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Sample records for delaware bay delaware

  1. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  2. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  3. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  6. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  7. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  8. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  9. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  10. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  11. Novel coronavirus and astrovirus in Delaware Bay shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi S Honkavuori

    Full Text Available Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds.Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses.Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants.

  12. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  13. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  14. Modern sedimentary environments in a large tidal estuary, Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from an extensive grid of sidescan-sonar records reveal the distribution of sedimentary environments in the large, tidally dominated Delaware Bay estuary. Bathymetric features of the estuary include large tidal channels under the relatively deep (> 10 m water depth) central part of the bay, linear sand shoals (2-8 m relief) that parallel the sides of the tidal channels, and broad, low-relief plains that form the shallow bay margins. The two sedimentary environments that were identified are characterized by either (1) bedload transport and/or erosion or (2) sediment reworking and/or deposition. Sand waves and sand ribbons, composed of medium to coarse sands, define sites of active bedload transport within the tidal channels and in gaps between the linear shoals. The sand waves have spacings that vary from 1 to 70 m, amplitudes of 2 m or less, and crestlines that are usually straight. The orientations of the sand waves and ribbons indicate that bottom sediment movement may be toward either the northwest or southeast along the trends of the tidal channels, although sand-wave asymmetry indicates that the net bottom transport is directed northwestward toward the head of the bay. Gravelly, coarse-grained sediments, which appear as strongly reflective patterns on the sonographs, are also present along the axes and flanks of the tidal channels. These coarse sediments are lag deposits that have developed primarily where older strata were eroded at the bay floor. Conversely, fine sands that compose the linear shoals and muddy sands that cover the shallow bay margins appear mainly on the sonographs either as smooth featureless beds that have uniform light to moderate shading or as mosaics of light and dark patches produced by variations in grain size. These acoustic and textural characteristics are the result of sediment deposition and reworking. Data from this study (1) support the hypothesis that bed configurations under deep tidal flows are functions of current

  15. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1. In several ERTS-1 frames, waste disposal plumes have been detected 36 miles off Delaware's Atlantic coast. The ERTS-1 results are being used to extend and verify hydrodynamic models of the bay, developed for predicting oil slick movement and estimating sediment transport.

  16. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  17. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  18. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2008-0333] Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of...) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, (215...

  19. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  20. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  1. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  2. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  3. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to... Point and Welch Point. (f) Sailboats. Transiting the canal by vessels under sail is not permitted...

  4. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  5. Examination of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware Bay and River in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Bean, Thomas G; McGowan, Peter C; Callahan, Carl R; Erickson, Richard A; Hale, Robert C

    2018-05-22

    A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s. Several alternative brominated flame retardants were rarely detected, with only TBPH [bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate)] present in 5 of 27 samples at <5 ng/g wet weight. No relation was found between p,p'-DDE, total PCBs or total PBDEs in eggs with egg hatching, eggs lost from nests, nestling loss, fledging and nest success. Osprey eggshell thickness recovered to pre-DDT era values, and productivity was adequate to sustain a stable population. Prey fish contaminant concentrations were generally less than those in osprey eggs, with detection frequencies and concentrations greatest in white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware River compared to the Bay. Biomagnification factors from fish to eggs for p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were generally similar to findings from several Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Overall, findings suggest that there have been improvements in Delaware Estuary waterbird habitat compared to the second half of the 20th century. This trend is in part associated with mitigation of some anthropogenic contaminant threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Day, Daniel D.; Burket, S. Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W.; Haddad, Samuel P.; Bowerman, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2–3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk.

  7. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  8. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  9. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  10. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  11. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  12. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  13. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  14. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  15. Holocene depocenter migration and sediment accumulation in Delaware Bay: A submerging marginal marine sedimentary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C. H.; Knebel, H.J.; Kraft, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Holocene transgression of the Delaware Bay estuary and adjacent Atlantic coast results from the combined effect of regional crustal subsidence and eustasy. Together, the estuary and ocean coast constitute a small sedimentary basin whose principal depocenter has migrated with the transgression. A millenial time series of isopach and paleogeographic reconstructions for the migrating depocenter outlines the basin-wide pattern of sediment distribution and accumulation. Upland sediments entering the basin through the estuarine turbidity maximum accumulate in tidal wetland or open water sedimentary environments. Wind-wave activity at the edge of the tidal wetlands erodes the aggraded Holocene section and builds migrating washover barriers. Along the Atlantic and estuary coasts of Delaware, the area of the upland environment decreases from 2.0 billion m2 to 730 million m2 during the transgression. The area of the tidal wetland environment increases from 140 million to 270 million m2, and due to the widening of the estuary the area of open water increases from 190 million to 1.21 billion m2. Gross uncorrected rates of sediment accumulation for the tidal wetlands decrease from 0.64 mm/yr at 6 ka to 0.48 mm/yr at 1 ka. In the open water environments uncorrected rates decrease from 0.50 mm/yr to 0.04 mm/yr over the same period. We also present data on total sediment volumes within the tidal wetland and open water environments at specific intervals during the Holocene. 

  16. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  17. Delaware's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  18. Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the Delaware Inland Bays: the role of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudlark, Joseph R.; Jennings, Jennifer A.; Roadman, Megan J.; Savidge, Karen B.; Ullman, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A previous assessment of nitrogen loading to the Delaware Inland Bays indicates that atmospheric deposition provides 15-25% of the total, annual N input to these estuaries. A large and increasing fraction of the atmospheric wet flux is NH 4 + , which for most aquatic organisms represents the most readily assimilated form of this nutrient. Particularly noteworthy is a 60% increase in the precipitation NH 4 + concentration at Lewes, DE over the past 20 years, which parallels the increase in poultry production on the Delmarva Peninsula over this period (currently standing at nearly 585 million birds annually). To further examine the relationship between local NH 3 emissions and deposition, biweekly-integrated gaseous NH 3 concentrations were determined using Ogawa passive samplers deployed at 13 sampling sites throughout the Inland Bays watershed over a one-year period. Annual mean concentrations at the 13 sites ranged from 3 m -3 to >6 μg NH 3 m -3 , with a mean of 1.6 ± 1.0 μg NH 3 m -3 . At most sites, highest NH 3 concentrations were evident during spring and summer, when fertilizer application and poultry house ventilation rates are greatest, and seasonally elevated temperatures induce increased rates of microbial activity and volatilization from soils and animal wastes. The observed north-to-south concentration gradient across the watershed is consistent with the spatial distribution of poultry houses, as revealed by a GIS analysis of aerial photographs. Based on the average measured NH 3 concentration and published NH 3 deposition rates to water surfaces (5-8 mm s -1 ), the direct atmospheric deposition of gaseous NH 3 to the Inland Bays is 3.0-4.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 . This input, not accounted for in previous assessments of atmospheric loading to the Inland Bays, would effectively double the estimated direct dry deposition rate, and is on par with the NO 3 - and NH 4 + wet fluxes. A second component of this study examined spatial differences in NO 3 - and NH 4

