of grid refinement at the fast mode (barotropic) level; the use of scale selective update schemes; the conservation of both volume and tracer contents via refluxing. An idealized application to vortex propagation on a β plane shows agreement between nested and high resolution solutions. A realistic application to the California Current System then confirm these results in a complex configuration. The selected algorithm is now part of ROMS_AGRIF. It is fully consistent with ROMS parallel capabilities on both shared and distributed memory architectures. The nesting implementation authorizes several nesting levels and several grids at any particular level. This operational capability, combined with the inner qualities of our two-way nesting algorithm and generally high-order accuracy of ROMS numerics, allow for realistic simulation of coastal and ocean dynamics at multiple, interacting scales.

  20. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2012-10-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  1. Thermally Activated Composite with Two-Way and Multi-Shape Memory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Durand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of shape memory polymer composites is growing rapidly in smart structure applications. In this work, an active asymmetric composite called “controlled behavior composite material (CBCM” is used as shape memory polymer composite. The programming and the corresponding initial fixity of the composite structure is obtained during a bending test, by heating CBCM above thermal glass transition temperature of the used Epoxy polymer. The shape memory properties of these composites are investigated by a bending test. Three types of recoveries are conducted, two classical recovery tests: unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, and a new test of partial recovery under load. During recovery, high recovery displacement and force are produced that enables the composite to perform strong two-way actuations along with multi-shape memory effect. The recovery force confirms full recovery with two-way actuation even under a high load. This unique property of CBCM is characterized by the recovered mechanical work.

  2. The electrical power shortage problem solved by two-way communication; Toveis kan loese effektproblem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    When Norway and Sweden experience a period of cold at the same time, then the electrical network may fail to supply the required load. Since this situation prevails, on average, only a few hours each winter, increasing the supply capacity is not the way of solving the problem. Import from the continent would be hampered by bottlenecks in the network. The problem could be solved if there was two-way communication between supplier and customer. Then higher prices during peak load periods would make the end-users turn off unnecessary loads during such critical periods. Another solution would be to establish agreements with the end-users on load disconnection. Trondheim Energiverk Nett AS in Norway is evaluating the introduction of two-way communication with all their end-users.

  3. Two-way nesting in split-explicit ocean models : algorithms, implementation and validation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A full two-way nesting approach for split-explicit, free surface ocean models is presented. It is novel in three main respects: the treatment of grid refinement at the fast mode (barotropic) level; the use of scale selective update schemes; the conservation of both volume and tracer contents via refluxing. An idealized application to vortex propagation on a beta plane shows agreement between nested and high resolution solutions. A realistic application to the California Current System then co...

  4. Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Majd, Hamid; Talebi, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Khayyer, Nasibeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task. Objectives The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in const...

  5. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-05-08

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection that maximize the sum rate of the secondary network without degrading the quality of service of the primary network by respecting a tolerated interference threshold were formulated. Single relay selection and optimal power allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward protocols were studied. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods were used to find the optimal power allocation. The transmission process to exchange two different messages between two transceivers for two-way relaying technique takes place in two time slots. In the first slot, the transceivers transmit their signals simultaneously to the relay. Then, during the second slot the relay broadcasts its signal to the terminals. Moreover, improvement of both spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved compared with the one-way relaying technique. As an extension, a multiple relay selection for both one-way and two-way relaying under cognitive radio scenario using amplify-and-forward were discussed. A strong optimization tool based on genetic and iterative algorithms was employed to solve the 
formulated optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection, where discrete relay power levels were considered. Simulation results show that the practical and low-complexity heuristic approaches achieve almost the same performance of the optimal relay selection schemes either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity.

  6. Student and Teacher Oral Language Use in a Two-Way Spanish/English Immersion School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Susan; Lyster, Roy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the Spanish use of students and teachers at a US two-way immersion school. Students and teachers from Grades 1, 3, and 8 (5-6-year-olds, 7-8-years-olds, and 12-13-year-olds, respectively) were observed and interviewed, and students completed questionnaires to determine what factors influenced their language of choice and their…

  7. Fluid-particle flow and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Martin; Luding, Stefan; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    First, a meshless simulation method is presented for multiphase fluid-particle flows with a two-way coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) for the fluid and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid phase. The unresolved fluid model, based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, is expected to be considerably faster than fully resolved models. Furthermore, in contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), our purely particle-based method enjoys the flex...

  8. An investigation of two-way text messaging use with deaf students at the secondary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, C Tane; Mayer, Connie; Farrelly, Shona

    2006-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing students are often delayed in developing their independent living skills because of parental restrictions on activities outside the home due to worries about their child's inability to communicate, their whereabouts, and their general safety. Recent accounts of the use of two-way text messagers suggests that, like electronic mail, distance communication problems that have long plagued deaf people may be ameliorated--by the use of such technology (M. R. Power & D. Power, 2004; S. S. Rhone & Cox News Service, 2002). This project was designed as an initial foray into investigating the use of two-way text messaging technology as a way of increasing the independence of deaf adolescents and reducing their parents' anxiety about their safety and responsibility. All the deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the deaf and hard-of-hearing programs at two urban high schools (ages 13-19), the staff of the deaf departments at these two schools, and the parents/guardians of the students participated in this study. Preuse surveys, postuse surveys, and monthly statistics on the number of times each pager was used enabled us to chart how often the participants used the technology. The data were used to identify concerns that parents have about student independence and safety, the extent to which deaf students engage in independent activities, and expectations surrounding how two-way text messaging use might increase independence and literacy skills. The data collected on this project to date confirm that two-way text messaging technology is indeed useful for deaf adolescents and helps alleviate some of the concerns that have kept them from developing independence as quickly or readily as their hearing peers. The potential policy implications for this research are discussed.

  9. The application of laser two-way depletion model in AVLIS for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changjiang Yu [The Institution of Physics and Chemistry Engineering in Nuclear Industry, Tianjin (China); Min Yan; Dewu Wang; Chuntong Ying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1996-12-31

    We propose a two-way depletion model to be applied in AVLIS, and the problem of small isotope shifts is avoided. The higher selectivity and lower waste composition can be obtained disregarding the power broadening effect. This model makes the product and waste compositions ({sup C} p and {sup C} w) of AVLIS satisfy the requirements {sup c} p > 3.5%, {sup C} w < 0.25 easily. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A Rhetorical Grammar Analysis of Two Ways of Seeing a River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永仙

    2016-01-01

    Two Ways of Seeing a River”, an excerpt from Life on the Mississippi, written by Mark Twain and published in 1883, is a short but effective comparison essay in which Twain contrasts his then-and-now views of the Mississippi River. The rhetorical strategies and devices that are used by Twain to effectively communicate his messages to readers will be analyzed from the sentential level: vocabulary and phrases, and the figure of speech.

  11. Two-way regularization for MEG source reconstruction via multilevel coordinate descent

    KAUST Repository

    Siva Tian, Tian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) source reconstruction refers to the inverse problem of recovering the neural activity from the MEG time course measurements. A spatiotemporal two-way regularization (TWR) method was recently proposed by Tian et al. to solve this inverse problem and was shown to outperform several one-way regularization methods and spatiotemporal methods. This TWR method is a two-stage procedure that first obtains a raw estimate of the source signals and then refines the raw estimate to ensure spatial focality and temporal smoothness using spatiotemporal regularized matrix decomposition. Although proven to be effective, the performance of two-stage TWR depends on the quality of the raw estimate. In this paper we directly solve the MEG source reconstruction problem using a multivariate penalized regression where the number of variables is much larger than the number of cases. A special feature of this regression is that the regression coefficient matrix has a spatiotemporal two-way structure that naturally invites a two-way penalty. Making use of this structure, we develop a computationally efficient multilevel coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. This new one-stage TWR method has shown its superiority to the two-stage TWR method in three simulation studies with different levels of complexity and a real-world MEG data analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Damage Assessment of Two-Way Bending RC Slabs Subjected to Blast Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haokai Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks on vulnerable structures and their individual structural members may cause considerable damage and loss of life. However, the research work on response and damage analysis of single structural components, for example, a slab to blast loadings, is limited in the literature and this is necessary for assessing its vulnerability. This study investigates the blast response and damage assessment of a two-way bending reinforced concrete (RC slab subjected to blast loadings. Numerical modeling and analysis are carried out using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA 971. A damage assessment criterion for the two-way bending RC slab is defined based on the original and residual uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of explosive weight and explosive position on the damage mode of the two-way RC slab. Some design parameters, such as the boundary conditions and the negative reinforcement steel bar length, are also discussed. The illustrated results show that the proposed criterion can apply to all failure modes. The damage assessment results are more accurate than the ones due to the conventional deformation criterion.

  13. Accurate calculation of Stokes drag for point-particle tracking in two-way coupled flows

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose and test a method for calculating Stokes drag applicable to particle-laden fluid flows where two-way momentum coupling is important. In the point-particle formulation, particle dynamics are coupled to fluid dynamics via a source term that appears in the respective momentum equations. When the particle Reynolds number is small and the particle diameter is smaller than the fluid scales, it is common to approximate the momentum coupling source term as the Stokes drag. The Stokes drag force depends on the difference between the undisturbed fluid velocity evaluated at the particle location, and the particle velocity. However, owing to two-way coupling, the fluid velocity is modified in the neighborhood of a particle, relative to its undisturbed value. This causes the computed Stokes drag force to be underestimated in two-way coupled point-particle simulations. We develop estimates for the drag force error as function of the particle size relative to the grid size. We then develop a correct...

  14. Two-way text messaging: an interactive mobile learning environment in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Salinda Premadasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Short messaging service (SMS is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of a mobile learning environment being unable to reply back to the correct destination. This article presents a two-way text messaging system that can be integrated into a learning management system (LMS to provide an interactive learning experience to the user community. Initially, a database is integrated into the LMS that holds message information such as recipient's phone number, message body and user data header. A specific port associated with the SMS is used to conceal and exchange data of a particular course unit. Subsequently, software in the student's mobile device captures this message and sends back the reply message to the appropriate course unit allowing both teachers and students to view messages sent and replies received pertaining to a particular course. Results indicate the educational impact of the proposed system in improving the learning environment and benefits it offers to the community in a campus-wide implementation.

  15. Multiantenna relay beamforming design for QoS discrimination in two-way relay networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Li, Dandan; Chang, Chih-Yung; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relay beamforming design for quality of service (QoS) discrimination in two-way relay networks. The purpose is to keep legitimate two-way relay users exchange their information via a helping multiantenna relay with QoS guarantee while avoiding the exchanged information overhearing by unauthorized receiver. To this end, we propose a physical layer method, where the relay beamforming is jointly designed with artificial noise (AN) which is used to interfere in the unauthorized user's reception. We formulate the joint beamforming and AN (BFA) design into an optimization problem such that the received signal-to-interference-ratio (SINR) at the two legitimate users is over a predefined QoS threshold while limiting the received SINR at the unauthorized user which is under a certain secure threshold. The objective of the optimization problem is to seek the optimal AN and beamforming vectors to minimize the total power consumed by the relay node. Since the optimization problem is nonconvex, we solve it by using semidefinite program (SDP) relaxation. For comparison, we also study the optimal relay beamforming without using AN (BFO) under the same QoS discrimination constraints. Simulation results show that both the proposed BFA and BFO can achieve the QoS discrimination of the two-way transmission. However, the proposed BFA yields significant power savings and lower infeasible rates compared with the BFO method.

  16. Damage Assessment of Two-Way Bending RC Slabs Subjected to Blast Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haokai; Wu, Guiying

    2014-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on vulnerable structures and their individual structural members may cause considerable damage and loss of life. However, the research work on response and damage analysis of single structural components, for example, a slab to blast loadings, is limited in the literature and this is necessary for assessing its vulnerability. This study investigates the blast response and damage assessment of a two-way bending reinforced concrete (RC) slab subjected to blast loadings. Numerical modeling and analysis are carried out using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA 971. A damage assessment criterion for the two-way bending RC slab is defined based on the original and residual uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of explosive weight and explosive position on the damage mode of the two-way RC slab. Some design parameters, such as the boundary conditions and the negative reinforcement steel bar length, are also discussed. The illustrated results show that the proposed criterion can apply to all failure modes. The damage assessment results are more accurate than the ones due to the conventional deformation criterion. PMID:25121134

  17. WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled system with aerosol feedback: software development and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Wong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Air quality models such as the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ require meteorological data as part of the input to drive the chemistry and transport simulation. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP is used to convert meteorological data into CMAQ-ready input. Key shortcoming of such one-way coupling include: excessive temporal interpolation of coarsely saved meteorological input and lack of feedback of atmospheric pollutant loading on simulated dynamics. We have developed a two-way coupled system to address these issues. A single source code principle was used to construct this two-way coupling system so that CMAQ can be consistently executed as a stand-alone model or part of the coupled system without any code changes; this approach eliminates maintenance of separate code versions for the coupled and uncoupled systems. The design also provides the flexibility to permit users: (1 to adjust the call frequency of WRF and CMAQ to balance the accuracy of the simulation versus computational intensity of the system, and (2 to execute the two-way coupling system with feedbacks to study the effect of gases and aerosols on short wave radiation and subsequent simulated dynamics. Details on the development and implementation of this two-way coupled system are provided. When the coupled system is executed without radiative feedback, computational time is virtually identical when using the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM radiation option and a slightly increased (~8.5% when using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG radiation option in the coupled system compared to the offline WRF-CMAQ system. Once the feedback mechanism is turned on, the execution time increases only slightly with CAM but increases about 60% with RRTMG due to the use of a more detailed Mie calculation in this implementation of feedback mechanism. This two-way model with radiative feedback shows noticeably reduced bias in simulated surface shortwave

  18. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  19. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  20. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  1. An Inequality Concerning Quantitative Duality in an Asymmetry Two-Way Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; WU Chun-Wang; WU Wei; CHEN Ping-Xing; LI Cheng-Zu

    2009-01-01

    @@ We reinvestigate the measures concerning the notion of duality of a quantum system (the "quanton") in an asymmetry two-way interferometer. A new measure of the which-way information is introduced, which is based on the fidelity F instead of the trace distance Q of the final states of the which-way detector. An improved inequality is derived to be V2 ≤ (R20-P2)(1-F)2, which is more stringent than the previous one of V2 ≤ (1-P2)(1-Q2).

  2. Performance analysis for a two-way relaying power line network with analog network coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-wen QIAN; Meng TIAN; Xue JIANG; Hua-ju SONG; Feng SHU; Jun LI

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two-way relaying power line communication (PLC) network with analog network coding. We focus on the analysis of the system outage probability, symbol error rate, and average capacity. Specifically, we first derive the probability density function (PDF) of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a closed form, by exploiting the statistical properties of the PLC channel. Then with the help of this PDF, we develop the outage probability, symbol error rate, and average capacity with closed forms, based on the Hermite polynomial. Simulations show that the derived analytical results are consistent with those by Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Parametric down-conversion with local operation and two-way classical communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiang; Tan Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    The decoy-state quantum key distribution protocol suggested by Adachi et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 180503(2007))is proven to be secure and feasible with current techniques. It owns two attractive merits, i.e,its longer secure transmission distance and more convenient operation design. In this paper, we first improve the protocol with the aid of local operation and two-way classical communication(2-LOCC). After our modifications, the secure transmission distance is increased by about 20 km, which will make the protocol more practicable.

  4. On the performance of spectrum sharing systems with two-way relaying and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-08-01

    In this letter, we consider a spectrum sharing network with two-way relaying and multi-user diversity. More specifically, one secondary transmitter with the best channel quality is selected and splits its partial power to relay its received signals to the primary users by using the amplify-and-forward relaying protocol. We derive a tight approximation for the resulting outage probability. Based on this formula, the performance of the spectral sharing region and the cell coverage are analyzed. Numerical results are given to verify our analysis and are discussed to illustrate the advantages of our newly proposed scheme. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  5. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Outage performance of two-way DF relaying systems with a new relay selection metric

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates a new constrained relay selection scheme for two-way relaying systems where two end terminals communicate simultaneously via a relay. The introduced technique is based on the maximization of the weighted sum rate of both users. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, the outage probability is derived in a general case (where an arbitrary channel is considered), and then over independently but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. The analytical results are verified through simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Resource Allocation with Subcarrier Pairing in OFDMA Two-Way Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao; Tao, Meixia

    2012-01-01

    This study considers an orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based multi-user two-way relay network where multiple mobile stations (MSs) communicate with a common base station (BS) via multiple relay stations (RSs). We study the joint optimization problem of subcarrier-pairing based relay-power allocation, relay selection, and subcarrier assignment. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem. By using the dual method, we propose an efficient algorithm to solve the problem in an asymptotically optimal manner. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve system performance significantly over the conventional methods.

  8. Distributed Role Selection With ANC and TDBC Protocols in Two-Way Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Haiyang

    2015-09-28

    This paper advocates a distributed role selection strategy to coordinate two-way relaying transmissions among three cooperative nodes. For such, the local channel state information comparison and decision feedback mechanism are merged into classical analog network coding (ANC) and time division broadcast (TDBC) protocols such that the cooperative role of each node can be designated in a distributed fashion. We refer to this distributed role selection rule as d-ROSE. In both ANC-based and TDBC-based two-way relaying scenarios, strict proof for the equivalence of d-ROSE and optimal ROSE is given, which indicates that albeit the different form, their final role decision is essentially the same. Outage analysis for the d-ROSE strategy is carried out and the scaling law of the system outage behavior at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized, which manifests that d-ROSE can enhance the system diversity gain to one-order higher relative to the ANC and TDBC protocols. It is also shown that d-ROSE can reduce the signaling overhead upto 60% to perform the outage-optimal role selection. Finally, the impacts of node placement on the outage performance as well as the average signaling overhead of d-ROSE are numerically evaluated and some useful conclusions are drawn. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. A score test for the agronomical overlap effect in a two-way classification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Darghan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In some agricultural research, a treatment applied to an experimental unit may affect the response in the neighboring experimental units. This phenomenon is known as overlap. In this article, a test to evaluate this effect in the Draper and Guttman model was developed by imposing side conditions on the parameters of a two-way classification model to obtain a re-parameterized model which can be used in different neighboring patterns of experimental units, usually plants within a crop, whenever the nearest neighbor is considered a directly affected experimental unit and the two-way model is used. Three methods, namely maximum likelihood, least squares with side conditions and generalized inverse, were used to estimate the parameters of the original model in order to calculate the value of the test statistics for the null hypothesis associated with the absence of the overlapping effect. The three alternatives were invariant with respect to the use of test. The proposed test is simple to adopt and can be implemented in agronomy since its asymptotic nature is in agreement with the large number of experimental units which generally exist in this type of research, where each plant represents the experimental unit being assessed.

  10. Multiple phase screen calculation of two-way spherical wave propagation in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepp, Dennis L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution to the parabolic wave equation for spherical wave propagation in a disturbed ionosphere. The solution uses the Fourier/split step approach where the propagation medium is modeled using multiple phase-changing screens separated by free space. The phase screens can consist of deterministic or random components describing spatial scales of any size. This solution consists of realizations of the signal (i.e., the ionospheric transfer function) after two-way propagation from a transmitter, through the medium to a target, and back. The transmitter and target can be comprised of multiple, independent point scatterers. The solution is applicable to many propagation problems including synthetic aperture radar and is not subject to the small-scene limitation, where all scatterers in the scene experience identical propagation conditions. Several examples are given illustrating some features of the solution including reciprocity, relationship between one- and two-way (monostatic and bistatic) scintillation index, and reflection from a large target.

  11. Two-Way Optical Frequency Comparisons Over 100km Telecommunication Network Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Bercy, Anthony; Lopez, Olivier; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-01-01

    By using two-way frequency transfer, we demonstrate ultra-high resolution comparison of optical frequencies over a telecommunication fiber link of 100 km operating simultaneously digital data transfer. We first propose and experiment a bi-directional scheme using a single fiber. We show that the relative stability at 1 s integration time is 7 10^18 and scales down to 5 10^21. The same level of performance is reached when an optical link is implemented with an active compensation of the fiber noise. We also implement a real-time two-way frequency comparison over a uni-directional telecommunication network using a pair of parallel fibers. The relative frequency stability is 10^15 at 1 s integration time and reaches 2 10^17 at 40 000 s. The fractional uncertainty of the frequency comparisons was evaluated for the best case to 2 10^20. These results open the way to accurate and high resolution frequency comparison of optical clocks over intercontinental fiber networks.

  12. Prospective Teachers’ Semiotic Conflicts in Computing Probabilities from a Two-Way Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Batanero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the common knowledge of elementary probability in a sample of 183 prospective primary school teachers using and open-ended task, where teachers had to compute simple, compound and conditional probability from data presented in a two-way table. We base on theoretical ideas from the onto-semiotic approach to perform a semiotic analysis, in which we describe the mathematical objects and processes involved in the solutions of the tasks. Participants in the sample showed a weak common knowledge to compute simple, compound and conditional probabilities from a two-way table: they confused simple, compound and conditional probability; exchanged condition and event in conditional probabilities; confused probability and frequency or the union of events with the intersection. The semiotic analysis is used to provide and explanation for these errors in terms of semiotic conflicts. This list of difficulties expands what was found in previous research and may be used to reinforcing the preparation of prospective teachers to teach probability.

  13. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In our framework, we propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as an amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are used to support PUs to achieve their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. More specifically, CUs acts as relays for the PUs and gain some spectrum as long as they respect a specific power budget and primary quality-of-service constraints. In this context, we first derive closed-form expressions for optimal transmit power allocated to PUs and CUs in order to maximize the cognitive objective. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal relay amplification gains and optimal cognitive released bandwidths as well. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed algorithm for different utility metrics and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance.

  14. Two-Way Bending Properties of Shape Memory Composite with SMA and SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki Tobushi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A shape memory composite (SMC was fabricated with a shape memory alloy (SMA and a shape memory polymer (SMP, and its two-way bending deformation and recovery force were investigated. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1 two kinds of SMA tapes which show the shape memory effect (SME and superelasticity (SE were heat-treated to memorize the round shape. The shape-memorized round SMA tapes were arranged facing in the opposite directions and were sandwiched between the SMP sheets. The SMC belt can be fabricated by using the appropriate factors: the number of SMP sheets, the pressing force, the heating temperature and the hold time. (2 The twoway bending deformation with an angle of 56 degrees in the fabricated SMC belt is observed based on the SME and SE of the SMA tapes during heating and cooling. (3 If the SMC belt is heated and cooled by keeping the bent form, the recovery force increases during heating and degreases during cooling based on the two-way properties of the SMC. (4 The development and application of high-functional SMCs are expected by the combination of the SMA and the SMP with various kinds of phase transformation temperatures, volume fractions, configurations and heating-cooling rates.

  15. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Transmission for Two-Way Relay Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Xu, Youyun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a two-way relay (TWR) fading channel where two source nodes wish to exchange information with the help of a relay node. The capacity of two-way relaying is known to be limited by the hop with weak channel condition due to immediate forwarding. In this paper, we introduce store-andforward (SF) relay protocol and present a joint network coding and opportunistic transmission (NCOT) for TWR channel. Through the use of NCOT method, a new upper bound on the ergodic sum-capacity for the TWR fading system is derived when delay tends to infinity. We further propose two alternative awaiting and broadcast (AAB) schemes: pure partial decoding (PPD) with SF-I and combinatorial decoding (CBD) with SF-II, which approach the new upper bound at high SNR with unbounded and bounded delay respectively. Numerical results show that the proposed AAB schemes significantly outperform the traditional physical layer network coding (PLNC) methods without delay. Compared to the traditional TWR schemes without delay, the pr...

  16. Two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of a Micro Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-way Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI analyses performed on a micro horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT which coupled the CFX solver with Structural solver in ANSYS Workbench was conducted in this paper. The partitioned approach-based non-conforming mesh methods and the k-ε turbulence model were adopted to perform the study. Both the results of one-way and two-way FSI analyses were presented and compared with each other, and discrepancy of the results, especially the mechanical properties, were analysed. Grid convergence which is crucial to the results was performed, and the relationship between the inner flow field domain (rotational domain and the number of grids (number of cells, elements was verified for the first time. Dynamical analyses of the wind turbine were conducted using the torque as a reference value, to verify the rationality of the model which dominates the accuracy of results. The optimal case was verified and used to conduct the study, thus, the results derived from the simulation of the FSI are accurate and credible.

  17. Distributed cognitive two-way relay beamformer designs under perfect and imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. First, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI). For this case, a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power, and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power are proposed. Next, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming that the available CSI is imperfect. For this case too, we consider the same problems as those in the case of perfect CSI, and propose beamformer designs that are robust to the errors in the CSI. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the performance of the proposed designs. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Effect of width and boundary conditions on meeting maneuvers on two-way separated cycle tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alfredo; Gomez, Fernando Agustin; Llorca, Carlos; Angel-Domenech, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Cycle track design guidelines are rarely based on scientific studies. In the case of off-road two-way cycle tracks, a minimum width must facilitate both passing and meeting maneuvers, being meeting maneuvers the most frequent. This study developed a methodology to observe meeting maneuvers using an instrumented bicycle, equipped with video cameras, a GPS tracker, laser rangefinders and speed sensors. This bicycle collected data on six two-way cycle tracks ranging 1.3-2.15m width delimitated by different boundary conditions. The meeting maneuvers between the instrumented bicycle and every oncoming bicycle were characterized by the meeting clearance between the two bicycles, the speed of opposing bicycle and the reaction of the opposing rider: change in trajectory, stop pedaling or braking. The results showed that meeting clearance increased with the cycle track width and decreased if the cycle track had lateral obstacles, especially if they were higher than the bicycle handlebar. The speed of opposing bicycle shown the same tendency, although were more disperse. Opposing cyclists performed more reaction maneuvers on narrower cycle tracks and on cycle tracks with lateral obstacles to the handlebar height. Conclusions suggested avoiding cycle tracks narrower than 1.6m, as they present lower meeting clearances, lower bicycle speeds and frequent reaction maneuvers.

  19. Two-Way Training Design for Discriminatory Channel Estimation in Wireless MIMO Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This work examines the use of two-way training in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems to discriminate the channel estimation performances between a legitimate receiver (LR) and an unauthorized receiver (UR). This thesis extends upon the previously proposed discriminatory channel estimation (DCE) scheme that allows only the transmitter to send training signals. The goal of DCE is to minimize the channel estimation error at LR while requiring the channel estimation error at UR to remain beyond a certain level. If the training signal is sent only by the transmitter, the performance discrimination between LR and UR will be limited since the training signals help both receivers perform estimates of their downlink channels. In this work, we consider instead the two-way training methodology that allows both the transmitter and LR to send training signals. In this case, the training signal sent by LR helps the transmitter obtain knowledge of the transmitter-to-LR channel, but does not help UR estim...

  20. Superimposed XOR: Approaching Capacity Bounds of the Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    In two-way relay channels, bitwise XOR and symbol-level superposition coding are two popular network-coding based relaying schemes. However, neither of them can approach the capacity bound when the channels in the broadcast phase are asymmetric. In this paper, we present a new physical layer network coding (PLNC) scheme, called \\emph{superimposed XOR}. The new scheme advances the existing schemes by specifically taking into account the channel asymmetry as well as information asymmetry in the broadcast phase. We obtain its achievable rate regions over Gaussian channels when integrated with two known time control protocols in two-way relaying. We also demonstrate their average maximum sum-rates and service delay performances over fading channels. Numerical results show that the proposed superimposed XOR achieves a larger rate region than both XOR and superposition and performs much better over fading channels. We further deduce the boundary of its achievable rate region of the broadcast phase in an explicit an...

  1. Turbulent phase noise on asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. Simulations make use of the reciprocity principle to estimate both down and up link performance from wave-optics propagation of descending plane waves. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterising the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock transfer.

  2. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  3. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  4. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. PL/SQL and Bind Variable: the two ways to increase the efficiency of Network Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern data analysis applications are driven by the Network databases. They are pushing traditional database and data warehousing technologies beyond their limits due to their massively increasing data volumes and demands for low latency. There are three major challenges in working with network databases: interoperability due to heterogeneous data repositories, proactively due to autonomy of data sources and high efficiency to meet the application demand. This paper provides the two ways to meet the third challenge of network databases. This goal can be achieved by network database administrator with the usage of PL/SQL blocks and bind variable. The paper will explain the effect of PL/SQL block and bind variable on Network database efficiency to meet the modern data analysis application demand.

  6. A genetic algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks where primary users and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. More specifically, cooperative relays using Amplifyand- Forward (AF) protocol are optimally selected to maximize the sum rate of the secondary users without degrading the Quality of Service (QoS) of the primary users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A strong optimization tool based on genetic algorithm is employed to solve our formulated optimization problem where discrete relay power levels are considered. Our simulation results show that the practical heuristic approach achieves almost the same performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  7. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  8. Double criticality and the two-way Boussinesq equation in stratified shallow water hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Ratliff, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Double criticality and its nonlinear implications are considered for stratified N-layer shallow water flows with N = 1, 2, 3. Double criticality arises when the linearization of the steady problem about a uniform flow has a double zero eigenvalue. We find that there are two types of double criticality: non-semisimple (one eigenvector and one generalized eigenvector) and semi-simple (two independent eigenvectors). Using a multiple scales argument, dictated by the type of singularity, it is shown that the weakly nonlinear problem near double criticality is governed by a two-way Boussinesq equation (non-semisimple case) and a coupled Korteweg-de Vries equation (semisimple case). Parameter values and reduced equations are constructed for the examples of two-layer and three-layer stratified shallow water hydrodynamics.

  9. Precoder Design and Power Allocation for MIMO Cognitive Radio Two-Way Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-08-11

    In this paper, we study a multiple-antenna two-way relaying (TWR) cognitive radio (CR) system. A space alignment (SA) technique is adopted by the secondary users (SUs) to avoid interference with the primary users (PUs). We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the TWR achievable SU sum- rate while respecting the total power budget and the relay power constraints. We also analyze the case in which the relay is able to optimize its gain matrix structure to enhance the SU sum-rate. In the numerical results, we quantify the sum-rate gain of using the SA in the TWR CR and we show that the SU sum-rate is very limited when the relay power is low or the PU power and its resulting interference are high. In addition, we optimize the relay gain using an iterative algorithm and compare between different relay matrix structures.

  10. Generalized F test and generalized deviance test in two-way ANOVA models for randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juan; He, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting treatment effects in a randomized trial in the presence of an additional covariate. By reexpressing a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model in a logistic regression framework, we derive generalized F tests and generalized deviance tests, which provide better power in detecting common location-scale changes of treatment outcomes than the classical F test. The null distributions of the test statistics are independent of the nuisance parameters in the models, so the critical values can be easily determined by Monte Carlo methods. We use simulation studies to demonstrate how the proposed tests perform compared with the classical F test. We also use data from a clinical study to illustrate possible savings in sample sizes.

  11. Outage Probability and Power Allocation for Two-Way DF Relay Networks with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the outage probability and power allocation for the two-way decode-and-forward (DF relay networks with relay selection.~Specially, we consider independent but not necessarily identical distributed Rayleigh fading channels. Firstly, we derive an exact closed form outage probability expression. To shed light on the relation between the outage probability and the power allocation factor, an upper bound for the outage probability is derived, too. We then propose a power allocation scheme in the sense of minimizing this upper bound. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to show that the derived outage probability expression excellently matches simulation results, and our proposed power allocation scheme performs effectively.

  12. Beamforming in Two-Way Fixed Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems with CCI

    CERN Document Server

    Duong, Trung Q; Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen; Yuen, Chau

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the outage performance of a two-way fixed gain amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system with beamforming, arbitrary antenna correlation, and co-channel interference (CCI). Assuming CCI at the relay, we derive the exact individual user outage probability in closed-form. Additionally, while neglecting CCI, we also investigate the system outage probability of the considered network, which is declared if any of the two users is in transmission outage. Our results indicate that in this system, the position of the relay plays an important role in determining the user as well as the system outage probability via such parameters as signal-to-noise imbalance, antenna configuration, spatial correlation, and CCI power. To render further insights into the effect of antenna correlation and CCI on the diversity and array gains, an asymptotic expression which tightly converges to exact results is also derived.

  13. Digital transceiver design for two-way AF-MIMO relay systems with imperfect CSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Chang; Chou, Yu-Fei; Chen, Kui-He

    2013-09-01

    In the paper, combined optimization of the terminal precoders/equalizers and single-relay precoder is proposed for an amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) two-way single-relay system with correlated channel uncertainties. Both terminal transceivers and relay precoding matrix are designed based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion when terminals are unable to erase completely self-interference due to imperfect correlated channel state information (CSI). This robust joint optimization problem of beamforming and precoding matrices under power constraints belongs to neither concave nor convex so that a nonlinear matrix-form conjugate gradient (MCG) algorithm is applied to explore local optimal solutions. Simulation results show that the robust transceiver design is able to overcome effectively the loss of bit-error-rate (BER) due to inclusion of correlated channel uncertainties and residual self-interference.

  14. A low complexity algorithm for multiple relay selection in two-way relaying Cognitive Radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a multiple relay selection scheme for two-way relaying cognitive radio network is investigated. We consider a cooperative Cognitive Radio (CR) system with spectrum sharing scenario using Amplify-and-Forward (AF) protocol, where licensed users and unlicensed users operate on the same frequency band. The main objective is to maximize the sum rate of the unlicensed users allowed to share the spectrum with the licensed users by respecting a tolerated interference threshold. A practical low complexity heuristic approach is proposed to solve our formulated optimization problem. Selected numerical results show that the proposed algorithm reaches a performance close to the performance of the optimal multiple relay selection scheme either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity. In addition, these results show that our proposed scheme significantly outperforms the single relay selection scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we study two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation over a multiple relay network. In order to keep the diversity order equal to the number of relays and maintain a low complexity, we consider the best relay selection scheme in this work. Based on the proposed selection criterion for the best relay, we analyze the average spectral efficiency by its approximated upper bound. In addition, we extend the proposed scheme to the case where a direct path between source and destination exists. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in the spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rates requirements. ©2009 IEEE.

  16. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this “green-wave” scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  17. A two-way nesting procedure for an ocean model with application to the Norwegian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggelund, Yngve; Berntsen, Jarle

    2000-11-01

    Two-way nesting for a {sigma}-coordinate ocean model is implemented. The test case is a traveling low pressure along the west coast of Norway. Different methods for interaction between the coarse grid and the fine grid have been investigated. It is found that both a Dirichlet type and a FRS-type boundary condition for the fine grid give reasonable results for this test case. The FRS-type boundary condition gives a smoother transition between the coarse and fine grid, but more noise in the interior of the fine grid. With no feedback from the fine grid to the coarse grid, phase differences between the solutions on the two grids cause unphysical vortices to be found at the interface between the grids. (author)

  18. A practical two-way system of quantum key distribution with untrusted source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming-Juan; Liu Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The most severe problem of a two-way “plug-and-play” (p & p) quantum key distribution system is that the source can be controlled by the eavesdropper.This kind of source is defined as an “untrusted source”.This paper discusses the effects of the fluctuation of internal transmittance on the final key generation rate and the transmission distance.The security of the standard BB84 protocol,one-decoy state protocol,and weak+vacuum decoy state protocol,with untrusted sources and the fluctuation of internal transmittance are studied.It is shown that the one-decoy state is sensitive to the statistical fluctuation but weak+vacuum decoy state is only slightly affected by the fluctuation.It is also shown that both the maximum secure transmission distance and final key generation rate are reduced when Alice's laboratory transmittance fluctuation is considered.

  19. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    CERN Document Server

    Panaggio, Mark J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counter-intuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive dens...

  20. On Achievable Rate Regions of the Asymmetric AWGN Two-Way Relay Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Lawrence; Johnson, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the additive white Gaussian noise two-way relay channel, where two users exchange messages through a relay. Asymmetrical channels are considered where the users can transmit data at different rates and at different power levels. We modify and improve existing coding schemes to obtain three new achievable rate regions. Comparing four downlink-optimal coding schemes, we show that the scheme that gives the best sum-rate performance is (i) complete-decode-forward, when both users transmit at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); (ii) functional-decode-forward with nested lattice codes, when both users transmit at high SNR; (iii) functional-decode-forward with rate splitting and time-division multiplexing, when one user transmits at low SNR and another user at medium--high SNR.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Goodput Analysis in Two-Way Wireless Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study two-way relay networks (TWRNs) in which two source nodes exchange their information via a relay node indirectly in Rayleigh fading channels. Both Amplify-and-Forward (AF) and Decode-and-Forward (DF) techniques have been analyzed in the TWRN employing a Markov chain model through which the network operation is described and investigated in depth. Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) retransmission has been applied to guarantee the successful packet delivery. The bit energy consumption and goodput expressions have been derived as functions of transmission rate in a given AF or DF TWRN. Numerical results are used to identify the optimal transmission rates where the bit energy consumption is minimized or the goodput is maximized. The network performances are compared in terms of energy and transmission efficiency in AF and DF modes.

  2. Alternative Awaiting and Broadcast for Two-Way Relay Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Tao, Meixia

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a two-way relay (TWR) fading channel based on store-and-forward (SF), where two source nodes wish to exchange information with the help of a relay node. A new upper bound on the ergodic sum-capacity for the TWR fading system is derived when delay tends to infinity.We further propose two alternative awaiting and broadcast (AAB) schemes: pure partial decoding (PPD) with SF-I and combinatorial decoding (CBD) with SF-II, which approach the new upper bound at high SNR with unbounded and bounded delay respectively. Numerical results show that the proposed AAB schemes significantly outperform the traditional physical layer network coding (PLNC) methods without delay. Compared to the traditional TWR schemes without delay, the proposed CBD with SF-II method significantly improves the maximum sum-rate with an average delay of only some dozen seconds in the relay buffer.

  3. Randomization for Security in Half-Duplex Two-Way Gaussian Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Gamal, Aly El; Gamal, Hesham El

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a new physical layer framework for secure two-way wireless communication in the presence of a passive eavesdropper, i.e., Eve. Our approach achieves perfect information theoretic secrecy via a novel randomized scheduling and power allocation scheme. The key idea is to allow Alice and Bob to send symbols at random time instants. While Alice will be able to determine the symbols transmitted by Bob, Eve will suffer from ambiguity regarding the source of any particular symbol. This desirable ambiguity is enhanced, in our approach, by randomizing the transmit power level. Our theoretical analysis, in a 2-D geometry, reveals the ability of the proposed approach to achieve relatively high secure data rates under mild conditions on the spatial location of Eve. These theoretical claims are then validated by experimental results using IEEE 802.15.4-enabled sensor boards in different configurations, motivated by the spatial characteristics of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN).

  4. Optimal relay selection and power allocation for cognitive two-way relaying networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present an optimal scheme for power allocation and relay selection in a cognitive radio network where a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. We propose joint relay selection and optimal power allocation among the secondary user (SU) nodes achieving maximum throughput under transmit power and PU interference constraints. A closed-form solution for optimal allocation of transmit power among the SU transceivers and the SU relay is presented. Furthermore, numerical simulations and comparisons are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. VIDEO-BASED VEHICLE DETECTION ON A TWO-WAY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew CZAPLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of vehicle detection on a two-way road. Vehicle detection is carried out on the basis of the video stream from the camera placed over a road. The input image sequence is created by consecutive frames taken from the video stream. Images from the input image sequence are processed individually one by one. A detection field is defined for each lane of the road. Images from the input image sequence are converted into point image representation. The sums of the edge points within the detection fields are calculated. States of the detection fields are determined on the basis of calculated sums of the edge points. Vehicles are detected by analysis of states of the detection fields. Experimental results are provided.

  6. Development of a Portable Two-Way Communication and Information Device for Deafblind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozioko, Oliver; Hersh, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents research on the development of a wearable two-way communication and information device for deafblind people who use tactile communications methods, namely the British deafblind manual alphabet and/or Braille. The device has two components: a glove worn by the deafblind person and a handheld display with keypad to be used by their hearing and sighted communication partner. Users can send messages using pressure sensors embedded in the glove and receive them by means of vibration on the palm. The two components are linked by Bluetooth and the use of Bluetooth to communicate with computers, mobile phones and other Bluetooth enabled devices is being investigated. The design was informed by feedback obtained from a survey of deafblind people and interviews with staff in two organisations for deafblind people. Research and development of the device is still ongoing.

  7. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  8. On achievable rate of two-way relaying cognitive radio with space alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-09-11

    We study a multiple-antenna two-way relaying (TWR) spectrum sharing system. A space alignment (SA) technique is adopted by the secondary users (SU\\'s) to avoid interference with the primary users (PU\\'s). We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the TWR achievable sum-rate of the SU while respecting the total power budget and the relay power constraints. In the numerical results, we quantify the sum-rate gain of using the SA in the TWR CR and we show that the SU sum-rate is very limited when the relay power is low or the PU\\'s power and its resulting interference is high. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying with HPA nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-andforward (AF) relaying in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity at relays. The expression for the end-toend signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived as per the modified system model by taking into account the interference caused by relaying scheme and HPA nonlinearity. The system performance of the considered relaying network is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP) in Nakagami-m fading channels, by making use of the moment-generating function (MGF) approach. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several parameters, such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) order, number of relays, HPA parameters, and Nakagami parameter, on performance. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A

    2014-03-01

    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  11. Outage Performance of Decode-and-Forward in Two-Way Relaying with Outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-01-07

    In this paper, we analyze the outage behavior of decode-and-forward relaying in the context of selective two-way cooperative systems. First, a new relay selection metric is proposed to take into consideration both transmission rates and instantaneous link conditions between cooperating nodes. Afterwards, the outage probability of the proposed system is derived for Nakagami-m fading channels in the case when perfect channel state information is available and then extended to the more realistic scenario where the available channel state information (CSI) is outdated due to fast fading. New expressions for the outage probability are obtained, and the impact of imperfect CSI on the performance is evaluated. Illustrative numerical results, Monte Carlo simulations, and comparisons with similar approaches are presented to assess the accuracy of our analytical derivations and confirm the performance gain of the proposed scheme.