  19. Using transplanted bivalves to assess oil exposure and effects in Delaware Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.; Salazar, S.; Mearns, A.; Venosa, A.; Eberhart, B.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation, the US EPA oiled intertidal plots in Delaware Bay and monitored oil degradation rates. This controlled release of oil was also used to test the utility of transplanted bivalves in assessing oil spills and to evaluate the extent and potential effects of the release. Measuring the accumulation of oil in bivalve tissues was used to estimate exposure and the extent of contamination. Growth was used to estimate potential bioeffects. Approximately 1,800 mussels and 1,200 oysters were transplanted to 11 intertidal sites. Five treatment sites were within 1 meter of the lower end of the oiled plots. A total of six sites were used as controls, three on either side of the oiled plots at 5, 10, and 100 m. Samples were taken on Day 0, 2, 15, and 28 to estimate the rate of bioaccumulation. All of the mussels died within the first week of exposure; oysters exhibited over 95% survival but growth was minimal. The authors found a statistically significant difference in tissue weights when comparing treatment sites with control sites. The total concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of oysters nearest the oiled plots increased by a factor of four after an exposure period of two days. PAH concentrations in control oysters nearest the mouth of the bay increased slightly but the differences were not statistically significant. The control oysters nearest the head of the bay received an intermediate dose which was depurated by the end of the 28-day experiment. PAHs in the oysters nearest the oiled plots approached but did not return to background levels by the end of the test

  20. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  1. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  2. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: Coast... the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico Fireworks to arrange for this display. The Captain of the Port, Sector Delaware Bay, has determined that the Sugar House Casino...

  3. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  4. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 1984-01-01 to 1984-12-01 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  6. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 1976-11-05 to 1977-08-16 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  7. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  8. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  11. 78 FR 36658 - Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... portion of the Delaware River from operating while a fireworks event is taking place. This temporary...-AA00 Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary...

  12. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Water Quality Assessment Report AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice....us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014'' as the subject line; via fax to 609-883-9522; via U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2014, P.O. Box 7360, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0360; via...

  13. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is available for review and comment. DATES: Comments must be... should have the phrase ``Water Quality Assessment 2012'' in the subject line and should include the name...

  14. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  15. The timber resources of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Carl E. Mayer

    1974-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. The first forest survey of Delaware was made in 1956 by the Northeastern...

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  18. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  19. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  20. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  1. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  2. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  3. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  4. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  5. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  6. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  7. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  8. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY: Federal Communications... waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions stations... first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the reallotment because...

  9. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  10. A Laboratory Safety Program at Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmyre, George; Sandler, Stanley I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory safety program at the University of Delaware. Includes a history of the program's development, along with standard safety training and inspections now being implemented. Outlines a two-day laboratory safety course given to all graduate students and staff in chemical engineering. (TW)

  11. Influenza Weekly Surveillance Reports - Delaware Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  12. DPH Healthy Living Information: Immunizations - Delaware Health and Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing WIC ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  13. 77 FR 69490 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Sandy beginning on... areas of the State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  14. 76 FR 60850 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on... have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: The entire State of Delaware for... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  15. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  16. Habitat use by Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa): Experiments with oyster racks and reefs on the beach and intertidal of Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P racks and over 68 for other treatments (P racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.

  17. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  19. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  1. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  2. An Analysis of the Charter School Facility Landscape in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesla, Kevin; Johnson, Jessica M.; Massett, Kendall; Ziebarth, Todd

    2018-01-01

    In the spring of 2016, the National Charter School Resource Center (NCSRC), the Colorado League of Charter Schools (the League), the Delaware Charter Schools Network (DCSN), and the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (the Alliance) collaborated to collect data and information about charter school facilities and facilities expenditures in…

  3. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Delaware. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  4. 76 FR 64959 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 25-31, 2011, is of sufficient severity and... State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Kent and Sussex... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  5. The effect of Delaware law on firm value: Evidence from poison pill adoptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Campbell II

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As the leading location for firm incorporations and corporate law, Delaware occupies a unique place in corporate governance and control. In this paper, we provide fresh evidence on whether Delaware’s dominance arises from its takeover laws being in the best interest of shareholders versus managers by investigating the role of the state in which a firm is incorporated on the firm’s adoption of a poison pill. Our results indicate that announcements of adoptions of poison pills by Delaware firms are associated with returns not significantly different from those for non-Delaware firms. Moreover, Delaware firms that adopt poison pills are no more likely to receive a takeover bid, be successfully acquired, or receive better merger terms than non-Delaware firms. Overall, it appears that Delaware law, with regards to takeovers, promotes an environment consistent with a “race to the middle” philosophy, neutral to management and shareholders.

  6. 77 FR 60089 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, New Jersey, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Producers Council, et al. v. EPA, 559 F.3d 512 (DC Cir. 2009). As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Court... 2010 value status \\3\\ Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1003 * 31.6 23.2 24.3 26 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1007 28.1 * 20.6 27.5 25 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003...

  7. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Delaware Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Department of Health and Social Services - Reports to o r f rom, o r in vestigations, b y t he D elaware D epartment o f Transportation...Satyrium kingi) Rare Skipper ( Problema bulenta) Mulberry Wing (Poanes massasoit chermocki) 5-20 Natural Resources Management Mammals...Schools T2.20.1.DE. Radon Management According to Guidelines for Persons Qualified to Provide Radon Services of the Delaware Health and Social Services

  8. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  9. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  10. 76 FR 59087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental... manufacture, sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. This action is being... consists of Delaware's regulation for reducing VOCs from commercially-used adhesive and sealant products by...

  11. 77 FR 65518 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... proposed revision to the Delaware SIP. The revision is to 7 DE Admin. Code 1125--Requirements for... DE Admin. Code 1125. Final approval of Delaware's October 12, 2011 SIP revision will put in place the...

  12. 75 FR 12168 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... the State of Delaware. The revision adds a new section, Section 2--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.../SIP Regulation No. 42-- Specific Emission Control Requirements for controlling nitrogen oxide (NO X...

  13. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Environmental Control (DNREC). The revisions amend Delaware's regulation for the Control of Volatile Organic... approval of the Delaware SIP revision that amends Regulation No. 1124, Control of Volatile Organic..., specifies standards and exemptions, and specifies control devices, test methods, compliance certification...