  12. Mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaobi; Chen, Jian Yun; Xu, Qiang; Li, Jing [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2015-08-15

    In order to analyze the mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading, a finite element model based on the nuclear power plant containments is demonstrated. This model takes into account the influences of different principal stress directions, the uniaxial or biaxial loading, and biaxial loading ratio. The displacement-controlled load is applied to obtain the stress-strain response. The simulated results indicate that the differences of principal stress axes have great effects on the stress-strain response under uniaxial loading. When the specimens are subjected to biaxial loading, the change trend of stress with the increase of loading ratio is obviously different along different layout directions. In addition, correlation experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the analysis in this study.

  13. A Nonparametric Test of Interaction in the General Two-Way Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ÖHRVIK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-way layout is frequently occurring, e.g. blocking is used to reduce the between subject variability when comparing treatments or many medical centers are included in a clinical trial to recruit a sufficient number of patients. In epidemiological studies, it is common to study the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This paper is concerned with the statistical analysis of data arising in these situations when assumptions like normality do not necessarily apply. The main objective of this paper is to propose a test for interactions for continuous data based on joint ranking of all observations after iteratively eliminating the two main effects. The validity of the significance levels of the test when using a finite sample version of the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is manifested and the power against different alternatives illustrated by extensive simulation experiments. The proposed test is compared with competitors on published data sets. Data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland (SALVe project are analyzed both with our test and Brunner and Puri's proposal. The test shows good asymptotic and small sample properties. It can be used in the general two-way layout and multiple comparisons can be performed in a straightforward way. The analyses of the SALVe project show that our proposal can be useful in such studies. It has the potential to pick-up interactions hidden in the noise of gross errors when using standard ANOVA. The test may become a valuable tool and alternative to other proposals in exploring interactions.

  14. Two-way coupled fluid structure interaction simulation of a propeller turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, H [Voith Hydro GmbH and Co. KG, Germany Alexanderstrasse 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany); Flemming, F; Coulson, S, E-mail: Hannes.Schmucker@voith.co [Voith Hydro Inc. York, PA, 760 East Berlin Road, York, PA, 17408 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    During the operation of a hydro turbine the fluid mechanical pressure loading on the turbine blades provides the driving torque on the turbine shaft. This fluid loading results in a structural load on the component which in turn causes the turbine blade to deflect. Classically, these mechanical stresses and deflections are calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA) which applies the pressure distribution on the blade surface calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a major boundary condition. Such an approach can be seen as a oneway coupled simulation of the fluid structure interaction (FSI) problem. In this analysis the reverse influence of the deformation on the fluid is generally neglected. Especially in axial machines the blade deformation can result in a significant impact on the turbine performance. The present paper analyzes this influence by means of fully two-way coupled FSI simulations of a propeller turbine utilizing two different approaches. The configuration has been simulated by coupling the two commercial solvers ANSYS CFX for the fluid mechanical simulation with ANSYS Classic for the structure mechanical simulation. A detailed comparison of the results for various blade stiffness by means of changing Young's Modulus are presented. The influence of the blade deformation on the runner discharge and performance will be discussed and shows for the configuration investigated no significant influence under normal structural conditions. This study also highlights that a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction simulation of a real engineering configuration is still a challenging task for today's commercially available simulation tools.

  15. Achieving Superior Two-Way Actuation by the Stress-Coupling of Nanoribbons and Nanocrystalline Shape Memory Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Jiang, Daqiang; Yang, Feng; Cong, Daoyong; Wang, Yandong; Cui, Lishan

    2016-06-08

    Inspired by the driving principle of traditional bias-type two-way actuators, we developed a novel two-way actuation nanocomposite wire in which a massive number of Nb nanoribbons with ultra-large elastic strains are loaded inside a shape memory alloy (SMA) matrix to form a continuous array of nano bias actuation pairs for two-way actuation. The composite exhibits a two-way actuation strain of 3.2% during a thermal cycle and an actuation stress of 934 MPa upon heating, which is about twice higher than that (~500 MPa) found in reported two-way SMAs. Upon cooling, the composite shows an actuation stress of 134 MPa and a mechanical work output of 1.08*106 J/ m3, which are about three and five times higher than that of reported two-way SMAs, respectively. It is revealed that the massive number of Nb nanoribbons in compressive state provides the high actuation stress and high work output upon cooling and the SMA matrix with high yield strength offers the high actuation stress upon heating. Compared to traditional bias-type two-way actuators, the two-way actuation composite with small volume and simple construct is in favour of the miniaturization and simplification of actuators.

  16. 78 FR 21629 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent...

  17. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System... satellite communication devices, systems. The complaint names as respondents Delorme Publishing Company Inc...

  18. Latino Children Attending a Two-Way Immersion Program in the United States: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lisa M.; Tapanes, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on two-way immersion programs has empirically investigated the success of such programs on children's dual-language development. The present study focuses on the language abilities of Latino children attending a Spanish-English differentiated two-way immersion program in the United States. Family dynamics relating to placement in this…

  19. The Impact of Two-Way Dual-Immersion Programs on Initially English-Dominant Latino Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Forty initially English-dominant Latino students in four 90:10 Spanish two-way dual-immersion programs and 62 of their peers in mainstream English programs were studied to find out if their attitudes toward Spanish and Spanish-dominant individuals differ. Significant differences were found on many variables, with two-way dual-immersion students…

  20. Achieving Superior Two-Way Actuation by the Stress-Coupling of Nanoribbons and Nanocrystalline Shape Memory Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Ren, Yang; Jiang, Daqiang; Yang, Feng; Cong, Daoyong; Wang, Yandong; Cui, Lishan

    2016-06-29

    Inspired by the driving principle of traditional bias-type two-way actuators, we developed a novel two-way actuation nanocomposite wire in which a massive number of Nb nanoribbons with ultralarge elastic strains are loaded inside a shape memory alloy (SMA) matrix to form a continuous array of nanobias actuation pairs for two-way actuation. The composite exhibits a two-way actuation strain of 3.2% during a thermal cycle and an actuation stress of 934 MPa upon heating, which is about twice as high as that (∼500 MPa) found in reported two-way SMAs. Upon cooling, the composite shows an actuation stress of 134 MPa and a mechanical work output of 1.08 × 10(6) J/m(3), which are about three and five times higher than those of reported two-way SMAs, respectively. It was revealed that the massive number of Nb nanoribbons in the compressive state provides the high actuation stress and high work output upon cooling, and the SMA matrix with high yield strength offers the high actuation stress upon heating. Compared to traditional bias-type two-way actuators, the two-way actuation composite with a small volume and simple construct works well with the miniaturization and simplification of actuators.

  1. Celestial-mechanical interpretation of the two-way radio measurements of radial velocity of spacecraft for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komovkin, S. V.; Lavrenov, S. M.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Yaroshevsky, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    The article describes a model of the two-way measurements of radial velocity based on the Doppler effect. The relations are presented for the instantaneous value of the increment range at the time of measurement and the radial velocity of the mid-dimensional interval. The compensation of methodological errors of interpretation of the two-way Doppler measurements is considered.

  2. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman-MacLaren Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress

  3. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  4. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  5. Cross-Layer Design for Two-Way Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhuo wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a cross-layer design for two-way relaying (TWR networks with multiple antennas, where two single antenna source nodes exchange information with the aid of one multiple antenna relay node. The proposed cross-layer design considers adaptive modulation (AM and space-time block coding (STBC at the physical layer with an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol at the data link layer, in order to maximize the spectral efficiency under specific delay and packet error ratio (PER constraints. An MMSE-interference cancellation (IC receiver is employed at the relay node, to remove the interference in the fist phase of the TWR transmission. The transmission mode is updated for each phase of the TWR transmission on a frame-by-frame basis, to match the time-varying channel conditions and exploit the system performance and throughput gain. Simulation results show that retransmission at the data link layer could alleviate rigorous error-control requirements at the physical layer, and thereby allows higher data transmission. As a result, cross-layer design helps to achieve considerable system spectral efficiency gain for TWR networks, compared to those without cross-layer design.

  6. A Novel Secure Transmission Scheme in MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels with Physical Layer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issue has been considered as one of the most pivotal aspects for the fifth-generation mobile network (5G due to the increasing demands of security service as well as the growing occurrence of security threat. In this paper, instead of focusing on the security architecture in the upper layer, we investigate the secure transmission for a basic channel model in a heterogeneous network, that is, two-way relay channels. By exploiting the properties of the transmission medium in the physical layer, we propose a novel secure scheme for the aforementioned channel mode. With precoding design, the proposed scheme is able to achieve a high transmission efficiency as well as security. Two different approaches have been introduced: information theoretical approach and physical layer encryption approach. We show that our scheme is secure under three different adversarial models: (1 untrusted relay attack model, (2 trusted relay with eavesdropper attack model, and (3 untrusted relay with eavesdroppers attack model. We also derive the secrecy capacity of the two different approaches under the three attacks. Finally, we conduct three simulations of our proposed scheme. The simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis illustrating that our proposed scheme could achieve a better performance than the existing schemes.

  7. Cognitive two-way relay beamforming: Design with resilience to channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Ubaidulla, P.

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we propose a robust distributed relay beamformer design for cognitive radio network operating under uncertainties in the available channel state information. The cognitive network consists of a pair of transceivers and a set of non-regenerative two-way relays that assist the communication between the transceiver pair. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user node while ensuring that the interference to the primary receiver is maintained below a certain threshold. The proposed robust design maximizes the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio at the secondary transceivers while satisfying constraints on the interference to the primary user and on the total relay transmit power. Though the robust design problem is not a convex problem in its original form, we show that it can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the merits of the proposed design for various operating conditions and parameters. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. Fluid-particle flow modelling and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present a meshless simulation method for multiphase fluid-particle flows coupling Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Rather than fully resolving the interstitial fluid, which is often infeasible, the unresolved fluid model is based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, which are coupled with a DEM model for the solid phase. In contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), this is a purely particle-based method and enjoys the flexibility that comes from the lack of a prescribed mesh. It is suitable for problems such as free surface flow or flow around complex, moving and/or intermeshed geometries. It can be used for both one and two-way coupling and is applicable to both dilute and dense particle flows. A comprehensive validation procedure for fluid-particle simulations is presented and applied to the SPH-DEM method, using simulations of single and multiple particle sedimentation in a 3D fluid column and comparison with analytical model...

  9. Optimization of a two-way MIMO amplify-and-forward relay network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Yinjiang; Pan, Chuanyi; Zhao, Huapeng; Kang, Ning

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider optimization of a two-way multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) amplify-and-forward relay network which consists of a pair of transceivers and several relay nodes. Multiple antennas are equipped on the transceivers and relays. Multiple access broadcast scheme which finishes communication in two time slots is considered. In the first time slot, signals received by the relays are scaled by several beamforming matrices. In the second time slot, the relays transmit the scaled signals to the two transceivers. Upon receiving these signals, a MIMO equalizer is implemented at each transceiver to recover the desired signal. In this paper, zero forcing equalizers are used. Joint optimization of the beamforming matrices and the equalizers are realized using the following criteria: 1) the total relay transmission power is minimized subject to the minimal output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) constraint at each transceiver, 2) the minimal output SNR of the two transceivers is maximized subject to total relay transmission power constraint, and 3) the minimal output SNR of the two transceivers is maximized subject to individual relay transmission power constraint. It is shown that the proposed optimization problems can be formulated as the second-order cone programming problems which can be solved efficiently. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations.

  10. Multi-pair cognitive two-way relaying and power allocation under imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a robust joint relay precoder design and transceiver power allocation for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information. The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of multiple pairs of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the intra-pair communication process of the transceiver nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. The proposed robust design is based on the minimization of the sum mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes under constraints on the secondary users\\' transmit powers and interference to PU the receiver. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be solved using alternating optimization of convex subproblems which have analytic or efficient numerical solutions. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Two-way self-consistent coupling of HEIDI in SWMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present results from the two-way coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model and the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounced averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. This model was generalized to accommodate an arbitrary magnetic field and, through the coupling with SWMF, it obtains the magnetic field description along with the plasma distribution at the model boundaries from the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model within the SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. Our study tests the various levels of coupling between the 3 models, highlighting the roles that the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. The results of the self-consistent coupling between HEIDI, BATSRUS and RIM during disturbed conditions emphasize the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of the geospace.

  12. EEG/MEG Source Reconstruction with Spatial-Temporal Two-Way Regularized Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2013-07-11

    In this work, we propose a spatial-temporal two-way regularized regression method for reconstructing neural source signals from EEG/MEG time course measurements. The proposed method estimates the dipole locations and amplitudes simultaneously through minimizing a single penalized least squares criterion. The novelty of our methodology is the simultaneous consideration of three desirable properties of the reconstructed source signals, that is, spatial focality, spatial smoothness, and temporal smoothness. The desirable properties are achieved by using three separate penalty functions in the penalized regression framework. Specifically, we impose a roughness penalty in the temporal domain for temporal smoothness, and a sparsity-inducing penalty and a graph Laplacian penalty in the spatial domain for spatial focality and smoothness. We develop a computational efficient multilevel block coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. Using a simulation study with several settings of different spatial complexity and two real MEG examples, we show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods that use only a subset of the three penalty functions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Joint Source and Relay Precoding Designs for MIMO Two-Way Relaying Based on MSE Criterion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Properly designed precoders can significantly improve the spectral efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay systems. In this paper, we investigate joint source and relay precoding design based on the mean-square-error (MSE) criterion in MIMO two-way relay systems, where two multi-antenna source nodes exchange information via a multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relay node. This problem is non-convex and its optimal solution remains unsolved. Aiming to find an efficient way to solve the problem, we first decouple the primal problem into three tractable sub-problems, and then propose an iterative precoding design algorithm based on alternating optimization. The solution to each sub-problem is optimal and unique, thus the convergence of the iterative algorithm is guaranteed. Secondly, we propose a structured precoding design to lower the computational complexity. The proposed precoding structure is able to parallelize the channels in the multiple access (MAC) phase and broadcast (BC) phase. It th...

  14. Pairwise Check Decoding for LDPC Coded Two-Way Relay Block Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Xu, Youyun

    2011-01-01

    Partial decoding is known to have the potential to achieve a larger rate region than that of full decoding in two-way relay (TWR) channels. Existing partial decoding realizations are however designed for Gaussian channels and with a static physical layer network coding (PLNC) mapping. In this paper, we propose a new channel coding solution at the relay, called \\emph{pairwise check decoding} (PCD), for low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded TWR system over block fading channels. The main idea is to form a check relationship table (check-relation-tab) for the superimposed LDPC coded packet pair in the multiple access (MA) phase in conjunction with an adaptive PLNC mapping in the broadcast (BC) phase. Using PCD, we then present a partial decoding method, two-stage closest-neighbor clustering with PCD (TS-CNC-PCD), with the aim of minimizing the worst pairwise error performance. Moreover, a kind of correlative rows optimization, named as the minimum correlation optimization (MCO), is proposed for selecting the bet...

  15. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-08

    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  16. Two-way shape memory behavior of semi-crystalline elastomer under stress-free condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen; Dong, Yubing; Zhu, Yaofeng; Fu, Yaqin

    2016-08-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers exhibit two-way shape memory effect (2W-SME) under constant stresses through crystallization-induced elongation upon cooling and melting-induced constriction upon heating. The applied constant stress influenced the prediction and usability of 2W-SME in practical applications without any external force. Here the reversible shape transition in EVA-shaped memory polymer was quantitative analyzed under a suitable temperature range and external stress-free condition. The fraction of reversible strain increased with increasing upper temperature (T high) within the temperature range and reached the maximum value of 13.62% at 70 °C. However, reversible strain transition was almost lost when T high exceeded 80 °C because of complete melting of crystalline scaffold, known as the latent recrystallization template. The non-isothermal annealing of EVA 2W-SMP under changing circulating temperatures was confirmed. Moreover, the orientation of crystallization was retained at high temperatures. These findings may contribute to design an appropriate shape memory protocol based on application-specific requirements.

  17. Gaussian Two-way Relay Channel with Private Information for the Relay

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chin Keong; Sun, Sumei

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a generalized two-way relay channel where two sources exchange information (not necessarily of the same rate) with help from a relay, and each source additionally sends private information to the relay. We consider the Gaussian setting where all point-to-point links are Gaussian channels. For this channel, we consider a two-phase protocol consisting of a multiple access channel (MAC) phase and a broadcast channel (BC) phase. We propose a general decode-and-forward (DF) scheme where the MAC phase is related to computation over MAC, while the BC phase is related to BC with receiver side information. In the MAC phase, we time share a capacity-achieving code for the MAC and a superposition code with a lattice code as its component code. We show that the proposed DF scheme is near optimal for any channel conditions, in that it achieves rates within half bit of the capacity region of the two-phase protocol.

  18. Performance Analysis of Adaptive Physical Layer Network Coding for Wireless Two-way Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Muralidharan, Vijayvaradharaj T

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of modulation schemes for the physical layer network-coded two way relaying scenario is presented which employs two phases: Multiple access (MA) phase and Broadcast (BC) phase. It was shown by Koike-Akino et. al. that adaptively changing the network coding map used at the relay according to the channel conditions greatly reduces the impact of multiple access interference which occurs at the relay during the MA phase. Depending on the signal set used at the end nodes, deep fades occur for a finite number of channel fade states referred as the singular fade states. The singular fade states fall into the following two classes: The ones which are caused due to channel outage and whose harmful effect cannot be mitigated by adaptive network coding are referred as the \\textit{non-removable singular fade states}. The ones which occur due to the choice of the signal set and whose harmful effects can be removed by a proper choice of the adaptive network coding map are referred as the \\textit{removable} sin...

  19. Carrier-phase Two-Way Satellite Frequency Transfer over a Very Long Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Fujieda, M; Gotoh, T; Becker, J; Aida, M; Bauch, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report that carrier-phase two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) was successfully demonstrated over a very long baseline of 9,000 km, established between the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). We verified that the carrier-phase TWSTFT (TWCP) result agreed with those obtained by conventional TWSTFT and GPS carrier-phase (GPSCP) techniques. Moreover, a much improved short-term instability for frequency transfer of $2\\times10^{-13}$ at 1 s was achieved, which is at the same level as previously confirmed over a shorter baseline within Japan. The precision achieved was so high that the effects of ionospheric delay became significant which are ignored in conventional TWSTFT even over a long link. We compensated for these effects using ionospheric delays computed from regional vertical total electron content maps. The agreement between the TWCP and GPSCP results was improved because of this compe...

  20. Artificial muscles made of chiral two-way shape memory polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianxi; Fan, Jizhou; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the unusual improvement of the tensile actuation of hierarchically chiral structured artificial muscle made of two-way shape memory polymer (2W-SMP) fiber. Experimental results show that the chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) 2W-SMP fibers possess an average negative coefficient of thermal expansion (NCTE) that is at least one order higher than that of the polyethylene fiber used previously. As expected, the increase in axial thermal contraction of the precursor fiber leads to an increase in the recovered torque ( 4.4 Nmm ) of the chiral fiber and eventually in the tensile actuation of the twisted-then-coiled artificial muscle ( 67.81 ±1.82 % ). A mechanical model based on Castigliano's second theorem is proposed, and the calculated result is consistent with the experimental result (64.17% tensile stroke). The model proves the significance of the NCTE and the recovered torque on tensile actuation of the artificial muscle and can be used as a guidance for the future design.

  1. Usefulness of phage typing and "two-way ribotyping" to differentiate Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, E; Usera, M A; Calderón, C; Mendoza, M C

    1997-12-01

    The capacity to differentiate Salmonella enteritidis strains by phage typing and "two-way ribotyping" performed with PstI and SphI was evaluated. The typeability was 96.8% in phage typing and 100% in ribotyping. The series was differentiated into 13 phage types, 19 combined ribotypes, and 39 subtypes or clonal lines by combining results from both methods (of which 11, 13, and 35, respectively, were represented by natural strains). Ribotyping differentiated strains ascribed to PTs 1, 4, 6a, 7, 8, RDNC and UPT. Conversely, some strains of PTs 1, 4, 5a, 6, 6a, 7, 34, RDNC and UPT fall into the most frequent combined ribotype. A dendrogram of genetic similarity generated from the combined ribotypes was traced, and, at a 0.82 similarity level, it showed a major cluster (including 17 combined ribotypes, 88.4% strains ascribed to all PTs tested except PT11), a minor cluster, and four additional lines more loosely related.

  2. Robust distributed two-way relay beamforming in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present distributed beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) consisting of a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicating with each other through a set of secondary non-regenerative two-way relays. The secondary network shares the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU), and operates under a constraint on the maximum interference to the PU, in addition to its own resource and quality of service (QoS) constraints. We propose beamformer designs assuming that the available channel state information (CSI) is imperfect, which reflects realistic scenarios. The performance of proposed designs is robust to the CSI errors. Such robustness is critical in CRNs given the difficulty in acquiring perfect CSI due to loose cooperation between the PUs and the secondary users (SUs), and the need for strict enforcement of PU interference limit. We consider a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the improved performance of the proposed robust designs compared to non-robust designs. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  4. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  5. Two-way WKB Approximation Applied to GPR - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopovich, Igor; Popov, Alexei; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of subsurface radio wave probing consists in reconstruction of the shape and the electrical properties of buried objects in material media. For this purpose the knowledge of the laws of EM pulse excitation and propagation in non-uniform subsurface medium is required, as well as the methods and algorithms of solving the inverse problem. Two ways of treating this problem exist. On the one hand, one can describe EM wave propagation by solving the Maxwell's equations with finite difference methods implemented in computer codes. However, when solving inverse problems, pure numerical algorithms require huge amount of calculation and, as a consequence, long calculation time. In this respect, more promising are analytical approaches. Here, we apply couple wave theory ("two-way WKB" approximation) to the problem of subsurface wave propagation. The derived formulas can be used in GPR design and for fast data processing of the experimental data. We start from the 1D model problem of GPR probing. Classical WKB method [1] allows one to describe wave propagation through non-uniform media with slowly varying dielectric permittivity. A principal shortcoming of this approximation is that it does not take into account backward reflection from permittivity gradients. Consequently, WKB method as such can not be used for the purposes of GPR sounding. An extension of this approximation consists in solving two coupled WKB-type equations by iterations. This approach properly describes backward reflections and provides good accuracy in a wide frequency range [2]. In our previous work [3] a time-domain counterpart of the Bremmer-Brekhovkikh approximation has been derived and applied to a 1D inverse problem of subsurface medium probing by an ultra-wide band EM pulse. In order to convert this approach into a practical GPR algorithm, a more realistic model is required: 2D or 3D propagation from a localized source with the effects of wave divergence and refraction taken into

  6. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral

  7. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen(®) and Natus Echo-Screen(®) were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  8. Joint Preprocesser-Based Detectors for One-Way and Two-Way Cooperative Communication Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-05-01

    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication networks are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of L relays. As the receiver is constrained, channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix that reduces the length of the received vector from L to U. In the first part of the work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines our proposed threshold selection criteria with the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm that is based on the mean square error (MSE). Our receiver assists in determining the optimal U. Furthermore, this receiver provides the freedom to choose U for each frame depending on the tolerable difference allowed for MSE. Our study and simulation results show that by choosing an appropriate threshold, it is possible to gain in terms of complexity savings while having no or minimal effect on the BER performance of the system. Furthermore, the effect of channel estimation on the performance of the cooperative system is investigated. In the second part of the work, a joint preprocessor-based detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed for one-way and two-way relaying. This joint preprocessor-based detector operates on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER) instead of minimizing MSE. For a realistic assessment, pilot symbols are used to estimate the channel. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Finally, our proposed scheme has the lowest computational complexity.

  9. Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEP–Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Pro...

  10. SOME ASPECTS OF THE TWO WAY SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT INDUCED BY PSEUDOELASTIC CYCLING IN Cu-Zn-Al ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Cesari, E.; Picornell, C.; Pons, J.; Sade, M.

    1991-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) induced by pseudoelastic cycling in Cu-Zn-Al single crystals has been studied. We analyzed the influence of the mechanical cycling characteristics (tensile or compressing) and of the presence of [MATH]-phase precipitates in the material. The two-way memory effect induced by compressing cycling appears after a smaller number of cycles than in tensile pseudoelastic cycling. The presence of [MATH]-phase precipitates also reduces the number of cycles needed...

  11. Two Way Coupling RAM-SCB to the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Jordanova, V. K.; Zaharia, S. G.; Toth, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) has been used to successfully study inner magnetosphere dynamics during different solar wind and magnetosphere conditions. Recently, one way coupling of RAM-SCB with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) has been achieved to replace all data or empirical inputs with those obtained through first-principles-based codes: magnetic field and plasma flux outer boundary conditions are provided by the Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD code, convection electric field is provided by the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM), and ion composition is provided by the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) combined with a multi-species MHD approach. These advances, though creating a powerful inner magnetosphere virtual laboratory, neglect the important mechanisms through which the ring current feeds back into the whole system, primarily the stretching of the magnetic field lines and shielding of the convection electric field through strong region two Field Aligned Currents (FACs). In turn, changing the magnetosphere in this way changes the evolution of the ring current. To address this shortcoming, the coupling has been expanded to include feedback from RAM-SCB to the other coupled codes: region two FACs are returned to the RIM while total plasma pressure is used to nudge the MHD solution towards the RAM-SCB values. The impacts of the two way coupling are evaluated on three levels: the global magnetospheric level, focusing on the impact on the ionosphere and the shape of the magnetosphere, the regional level, examining the impact on the development of the ring current in terms of energy density, anisotropy, and plasma distribution, and the local level to compare the new results to in-situ measurements of magnetic and electric field and plasma. The results will also be compared to past simulations using the one way coupling and no coupling

  12. A Research on Errors in Two-way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. J.

    2013-07-01

    The two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is one of the most accurate means for remote clock comparison with an uncertainty in time of less than 1 ns and with a relative uncertainty in frequency of about 10^{-14} d^{-1}. The transmission paths of signals between two stations are almost symmetrical in the TWSTFT. In principal, most of all kinds of path delays are canceled out, which guarantees the high accuracy of TWSTFT. With the development of TWSTFT and the increase in the frequence of observations, it is showed that the diurnal variation of systematic errors is about 1˜3 ns in the TWSTFT. This problem has become a hot topic of research around the world. By using the data of Transfer Satellite Orbit Determination Net (TSODN) and international TWSTFT links, the systematic errors are studied in detail as follows: (1) The atmospheric effect. This includes ionospheric and tropospheric effects. The tropospheric effect is very small, and it can be ignored. The ionospheric error can be corrected by using the IGS ionosphere product. The variations of ionospheric effect are about 0˜0.05 ns and 0˜0.7 ns at KU band and C band, respectively, and have the diurnal variation characteristics. (2) The equipment time delay. The equipment delay is closely related with temperature, presenting a linear relation at the normal temperature. Its outdoor part indicates the characteristics of the diurnal variation with the environment temperature. The various kinds of effects related with the modem are studied. Some resolutions are proposed. (3) The satellite transponder effect. This effect is studied by using the data of international TWSTFT links. It is analyzed that different satellite transponders can highly increase the amplitude of the diurnal variation in one TWSTFT link. This is the major reason of the diurnal variation in the TWSTFT. The function fitting method is used to basically solve this problem. (4) The satellite motion effect. The geostationary

  13. High-Efficiency Ka-Band Waveguide Two-Way Asymmetric Power Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Simons, R. N.; Freeman, J. C.; Chevalier, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning a number of Space Exploration, Earth Observation and Space Science missions where Ka-band solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) could have a role. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) based SSPAs with output powers on the order of 10 W at Ka-band frequencies would be adequate to satisfy the data transmission rate requirements at the distances involved. MMICs are a type of integrated circuit fabricated on a GaAs wafer, which operates at micro wave frequencies and performs the function of signal amplification. The highest power Ka-band (31.8 to 32.3 GHz) SSPA to have flown in space had an output power of 2.6 W with an overall efficiency of 14.3 percent. This SSPA was built around discrete GaAs pHEMT (high electron mobility transistor) devices and flew aboard the Deep Space One spacecraft. State-of-the-art GaAs pHEMT-based MMIC power amplifiers (PAs) can deliver RF power at Ka-band frequencies anywhere from 3 W with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 32 percent to 6 W with a PAE of 26 percent. However, to achieve power levels higher than 6 W, the output of several MMIC PAs would need to be combined using a high-efficiency power combiner. Conventional binary waveguide power combiners, based on short-slot and magic-T circuits, require MMIC PAs with identical amplitude and phase characteristics for high combining efficiency. However, due to manufacturing process variations, the output powers of the MMIC PAs tend to be unequal, and hence the need to develop unequal power combiners. A two-way asymmetric magic-T based power combiner for MMIC power amplifiers, which can take in unequal inputs, has been successfully designed, fabricated, and characterized over NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) frequency range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The figure is a transparent view of the a sym - metric combiner that shows the 4-port configuration and the internal structure. The rod, post, and iris are positioned by design to achieve the desired asymmetric power ratio

  14. Comparison of one-way and two-way coupled analyses of electromagnetic machines considering magnetic and structural interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jahyun; Kang, Chiho; Song, Jeongyong; Jang, Gunhee

    2017-05-01

    We compared one-way and two-way coupled analyses of electromagnetic machines considering magnetic and structural interaction to identify the frequency components of magnetic excitation and to determine the structural coupling effects predicted only by the two-way coupled analysis. We developed finite element models of a C-core switch and an electric motor. In the two-way coupled analysis method, the magnetic force calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor was applied to the structural finite element model to determine the elastic deformation, and the magnetic finite element model was rearranged by means of the moving mesh method to represent the structural elastic deformation. We showed that two-way coupled analysis predicted the excitation frequency of 80 Hz (4 times the input current frequency) of magnetic force in the C-core switch and the excitation frequency of 667 Hz (the first natural frequency of the rotor, corresponding to the translational mode) of magnetic force in the electric motor undergoing rotor eccentricity. We showed that two-way coupled analysis predicted magnetic excitation and its corresponding structural response more accurately than the one-way coupled analysis, especially for electromagnetic machines in which the structural deformation affects magnetic field through variation of the air gap length.

  15. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  16. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  17. 2007 Delaware Coastal Programs Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  18. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. 2007 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  20. Cellular Multi-User Two-Way MIMO AF Relaying via Signal Space Alignment: Minimum Weighted SINR Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider linear MIMO transceiver design for a cellular two-way amplify-and-forward relaying system consisting of a single multi-antenna base station, a single multi-antenna relay station, and multiple multi-antenna mobile stations (MSs). Due to the two-way transmission, the MSs could suffer from tremendous multi-user interference. We apply an interference management model exploiting signal space alignment and propose a transceiver design algorithm, which allows for alleviating the loss in spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and providing flexible performance optimization accounting for each user's quality of service priorities. Numerical comparisons to conventional two-way relaying schemes based on bidirectional channel inversion and spatial division multiple access-only processing show that the proposed scheme achieves superior error rate and average data rate performance.

  1. Two-way shape memory effect and its stability in Ti-Ni-Hf high temperature shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-long; WU Ye; CAI Wei; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2005-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ti36 Ni49 Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) was systematically studied by bending tests. In the TiNiHf alloy, the martensite deformation is an effective method to get two-way shape memory effect even with a small deformation strain. The results indicate that the internal stress field formed by the bending deformation is in the direction of the preferentially oriented martensite variants formed during the bending deformation. Upon cooling the preferentially oriented martensite variants form under such an oriented stress field, which should be responsible for the generation of the two-way shape memory effect.Proper training process benefits the formation of the oriented stress field, resulting in the improvement of the twoway shape memory effect. A maximum TWSME of 0.88 % is obtained in the present alloy.

  2. Stress-Induced Martensitic Transformation Cycling and Two-Way Shape Memory Training in Cu-Zn-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jeff; Sponholz, R. O.

    1984-02-01

    The character and mechanism of two-way shape memory in Cu-Zn-Al alloys is investigated by means of closely controlled thermomechanical cycling and careful measurement of the progressive effect of the particular “training” routine, as well as by correlary studies of submicrostructural evolution as training proceeds. The results establish the quantitative relationship between the cyclic training routine and the ability of the sample to exhibit two-way shape memory. The variation of numerous training parameters with cycling is presented and interpreted. Microscopic studies indicate that as two-way shape memory training proceeds, specific physical features develop in the parent phase submicrostructure, particularly dislocation tangles and “vestigial” martensite markings; these assist in the nucleation and growth of a preferred martensite plate arrangement during cooling.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a vertical axis tidal turbine using the two-way fluid structure interaction approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed-shah KHALID; Liang ZHANG; Xue-wei ZHANG; Ke SUN

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop,as well as validate the strongly coupled method(two-way fluid structural interaction(FSI))used to simulate the transient FSI response of the vertical axis tidal turbine (VATT)rotor,subjected to spatially varying inflow.Moreover,this study examined strategies on improving techniques used for mesh deformation that account for large displacement or deformation calculations.The blade's deformation for each new time step is considered in transient two-way FSI analysis,to make the design more reliable.Usually this is not considered in routine one-way FSI simulations.A rotor with four blades and 4-m diameter was modeled and numerically analyzed.We observed that two-way FSI,utilizing the strongly coupled method,was impossible for a complex model;and thereby using ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS-MECHANICAL in work bench,as given in ANSYS-WORKBENCH,helped case examples 22 and 23,by giving an error when the solution was run.To make the method possible and reduce the computational power,a novel technique was used to transfer the file in ANSYS-APDL to obtain the solution and results.Consequently,the results indicating a two-way transient FSI analysis is a time-and resource-consuming job,but with our proposed technique we can reduce the computational time.The ANSYS STRUCTURAL results also uncover that stresses and deformations have higher values for two-way FSI as compared to one-way FSI.Similarly,fluid flow CFX results for two-way FSI are closer to experimental results as compared to one-way simulation results.Additionally,this study shows that,using the proposed method we can perform coupled simulation with simple multi-node PCs(core i5).

  4. F00437A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. F00437B: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H11081: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2002-05-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. F00437: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. Bayes Factors via Savage-Dickey Supermodels

    CERN Document Server

    Mootoovaloo, A; Kunz, M

    2016-01-01

    We outline a new method to compute the Bayes Factor for model selection which bypasses the Bayesian Evidence. Our method combines multiple models into a single, nested, Supermodel using one or more hyperparameters. Since the models are now nested the Bayes Factors between the models can be efficiently computed using the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio (SDDR). In this way model selection becomes a problem of parameter estimation. We consider two ways of constructing the supermodel in detail: one based on combined models, and a second based on combined likelihoods. We report on these two approaches for a Gaussian linear model for which the Bayesian evidence can be calculated analytically and a toy nonlinear problem. Unlike the combined model approach, where a standard Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) struggles, the combined-likelihood approach fares much better in providing a reliable estimate of the log-Bayes Factor. This scheme potentially opens the way to computationally efficient ways to compute Bayes Factors in...

  9. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  10. Meaning Making and Translanguaging in a Two-Way Dual-Language Program on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinca, Alberto; Araujo, Blanca; de la Piedra, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes meaning-making practices in a two-way dual-language (TWDL) program on the U.S.-Mexico border among "transfronterizo" and Mexican-origin youth. In the article, we show that emergent bilingual learners and their teacher participate in activities that mediate understanding of science content knowledge. We show how the…

  11. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of…

  12. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hazards evaluation and classification —Language of communication and transmission of information 2. Crisis Management System —Crisis analysis and communication mechanisms —Establishment of contact points —Reporting... Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System 1. Documentation —Definition of a crisis/emergency and...

  13. Teaching Practices and Language Use in Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Programs in a Large Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer; Steele, Jennifer; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers look to two-way dual language immersion as one of the most promising options to close achievement gaps for English learners. However, the programs' effectiveness depends on the quality of their implementation. This article reports on a large-scale study of the implementation of dual language immersion across a…

  14. Implementing Two-Way Dual-Language Immersion Programs: Classroom Insights from an Urban District. Research Brief. RB-9921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer J.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Dual-language immersion programs--in which students learn core subjects (language arts, math, science, and social studies) in both English and a "partner" language--have been gaining in popularity across the United States. Such programs may use a "two-way model," in which roughly half the students are native speakers of the…

  15. Teaching Practices and Language Use in Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Programs in a Large Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer; Steele, Jennifer; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers look to two-way dual language immersion as one of the most promising options to close achievement gaps for English learners. However, the programs' effectiveness depends on the quality of their implementation. This article reports on a large-scale study of the implementation of dual language immersion across a…

  16. Head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads: a public health concern in road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Olabarria

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions

  17. Moments Based Framework for Performance Analysis of One-Way/Two-Way CSI-Assisted AF Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    When analyzing system performance of conventional one-way relaying or advanced two-way relaying, these two techniques are always dealt with separately and, thus, their performance cannot be compared efficiently. Moreover, for ease of mathematical tractability, channels considered in such studies are generally assumed to be subject to Rayleigh fading or to be Nakagami-$m$ channels with integer fading parameters, which is impractical in typical urban environments. In this paper, we propose a unified moments-based framework for general performance analysis of channel-state-information (CSI) assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems. The framework is applicable to both one-way and two-way relaying over arbitrary Nakagami-$m$ fading channels, and it includes previously reported results as special cases. Specifically, the mathematical framework is firstly developed under the umbrella of the weighted harmonic mean of two Gamma-distributed variables in conjunction with the theory of Pad\\\\\\'e approximants. Then, general expressions for the received signal-to-noise ratios of the users in one-way/two-way relaying systems and the corresponding moments, moment generation function, and cumulative density function are established. Subsequently, the mathematical framework is applied to analyze, compare, and gain insights into system performance of one-way and two-way relaying techniques, in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, and achievable data rate. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results as well as previously reported results whenever available, and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate and compare system performance of one-way and two-way relaying.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  19. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  20. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  1. Flood Plain Information, Delhi New York, West Branch Delaware River and Little Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    1,383.9 1,382.4 1,391.3 Little Delaware River Back River Road 0.15 1,346.4 1,346.9 1,352.1 College Golf Course Footbridge 0.28 1,349.4 1,350.0 1,353.2...College Golf Course Footbridge 0.36 1,353.7 1,353.6 1,356.1 Bridge by USGS Gaging Station 1.79 1,395.9 1,396.9 1,403.6 N.Y. Rte. 28 5.93 1,533.9

  2. Smoke-free law did affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2005-01-01

    A paper recently published in the journal Tobacco Control purports to show that the implementation of a smoking prohibition in Delaware had no statistically significant effect on the revenues of three gaming facilities in that state. After correcting for evident errors in that analysis, I find that the smoke-free law did affect revenues from gaming in Delaware. Total gaming revenues are estimated to have declined by at least $6 million per month after the implementation of Delaware*s Clean In...

  3. Near-optimal power allocation with PSO algorithm for MIMO cognitive networks using multiple AF two-way relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of power allocation for a multiple-input multiple-output two-way system is investigated in underlay Cognitive Radio (CR) set-up. In the CR underlay mode, secondary users are allowed to exploit the spectrum allocated to primary users in an opportunistic manner by respecting a tolerated temperature limit. The secondary networks employ an amplify-and-forward two-way relaying technique in order to maximize the sum rate under power budget and interference constraints. In this context, we formulate an optimization problem that is solved in two steps. First, we derive a closed-form expression of the optimal power allocated to terminals. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the power allocated to secondary relays. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun

    2016-08-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).

  6. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  7. Tests of additivity in mixed and fixed effect two-way ANOVA models with single sub-class numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Dieter; Rusch, Thomas; Simeckova, Marie; Kubinger, Klaus D.; Moder, Karl; Simecek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    In variety testing as well as in psychological assessment, the situation occurs that in a two-way ANOVA-type model with only one replication per cell, analysis is done under the assumption of no interaction between the two factors. Tests for this situation are known only for fixed factors and normally distributed outcomes. In the following we will present five additivity tests and apply them to fixed and mixed models and to quantitative as well as to Bernoulli distributed data....

  8. Two- way Shape Memory Effect in a Ti-Ni-Nb Shape Memory Alloy with Wide Hysteresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in the Ti46.3Ni44.7Nb9 alloy has been systematically investigated by means of bending test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Based on the analysis of the microstructure after training, the mechanism of TWSME in the Ti46.3Ni44.7Nb9 alloy has been discussed.

  9. Forensic application of gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry with two-way classification of ignitable liquids from fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Harrington, Peter B

    2007-09-01

    With respect to the emerging role of forensic science for arson investigation, a low cost and promising onsite detection method for ignitable liquids is desirable. Gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (GC-DMS) was investigated as a tool for analysis of ignitable liquids from fire debris. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied as the preconcentration and sampling method. The combined information afforded by gas chromatography and differential mobility spectrometry provided unique two-way patterns for each sample of ignitable liquid. Two-way GC-DMS data were classified into one of seven ignitable liquids using a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES). The performance of the classifier was validated using bootstrap Latin partitions (BLPs) and also compared to optimized partial least-squares (PLS) classifiers. Better prediction results can be obtained by using two-way GC-DMS data than only using one-way total ion chromatograms or integrated differential mobility spectra. FuRES models constructed with the neat ignitable liquids identified the spiked samples from simulated fire debris with 99.07 +/- 0.04% accuracy.

  10. Impact of turbulence on high-precision ground-satellite frequency transfer with two-way coherent optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study the impact of turbulence on coherent detection and the related phase noise that restricts time and frequency transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up- and downlink that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite kinematics. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency and phase noise for different system parameters. We show that tip-tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the downlink and as a pre-compensation of the uplink. Besides, thanks to the large tilt angular correlation, the correction is shown to be efficient on uplink despite the point-ahead angle. Very good two-way compensation of turbulent effects is obtained even with the asymmetries. The two-way differential phase noise is reduced to 1 rad2 , with the best fractional frequency stability below 2 ×10-17 after 1-s averaging time.

  11. Two-Way Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators (FIT) was held in San Francisco from August 1-4.Huang Youyi,Vice President of China International Publishing Group,has just completed a term as FIT vice president.At the conference site on August 1,Huang talked to Beijing Review on his role in the FIT,as well as the development of the language service industry in China.