  14. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... scenario with potential for loss of life and property. Basis and Purpose The New Hope Chamber of Commerce... to protect life and property operating on the navigable waterways of the Delaware River in New Hope...-AA00 Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast...

  15. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  16. Positive Behavior Support in Delaware Schools: Developing Perspectives on Implementation and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…

  17. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A.; Schumacher, Thomas; Agbemabiese, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033

  18. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer J J

    2008-09-01

    Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, "Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense." This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other employer groups.

  19. Characteristics of Wind Generated Waves in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.; Chant, R. J.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marshes provide important services for human uses such as fishery industry, recreation, ports and marine operations. Bombay Hook Wildlife Refuge, located along the western shore of the Delaware Estuary, has experienced substantial loss of salt marsh in recent decades. To evaluate the importance of different mechanisms which cause observed shoreline retreat, wave gauges were deployed along the dredged navigation channel and shoreline in the Delaware Estuary. A coupled wave and circulation modeling system (SWAN/ROMS) based on the most recent bathymetry (last updated 2013) is validated with waves observed during both calm and energetic conditions in November 2015. Simulation results based on different model parameterizations of whitecapping, bottom friction and the wind input source are compared. The tendency of observed wave steepness is more similar to a revised whitecapping source term [Westhuysen, 2007] than the default in SWAN model. Both model results and field data show that the generation/dissipation of waves in the Delaware estuary is determined by the local wind speed and channel depth. Whitecapping-induced energy dissipation is dominant in the channel, while dissipation due to bottom friction and depth-induced breaking become important on lateral shoals. To characterize the effects of wind fetch on waves in estuaries more generally, simulations with an idealized domain and varying wind conditions are compared and the results are expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. The simulations based on a 10m-depth uniform idealized channel show that the dissipation of waves is mainly controlled by whitecapping in all wind conditions. Under strong wind conditions (wind speed >10m/s) the effect of bottom friction becomes important so the simulated wave heights are no longer linearly correlated with wind speed.

  20. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer “J. J.”

    2008-01-01

    Background Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. Objectives As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. Methods The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. Results In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Conclusions Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, “Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense.” This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other

  1. The impact of the 2002 Delaware smoking ordinance on heart attack and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Bird, Yelena; Chen, Shande; Buckingham, Robert; Meltzer, Richard S; Prapasiri, Surasri; Solis, Luis H

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000-accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999-2002) and after (2003-2004) the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21) and 430 (se = 21) respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR) for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999), which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046). By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  2. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  3. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  4. Behaviour of uranium during mixing in the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Church, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Unequivocal evidence is presented for the removal of uranium in two major estuarine systems of the north-eastern United States: the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. In both the estuaries, during all seasons but mostly in summer, dissolved uranium shows distinctly non-conservative behaviour at salinities ≤ 5. At salinities above 5, there are no deviations from the ideal dilution line. In these two estuaries as much as 22% of dissolved uranium is removed at low salinities, around salinity 2. This pronounced removal of uranium observed at low salinities has been investigated in terms of other chemical properties measured in the Delaware Estuary. In the zone of uranium removal, dissolved oxygen is significantly depleted and pH goes through a minimum down to 6.8. In the same low salinity regime, total alkalinity shows negative deviation from the linear dilution line and phosphate is removed. Humic acids, dissolved iron and manganese are also rapidly removed during estuarine mixing in this low salinity region. Thus, it appears that removal of uranium is most likely related to those properties of alkalinity and acid-base system of the upper estuary that may destabilize the uranium-carbonate complex. Under these conditions, uranium may associate strongly with phosphates or humic substances and be removed onto particulate phases and deposited within upper estuarine sediments. (author)

  5. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  6. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  7. Weatherization Builds on Delaware's Innovative Past: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Delaware demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  8. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  9. 78 FR 13496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... are listed in the www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some... modifies Delaware's PSD program at 7 DE Admin. Code 1125 to establish appropriate emission thresholds for...

  10. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  11. Trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Northern New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the trip attraction rates of the shopping centers in Northern New : Castle County in Delaware. The study aims to provide an alternative to ITE Trip : Generation Manual (1997) for computing the trip attraction of shopping centers ...

  12. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  13. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to appraise and evaluate the groundwater resources of a tri-state region adjacent to the lower Delaware River that is centered around Philadelphia, Pa., and Camden, N. J., and includes Wilmington, Del., and Trenton, N.J. Specifically, the region includes New Castle County, Del.; Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Mercer, and Salem Counties in New Jersey; and Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties in Pennsylvania.

  14. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware c...

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Delaware, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, river and stream resource management, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, coastal zone management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide publicly available coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism of the eutrophic Delaware River ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the nitrogen cycle in the Delaware River was carried out using 13 N tracers to measure rates for important transformations of nitrogen. Daily, depth-averaged 15 N rates for the principal inorganic nitrogen species were consistent with rates derived from longitudinal profiles of concentration in the river. The data indicated that nitrification was a rapid, irreversible sink for NH 4 + , with export of the product NO 3 - from the study area. Utilization of NO 3 - by primary producers was negligible, owing to low irradiance levels and to high NH 4 + concentrations. The oxygen sag near Philadelphia was found to result from oxygen demand in the water column, with only minor benthic influence. Reaeration provided the major oxygen input. Nitrification accounted for about 1% of the net oxygen demand near Philadelphia but as much as 25% farther downstream

  17. Epidemiological investigation of a youth suicide cluster: Delaware 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Crosby, Alexander E; Parks, Sharyn E; Ivey, Asha Z; Silverman, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2012, eight youth (aged 13-21 years) were known to have died by suicide in Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware, twice the typical median yearly number. State and local officials invited the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assist with an epidemiological investigation of fatal and nonfatal youth suicidal behaviors in the first quarter of 2012, to examine risk factors, and to recommend prevention strategies. Data were obtained from the Delaware Office of the Medical Examiner, law enforcement, emergency departments, and inpatient records. Key informants from youth-serving organizations in the community were interviewed to better understand local context and perceptions of youth suicide. Eleven fatal and 116 nonfatal suicide attempts were identified for the first quarter of 2012 in Kent and Sussex counties. The median age was higher for the fatalities (18 years) than the nonfatal attempts (16 years). More males died by suicide, and more females nonfatally attempted suicide. Fatal methods were either hanging or firearm, while nonfatal methods were diverse, led by overdose/poisoning and cutting. All decedents had two or more precipitating circumstances. Seventeen of 116 nonfatal cases reported that a peer/friend recently died by or attempted suicide. Local barriers to youth services and suicide prevention were identified. Several features were similar to previous clusters: Occurrence among vulnerable youth, rural or suburban setting, and precipitating negative life events. Distribution by sex and method were consistent with national trends for both fatalities and nonfatalities. References to the decedents in the context of nonfatal attempts support the concept of 'point clusters' (social contiguity to other suicidal youth as a risk factor for vulnerable youth) as a framework for understanding clustering of youth suicidal behavior. Recommended prevention strategies included: Training to identify at-risk youth and guide them to services