  12. "Two-Way Street"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mabel

    1975-01-01

    The development of adult programs of family life education in Ohio from the 1930s to the present is recounted. Approximately half the article describes a series of 12 half-hour television programs which present family life education in a soap opera format, and the research from which it was developed. (AJ)

  13. Two-way development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, David

    When I first started working as a Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) nurse lecturer in Malawi, where the focus of health care is often a lack of resources and staff shortages, I realised how important it was for care to be apparent in every patient encounter.

  14. Two Ways to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to teacher leadership is to identify certain teachers as particularly successful, then have others learn from them. Collaborative leadership, in contrast, looks at leadership as a quality that anyone can have. In this model, the goal is not to figure out who is best. Instead, teachers share their unique talents and interests…

  15. Two Ways to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    One popular approach to teacher leadership is to identify certain teachers as particularly successful, then have others learn from them. Collaborative leadership, in contrast, looks at leadership as a quality that anyone can have. In this model, the goal is not to figure out who is best. Instead, teachers share their unique talents and interests…

  16. 中国双向投资问题研究%The Study on China's Two-way Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张荣

    2012-01-01

    随着经济全球化迅猛发展和一国经济实力的增强,双向投资成为越来越多国家参与国际分工和世界经济竞争的重要选择。近年来,中国已经成为国际直接投资流动中的一支重要力量,无论是吸收外商直接投资还是对外直接投资,中国都取得了巨大成就。但是,中国双向投资在存量结构、产业结构、区位结构以及投资方式结构上都有一定的差距。因此,从全球产业链的角度审视双向投资,调整中国双向投资结构失衡问题,统一双向投资政策,培育具有国际竞争力的中国跨国公司,是解决中国双向投资结构失衡的问题所在。%With the rapid development of economic globalization and strengthens of a country's economy, two-way investment has been an important choice for a growing number of countries to participate in the interna- tional division and economic competition in the world. In recent years, China has played an important role in in- ternational direct investment flow and has made great achievements in both inward foreign direct investment and outward foreign direct investment; however, China's two-way investment has demonstrated a disparity between stock structure, industrial structure, regional structure and investment mode. Therefore, from the perspective of the global industrial chain, the keys to China's two-way investment are to adjust the structure of China's two- way investment imbalances, to integrate two-way investment policy and to foster competitiveness of China's transnational corporations.

  17. The influence of an atmospheric Two-Way coupled model system on the predictability of extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mareike; Thürkow, Markus; Weiher, Stefan; Kirchner, Ingo; Ulbrich, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    A general bias of global atmosphere ocean models, and also of the MPI-ESM, is an under-representation of the high latitude cyclone activity and an overestimation of the mid latitude cyclone activity in the North Atlantic, thus representing the extra-tropical storm track too zonal. We will show, that this effect can be antagonized by applying an atmospheric Two-Way Coupling (TWC). In this study we present a newly developed Two-Way Coupled model system, which is based on the MPI-ESM, and show that it is able to capture the mean storm track location more accurate. It also influences the sub-decadal deterministic predictability of extra-tropical cyclones and shows significantly enhanced skill compared to the "uncoupled" MPI-ESM standalone system. This study evaluates a set of hindcast experiments performed with said Two-Way Coupled model system. The regional model COSMO CLM is Two-Way Coupled to the atmosphere of the global Max-Plack-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and therefore integrates and exchanges the state of the atmosphere every 10 minutes (MPI-TWC-ESM). In the coupled source region (North Atlantic), mesoscale processes which are relevant for the formation and early-stage development of cyclones are expected to be better represented, and therefore influence the large scale dynamics of the target region (Europe). The database covers 102 "uncoupled" years and 102 Two-Way Coupled years of the recent climate (1960-2010). Results are validated against the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Besides the climatological point of view, the design of this single model ensemble allows for an analysis of the predictability of the first and second leadyears of the hindcasts. As a first step to understand the improved predictability of cyclones, we will show a detailed analysis of climatologies for specific cyclone categories, sorted by season and region. Especially for cyclones affecting Europe, the TWC is capable to counteract the AOGCM's biases in the North Atlantic. Also

  18. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  19. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Helena; Kirchman, David L.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA), we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1) than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1). Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the Delaware

  20. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Osterholz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA, we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1 than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1. Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the

  1. Two-way against one-way nesting for climate downscaling in Europe and the Mediterranean region using LMDZ4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Li, Laurent; Le Treut, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century, the estimated surface temperature warming projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs) is between 0.3 and 4.8 °C, depending on the scenario considered. GCMs exhibit a good representation of climate on a global scale, but they are not able to reproduce regional climate processes with the same level of accuracy. Society and policymakers need model projections to define climate change adaptation and mitigation policies on a global, regional and local scale. Climate downscaling is mostly conducted with a regional model nested into the outputs of a global model. This one-way nesting approach is generally used in the climate community without feedbacks from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to GCMs. This lack of interaction between the two models may affect regional modes of variability, in particular those with a boundary conflict. The objective of this study is to evaluate a two-way nesting configuration that makes an interactive coupling between the RCM and the GCM, an approach against the traditional configuration of one-way nesting system. An additional aim of this work is to examine if the two-way nesting system can improve the RCM performance. The atmospheric component of the IPSL integrated climate model (LMDZ) is configured at both regional (LMDZ-regional) and global (LMDZ-global) scales. The two models have the same configuration for the dynamical framework and the physical forcings. The climatology values of sea surface temperature (SST) are prescribed for the two models. The stretched-grid of LMDZ-global is applied to a region defined by Europe, the Mediterranean, North Africa and Western North Atlantic. To ensure a good statistical significance of results, all simulations last at least 80 years. The nesting process of models is performed by a relaxation procedure of a time scale of 90 minutes. In the case of two-way nesting, the exchange between the two models is every two hours. The relaxation procedure induces a boundary conflict

  2. A Novel Approach Utilizing pnetCDF applying to the WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Yang, Cheng-en; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Fu, Joshua; Wong, Kwai; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-01

    I/O is part of a scientific model and it takes up a significant portion of the simulation. There is no exception for the newly developed WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model at US EPA. This two-way coupled meteorology and air quality model is composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We are using this two-way model to evaluate how accurate it simulates the effects of aerosol loading on radiative forcing between 1990 and 2010 when there were substantial aerosol emissions such as SO2 and NOx, reduction in North America and Europe. The I/O scheme in the current model does not make use of any parallel file system or parallel I/O approach. In addition the I/O takes about 15% - 28% of the entire simulation. Our novel approach not only utilizes pnetCDF parallel I/O technique but goes one step further to aggregate the data locally, i.e. along column dimension or row dimension in the spatial domain. This approach not only reduces the I/O traffic contention but also aggregated data enhances the I/O efficiency. In terms of I/O time, we have shown this method is about 6 to 10 times faster than the current existing I/O scheme in the model and about 20% - 3 times faster than strict application of pnetCDF. We are currently running the model on a Cray XE6 machine and finding ways to reduce the overall simulation time is crucial to the success to achieve our objective.

  3. Comparing One-way and Two-way Coupled Hydrometeorological Forecasting Systems for Flood Forecasting in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Amir; Gochis, David; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald; Yu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A pair of hydro-meteorological modeling systems were calibrated and evaluated for the Ayalon basin in central Israel to assess the advantages and limitations of one-way versus two-way coupled modeling systems for flood prediction. The models used included the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Hydro modeling system. The models were forced by observed, interpolated precipitation from rain-gauges within the basin, and with modeled precipitation from the WRF atmospheric model. Detailed calibration and evaluation was carried out for two major winter storms in January and December 2013. Then both modeling systems were executed and evaluated in an operational mode for the full 2014/2015 rainy season. Outputs from these simulations were compared to observed measurements from hydrometric stations at the Ayalon basin outlet. Various statistical metrics were employed to quantify and analyze the results: correlation, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency coefficient. Foremost, the results presented in this study highlight the sensitivity of hydrological responses to different sources of precipitation data, and less so, to hydrologic model formulation. With observed precipitation data both calibrated models closely simulated the observed hydrographs. The two-way coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro modeling system produced improved both the precipitation and hydrological simulations as compared to the one-way WRF simulations. Findings from this study suggest that the use of two-way atmospheric-hydrological coupling has the potential to improve precipitation and, therefore, hydrological forecasts for early flood warning applications. However more research needed in order to better understand the land-atmosphere coupling mechanisms driving hydrometeorological processes on a wider variety precipitation and terrestrial hydrologic systems.

  4. Comparing One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Hydrometeorological Forecasting Systems for Flood Forecasting in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Givati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A pair of hydro-meteorological modeling systems were calibrated and evaluated for the Ayalon basin in central Israel to assess the advantages and limitations of one-way versus two-way coupled modeling systems for flood prediction. The models used included the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Hydro modeling system. The models were forced by observed, interpolated precipitation from rain-gauges within the basin, and with modeled precipitation from the WRF atmospheric model. Detailed calibration and evaluation was carried out for two major winter storms in January and December 2013. Then, both modeling systems were executed and evaluated in an operational mode for the full 2014/2015 rainy season. Outputs from these simulations were compared to observed measurements from the hydrometric station at the Ayalon basin outlet. Various statistical metrics were employed to quantify and analyze the results: correlation, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and the Nash–Sutcliffe (NS efficiency coefficient. Foremost, the results presented in this study highlight the sensitivity of hydrological responses to different sources of simulated and observed precipitation data, and demonstrate improvement, although not significant, at the Hydrological response, like simulated hydrographs. With observed precipitation data both calibrated models closely simulated the observed hydrographs. The two-way coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro modeling system produced improved both the precipitation and hydrological simulations as compared to the one-way WRF simulations. Findings from this study, as well as previous studies, suggest that the use of two-way atmospheric-hydrological coupling has the potential to improve precipitation and, therefore, hydrological forecasts for early flood warning applications. However, more research needed in order to better understand the land-atmosphere coupling mechanisms

  5. From implementation to learning: the importance of a two-way dialogue between practice and science in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Journal Editors

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This report was written on a request from the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport, in response to the need to bridge the gap between scientific research and the implementation of the results of this research into the practice of health care. The report concludes that the care process should be a two-way dialogue between science and practice, and signals the need for more research into everyday practice, while this research might benefit from insights from other branches of the sciences.

  6. Performance analysis of amplify-and-forward two-way relaying with co-channel interference and channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the performance of a two-way amplify-and-forward relaying network (AF TWRN) in the presence of unequal power co-channel interferers (CCI). Specifically, we consider AF TWRN with an interference-limited relay and two noisy-nodes with channel estimation error and CCI. We derive the approximate signal-to-interference plus noise ratio expressions and then use these expressions to evaluate the outage probability and error probability. Numerical results show that the approximate closed-form expressions are very close to the exact ones. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Error tolerance of two-basis quantum key-distribution protocols using qudits and two-way classical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolopoulos, G M; Ranade, K S; Alber, Gernot; Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Ranade, Kedar S.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the error tolerance of quantum cryptographic protocols using $d$-level systems. In particular, we focus on prepare-and-measure schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases and a key-distillation procedure with two-way classical communication. For arbitrary quantum channels, we obtain a sufficient condition for secret-key distillation which, in the case of isotropic quantum channels, yields an analytic expression for the maximally tolerable error rate of the cryptographic protocols under consideration. The difference between the tolerable error rate and its theoretical upper bound tends slowly to zero for sufficiently large dimensions of the information carriers.

  8. An R function for imputation of missing cells in two-way data sets by EM-AMMI algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Paderewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various statistical methods for two-way classification data sets (including AMMI or GGE analyses, used in crop science for interpreting genotype-by-environment interaction require the data to be complete, that is, not to have missing cells. If there are such, however, one might impute the missing cells. The paper offers R code for imputing missing values by the EM-AMMI algorithm. In addition, a function to check the repeatability of this algorithm is proposed. This function could be used to evaluate if the missing data were imputed reliably (unambiguously, which is important especially for small data sets

  9. Joint Bandwidth and Power Allocation for MIMO Two-Way Relays-Assisted Overlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad

    2015-10-08

    This paper studies the achievable cognitive sum rate of an overlay cognitive radio (CR) system assisted with multiple antennas two-way relays in which primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In this context, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation is investigated. We propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are exploited to support PUs to reach their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. Power expressions for optimal transmit power allocated per PU and CU antenna are derived under primary quality-of-service constraint in addition to bandwidth and power budget constraints. More specifically, CUs act as relays for the PUs transmission and gain some spectrum as long as they respect these constraints. After deriving the optimal transmit powers, we employ a strong optimization tool based on swarm intelligence to optimize the full and complex relay amplification gain matrices in addition to the bandwidths released to primary and cognitive transmission. Furthermore, three different utility functions are considered in our optimization problems depending on the level of fairness among CUs.

  10. Simulation and Analysis of Autonomous Time Synchronization Based on Asynchronism Two-way Inter-satellite Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.; Yang, X. H.; Sun, B. Q.; Qin, W. J.; Kong, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of the inter-satellite link is one of the key techniques in the autonomous operation of satellite navigation system. Based on the asynchronism inter-satellite two-way measurement mode in GPS constellation, the reduction formula of the inter-satellite time synchronization is built in this paper. Moreover, the corrective method of main systematic errors is proposed. Inter-satellite two-way time synchronization is simulated on the basis of IGS (International GNSS Service) precise ephemeris. The impacts of the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range, the initial orbit, and the main systematic errors on satellite time synchronization are analyzed. Furthermore, the broadcast clock error of each satellite is calculated by the ``centralized'' inter-satellite autonomous time synchronization. Simulation results show that the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range and the initial orbit have little impact on the satellite clock errors, and thus they needn't be taken into account. The errors caused by the relativistic effect and the asymmetry of path travel have large impact on the satellite clock errors. These should be corrected with theoretical formula. Compared with the IGS precise clock error, the root mean square of the broadcast clock error of each satellite is about 0.4 ns.

  11. Role of B19' martensite deformation in stabilizing two-way shape memory behavior in NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Sisneros, T. A.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2012-11-01

    Deformation of a B19' martensitic, polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) shape memory alloy and its influence on the magnitude and stability of the ensuing two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was investigated by combined ex situ mechanical experimentation and in situ neutron diffraction measurements at stress and temperature. The microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were captured and compared to the bulk macroscopic response of the alloy. With increasing uniaxial strain, it was observed that B19' martensite deformed by reorientation and detwinning with preferred selection of the (1¯50)M and (010)M variants, (201¯)B19' deformation twinning, and dislocation activity. These mechanisms were indicated by changes in bulk texture from the neutron diffraction measurements. Partial reversibility of the reoriented variants and deformation twins was also captured upon load removal and thermal cycling, which after isothermal deformation to strains between 6% and 22% resulted in a strong TWSME. Consequently, TWSME functional parameters including TWSME strain, strain reduction, and transformation temperatures were characterized and it was found that prior martensite deformation to 14% strain provided the optimum condition for the TWSME, resulting in a stable two-way shape memory strain of 2.2%. Thus, isothermal deformation of martensite was found to be a quick and efficient method for creating a strong and stable TWSME in Ni49.9Ti50.1.

  12. EFFECTS OF THE NUMBER OF RELAY ANTENNAS AND RELAY-POWER ON MIMO PRECODED TWO-WAY RELAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Rajeshwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this treatise a two-way Amplify and Forward (AF relay-aided system is considered, which employs the so-called Arithmetic Sum of Average Bit Error Rate (ASABER based MIMO precoding technique. The two-way AF relay system is comprised of the pair of transceiver nodes S1 and S2, and the Relay Node (RN R, where each node is equipped with N1, N2 and Nr antennas, respectively. We study the effects of varying Nr for fixed values of N1 and N2, and as well as the effects of having a fixed transmission power at the RN on the achievable ASABER performance. Based on our intensive simulation campaign, we infer that the attainable diversity order is increased approximately by Nr − min (N1, N2, whenever Nr assumes a value higher than min (N1, N2 for fixed N1, N2 values. However, this is observation is only valid for relay power pr ≥ (p1, p2, where p1 and p2 are the transmit power constraints imposed on the sources S1 and S2, respectively. We also observe that the ASABER MIMO precoder’s BER curve exhibits an error floor for pr ≤ (p1, p2.

  13. Joint terminals and relay optimization for two-way power line information exchange systems with QoS constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Rong, Yue

    2015-12-01

    The quality-of-service (QoS) criteria (measured in terms of the minimum capacity requirement in this paper) are very important to practical indoor power line communication (PLC) applications as they greatly affect the user experience. With a two-way multicarrier relay configuration, in this paper we investigate the joint terminals and relay power optimization for the indoor broadband PLC environment, where the relay node works in the amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. As the QoS-constrained power allocation problem is highly non-convex, the globally optimal solution is computationally intractable to obtain. To overcome this challenge, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to decompose this problem into three convex/quasi-convex sub-problems. Simulation results demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm under practical PLC channel conditions. Compared with the conventional bidirectional direct transmission (BDT) system, the relay-assisted two-way information exchange (R2WX) scheme can meet the same QoS requirement with less total power consumption.

  14. Impact of turbulent phase noise on frequency transfer with asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end- to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show that Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock comparisons.

  15. Design and implementation of a two-way real-time communication system for audio over CATV networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Choong Sang; Oh, Yoo Rhee; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we design and implement a two-way real-time communication system for audio over cable television (CATV) networks to provide an audio-based interaction between the CATV broadcasting station and CATV subscribers. The two-way real-time communication system consists of a real-time audio encoding/decoding module, a payload formatter based on a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), and a cable network. At the broadcasting station, audio signals from a microphone are encoded by an audio codec that is implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP), where the MPEG-2 Layer II audio codec is used for the audio codec and TMS320C6416 is used for a DSP. Next, a payload formatter constructs a TCP/IP packet from an audio bitstream for transmission to a cable modem. Another payload formatter at the subscriber unpacks the TCP/IP packet decoded from the cable modem into audio bitstream. This bitstream is decoded by the MPEG-2 Layer II audio decoder. Finally the decoded audio signals are played out to the speaker. We confirmed that the system worked in real-time, with a measured delay of around 150 ms including the algorithmic and processing time delays.

  16. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  17. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  18. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  19. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to…

  20. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  1. 3.0 Foundation programs for the Delaware CEMRI framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    A complete review of all the national monitoring programs that could possibly contribute to the Delaware River Basin (DRB) CEMRI Framework is beyond the scope of this report. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment developed a Web-based annotated inventory of such monitoring programs for the mid-Atlantic region. Olsen et al. (...

  2. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  3. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  4. Symmetric extension of bipartite quantum states and its use in quantum key distribution with two-way postprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhr, Geir Ove

    2010-11-08

    Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the

  5. On the performance of two-way multiuser mixed RF/FSO relay networks with opportunistic scheduling & asymmetric channel gains

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Eryani, Yasser F.

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, the performance of two-way relaying (TWR) multiuser mixed radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) relay networks with opportunistic user scheduling and asymmetric channel fading is studied. First, closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability, asymptotic (high signal-to-noise ration (SNR)) outage probability, and average ergodic channel capacity are derived assuming heterodyne detection (HD) scheme. Additionally, impacts of several system parameters including number of users, pointing errors, and atmospheric turbulence conditions on the overall network performance are investigated. All the theoretical results are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that the TWR scheme almost doubles the network ergodic capacity compared to that of one-way relaying (OWR) scheme with the same outage performance. Additionally, the overall diversity order of the network is shown to be affected not only by the number of users, but it is also a function of the pointing error and atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  6. Performance analysis of two-way amplify and forward relaying with adaptive modulation over multiple relay network

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2011-02-01

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Relay-and-antenna selection and digital transceiver design for two-way AF-MIMO multiple-relay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Chang; Su, Hao-Hsian; Tang, Kang-Tsao

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers a two-way multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying system with multiple relays between two terminals nodes. The relay antenna selection scheme based on channel singular valued decomposition (SVD) is used to reduce energy consumption. To enhance the system performance, we apply a SVD-based algorithm with MSE criterion which calculates optimal linear transceivers precoding jointly at the source nodes and relay nodes for amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols. In computer simulations, we use an iteration method to compute the non-convex function of joint source and relays power allocation. The simulation results show the SVD-based precoding design with SVD-based relay and antenna selection scheme can achieve a superior system bit error rate (BER) performance and reduce the power consume of relay antennas.

  8. Accessibility to information and communications technology for the social participation of youths with disabilities: a two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Naomi; Keter, Ayala; Sachs, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined by mixed method the effectiveness of an accessibility to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program that provided computers, assistive technology, tutors, and internet connection to 65 youths with severe disabilities (aged 13.22 ± 3.4 years) in their homes. The quantitative evaluation included assessment of computer task performance, computer skills, and participation in social ICT leisure activities before and after the program. Findings revealed low baseline and significant progress on most outcome measures 6 months after the program, mostly among those youths who had tutors. Additional in-depth interviews were conducted 1 year later with 10 participants to explore their ICT use and its impact on their social participation. The analysis revealed a significant contribution of the ICT use, while critical thinking about its risks and some disappointment with the social needs that ICT does not address. Our findings raise awareness of 'two-way streets' policies and programs to ensure e-inclusion.