  18. A Collaborative Study of Disproportionate Chemical Risks in Seven Delaware Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, O.; Goldman, G. T.; White, R.; Moore, D.; Roberts, M.; Thomas, J.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have found that, compared to national averages, a significantly greater percentage of Blacks (African-Americans), Latinos (Hispanics), and people at or near poverty levels tend to live near industrial facilities that use large quantities of toxic chemicals and present a risk of major chemical disasters with potentially severe consequences for nearby communities. The Union of Concerned Scientists, the Environmental Justice Health Alliance for Chemical Policy Reform, and Delaware Concerned Residents for Environmental Justice collaborated on a study to examine the potential for cumulative impacts from health and safety risks for seven Delaware communities with a percentage of people of color and/or poverty levels greater than the Delaware average located along an industrial corridor in the northern portion of Delaware's New Castle County. These risks include close proximity to major industrial sources, as well as facilities that use large quantities of toxic, flammable or explosive chemicals and pose a high risk of a major chemical release or catastrophic incident. Additionally, proximity to contaminated waste sites was assessed, as well as the risk of cancer and potential for respiratory disease impacts from exposure to toxic air pollution. We found that people in these seven communities face a substantial cumulative health risk from exposure to toxic air pollution, proximity to polluting industrial facilities and hazardous chemical facilities, as well as contaminated waste sites. These health risks are substantially greater when compared to a wealthier and predominantly White Delaware community and for Delaware as a whole. Significant and expedited improvements in regulatory and public policy are needed at the national, state, and municipal levels to address the health and well-being of at-risk communities in Delaware and elsewhere.

  19. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  20. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  1. Creating an Early Warning System: Predictors of Dropout in Delaware. REL Mid-Atlantic Technical Assistance Brief. REL MA 1.2.75-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekawa, Kazuaki; Merola, Stacey; Fernandez, Felix; Porowski, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Brief presents an historical analysis of key indicators of dropout for Delaware students in grades 9-12. Cut points for key risk indicators of high school dropout for the State of Delaware are provided. Using data provided by the Delaware Department of Education (DDOE), relationships between student dropout and several student…

  2. Storm Surge and Wave Impact of Low-Probability Hurricanes on the Lower Delaware Bay—Calibration and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes pose major threats to coastal communities and sensitive infrastructure, including nuclear power plants, located in the vicinity of hurricane-prone coastal regions. This study focuses on evaluating the storm surge and wave impact of low-probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay using the Delft3D dynamically coupled wave and flow model. The model comprised Overall and Nested domains. The Overall model domain encompassed portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay. The two-level Nested model domains encompassed the Delaware Estuary, its floodplain, and a portion of the continental shelf. Low-probability hurricanes are critical considerations in designing and licensing of new nuclear power plants as well as in establishing mitigating strategies for existing power facilities and other infrastructure types. The philosophy behind low-probability hurricane modeling is to establish reasonable water surface elevation and wave characteristics that have very low to no probability of being exceeded in the region. The area of interest (AOI is located on the west bank of Delaware Bay, almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. The model was first calibrated for Hurricane Isabel (2003 and then applied to synthetic hurricanes with very low probability of occurrence to establish the storm surge envelope at the AOI. The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations of water surface elevation, wind velocity, wave height, and wave period. A range of meteorological, storm track direction, and storm bearing parameters that produce the highest sustained wind speeds were estimated using the National Weather Service (NWS methodology and applied to the model. Simulations resulted in a maximum stillwater elevation and wave height of 7.5 m NAVD88 and 2.5 m, respectively, at the AOI. Comparison of results with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Coastal Comprehensive Study (USACE-NACCS storm surge

  3. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  4. Water quality trends in the Delaware River Basin (USA) from 1980 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Gerald J; Homsey, Andrew R; Belden, Andrew C; Sanchez, Jessica Rittler

    2011-06-01

    In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with implementation of the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact and 1970s Federal Clean Water Act Amendments. At 15 gages along the Delaware River and major tributaries between 1980 and 2005, water quality for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment improved at 39%, remained constant at 51%, and degraded at 10% of the stations. Since 1980, improved water-quality stations outnumbered degraded stations by a 4 to 1 margin. Water quality remains good in the nontidal river above Trenton and, while improved, remains fair to poor for phosphorus and nitrogen in the tidal estuary near Philadelphia and in the Lehigh and Schuylkill tributaries. Water quality is good in heavily forested watersheds (>50%) and poor in highly cultivated watersheds. Water quality recovery in the Delaware Basin is coincident with implementation of environmental laws enacted in the 1960s and 1970s and is congruent with return of striped bass, shad, blue crab, and bald eagle populations.

  5. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  6. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  7. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  8. Studies on retranslocation of accumulated assimilates in 'Delaware' grapevines, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yau-Shiang; Hori, Yutaka

    1979-01-01

    Potted Delaware grapevines were supplied with 14 CO 2 in summer or autumn, and the accumulation and retranslocation of 14 C-assimilates were investigated. At pruning time, 14 C-assimilates were distributed to the roots at higher ratio than to the trunks and canes, and this trend was more marked in the autumn feeding than the summer feeding. The respiratory consumption and retranslocation of 14 C during the growth period of new shoots were evaluated as the percentage of 14 C found in the vines just after pruning. The percentage of the respiratory consumption of 14 C was evidently higher in the autumn feeding. The retranslocation began with the bud burst, and reached maximum at the 6- to 8-leaf stages in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in autumn and at the 10-leaf stage in those fed in summer. The retranslocation in both groups ceased by the flowering stage. Such course of the retranslocation with time was recognized in radioautographs of the new shoots. The maximum percentage of the translocation to the newly developed shoots was 5.1 - 5.2 and 15.3 - 10.7 in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in summer and autumn, respectively. It was peculiar to the new shoots that nearly half of their ethanol-soluble 14 C was found in amino acids unlike the one-sided distribution to soluble carbohydrates in the trunks and roots. It was assumed that amino acids were retranslocated to the new shoots after they had been synthesized in the roots. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Methylmercury bioaccumulation in an urban estuary: Delaware River USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate; Taylor, Vivien; Broadley, Hannah; Hocking, Daniel; Balcom, Prentiss; Mason, Rob; Nislow, Keith; Chen, Celia

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variation in mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in urban coastal watersheds reflects complex interactions between Hg sources, land use, and environmental gradients. We examined MeHg concentrations in fauna from the Delaware River estuary, and related these measurements to environmental parameters and human impacts on the waterway. The sampling sites followed a north to south gradient of increasing salinity, decreasing urban influence, and increasing marsh cover. Although mean total Hg in surface sediments (top 4cm) peaked in the urban estuarine turbidity maximum and generally decreased downstream, surface sediment MeHg concentrations showed no spatial patterns consistent with the examined environmental gradients, indicating urban influence on Hg loading to the sediment but not subsequent methylation. Surface water particulate MeHg concentration showed a positive correlation with marsh cover whereas dissolved MeHg concentrations were slightly elevated in the estuarine turbidity maximum region. Spatial patterns of MeHg bioaccumulation in resident fauna varied across taxa. Small fish showed increased MeHg concentrations in the more urban/industrial sites upstream, with concentrations generally decreasing farther downstream. Invertebrates either showed no clear spatial patterns in MeHg concentrations (blue crabs, fiddler crabs) or increasing concentrations further downstream (grass shrimp). Best-supported linear mixed models relating tissue concentration to environmental variables reflected these complex patterns, with species specific model results dominated by random site effects with a combination of particulate MeHg and landscape variables influencing bioaccumulation in some species. The data strengthen accumulating evidence that bioaccumulation in estuaries can be decoupled from sediment MeHg concentration, and that drivers of MeHg production and fate may vary within a small region.

  10. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  11. Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

  12. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  13. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  14. Dover AFB Catchment Area TRICARE Marketing Plan, 436th Medical Group, Dover AFB, Delaware,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    cosmetic changes (Nadiu, Kleimenhagen, and Pillari 1992). Berkowitz classifies the debate in terms of eras. During the production era, the function was to...facilities in Smyrna and Fenton , Delaware. KGH has aggressive marketing and community education programs which include classes on: cardiopulmonary

  15. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  16. 75 FR 31711 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from industrial boilers. This action is being taken under the Clean...--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries in...

  17. 75 FR 32858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R03-OAR-2010-0039; FRL-9158-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries Correction In rule document 2010-13377 beginning on...

  18. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.71 Delaware Water Gap National... route begins at the Smithfield Beach parking area and is in two loops. Loop One is a small trail... number of axles and wheels on a vehicle, regardless of load or weight, as follows: (i) Two-axle car, van...

  19. 76 FR 2853 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' (hereafter the 2009 Guidance). EPA... Under Sections 110(a)(1) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' was not issued...

  20. 75 FR 64673 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... From Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA... revision amends existing Section 2.0--Consumer Products to Delaware's Regulation 1141 (formerly SIP... hours at the Air Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street...

  1. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  2. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  3. The Cost of Clean Water in the Delaware River Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald J. Kauffman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delaware River has made a marked recovery in the half-century since the adoption of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC Compact in 1961 and passage of the Federal Clean Water Act amendments during the 1970s. During the 1960s, the DRBC set a 3.5 mg/L dissolved oxygen criterion for the river based on an economic analysis that concluded that a waste load abatement program designed to meet fishable water quality goals would generate significant recreational and environmental benefits. Scientists with the Delaware Estuary Program have recently called for raising the 1960s dissolved oxygen criterion along the Delaware River from 3.5 mg/L to 5.0 mg/L to protect anadromous American shad and Atlantic sturgeon, and address the prospect of rising temperatures, sea levels, and salinity in the estuary. This research concludes, through a nitrogen marginal abatement cost (MAC analysis, that it would be cost-effective to raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet a more stringent standard by prioritizing agricultural conservation and some wastewater treatment investments in the Delaware River watershed to remove 90% of the nitrogen load by 13.6 million kg N/year (30 million lb N/year for just 35% ($160 million of the $449 million total cost. The annual least cost to reduce nitrogen loads and raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet more stringent water quality standards in the Delaware River totals $45 million for atmospheric NOX reduction, $130 million for wastewater treatment, $132 million for agriculture conservation, and $141 million for urban stormwater retrofitting. This 21st century least cost analysis estimates that an annual investment of $50 million is needed to reduce pollutant loads in the Delaware River to raise dissolved oxygen levels to 4.0 mg/L, $150 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 4.5 mg/L, and $449 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 5.0 mg/L.

  4. A snapshot of tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Judith; Raughley, Erin; Chang, Christine D; Chidekel, Aaron

    2003-10-01

    Much research exists demonstrating that pediatricians should counsel patients and families about tobacco. However, few data are available about tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices. Since an anti-tobacco office environment can be a strong component of an active tobacco prevention program, we evaluated pediatric offices in Delaware to characterize tobacco-related messages. A convenience sample of 32 of 63 (51%) pediatric offices in Delaware was directly evaluated for the presence of tobacco-related messages. Fifty-five of 63 (87%) pediatric practices in Delaware were contacted by telephone to inquire about the presence of a tobacco coordinator. The 32 practices represented 71 physicians, were located in all three counties throughout the state, and were urban and non-urban in setting. The same investigator evaluated practices in a single site visit. All were located in smoke-free buildings. At one office, people were seen smoking outside; however, the presence of discarded cigarettes was much more common. Thirteen practices (41%) employed smokers, most of whom smoked outside during work hours. Twenty-one of 28 practices (75%) had waiting room magazines containing tobacco advertisements. Fifteen practices (47%) offered anti-tobacco literature while six practices (19%) displayed visual media, none exclusively addressing tobacco. Nine practices (28%) use chart flags to identify smokers. None of 55 pediatric practices in Delaware contacted by telephone identified an office tobacco prevention coordinator. Our data indicate that, in Delaware, the pediatric offices we visited overall convey a limited message about tobacco and could strengthen tobacco prevention strategies. Research measuring the impact of office-based anti-tobacco messages is needed. If these messages are effective in preventing tobacco use, practitioners can supplement active counseling with indirect interventions that require minimal maintenance once established and that place no

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Communities containing five different coastal vegetation species, developed marshlands, and fresh water impoundments have been identified in ERTS-1 images. Suspended sediment and circulation patterns in imagery from five ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been enhanced and correlated with predicted current patterns. Conclusions reached are: (1) ERTS-1 is suitable platform for observing suspended sediment patterns and water masses synoptically over large areas. (2) Suspended sediment acts as a natural tracer allowing photointerpreters to deduce gross current circulation patterns from ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Under atmospheric conditions encountered along the East Coast of the United States MSS band 5 seems to give the best representation of sediment load in upper one meter of water column. (4) In the ERTS-1 imagery the sediment patterns are delineated by three to four neighboring shades of grey. (5) Negative transparencies of the ERTS-1 images give better contrast whenever the suspended sediment tones fall within the first few steps of the grey scale. (6) Color density slicing helps delineate the suspended sediment patterns more clearly and differentiate turbidity levels.