  9. Feasibility of two-way polarization encoded quantum communication in an optical fiber populated with telecom traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, G B; da Silva, T Ferreira; Temporao, G P; von der Weid, J P

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally show a two-way transmission of polarization encoded pseudo-single photons between two remote parties separated by a single 23 km optical fiber spool. Two optical classical channels are wavelength multiplexed in the same fiber and used as feedback to an active polarization drift compensation scheme. One of the classical channels contains a 10 Gb/s data stream simulating real telecom traffic. The feasibility of quantum communication is demonstrated in the fiber's two opposite directions of propagation over 6 hours of continuous operation, as well as a classical error rate in the data channel better than 1.0 x 10-9. The results are extended to show the estimated maximum transmission distance for the quantum signals based on the noise generated through Raman spontaneous scattering by up to 16 classical channels present in the fiber.

  10. Modeling particle-laden turbulent flows with two-way coupling using a high-order kernel density function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Lu, Xiaoyi; Ranjan, Reetesh; Pantano, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    We describe a two-way coupled turbulent dispersed flow computational model using a high-order kernel density function (KDF) method. The carrier-phase solution is obtained using a high-order spatial and temporal incompressible Navier-Stokes solver while the KDF dispersed-phase solver uses the high-order Legendre WENO method. The computational approach is used to model carrier-phase turbulence modulation by the dispersed phase, and particle dispersion by turbulence as a function of momentum coupling strength (particle loading) and number of KDF basis functions. The use of several KDF's allows the model to capture statistical effects of particle trajectory crossing to high degree. Details of the numerical implementation and the coupling between the incompressible flow and dispersed-phase solvers will be discussed, and results at a range of Reynolds numbers will be presented. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DMS-1318161.

  11. Approach of the Two-way Influence Between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its Connection to Related Organisational Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiatives toward Lean and Green Manufacturing are given mainly due to organisational response to current market’s economic and environmental pressures. This paper, therefore, aims to present a brief discussion based on a literature review of the potential two-way influence between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its role on the main organisational areas with a closer relationship to such approaches, which were observed to be more extensively discussed in the literature. Naturally lean practises seem more likely to deploy into green outcomes, though the other way around can also occur. There is some blur on the factual integration of both themes, as some authors suggest. Notwhithstanding, they certainly present certain synergy. Thereupon, further research is needed to unveil the real ties, overlaps and gaps between these approaches.

  12. Optimal transmit power allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-02-01

    In this letter, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output two-way cognitive radio system under a spectrum sharing scenario, where primary and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. The secondary terminals aims to exchange different messages with each other using multiple relays where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The main objective of our work is to maximize the secondary sum rate allowed to share the spectrum with the primary users by respecting a primary user tolerated interference threshold. In this context, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal power allocated to each antenna of the terminals. We then discuss the impact of some system parameters on the performance in the numerical result section. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Outage performance of opportunistic two-way amplify-and-forward relaying with outdated channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the outage performance of an amplify-and-forward (AF)-based two-way relaying (TWR) system with multiple relays where a single relay selection is performed based on outdated channel state information (CSI). Specifically, we propose a single relay selection scheme in AF-based TWR system under outdated CSI conditions. With this policy, we offer a statistical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio per hop and analyze the outage probability with asymmetric outage thresholds based on CSI-assisted AF protocol. Additionally, we provide the exact and asymptotic expressions based on the provided statistical/joint statistical analyses of a dual-hop AF transmission. Finally, we verify our analytical results with some selected computer-based simulation results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  14. A Comparison of One-Way and Two-Way Coupling Methods for Numerical Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Karl Benra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fluid and structure occurs in a wide range of engineering problems. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. One possibility for reducing the computational effort of fluid-structure simulations is the use of one-way coupled simulations. In this paper, different problems are investigated with one-way and two-way coupled methods. After an explanation of the solution strategy for both models, a closer look at the differences between these methods will be provided, and it will be shown under what conditions a one-way coupling solution gives plausible results.

  15. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  16. Time variable gravity retrieval and treatment of temporal aliasing using optical two-way links between GALILEO and LEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Markus; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael; Schlicht, Anja

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of temporal gravity fields satellite missions such as GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) or CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) were used in the last decade. These missions improved the knowledge of atmospheric, oceanic and tidal mass variations. The most limiting factor of temporal gravity retrieval quality is temporal aliasing due to the undersampling of high frequency signals, especially in the atmosphere and oceans. This kind of error causes the typical stripes in spatial representations of global gravity fields such as from GRACE. As part of the GETRIS (Geodesy and Time Reference in Space) mission, that aims to establish a geodetic reference station and precise time- and frequency reference in space by using optical two-way communication links between geostationary (GEO) and low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, a possible future gravity field mission can be set up. By expanding the GETRIS space segment to the global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) the optical two-way links also connect the GALILEO satellites among themselves and to LEO satellites. From these links between GALILEO and LEO satellites gravitational information can be extracted. In our simulations inter-satellite links between GALILEO and LEO satellites are used to determine temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field. One of the main goals of this work is to find a suitable constellation together with the best analysis method to reduce temporal aliasing errors. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the co-estimation of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2013). By means of a closed loop mission simulator using inter-satellite observations as acceleration differences along the line-of-sight, different mission scenarios for GALILEO-LEO inter-satellite links and different functional models like the Wiese approach are analysed.

  17. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  18. Two-way Transformation Scheme of EPON+EoC%EPON+EoC双向改造方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解立伟; 李跃辉; 任勋益; 马晓东; 陈小星

    2011-01-01

    During the digital convergence process, which is the integration of telecom, CATV and Intender, there is new challenge for the CATV network. It is crucial to choose appropriate reform technology for the CATV network. Introduces the two-way transformation scheme of CATV network. According to the detailed analysis and comparison of three networking technologies, such as CMTS + CM,Elan + LAN, EPON + EoC. Furthermore, EoC-related technologies are explained in detail, from the business performance, the cost of construction and the complexity of transformation. The conclusion can be reached that EPON + EoC is the most suitable choice for the current two-way transformation and the subsequent convergence of three networks. However, it is suggested that the transformation of CATV network be based upon the actual situation.%目前在电信网、广播电视网和互联网三网逐步融合的背景下,有线电视网络面临前所未有的挑战.使用何种改造方案来实现双向网络的改造就显得尤为重要.介绍了广电网络双向改造的技术方案及其特点,对有线电视网络双向改造使用的CMTS+CM,EPON十LAN,EPON+Eo(;三种方案的优劣进行了分析和比较,对Eo(:技术进行了详细论述.从业务性能、建设成本、改造技术复杂程度等方面进行分析,最终认为EPON+EoC是广电网络双向改造、实现三网融合的最佳方案.广电网络运营商应根据实际情况,选择适合的EoC方案.

  19. Can Vertical Migrations of Dinoflagellates Explain Observed Bioluminescence Patterns During an Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    transect (Figure 1). The REMUS transect began near Santa Cruz in the SA, ran out to the buoy Ml (Figure 1), and then returned back to shore. Inshore...Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo , California, USA. ’Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California...University, San Luis Obispo , CA 93407, USA. M. J. Oliver, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd., Lewes, DE 19958, USA. 10 of 10

  20. Two-way shift of wavelength in holographic sensing of organic vapor in nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Liu, Hongpeng; Zhou, Ke; Xian, Lihong; Yu, Dan

    2016-08-10

    Holographic sensing of alcohol organic vapor is characterized in detail at transmission and reflection geometries in Y nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer. The two-way shift of the diffraction spectrum and its temporal evolution with various vapor concentrations are measured. Obvious blueshifts of diffraction spectrum peaks are observed and analyzed in two recording geometries. The competition mechanism between decreasing the average refractive index and swelling the grating fringe space is proposed for exploring the wavelength shift mechanism. In the reflection grating, as organic vapor increases, the redshift after the blueshift of the wavelength peaks are observed clearly. We further demonstrate the significance of this competition mechanism. In the low concentration region, at transmission blueshift of the wavelength is a significant factor in identifying an organic vapor with a low refractive index. These experimental results provide a probability for improving the applicability of a holographic sensor. This work can accelerate the development of the holographic sensing strategy and provide a novel identification method for organic vapor.

  1. Two-way shape memory effect and alternating current driving characteristics of a TiNi alloy spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiguo; ZU Xiaotao

    2004-01-01

    Two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was induced into the TiNi shape memory alloys (SMAs) spring by thermomechanical training after annealing treatment, which has promising application in micro-actuating fields. The TWSME spring can contract upon heating and extend upon cooling. The results show that there is an increase of the recovery ratio up to a maximum TWSME of 45%. During the training procedure, transformation temperatures and hysteresis were measured by different scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that As (reverse transformation start temperature) and Af (revere transformation finish temperature) shift to lower temperature after training. The intervals of Af-As and Ms-Mr (Ms and Mf are the martensite start and finish temperatures, respectively) increase and the heat of transformation decreases after training. The electrothermal driving characteristics of the TWSME springs were also investigated with alternating current density of 3.2-14.7 A/mm2. It is found that the time response and the maximum contraction ratio greatly depend on the magnitude of the electrical current density.

  2. Two Ways to Examine Differential Constitutive Equations: Initiated on Steady or Initiated on Unsteady (LAOS Shear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zelenkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT, Giesekus, Leonov, and modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP differential constitutive models are evaluated in two ways: with regard to steady shear characteristics and with regard to large amplitude oscillatory shear characteristics of a solution of poly(ethylene oxide in dimethyl sulfoxide. Efficiency of the models with nonlinear parameters optimized with respect to steady shear measurements is evaluated by their ability to describe large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS characteristics. The reciprocal problem is also analyzed: The nonlinear parameters are optimized with respect to the LAOS measurements, and the models are confronted with the steady shear characteristics. In this case, optimization is based on the LAOS measurements and equal emphasis is placed on both real and imaginary parts of the stress amplitude. The results show that the chosen models are not adequately able to fit the LAOS characteristics if the optimization of nonlinear parameters is based on steady shear measurements. It follows that the optimization of nonlinear parameters is much more responsible if it is carried out with respect to the LAOS data. In this case, when the optimized parameters are used for a description of steady shear characteristics, efficiency of the individual models as documented differs.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of pre-compressed masonry walls in two-way-bending with second order effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico diMilano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Olivito, Renato S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile - Università della Calabria Via P Bucci 39 B - 87036 RENDE (CS) (Italy); Tralli, Antonio [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-10-06

    The buckling behavior of slender unreinforced masonry (URM) walls subjected to axial compression and out-of-plane lateral loads is investigated through a combined experimental and numerical homogenizedapproach. After a preliminary analysis performed on a unit cell meshed by means of elastic FEs and non-linear interfaces, macroscopic moment-curvature diagrams so obtained are implemented at a structural level, discretizing masonry by means of rigid triangular elements and non-linear interfaces. The non-linear incremental response of the structure is accounted for a specific quadratic programming routine. In parallel, a wide experimental campaign is conducted on walls in two way bending, with the double aim of both validating the numerical model and investigating the behavior of walls that may not be reduced to simple cantilevers or simply supported beams. Panels investigated are dry-joint in scale square walls simply supported at the base and on a vertical edge, exhibiting the classical Rondelet’s mechanism. The results obtained are compared with those provided by the numerical model.

  4. Eigen-Direction Alignment Based Physical-Layer Network Coding for MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tao; Ping, Li; Collings, Iain B; Yuan, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel communication strategy which incorporates physical-layer network coding (PNC) into multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) two-way relay channels (TWRCs). At the heart of the proposed scheme lies a new key technique referred to as eigen-direction alignment (EDA) precoding. The EDA precoding efficiently aligns the two-user's eigen-modes into the same directions. Based on that, we carry out multi-stream PNC over the aligned eigen-modes. We derive an achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme, based on nested lattice codes, over a MIMO TWRC. Asymptotic analysis shows that the proposed EDA-PNC scheme approaches the capacity upper bound as the number of user antennas increases towards infinity. For a finite number of user antennas, we formulate the design criterion of the optimal EDA precoder and present solutions. Numerical results show that there is only a marginal gap between the achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme and the capacity upper bound of the MIMO TWRC, in ...

  5. Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying with Co-Channel Interference and Channel Estimation Error

    KAUST Repository

    Liang Yang,

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the performance of a two-way amplify-and-forward relaying network (AF TWRN) in the presence of unequal power co-channel interferers (CCI). Specifically, we first consider AF TWRN with an interference-limited relay and two noisy-nodes with channel estimation errors and CCI. We derive the approximate signal-to-interference plus noise ratio expressions and then use them to evaluate the outage probability, error probability, and achievable rate. Subsequently, to investigate the joint effects of the channel estimation error and CCI on the system performance, we extend our analysis to a multiple-relay network and derive several asymptotic performance expressions. For comparison purposes, we also provide the analysis for the relay selection scheme under the total power constraint at the relays. For AF TWRN with channel estimation error and CCI, numerical results show that the performance of the relay selection scheme is not always better than that of the all-relay participating case. In particular, the relay selection scheme can improve the system performance in the case of high power levels at the sources and small powers at the relays.

  6. Two-way self-consistent simulation of the inner magnetosphere driven by realistic electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael; Toth, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    The geomagnetic storm of August 6, 2011 is examined using the two-way self consistent coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model, the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roes-Type Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD model and the Ridley Ionospheric Model (RIM) through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounce-averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. This model was generalized to accommodate arbitrary magnetic fields and through the coupling with the SWMF it obtains magnetic field description along with plasma distribution at the model boundaries from the BATS-R-US model within the SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. Our study tests the various levels of coupling between the three models, highlighting the role the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. We use the results of the coupled HEIDI, BATSRUS and RIM models during disturbed conditions to study the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of geospace.

  7. Impacts of Pedestrians on Capacity and Delay of Major Street Through Traffic at Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the impacts of pedestrians on capacity and average control delay for the major street through traffic at two-way stop-controlled (TWSC intersections. A procedure was proposed to estimate the expected delay for major street through vehicles based on the pedestrian arrival time and motorist yielding behavior. Field data were collected to calibrate the crucial parameters in the established models. The proposed models were then validated against field measured data. It was found that the calibrated models provided reasonable delay estimates. Based on the established models, sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pedestrian arrival rate and motorist yield rate on the capacity of the major street through lanes at TWSC intersections. The results suggested that the capacity of the through movement would decrease with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate. It was also found that, with the same pedestrian arrival rate, the capacity would decrease as the motorist yield rate became higher, and the magnitude of the capacity reduction would increase with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate.

  8. A two-way enriched clinical trial design: combining advantages of placebo lead-in and randomized withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Tamura, Roy N

    2015-12-01

    A new clinical trial design, designated the two-way enriched design (TED), is introduced, which augments the standard randomized placebo-controlled trial with second-stage enrichment designs in placebo non-responders and drug responders. The trial is run in two stages. In the first stage, patients are randomized between drug and placebo. In the second stage, placebo non-responders are re-randomized between drug and placebo and drug responders are re-randomized between drug and placebo. All first-stage data, and second-stage data from first-stage placebo non-responders and first-stage drug responders, are utilized in the efficacy analysis. The authors developed one, two and three degrees of freedom score tests for treatment effect in the TED and give formulae for asymptotic power and for sample size computations. The authors compute the optimal allocation ratio between drug and placebo in the first stage for the TED and compare the operating characteristics of the design to the standard parallel clinical trial, placebo lead-in and randomized withdrawal designs. Two motivating examples from different disease areas are presented to illustrate the possible design considerations.

  9. Simulating low frequency sound transmission through walls and windows by a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, Finn; Norèn-Cosgriff, Karin; Madshus, Christian; Ellingsen, Ståle Engvik

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft, supersonic flights, blasts, and explosions emit sound with substantial energy below 100 Hz. When the low frequency sound is transmitted inside a building, it generates vibration and rattling that may lead to annoyance. Our understanding of these low frequency phenomena is presently limited. In this paper, we attempt to improve our computational capabilities related to the low frequency sound transmission. For this purpose, a finite element methodology that incorporates a two-way coupled fluid-structure interaction, has been developed. Results from a broad experimental investigation of low frequency sound transmission are compared with the numerical finite element simulations. Plain walls, and walls with windows are studied. Close agreement between the simulations and the laboratory measurement data is obtained in the frequency range investigated (10-100 Hz). It was found that structural connections were of large importance for modeling the vibration and sound transmission. The windows control the low frequency transmission from 15 to 30 Hz, whereas the walls control the sound transmission from 30 to 100 Hz. Mitigation of vibrations and rattling induced by low frequency sound therefore needs to consider both wall and window construction.

  10. Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 ×10-21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercy, Anthony; Stefani, Fabio; Lopez, Olivier; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-12-01

    By using two-way frequency transfer, we implement a real-time frequency comparison over a uni-directional telecommunication network of 100 km using a pair of parallel fibers with simultaneous digital data transfer. The relative frequency stability is 10-15 at 1-s integration time and reaches 2 ×10-17 at 40 000 s, three orders of magnitude below the one-way fiber instability. We also demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution comparison of optical frequencies with a bidirectional scheme using a single fiber. We show that the relative stability at 1-s integration time is 7 ×10-18 and scales down to 5 ×10-21 . The same level of performance is reached when an optical link is implemented with an active compensation of the fiber noise. The fractional uncertainty of the frequency comparisons was evaluated for the best case to 2 ×10-20 . These results open the way to accurate and high-resolution frequency comparison of optical clocks over intercontinental fiber networks.

  11. Digital Communication and Politics in Aragon. A two-way communication formula for the interaction between politicians and citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ruiz-Carreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents blogs as an innovative and rich tool for political communication. Blogs can facilitate two-way communication and true interaction between citizens and politicians. The article analyses in depth the content, uses, and characteristics of five weblogs written by Aragonese politicians. Although the study detects some weaknesses in the current political use of blogs, it encourages political parties to use blogs and other online resources, not only during electoral campaigns to improve the reputation of political leaders but also continuously and particularly in situations of special interest for the citizenship. The study shows that the use of blogs by Aragonese politicians is no longer just a transitory phenomenon and has become a reality. The article also demonstrates that politicians use blogs mostly as a pre-electoral tooland to a much lesser extent as an element of communication to promote democracy. It has been observed that politicians’ blogs are used as a tool to overcome situations of crisis and to compensate negative opinions caused by questionable acts.

  12. Guest-Induced Two-Way Structural Transformation in a Layered Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Tomoyuki; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sakata, Osami; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-28

    Fabrication of thin films made of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been intensively pursued for practical applications that use the structural response of MOFs. However, to date, only physisorption-induced structural response has been studied in these films. Chemisorption can be expected to provide a remarkable structural response because of the formation of bonds between guest molecules and reactive metal sites in host MOFs. Here, we report that chemisorption-induced two-way structural transformation in a nanometer-sized MOF thin film. We prepared a two-dimensional layered-type MOF Fe[Pt(CN)4] thin film using a step-by-step approach. Although the as-synthesized film showed poor crystallinity, the dehydrated form of this thin film had a highly oriented crystalline nature (Film-D) as confirmed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surprisingly, under water and pyridine vapors, Film-D showed chemisorption-induced dynamic structural transformations to Fe(L)2[Pt(CN)4] thin films [L = H2O (Film-H), pyridine (Film-P)], where water and pyridine coordinated to the open Fe(2+) site. Dynamic structural transformations were also confirmed by in situ XRD, sorption measurement, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. This is the first report of chemisorption-induced dynamic structural response in a MOF thin film, and it provides useful insights, which would lead to future practical applications of MOFs utilizing chemisorption-induced structural responses.

  13. Establishing a community of practice for Occupational Therapy curriculum development: the value of a two-way process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yvonne; Judd, Jenni

    2015-08-01

    A novel application of the concept of a community of practice was adopted in the development of a revised curriculum for undergraduate occupational therapy education in July 2012. University Academic staff and invited practice scholars met together, half yearly for day long meetings to develop and review a new curriculum. The formation of this community of practice allowed for open discourse and feedback to integrate theory and practice. A qualitative study utilised two focus groups, one for academic staff and one for practice scholars, at the end of the third meeting. The focus groups were facilitated by an external researcher, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis elicited five major themes. Participants reported a sense of community and commitment to the curriculum process. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (i) a sense of community; (ii) a two-way process with mutual benefits; (iii) benefits to the curriculum and to student learning; (iv) future opportunities including resilience of graduates, and potential research collaborations; and (v) the structure and process of engaging in the community of practice. The commitment of time, planning and resources required to establish and participate in collaborative curriculum development with practice scholars is shown to be a valuable investment for occupational therapy academics, expert practice scholars and ultimately for student learning. Further studies of student and graduate outcomes from the curriculum are warranted. Potential future outcomes of this process include resilience in graduates and collaborative research with practice scholars. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Architecture vision and technologies for post-NPOESS weather prediction system: two-way interactive observing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Michael W.; Higgins, Glenn J.; Mahoney, Robert L.; Lutz, Robert; Mauk, Robin; Seablom, Michael; Talabac, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    A recently completed two-year NASA-sponsored study on Advanced Weather Forecasting Technologies envisions that given the opportunity to realize key technological advances over the next quarter century, and with judicious infrastructure and technology investments, it may be possible to significantly extend the skill range of model based weather forecasting via real-time two-way feedbacks between computer forecast models and highly networked, intelligent observing systems (Sensor Webs). Through this linkage, the observing system will have access to information about the present and evolving state of the atmosphere and, most importantly, have the intelligence to act on information about the future states of the atmosphere derived from the forecast model. An ultimate aim is full dynamic situation-driven observing system reconfigurability. The system is conceived to enable operational expression of optimized targeted observing. Ideas are presented on how the entire system might be designed and operated from the perspectives of the underlying science, technology evolution, and system engineering in order to provide the needed coordination between and among space- and ground-based observing and forecast model operations. The greatest challenges lay with the development of the large scale deep infrastructure on which the more advanced proposed forecast system functionality depends.