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  8. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  9. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  10. Preliminary targeting of geothermal resources in Delaware. Progress report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, K.D.

    1979-07-01

    Results of temperature logging the five DOE 1000 foot test wells in Delaware indicate that the potential is good for a relatively low temperature geothermal resource (temperatures less than about 80/sup 0/C). A preliminary Bouguer gravity map was made for portions of Kent and Sussex counties in order to detect gravity anomalies possibly related to granitic plutons. The map indicates a gravity low trending northeast-southwest across Sussex County that could be indicative of other structural features within the basement rocks beneath the Coastal Plain. Other logging activities and study of the cores and drill cuttings in the DOE test holes were useful in better defining the stratigraphic framework and in determining the fresh-salt water interface in southern Delaware.

  11. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  12. Environmental Assessment: Eagle Heights Housing Area Revitalization Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    tidal species. Butterflies were the only insects surveyed, and nine were found on base. Approximately 51 species of birds were recorded on base...Jones River adjacent to the northern border of the housing area, the fro-fruit (Phyla lanceolata) and the hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle (Stachys...other sites in Delaware that this species is found. The hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle thrives in moist sandy soil along the coast and shoreline and occurs

  13. Holocene environmental and parasequence development of the St. Jones Estuary, Delaware (USA): Foraminiferal proxies of natural climatic and anthropogenic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leorri, E.; Martin, R.; McLaughlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The benthic foraminiferal record of marshes located along western Delaware Bay (St. Jones Estuary, USA) reflects the response of estuaries to sea-level and paleoclimate change during the Holocene. System tracts are recognized and within them parasequences based on sedimentological and foraminiferal assemblages identification. The parasequences defined by foraminiferal assemblages appear correlative with rapid Holocene climate changes that are of worldwide significance: 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600??cal years BP. Following postglacial sea-level rise, modern subestuaries and marshes in the region began to develop between 6000 and 4000??years BP, depending on their proximity to the mouth of Delaware Bay and coastal geomorphology. Initial sediments were fluvial in origin, with freshwater marshes established around 4000??years BP. The subsequent sea-level transgression occurred sufficiently slowly that freshwater marshes alternated with salt marshes at the same sites to around 3000??years BP. Locally another two transgressions are identified at 1800 and 1000??years BP respectively. Marine influence increased in the estuaries until 600??years BP (Little Ice Age), when regression occurred. Sea-level began to rise again during the mid-19th Century at the end of the Little Ice Age, when marshes became established. The presence of a sand lens in the upper and middle estuary and the reduction in the number of tests in the top samples in cores from the same area also suggest an anthropogenic influence. The estuary infill resulted in a sharp transgressive sequence, represented by salt marsh foraminiferal assemblages in the upper part of the cores. The increase in marsh foraminifera in both areas suggests an increase in marine influence that might be due to the transgression beginning at the end of the Little Ice Age about 150-180??years ago coupled with anthropogenic straightening of the channel in 1913. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect 3H-leucine incorporation in light–dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

  15. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell (3)H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect (3)H-leucine incorporation in light-dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance.

  16. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  17. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  18. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    represents the highest stand of the Quaternary seas in the Delmarva region. The Ironshire and Kent Island Formations overlie or cut into the Omar Formation and are probably late Sangamon and middle Wisconsin, respectively, in age. Near Ocean City, the Ironshire forms a seaward-facing scarp with a toe nearly 4.5 m (15 ft) above sea level. A warm-temperate microfloral assemblage from the fluviatile-estuarine facies of the Ironshire Formation in the Delaware Bay region suggests that the formation is interglacial, probably late Sangamon in age. The Ironshire and Omar Formations are overlain unconformably by the Sinepuxent Formation. The top of this marine unit is slightly above present sea level and has been dated by radiocarbon as about 30,000 years old or middle Wisconsin. The microflora from this formation is a cold to cool-temperate assemblage (high proportion of spruce pollen). The outer fringes of the Delmarva Peninsula are being overlapped by deposits of a Holocene marine transgression.

  19. Characterizing surf zone injuries from the five most populated beaches on the Atlantic-fronting Delaware coast: Delaware surf zone injury demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, Matthew B; Puleo, Jack A; Cowan, Paul; Arford-Granholm, Michelle

    2017-12-24

    Beaches are a popular destination for recreation activities. Surf zone injuries (SZI) can occur resulting from a variety of in-water activities. Little is known regarding the sustained injury types, or demographics of injured persons and activities leading to injuries. This study examines the distribution of SZI types, activities and populations occurring on Delaware Beaches as recorded by a local level III trauma center (Department of Emergency Medicine at Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, Delaware). There were 2021 injuries over the eight study years (2010-2017). The relative demographics of the injured population are similar despite fluctuating injury totals (mean [SD], 253.1 [104.4]). Non-locals (n=1757) were 6.7 times more likely to be injured as their local (n=264) counterparts (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.08-3.31). Males (n=1258) were 1.7 times more likely to be injured than their female (n=763) counterparts (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.37). Serious injuries, defined as patients requiring admission to a trauma service, represented 9.1% (n=184) of injuries. Fatal SZI (n=6) were categorized as serious injuries. Wading (50.1%) was found to be the dominant activity associated with injury followed by body surfing (18.4%), and body boarding (13.3%). To the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate long-term trends in SZI data, injury activity, and demographics. Better understanding of the characteristics of injuries will allow for improved awareness techniques, targeted at populations with higher injury rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  1. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  2. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  3. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  4. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  5. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  7. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  8. Epidemiologic, Racial and Healthographic Mapping of Delaware Pediatric Cancer: 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Holmes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death among children 0 to 14 years and incidence varies by race, ethnicity, sex, geographic locale, and age at onset. However, data are unavailable in some regions, indicative of a need for such information for cancer awareness, education and prevention program. We utilized retrospective epidemiologic design to assess and characterize pediatric tumors in the Nemours Electronic Medical Records, between 2004 and 2014. Tumor frequency and children population size were used to determine the period prevalence as cumulative incidence (CI proportion, as well as chi-square and Poisson Regression. The CI for overall childhood cancer in Delaware was 234 per 100,000 children, and varied by race, black (273 per 100,000, white (189 per 100,000. Similarly, sex variability was observed in CI, boys (237 per 100,000 and girls (230 per 100,000. The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, Central Nervous System (CNS/brain and renal cancer. The geographic locales with relatively higher cancer CI in the state of DE were zip codes 19804 and 19960, but this does not imply cancer clustering. Differences in overall childhood cancer distribution occurred by race, sex, geography, and age. These findings are indicative of the need for cancer-specific health education, awareness and prevention programs in reducing the observed disparities in Delaware.