  15. Proper name anomia with preserved lexical and semantic knowledge after left anterior temporal lesion: a two-way convergence defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busigny, Thomas; de Boissezon, Xavier; Puel, Michèle; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the case of a patient who, following herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), retained the ability to access rich conceptual semantic information for familiar people whom he was no longer able to name. Moreover, this patient presented the very rare combination of name production and name comprehension deficits for different categories of proper names (persons and acronyms). Indeed, besides his difficulty to retrieve proper names, SL presented a severe deficit in understanding and identifying them. However, he was still able to recognize proper names on familiarity decision, demonstrating that name forms themselves were intact. We interpret SL's deficit as a rare form of two-way lexico-semantic disconnection, in which intact lexical knowledge is disconnected from semantic knowledge and face units. We suggest that this disconnection reflects the role of the left anterior temporal lobe in binding together different types of knowledge and supports the classical convergence-zones framework (e.g., Damasio, 1989) rather than the amodal semantic hub theory (e.g., Patterson, Nestor, & Rogers, 2007).

  16. Oral Xeloda plus bi-platinu two-way combined chemotherapy in treatment of advanced gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fan; Wen-Chao Liu; Yan-Jun Zhang; Jun Ren; Bo-Rong Pan; Du-Hu Liu; Yan Chen; Zhao-Cai Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and dose intensity (DI) of oral Xeloda vs calcium folinate (CF)/5-FU combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies, both combined with bi-platinu two-way chemotherapy.METHODS: A total of 131 patients were enrolled and randomly selected to receive either oral Xeloda (X group)or CF/5-FU (control group). Oral Xeloda 1 000 mg/m2was administered twice daily from d 1 to 14 in X group,while CF 200 mg/m2 was taken as a 2-h intravenous infusion followed by 5-FU 600 mg/m2 intravenously for 4-6 h on d 1-5 in control group. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin were administered in the same way to both the groups:cisplatin 60-80 mg/m2 by hyperthermic intraperitoneal administration, and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenously for 2 h on d 1. All the drugs were recycled every 21 d,with at least two cycles. Pyridoxine 50 mg was given t.i.d.orally for prophylaxis of the hand-foot syndrome (HFS).Then the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and DI of the two groups were evaluated.RESULTS: Hundred and fourteen cases (87.0%) finished more than two chemotherapy cycles. The overall response rate of them was 52.5% (X group) and 42.4% (control group) respectively. Tumor progression time (TTP) was 7.35 mo vs5.95 mo, and 1-year survival rate was 53.1% vs 44.5%. There was a remarkable statistical significance of TTP and 1-year survival between the two groups. The main Xeloda-related adverse events were myelosuppression,gastrointestinal toxicity, neurotoxicity and HFS, which were mild and well tolerable. Therefore, no patients withdrew from the study due to side effects before two chemotherapy cycles were finished. Both groups finished pre-arranged DI and the relative DI was nearly 1.0. The average cost for 1 patient in one cycle was $9 137.35(X group) and $8 961.72 (control group), or US $1 100.89in X group and $1 079.73 in control group. To add 1% to the response rate costs $ 161.44 vs $210

  17. Improvement of orbit determination accuracy for Beidou Navigation Satellite System with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Lingfeng; Li, Xiaojie; Wu, Shan; Zhao, Gang; Yu, Yang; Cao, Yueling

    2016-10-01

    The Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) manages to estimate simultaneously the orbits and clock offsets of navigation satellites, using code and carrier phase measurements of a regional network within China. The satellite clock offsets are also directly measured with Two-way Satellite Time Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). Satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and comparisons with the precise ephemeris indicate that the radial error of GEO satellites is much larger than that of IGSO and MEO satellites and that the BDS orbit accuracy is worse than GPS. In order to improve the orbit determination accuracy for BDS, a new orbit determination strategy is proposed, in which the satellite clock measurements from TWSTFT are fixed as known values, and only the orbits of the satellites are solved. However, a constant systematic error at the nanosecond level can be found in the clock measurements, which is obtained and then corrected by differencing the clock measurements and the clock estimates from orbit determination. The effectiveness of the new strategy is verified by a GPS regional network orbit determination experiment. With the IGS final clock products fixed, the orbit determination and prediction accuracy for GPS satellites improve by more than 50% and the 12-h prediction User Range Error (URE) is better than 0.12 m. By processing a 25-day of measurement from the BDS regional network, an optimal strategy for the satellite-clock-fixed orbit determination is identified. User Equivalent Ranging Error is reduced by 27.6% for GEO satellites, but no apparent reduction is found for IGSO/MEO satellites. The SLR residuals exhibit reductions by 59% and 32% for IGSO satellites but no reductions for GEO and MEO satellites.

  18. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  19. H10255: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1987-11-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. F00290: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1987-11-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H10217: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-09-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  3. H10489: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1993-08-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  5. Availability of contaminants to migratory shorebirds consuming horseshoe crab eggs on Delaware Bay Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A perceived decline in the shorebird population has raised concern regarding contamination at shorebird breeding, staging, and wintering grounds. Thousands of...

  6. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    meetings to socialize the MIST process, formatting flip chart sheets prior to the workshop to capture specific feedback, and including two researchers...the small groups are also very valuable in allowing quieter people to participate. The additional structure provided by preformatted flip charts was...beneficial. The formatting of the flip chart pads facilitated more consistent sharing of small group outcomes. Recommendation  Rework flip charts by

  7. H10199: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-06-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H10167: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1984-12-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H10200: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-06-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H12568: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-08-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. SHEWANELLA AND PHOTOBACTERIUM IN OYSTERS AND SEAWATER FROM THE DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewanella algae, S. putrefaciens, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae are indigenous marine bacteria and human pathogens causing cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, septicemia, and death. Infections are rare and are most often associated with the immunocompromized host. A study ...

  12. H10446: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1993-08-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. 75 FR 73116 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ..., Pennsylvania 19147. Send written material and requests to make oral presentations to Gerald Conrad, Liaison to... CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, telephone 215-271-4824. SUPPLEMENTARY... possible. Dated: November 23, 2010. Joseph M. Re, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Office of...

  14. 75 FR 18524 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... presentations to Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the Designated Federal Officer (DFO) of the DRBOSAC, at the address...-0333. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, telephone 215..., contact the Liaison to the DFO as soon as possible. Dated: April 7, 2010. Joseph M. Re, Captain,...

  15. H12571: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-10-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. A hybrid surface layer parameterization scheme for the two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsafados, Petros; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Varlas, George; Korres, Gerasimos

    2015-04-01

    The two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW has been recently developed in order to study the factors that contribute to the air-sea interaction processes and feedbacks. The coupled system consists of two components: the atmospheric component which is based on the Workstation Eta non-hydrostatic limited area model and the ocean-wave component which is based on the fourth generation OpenMP (OMP) version of the WAM model. The WEW has been already evaluated in a number of high-impact weather and sea state events where generally a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave system has been shown However, the new developed wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces both the near surface wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag considered by the atmospheric model over rough sea surfaces. Such behavior is mainly attributed to the surface layer parameterization scheme of the atmospheric component which is based on the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) scheme. It is noted that this scheme has been adjusted to support independent atmospheric simulations. Therefore, we proceed to develop a new hybrid surface layer parameterization based on the MYJ and the Janssen schemes that operate in the atmospheric and ocean wave components of the WEW, respectively. In this case the roughness length depends on the wave age instead of the Charnock parameter following the formulation proposed by Vickers and Mahrt. The spatial variability of the wave age is estimated at each ocean wave component time step and it is directly provided to the MYJ scheme. The parameterization of the viscous sublayer and the universal functions for the estimation of the near surface wind speed have been also revised accordingly. In this study, a test version of the new hybrid scheme of WEW has been statistically evaluated against a number of buoys and satellite retrievals over the Mediterranean Sea in a case study of high

  17. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) for all criteria pollutants of the national ambient air quality... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements,'' that is located in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State...

  18. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  19. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1)...

  20. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Delaware River in New Hope, PA. The safety zone... downriver of the bridge in New Hope, PA. DATES: This rule is effective from June 15, 2010 through July...

  1. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  2. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The University of Delaware

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware along with MAGPI (Metropolitan Area GigaPoP in Philadelphia for Internet2) and Internet2 are excited to host "Network Delaware Day: Advancing Research and Education Initiatives Across the First State." Discover the power of advanced networking opportunities in research and education throughout the First State.

  4. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  5. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  6. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A., E-mail: kschum@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 278 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States); Schumacher, Thomas, E-mail: schumact@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19711 (United States); Agbemabiese, Lawrence, E-mail: agbe@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 272 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  7. Numerical simulation of the optimal two-mode attacks for two-way continuous-variable quantum cryptography in reverse reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Li, Zhengyu; Zhao, Yijia; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the security of the two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol in reverse reconciliation against general two-mode attacks, which represent all accessible attacks at fixed channel parameters. Rather than against one specific attack model, the expression of secret key rates of the two-way protocol are derived against all accessible attack models. It is found that there is an optimal two-mode attack to minimize the performance of the protocol in terms of both secret key rates and maximal transmission distances. We identify the optimal two-mode attack, give the specific attack model of the optimal two-mode attack and show the performance of the two-way protocol against the optimal two-mode attack. Even under the optimal two-mode attack, the performances of two-way protocol are still better than the corresponding one-way protocol, which shows the advantage of making double use of the quantum channel and the potential of long-distance secure communication using a two-way protocol.

  8. Studies on Punching Shear Resistance of Two Way Slab Specimens with Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBS with Different Edge Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Ravi Dakshina Murthy; Rao, M. V. S.; Grandhe, Veera Venkata Satya Naranyana

    2016-09-01

    The present work is an effort to quantify the punching shear load resistance effect on two way simply supported slab specimens with replacement of cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) with different edge conditions at various replacement levels and evaluate its efficiency. GGBS replacement has emerged as a major alternative to conventional concrete and has rapidly drawn the concrete industry attention due to its cement savings, cost savings, environmental and socio-economic benefits. The two way slab specimens were subjected to punching shear load by in house fabricated apparatus. The slab specimens were cast using M30 grade concrete with HYSD bars. The cement was partially replaced with GGBS at different percentages i.e., 0 to 30 % at regular intervals of 10 %. The test results indicate that the two way slab specimens with partial replacement of cement by GGBS exhibit high resistance against punching shear when compared with conventional concretes slab specimens.

  9. Effect of Thermal Cycling under Load on Martensite Transformation and Two-way Shape Memory Effect in a TiNi Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of thermal cycling under loading on martensitictransformation and two-way shape memory effect was investigated for Ti-49.8 at. pct Ni alloy. It is shown that Ms and Mf temperature increase with increasing the number of cycles, while As and Af temperature decrease during thermal cycling. The total strain εt and permanent strain εp increase with increasing applied stress and number of cycles. The two-way shape memory effect can be improved by proper thermal cycling training under loading, while excessively high applied stress results in the deterioration of TWSME. The reason for the changes in martensitic transformation characteristics and two-way shape memory effect during thermal cycling under loading is discussed based on the analysis of microstructure by TEM observations.

  10. Effect of Training on Two-way Shape Memory Effect and Its Stability in a Ti-Ni-Hf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglong MENG; Wei CAI; K.T. LAU; L.M. ZHOU; Liancheng ZHAO

    2003-01-01

    The Effect of the thermal cycling training under constant strain on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ti36Ni49Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) has been investigated by bending tests. The results indicated that the training procedure is beneficial to get the better TWSME. The two-way shape memory strain increases with increasing the training strain. And it decreases with increasing the training temperature. The TWSME obtained in the present alloy shows poorer stability compared with that obtained in the TiNi alloys.

  11. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  12. Watershed nutrient inputs, phytoplankton accumulation, and C stocks in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, T. R.; Boynton, W. R.; Hagy, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Inputs of N and P to Chesapeake Bay have been enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Fertilizers, urbanization, N emissions, and industrial effluents contribute to point and diffuse sources currently 2-7X higher for P and 5-20X higher for N than those from undisturbed watersheds. Enhanced nutrient inputs cause phytoplankton blooms which obscure visibility, eliminate submerged grasses, and influence the distribution of C within the Bay. Accumulations of dissolved organic and particulate organic C lead to enhanced microbial respiration in isolated bottom waters, and dissolved oxygen is seasonally reduced to trace levels during summer. Cultural eutrophication is not unique to Chesapeake Bay. Although some estuaries such as the Delaware, Hudson, and San Francisco Bay also have high anthropogenic inputs, these estuaries have much shorter residence times, and much of the N and P may be exported to the coastal ocean. However, in Chesapeake Bay, with residence times >2 months, internal processing of watershed inputs results in local algal blooms within the estuary. Watershed restoration strategies for Chesapeake watersheds have had limited success to date. Groundwaters are enriched with nitrate, and the long residence times of groundwaters mean slow responses to watershed improvements. The few successes in the Chesapeake have been associated with point source reductions, although continued human population growth can easily override restoration efforts. Widespread improvement in water quality has yet to occur, but the limited successes show that the Bay responds to load changes.

  13. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  14. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  15. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  16. Vulnerbility of production wells in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system to saltwater intrusion from the Delaware River in Camden, Gloucester, and Salem Counties, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, Anthony S.; Voronin, Lois M.; Modica, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Delaware River in parts of Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey, and has more limited contact with the river in Salem County, New Jersey. The aquifer system is used widely for water supply, and 122 production wells that are permitted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection to pump more than 100,000 gallons per year in the three counties are within 2 miles of the river. During drought, saltwater may encroach upstream from the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay to areas where the aquifer system is recharged by induced infiltration through the Delaware River streambed. During the drought of the mid-1960's, water with a chloride concentration in excess of potability standards (250 mg/L (milligrams per liter)) encroached into the reach of the river that recharges the aquifer system. The vulnerability of the major production wells in the area to similar saltwater encroachment in the future is a concern to water managers. This vulnerability was evaluated by investigating two scenarios: (1) a one-time recurrence of the conditions approximating those that occurred in the1960's, and (2) the recurrence of those same conditions on an annual basis. Results of ground-water-flow simulation in conjunction with particle tracking and one-dimensional transport analysis indicate that the wells that are most vulnerable to saltwater intrusion are those in the Morris and Delair well fields in Camden County. A single 30-day event during which the concentration of dissolved chloride or sodium exceeds 2,098 mg/L or 407 mg/L, respectively, in the Delaware River would threaten the potability of water from these wells, given New Jersey drinking-water standards of 250 mg/L for dissolved chloride and 50 mg/L for dissolved sodium. This chloride concentration is about six times that observed in the river during the 1960's drought. An annually occurring 1-month event during which the concentrations of

  17. "You Give Me Idea!": Collaborative Strides toward Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in a Two-Way Partial Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the nature of spontaneous bilingual peer interactions across Spanish/English integrated learning contexts, as well as the roles played by Spanish-dominant and English-dominant peers in mediating each others' bilingual, biliteracy, and cross-cultural learning in a two-way partial immersion (TWpI) program. Implications for…

  18. The Development, Pilot-Testing, and Dissemination of a Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of a Two-Way Interactive Distance Learning System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    Both formative and summative evaluations of the operation of the Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) Televised Interactive Education (TIE) System were conducted. The TIE system links three Iowa community colleges and local public and private universities via two-way microwave connections, allowing the production and transmittal of…

  19. The Development of Writing Skills in an Italian-English Two-Way Immersion Program: Evidence from First through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Simona; Simón-Cereijido, Gabriela; Hartel, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the writing skills of students in grades 1 to 5 of an Italian-English two-way immersion program. Narrative writing samples were collected in both languages and scored for content, organization, grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, text length, and overall total score. The results show that writing skills improved as a function of…

  20. Toward regional-scale modeling using the two-way nested global model TM5: Characterization of transport using SF6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Bergamaschi, P.; Dutton, G.; Velthoven, P. V.; Miller, J. B.; Bruhwiler, L.; Tans, P. P.

    2004-01-01

    We present an evaluation of transport of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the two-way nested chemistry-transport model "Tracer Model 5" (TM5). Modeled SF6 values for January 2000 to November 2003 are compared with NOAA CMDL observations. This includes new high-frequency SF6 observations, frequent

  1. Student Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, and the Perception of the Two-Way Audio/Video Distance Learning Environment: A Preliminary Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Julie; Schneider, Paul

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to develop assessment tools to measure students' perceptions of two-way audio/video distance classrooms, as well as self-efficacy and satisfaction with distance learning experience. These measures were subsequently used to assess the relationship between these variables. Findings offer two possible indications. Students do not…

  2. Middle-Class English Speakers in a Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Classroom: "Everybody Should Be Listening to Jonathan Right Now..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Two-way bilingual immersion education, offered in a fast-growing number of primary schools in the United States, provides primary language maintenance to minority language speakers while simultaneously offering an enrichment "foreign" language immersion experience to English-speaking children in the same classroom, generally with the same teacher.…

  3. Exploring Associations among Writing Self-Perceptions, Writing Abilities, and Native Language of English-Spanish Two-Way Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina R.; Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study, with 409 fourth graders in two-way immersion programs, explored the writing self-perceptions of native English and native Spanish speakers and the relationship between self-perceptions and writing performance. An adapted version of the Writer Self-Perception Scale (WSPS) was administered along with a writing task. Native English…

  4. Exploring Associations among Writing Self-Perceptions, Writing Abilities, and Native Language of English-Spanish Two-Way Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina R.; Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study, with 409 fourth graders in two-way immersion programs, explored the writing self-perceptions of native English and native Spanish speakers and the relationship between self-perceptions and writing performance. An adapted version of the Writer Self-Perception Scale (WSPS) was administered along with a writing task. Native English…

  5. Differences in Achievement between Students Enrolled in a Transitional, Early Exit Bilingual Program and in a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Program--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    The current pilot study compares the overall academic achievement in the area of language arts literacy among elementary bilingual students enrolled in either a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion program or in an Early Exit, Transitional Bilingual program in a large urban public school district. By analyzing the results of curriculum based measures…

  6. Toward an Expanded Understanding of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Education: Constructing Identity through a Critical, Additive Bilingual/Bicultural Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Sharon Adelman; Vallone, Trina Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This literature review will take a focused look at the three currently accepted theoretical foundations upon which two-way bilingual immersion programs are based. Through an examination of research on identity construction in childhood and adolescence, particularly as seen through a critical pedagogical lens, it proposes that there exists a fourth…

  7. A Latent Variable Approach to Listening and Reading: Testing Factorial Invariance Across Two Groups of Children in the Korean/English Two-Way Immersion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungok; Bachman, Lyle F.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the factorial distinctiveness of two receptive language skills, listening and reading, and the equivalence of factor structure across two groups. Subjects were 156 students, Korean-Americans and non-Korean-Americans, in grades two through four in a two-way bilingual education program. Students were tested in listening and…

  8. The Development of Writing Skills in an Italian-English Two-Way Immersion Program: Evidence from First through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Simona; Simón-Cereijido, Gabriela; Hartel, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the writing skills of students in grades 1 to 5 of an Italian-English two-way immersion program. Narrative writing samples were collected in both languages and scored for content, organization, grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, text length, and overall total score. The results show that writing skills improved as a function of…

  9. Influence of Hydrogen and Number of Particle Variants on Ordinary and Two-Way Shape Memory Effects in Ti-Ni Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, I. V.; Platonova, Yu. N.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    The ordinary and two-way shape memory effects (SMEs) are investigated for [ overline{1} 12] single crystals of Ti-51.3Ni (at.%) alloy aged at 823 K for 1.5 h in free state and under tensile stress of 150 MPa without hydrogen and after saturation by hydrogen. It is established that without hydrogen in [ overline{1} 12] single crystals with one and four variants of Ti3Ni4 particles the maximum magnitude of the ordinary SME is 1.9-2.6% under the external stress σext = 250 MPa. Under σext > 250 MPa, crystals are destroyed. The magnitude of the two-way SME caused by the B2- R- B19' MT equal to 1.1% at σext = 0 is observed in [ overline{1} 12] single crystals with one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles. The physical reason for the observed two-way SME is the internal compressive stresses oriented along the [ overline{1} 12] directions arising from one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles as a result of aging under tensile stress of 150 MPa. It is established that hydrogen does not influence the TR temperature, reduces the plasticity, and suppresses the two-way SME. The suppression of two-way SME in the [ overline{1} 12] single crystals of the Ti-51.3Ni (at.%) alloy with one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles is caused by shielding of stress fields from one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles and multiple nucleation of R- and B19' martensite variants under loading with saturation by hydrogen.

  10. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... Regulation 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) found...

  11. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional...

  12. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  13. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  14. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  16. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  18. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  19. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  20. Three Year Investigation Of Mosquito Breeding In Natural And Impounded Tidal Marshes In Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1953 to 1955 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cooperative investigation of...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  2. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ca :1 0 0 $ 41 >0 I pI1C 3 c a x oa C4 i-i :4n .- kip 0 *1 4+4 A.>A 44 C)p 0)- 144 to ~ 5 -4$ %4 a Lo 0 1 0) C: Go 14 V2 U) 4 14 1* 4 t $4 U 4 Cd 0 g a...a bank building to a private residence, this brick structure survives as an example of Greek Revival architecture. Nat. Reg. DK 116 Thorne Mansion...of Sydenham Thorne , an Anglican minister and co-founder of Milford, A.William Burton, Governor of Delaware and John M. Clayton, Secretary of State

  3. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    represents the highest stand of the Quaternary seas in the Delmarva region. The Ironshire and Kent Island Formations overlie or cut into the Omar Formation and are probably late Sangamon and middle Wisconsin, respectively, in age. Near Ocean City, the Ironshire forms a seaward-facing scarp with a toe nearly 4.5 m (15 ft) above sea level. A warm-temperate microfloral assemblage from the fluviatile-estuarine facies of the Ironshire Formation in the Delaware Bay region suggests that the formation is interglacial, probably late Sangamon in age. The Ironshire and Omar Formations are overlain unconformably by the Sinepuxent Formation. The top of this marine unit is slightly above present sea level and has been dated by radiocarbon as about 30,000 years old or middle Wisconsin. The microflora from this formation is a cold to cool-temperate assemblage (high proportion of spruce pollen). The outer fringes of the Delmarva Peninsula are being overlapped by deposits of a Holocene marine transgression.

  4. Two-way fiber-wireless convergence systems based on two-stage injection-locked VCSELs transmitter and optical interleaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Zheng, Jun-Ren; Lin, Che-Yu; Wan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-02-23

    A two-way fiber-wireless convergence system based on a two-stage injection-locked 1.55-μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) transmitter and an optical interleaver (IL) to deliver intensity-modulated and phase-remodulated millimeter-wave (MMW) data signals over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 5-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram perform brilliantly through a serious investigation in systems. Such a two-way fiber-wireless convergence system is a promising option, it reveals a prominent one to present its advancement in integration of distribute fiber and in-house network.

  5. Improvement of Two-Way Active Avoidance Memory Requires Protein Kinase A Activation and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Subimal; Siwek, Donald F.; Huang, Max P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that two-way active avoidance (TWAA) memory processing involves a functional interaction between the pontine wave (P wave) generator and the CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus (DH-CA3). The present experiments examined whether the interaction between P wave generator activity and the DH-CA3 involves the intracellular protein kinase A (PKA) signaling system. In the first series of experiments, rats were subjected to a session of TWAA training followed immediately ...

  6. Impact of two-way air flow due to temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using indoor positive pressure control method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Yang, Xudong

    2011-02-28

    Maintaining positive pressure indoors using mechanical ventilation system is a popular control method for preventing the entry of outdoor airborne particles. The idea is, as long as the supply air flow rate is larger than return air flow rate, the pressure inside the ventilated room should be positive since the superfluous air flow must exfiltrate from air leakages or other openings of the room to the outdoors. Based on experimental and theoretical analyses this paper aims to show the impact of two-way air flow due to indoor/outdoor temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using positive pressure control method. The indoor positive pressure control method is effective only when the size of the opening area is restricted to a certain level, opening degree less than 30° in this study, due to the two-way air flow effect induced by differential temperature. The theoretical model was validated using the experimental data. The impacts of two-way air flow due to temperature difference and the supply air flow rate were also analyzed using the theoretical model as well as experimental data. For real houses, it seems that the idea about the positive pressure control method for preventing the entry of outdoor particles has a blind side.

  7. Fluid–structure coupling analysis of deformation and stress in impeller of an axial-flow pump with two-way passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Pei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial-flow pump with a two-way passage has been widely employed in irrigation and drainage projects. Because of the shape of the two-way inlet passage, the impeller easily induces vibration due to unstable turbulent flow. This vibration results in structural cracks and even hinders the safe operation of the pump. Deformation and stress distributions in the impeller were calculated using two-way coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations, and a quantitative analysis of blade deformation and stress is carried out to determine the structure critical region. The results show that the values of deformation and stress significantly decrease with an increasing flow rate and a decreasing head, and the maximum total deformation can be found in the impeller rim, while the maximum equivalent stress can be obtained near the impeller hub. The total deformations in the blade rim decrease from blade leading edge to trailing edge, and the equivalent stress in the blade hub initially increases and then declines, and in the end, it rapidly increases from the blade outlet to inlet. These results reveal the deformation and stress in the impeller to ensure reliability and specific theoretical guidance for the structural optimization design of a pump device.

  8. Derivation of habitat-specific dissolved oxygen criteria for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuk, R.A.; Breitburg, D.L.; Diaz, R.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Secor, D.H.; Thursby, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake 2000 Agreement committed its state and federal signatories to "define the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources" in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) and its tidal tributaries. Hypoxia is one of the key water quality issues addressed as a result of the above Agreement. This paper summarizes the protection goals and specific criteria intended to achieve those goals for addressing hypoxia. The criteria take into account the variety of Bay habitats and the tendency towards low dissolved oxygen in some areas of the Bay. Stressful dissolved oxygen conditions were characterized for a diverse array of living resources of the Chesapeake Bay by different aquatic habitats: migratory fish spawning and nursery, shallow-water, open-water, deep-water, and deep-channel. The dissolved oxygen criteria derived for each of these habitats are intended to protect against adverse effects on survival, growth, reproduction and behavior. The criteria accommodate both spatial and temporal aspects of low oxygen events, and have been adopted into the Chesapeake Bay states - Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware - and the District of Columbia's water quality standards regulations. These criteria, now in the form of state regulatory standards, are driving an array of land-based and wastewater pollution reduction actions across the six-watershed.

  9. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  10. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  11. Two-Way Tether Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Safety-tether device enables crewmembers on spacecraft to retrieve crewmember drifting away from spacecraft. Alternatively, drifting crewmember who carries device uses it to grasp and return to spacecraft. Also used on Earth. For example, rescuer on vessel or pier uses it to retrieve and haul drowning or unconscious person to safety; drifting person or rescuer in water uses it to grasp and hold onto support.

  12. Two ways to support reflexivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Knudsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Management (MEM). MEM provides the participating managers with a new language that can give them a critical distance to the overload of expectations they meet at work and MEM teaches the participants to translate this new language into practice. The pedagogy used for this is labelled ‘experimental management......’. This requires participants to conduct experiments in their own organization, to reflect on and analyse their experiences with concepts from the curriculum. While the new language and the experimental teaching format are difficult, the participants learn a reflexive practice that can enable them to life up...

  13. Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific during HIPPO: two-way coupled simulation of GEOS-Chem and its multiple nested models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-Y. Yan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Global chemical transport models (CTMs are used extensively to study air pollution and transport at a global scale. These models are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions, not allowing for detailed representation of small-scale nonlinear processes over the pollutant source regions. Here we couple the global GEOS-Chem CTM and its three high-resolution nested models to simulate the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO over the Pacific Ocean during five HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns between 2009 and 2011. We develop a two-way coupler, PKUCPL, to integrate simulation results for chemical constituents from the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat. and the three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat. covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. The coupler obtains nested model results to modify the global model simulation within the respective nested domains, and simultaneously acquires global model results to provide lateral boundary conditions for the nested models. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled simulation results in enhanced CO concentrations in the nested domains. Sensitivity tests suggest the enhancement to be a result of improved representation of the spatial distributions of CO, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds, the meteorological dependence of natural emissions, and other resolution-dependent processes. The relatively long lifetime of CO allows for the enhancement to be accumulated and carried across the globe. We find that the two-way coupled simulation increases the global tropospheric mean CO concentrations in 2009 by 10.4%, with a greater enhancement at 13.3% in the Northern Hemisphere. Coincidently, the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical (OH is reduced by 4.2% (as compared to the interannual variability of OH at 2.3%, resulting in a 4.2% enhancement in the methyl chloroform lifetime (MCF, via reaction with tropospheric OH. The resulting CO

  14. Automated pipeline for classifying Aroclors in soil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using modulo compressed two-way data objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-12-15

    Seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME). Three pattern recognition methods: a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and a fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) were used to build classification models. Modulo compression was introduced for data preprocessing to extract the characteristic features and compress the data size. Baseline correction and data normalization were also applied prior to data processing. Four GC/MS data set configurations were constructed and used to evaluate the classifiers and data pretreatments including two-way modulo compressed, two-way data, one-way total ion current and one-way total mass spectrum. The results indicate that modulo compression and baseline correction methods significantly improved the performance of the classifiers which resulted in improved classification rates for FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM classifiers. By using two-way modulo compressed data sets, the average classification rates with FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM were 100±0%, 94.6±0.7%, and 96.1±0.6% for 100 bootstrapped Latin partitions of the Aroclor standards. The classifiers were validated by application to Aroclor samples extracted from soil with no parametric changes except that the calibration set of standards and validation set of soil samples were individually mean centered. The classification rates for the GC/MS modulo 35 compressed data obtained from the Aroclor soil samples with FOAM, FuRES, and PLS-DA were 100%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. Therefore, a chemometric pipeline for SPME-GC/MS data coupled with chemometric analysis was devised as a fast authentication method for different Aroclors in soil. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 数字电视接入网双向改造方案%Two-way Reform Scheme of Digital TV Access Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵永泽

    2015-01-01

    随着数字电视双向业务的推进,需要对接入网进行双向改造,应本着“光进铜退”的原则,光缆线路应一次规划,分步实施。接入网不仅要进行光缆改造,还要对同轴电缆网进行改造,既要充分利旧,又要兼顾未来发展,便于平滑升级,光缆线路要留有冗余,为光纤进一步向用户靠近、不断提高双向用户的入户带宽打下基础。%With the development of digital TV two-way business,it need to access network for two-way trans-formation,Should be based on the principle of “light into copper retreat”,Fiber optic cable line should be a plan,Step by step implementation.Access network is not only to carry out optical fiber cable,Also to the co-axial cable network to transform,Not only to make full use of the old,To take into account the future develop-ment,Easy to smooth upgrade,Fiber optic cable line to stay redundant,For the fiber further to the user,and continuously improve the home bandwidth of two-way users to lay the foundation.

  16. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  17. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  18. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  19. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  20. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  1. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  2. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  3. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  4. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... public notice of a proposed lease area for commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and... from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and another from Occidental Development & Equities, LLC...

  5. Research about EPON two-way authenticated encryption scheme based on the MAC%基于MAC层的EPON双向认证加密方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丹; 张跃进

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed on the basis of the EPON network security risks that exist in the EPON network security issues, according to the two-way authenticated encryption scheme and the technology roadmap proposed two-way authentication scheme of an anti-MAC frame to eavesdropping and replay attacks, hybrid encryption. The program at no extra cost on the basis of comprehensive protection of the safety of the EPON system data, but also to meet the needs of different users, the system has certain practical significance.%在分析了以太网无源光网络(EPON)网络中存在的安全隐患基础上,针对EPON网络中存在的安全问题,根据双向认证加密方案及技术路线,提出了一个抗MAC帧窃听和重放攻击的混合加密双向认证方案.该方案在不增加成本的基础上,全面地保障了EPON系统数据的安全,同时也满足了不同用户的需求,系统有一定的实用意义.

  6. Low overhead two-way time synchronization algorithm%一种低开销的双向时间同步算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪付强; 曾鹏; 于海斌

    2011-01-01

    时间同步作为无线传感器网络的关键技术之一,得到越来越广泛的关注.提出了基于簇结构的主动和被动结合的双向同步算法,基于簇结构的双向同步方式解决了传统双向同步报文交互频繁的问题,通过最大似然估计校正节点间的相位偏差和频率偏差,使得同步算法获得较高的同步精度和相对较少的报文开销.最后通过仿真和物理实验验证了算法的有效性.%As one of the key technologies in wireless sensor networks, time synchronization has been widely concerned. A combined active and inactive two-way synchronization algorithm based on clustering architecture is proposed in this paper. The clustering architecture pattern solves the frequent packet interaction in traditional two way methods. The phase offset and frequency offset among nodes are corrected with maximum likelihood estimation. Based on these considerations,the proposed synchronization algorithm achieves high synchronization accuracy and relatively less packet cost. Finally , the efficacy of our algorithm is proved through simulation and physical experiments.

  7. Two-way Comparative Pattern Matching Algorithm Suitable for Chinese%适合中文的双向比较模式匹配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶煜

    2011-01-01

    Some pattern matching algorithms were analyzed and,an algorithm,suitable for Chinese,based on KMP was proposed,that is two-way pattern matching algorithm.Based on KMP,characteristic-array was introduced into to record the positional information of end character which appears in the pattern string and further to get the maximum moving distance of the pattern and the least times of comparing during the process of pattern string's matching.Experimental results show that two-way pattern matching algorithm can effectively reduce the times of matching.%分析了几种常用的模式匹配算法,提出一种适合于中文的基于KMP的改进算法,即双向比较模式匹配算法.该算法以KMP算法为基础,引入特征数组以记录模式串尾字符在模式串中出现的位置信息,从而获得模式串在匹配过程中的最大移动距离和最少比较次数.实验结果表明,双向比较模式匹配算法可有效降低匹配次数.

  8. One-Way Multishape-Memory Effect and Tunable Two-Way Shape Memory Effect of Ionomer Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-15

    Reversible elongation by cooling and contraction by heating, without the need for repeated programming, is well-known as the two-way shape-memory effect (2W-SME). This behavior is contrary to the common physics-contraction when cooling and expansion when heating. Materials with such behavior may find many applications in real life, such as self-sufficient grippers, fastening devices, optical gratings, soft actuators, and sealant. Here, it is shown that ionomer Surlyn 8940, a 50-year old polymer, exhibits both one-way multishape-memory effects and tunable two-way reversible actuation. The required external tensile stress to trigger the tunable 2W-SME is very low when randomly jumping the temperatures within the melting transition window. With a proper one-time programming, "true" 2W-SME (i.e., 2W-SME without the need for an external tensile load) is also achieved. A long training process is not needed to trigger the tunable 2W-SME. Instead, a proper one-time tensile programming is sufficient to trigger repeated and tunable 2W-SME. Because the 2W-SME of the ionomer Surlyn is driven by the thermally reversible network, here crystallization and melting transitions of the semicrystalline poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid), it is believed that a class of thermally reversible polymers should also exhibit tunable 2W-SMEs.

  9. Sum-Rate Maximization in Two-Way AF MIMO Relaying: Polynomial Time Solutions to a Class of DC Programming Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Khabbazibasmenj, Arash; Vorobyov, Sergiy A; Haardt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sum-rate maximization in two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying belongs to the class of difference-of-convex functions (DC) programming problems. DC programming problems occur as well in other signal processing applications and are typically solved using different modifications of the branch-and-bound method. This method, however, does not have any polynomial time complexity guarantees. In this paper, we show that a class of DC programming problems, to which the sum-rate maximization in two-way MIMO relaying belongs, can be solved very efficiently in polynomial time, and develop two algorithms. The objective function of the problem is represented as a product of quadratic ratios and parameterized so that its convex part (versus the concave part) contains only one (or two) optimization variables. One of the algorithms is called POlynomial-Time DC (POTDC) and is based on semi-definite programming (SDP) relaxation, linearization, and an iterative search over a single para...

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  11. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  12. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  13. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  14. Haemodynamics of giant cerebral aneurysm: A comparison between the rigid-wall, one-way and two-way FSI models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Bobkova, M. S.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a computer simulation of a blood flow in cerebral vessels with a giant saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation of the basilar artery is performed. The modelling is based on patient-specific clinical data (both flow domain geometry and boundary conditions for the inlets and outlets). The hydrodynamic and mechanical parameters are calculated in the frameworks of three models: rigid-wall assumption, one-way FSI approach, and full (two-way) hydroelastic model. A comparison of the numerical solutions shows that mutual fluid- solid interaction can result in qualitative changes in the structure of the fluid flow. Other characteristics of the flow (pressure, stress, strain and displacement) qualitatively agree with each other in different approaches. However, the quantitative comparison shows that accounting for the flow-vessel interaction, in general, decreases the absolute values of these parameters. Solving of the hydroelasticity problem gives a more detailed solution at a cost of highly increased computational time.

  15. Exploring ecology through science terms: A computer-supported vocabulary supplement to the science curriculum in a two-way immersion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Francisco Javier, Jr.

    This study set out to examine how a web-based tool embedded with vocabulary strategies, as part of the science curriculum in a third grade two-way immersion classroom, would aid students' academic vocabulary development. Fourteen students (seven boys, seven girls; ten of which were English learners) participated in this study. Students utilized web pages as part of their science curriculum on the topic of ecology. The study documented students' use of the web pages as a data-gathering tool on the topic of ecology during science instruction. Students were video and audio taped as they explored the web pages. Results indicated that through the use of the intervention web pages students significantly improved their knowledge of academic English target words.

  16. Characteristics of the martensitic transformation and the induced two-way shape memory effect after training by compressive pseudoelastic cycling in Cu-Zn-Al single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picornell, C.; Cesari, E.; Sade, M.

    1994-04-01

    Training effects on the characteristics of the transformation when using pseudoelastic compressive cycling are studied from σ-ɛ curves and calorimetric measurements. Several characteristics produced by tensile cycling and observed in thermally induced martensitic transformations also appear in this case. For a fixed number of training cycles, the efficiency of the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) obtained after compressive tests is higher than that measured when tensile experiments are done. In a certain range, the efficiency of the resulting TWSME after compressive training increases with the magnitude of the applied stress. Values of the stress (threshold stress) which trained samples with an induced TWSME are able to overcome when going to martensite are presented for two sets of samples. These opposing stresses are related to different degrees of the TWSME inhibition. These values increase with the number of compressive cycles and show a saturation behavior.

  17. Characteristics of the martensitic transformation and the induced two-way shape memory effect after training by compressive pseudoelastic cycling in Cu-Zn-Al single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picornell, C.; Cesari, E. (Univ. of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Physics Dept.); Sade, M. (Balseiro Inst., Bariloche (Argentina). National Commission of Atomic Energy National Univ. of Cuyo (Argentina). National Commission of Atomic Energy)

    1994-04-01

    Training effects on the characteristics of the transformation when using pseudoelastic compressive cycling are studied from [sigma]-[var epsilon] curves and calorimetric measurements. Several characteristics produced by tensile cycling and observed in thermally induced martensitic transformations also appear in this case. For a fixed number of training cycles, the efficiency of the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) obtained after compressive tests is higher than that measured when tensile experiments are done. In a certain range, the efficiency of the resulting TWSME after compressive training increases with the magnitude of the applied stress. Values of the stress (threshold stress) which trained samples with an induced TWSME are able to overcome when going to martensite are presented for two sets of samples. These opposing stresses are related to different degrees of the TWSME inhibition. These values increase with the number of compressive cycles and show a saturation behavior.

  18. 文学与人类学的双向视野和认同%The Two-way Vision and Identity of Literature and Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭子艺

    2011-01-01

    从文学和人类学各自的特点及二者的区别入手,观桑文学对人类学的影响和人类学对文学的渗透即二者的双向的视野和认同,促进我们对文学人类学进一步地认识和了解。%Through the characters and difference of literature and anthropology, this article makes researches on the influence of literature to anthropology and the percolation of anthropology to literature, which is the two-way vision and identity of literature and anthropology. Through the research, it can promote the understanding of literary anthropology.

  19. Construction and Application of Two - Way Video Telemedicine System%双向视频远程医疗服务系统构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩云; 张红宾; 郭宏林; 朱刘松; 王茜

    2011-01-01

    The article discussed an new integration health care service mode. The service mode provided better medical care for retired cadres, which sharing medical resources between hospitals and sanatoria for retired cadres. The author also introduced the establishment and implement of Two - Way Video Telemedicine system in a military hospital.%医院与干休所互联互通互操作、医疗资源共享有的一体化医疗保健服务模式,为提升离退休干部医疗保健水平提供了先进手段和技术保证.本文探讨双向视频远程医疗服务系统的构建动因,阐述具体做法和取得的效果.

  20. The Albany Two-Way Radio Conferences, 1955-1981: a retrospective look at a program providing interactive continuing medical education at a distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgan, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Despite early widespread recognition of the necessity of continuing medical education (CME) for practicing physicians and surgeons, medical schools and national medical organizations were slow to mobilize to address the need. One pioneering program, developed by the Albany Medical College in New York, not only provided CME, but did so in a live distance education format that allowed for interaction between the participants and the faculty presenters. The Albany Program commenced in 1955 using what was then state-of-the-art technology; it exemplified principles and practices that can be seen as the precursors for the distance education approaches used to reach physicians today. This short article describes the contributions of the Albany Two-Way Radio Conferences and places them in the context of developments in national organizations and policies in the 20th century.