  9. The Importance of Inclusion for Cardiovascular Health Promotion Programs in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A; Stolz, Nicole; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Sparling, Eileen; Freedman, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease than individuals without disabilities. This increase can be attributed to decreased levels of physical activity, poor eating habits, and increased levels of diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from surveillance, treatment, and prevention efforts. Consequently, there is little known about their participation rates in health promotion and disease prevention programs. The aims of this investigation are (1) to examine time trends in cardiovascular disease and risk factors over a 10-year period by disability status and (2) to assess the inclusiveness of health promotion programs in Delaware. The percentage of individuals with disabilities increased from 18% in 2001 to 28% in 2011. Individuals with disabilities had higher rates of cardiovascular disease (t = 80.45; degrees of freedom [df] = 198; p 30 kg/m2) than individuals without disabilities (t = 33.0; df = 198; p promotion programs. Making adaptations within cardiovascular disease prevention programs in Delaware is imperative to improving the health of individuals with disabilities. Ensuring cardiovascular disease programs are accessible and provide disability-specific trained staff will reduce barriers to participation so that all individuals can benefit.

  10. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  11. Direct and indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the Delaware River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Lisa A; Panangadan, Maya; Eisenreich, Steven J; Cavallo, Gregory J; Fikslin, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition can be an important source of PCBs to aquatic ecosystems. To develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the tidal Delaware River (water-quality Zones 2-5), estimates of the loading of PCBs to the river from atmospheric deposition were generated from seven air-monitoring sites along the river. This paper presents the atmospheric PCB data from these sites, estimates direct atmospheric deposition fluxes, and assesses the importance of atmospheric deposition relative to other sources of PCBs to the river. Also, the relationship between indirect atmospheric deposition and PCB loads from minor tributaries to the Delaware River is discussed. Data from these sites revealed high atmospheric PCB concentrations in the Philadelphia/Camden urban area and lower regional background concentrations in the more remote areas. Wet, dry particle, and gaseous absorption deposition are estimated to contribute about 0.6, 1.8, and 6.5 kg year-(-1) sigmaPCBs to the River, respectively, exceeding the TMDL of 0.139 kg year(-1) by more than an order of magnitude. Penta-PCB watershed fluxes were obtained by dividing the tributary loads by the watershed area. The lowest of these watershed fluxes are less than approximately 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for penta-PCB and probably indicates pristine watersheds in which PCB loads are dominated by atmospheric deposition. In these watersheds, the pass-through efficiency of PCBs is estimated to be on the order of 1%.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction from Particles and Solutes in the Delaware Estuary under Contrasting Hydrological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guisheng; Richardson, John D; Werner, James P; Xie, Huixiang; Kieber, David J

    2015-12-15

    Full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV), and visible broadband apparent quantum yields (AQYs) for carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in the Delaware Estuary in two hydrologically contrasting seasons in 2012: an unusually low flow in August and a storm-driven high flow in November. Average AQYs for CDOM and POM in November were 10 and 16 times the corresponding AQYs in August. Maximum AQYs in November occurred in a midestuary particle absorption maximum zone. Although POM AQYs were generally smaller than CDOM AQYs, the ratio of the former to the latter increased substantially from the UV to the visible. In both seasons, UV solar radiation was the primary driver for CO photoproduction from CDOM whereas visible light was the principal contributor to POM-based CO photoproduction. CDOM dominated CO photoproduction in the uppermost water layer while POM prevailed at deeper depths. On a depth-integrated basis, the Delaware Estuary shifted from a CDOM-dominated system in August to a POM-dominated system in November with respect to CO photoproduction. This study reveals that flood events may enhance photochemical cycling of terrigenous organic matter and switch the primary photochemical driver from CDOM to POM.

  13. Isotope shifts in the late Permian of the Delaware Basin, Texas, precisely timed by varved sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaritz, M.; Oregon Univ., Eugene; Anderson, R.Y.; Holser, W.T.; Saltzmann, E.S.; Garber, J.

    1983-01-01

    Closely spaced samples (285 in number) of varved sediments from the Upper Permian in Delaware Basin, Texas, have been analyzed for delta 13 Csub(carb), delta 13 Csub(org), delta 18 Osub(carb), Csub(org), Csub(carb) and calcite/dolomite. delta 13 C records a dramatic rise from -2.8 to + 5.7per mille in only 4400 years, detected in three sections across the basin, extrapolating smoothly through a 600-year interruption by a local (west side of the basin) fresh-water inflow evidenced by low delta 18 O. This continuity and low Csub(org) within the basin, both indicate that the excess net deposition of Csub(org), necessary to generate the rise in delta 13 C, took place in the ocean external to the Delaware Basin, Correlation with similar records from the Zechstein Basin suggest that the event was world-wide, although this poses obvious difficulties for the carbon cycle. The rate of rise of delta 13 C, and its sustained high level, must imply conversions of oxidized carbon to reduced carbon that are very large depending on which reservoirs were involved. (orig.)

  14. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  15. Integrating Engineering into Delaware's K-5 Classrooms: A Study of Pedagogical and Curricular Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Linda Huey

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the personal and curricular resources available to Delaware's elementary teachers during a time of innovative curriculum change, i.e., their knowledge, goals and beliefs regarding elementary engineering curriculum and the pedagogical support to teach two Science and Engineering Practices provided by science teaching materials.…

  16. The Development of a Competency Based Food Preparations Curriculum for High School Special Needs Students in New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard Lee

    A competency-based culinary arts food preparation curriculum for Delaware high school students with special needs was developed during a project that included the following activities: review of the state's existing culinary arts curriculum for regular education students; incumbent worker survey administered to 24 restaurant…

  17. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Salem and Hope... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations...

  18. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  19. H09699: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay Entrance, Delaware, 1977-08-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H10084: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-05-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H10537: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-05-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  3. Extended Aquifer Air Sparging/Soil Vapor Extraction Treatability Study for Site SS59 (WP-21) Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Site 5559 at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware is under investigation for the remediation of ground water which was contaminated by a system of industrial waste basins operated to the north of this area...

  4. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  5. Use of the Ocean for Man’s Wastes. Proceedings of Symposium Held at Lewes, Delaware on 23-24 June 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Gaither, Dean of the College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, in making available the facilities of the Virden Center at Lewes, Delaware...gravel for*~1 the sea floor interferes with the existence of nursery and breeding grounds for fish. The options then are to restrict the recovery of...the succession of temporary deposition followed by travel with ocean currents leads to a random hop -scotch movement of particles along the seafloor

  6. Sentinel Events Preceding Youth Firearm Violence An Investigation of Administrative Data in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Socias, Christina M.; Mercy, James A.; Silverman, Paul; Medinilla, Sandra P.; Martin, Steven S.; Xu, Likang; Hillis, Susan D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. Methods Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex. In 2015, descriptive statistics and a conditional logistic regression model using Delaware healthcare, child welfare, juvenile services, labor, and education administrative data examined associations between preceding life events and subsequent firearm violence. Results In a multivariable adjusted model, experiencing a prior gunshot wound injury (AOR=11.4, 95% CI=2.7, 48.1) and being subject to community probation (AOR=13.2, 95% CI=5.7, 30.3) were associated with the highest risk of subsequent firearm violence perpetration, though multiple other sentinel events were informative. The mean number of sentinel events experienced by youth committing firearm violence was 13.0 versus 1.9 among controls (pviolence. Conclusions Youth who commit firearm violence have preceding patterns of life events that markedly differ from youth not involved in firearm violence. This information is readily available from administrative data, demonstrating the potential of data sharing across city and state institutions to focus prevention strategies on those at greatest risk. PMID:27742157

  7. An epidemiologic and entomologic investigation of a cluster of Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, L; Callejas, L; McKechnie, D; Wolfe, D; Gaw, E; Hathcock, L; Childs, J

    1998-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) continues to be the most common fatal tick-borne illness in the United States. In August of 1996, four children attending a summer camp in Delaware were diagnosed with RMSF. This report summarizes the results of the epidemiologic and entomologic investigation conducted by the Delaware Division of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding this cluster of RMSF cases. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of RMSF, as well as previously reported clusters of the disease, are also reviewed. A questionnaire regarding symptoms and activities was administered via telephone to 163 (73 percent) of the 223 attendees. A suspected case was defined as an illness in a person attending the camp between August 11 and 17 that occurred during the two-week period following the session, characterized by either 1) fever with one or more symptoms (i.e., headache, rash, myalgia, or fatigue) or 2) no fever with two or more symptoms. Cases of RMSF were confirmed by serologic evaluation. Seven of 13 patients with suspected RMSF submitted sera for testing. Four patients had confirmed RMSF; three were males, and the median age was 12.5 years compared with 12 years for all attendees. All confirmed patients reported fever, headache, fatigue, and rash. An increased risk of becoming ill was associated with overnight camping at site A (Odds Ratio (OR) undefined, p = 0.02), visiting or overnight camping at site B (OR undefined, p = 0.003 and 0.002), and leaving the trails when hiking (OR undefined, p = 0.02). These data suggest that development of RMSF was associated with visiting or camping at specific sites and behavior likely to increase contact with ticks. Camp supervisors were advised to educate campers regarding tick bite prevention measures, reduce underbrush around campsites, and encourage campers to remain on the trails. Health care providers should remain aware of the increased risk for RMSF during the spring, summer, and

  8. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  9. Late Guadalupian evolution of the Delaware Basin: insights from stable isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Kerans, C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate characterization of mixed carbonate and evaporite deposits requires an understanding of basin-scale physical, chemical, and biological processes. In these settings, carbonate geochemistry often responds to changes in the prevailing conditions in the water column. It follows that the geochemical record presents a potential aid for interpretation of depositional systems provided that it is relatively free of diagenetic overprint. This is seldom the case in shallow-water settings as processes such as meteoric diagenesis and early dolomitization obscure or erase the original geochemical signal. Fine grained deep-water sediments are more likely to retain their original geochemical characteristics. If reliable shelf-to-basin correlations can be established, then basinal deposits provide critical data not only for the interpretation of deep water environments, but overall basin evolution as well. This study examines variations in trace element and stable isotope geochemistry from the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Interpretation of geochemical data within a pre-existing shelf-to-basin stratigraphic framework suggests a link between basin water chemistry and sea level changes during the entirety of the Guadalupian. This link is supported analogies to modern silled basins where changes in sea level and thus recharge across the sill can control nutrient input, circulation, and bottom water oxygenation. In light of these relationships, the filling of the Delaware Basin with basin-centered evaporites at the end of the Guadalupian likely represents the culmination of a more gradual, cyclic evolution towards basin restriction. Ongoing work will continue to focus on tying regional-scale changes in basin water chemistry to the combined geochemical and physical sedimentological records.

  10. Integrating Engineering into Delaware's K-5 Classrooms: A Study of Pedagogical and Curricular Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Linda Huey

    This study examines the personal and curricular resources available to Delaware's elementary teachers during a time of innovative curriculum change, i.e., their knowledge, goals and beliefs regarding elementary engineering curriculum and the pedagogical support to teach two Science and Engineering Practices provided by science teaching materials. Delaware was at the forefront of K-12 STEM movement, first to adopt statewide elementary curriculum materials to complement existing science units, and one of the first to adopt the new science standards--Next Generation Science Standards. What supports were available to teachers as they adapted and adopted this new curriculum? To investigate this question, I examined (1) teachers' beliefs about engineering and the engineering curriculum, and (2) the pedagogical supports available to teachers in selected science and engineering curriculum. Teachers' knowledge, goals, and beliefs regarding Delaware's adoption of new elementary engineering curriculum were surveyed using an adapted version of the Design, Engineering, and Technology Survey (Hong, Purser, & Gardella, 2011; Yaser, Baker, Carpius, Krauss, & Roberts, 2006). Also, three open ended questions sought to reveal deeper understanding of teacher knowledge and understanding of engineering; their concerns about personal and systemic resources related to the new curriculum, its logistics, and feasibility; and their beliefs about the potential positive impact presented by the engineering education initiative. Teacher concerns were analyzed using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 2010). Lay understandings of engineering were analyzed by contrasting naive representations of engineering with three key characteristics of engineering adapted from an earlier study (Capobianco Diefes-Dux, Mena, & Weller, 2011). Survey findings for teachers who had attended training and those who have not yet attended professional development in the new curriculum were compared with few

  11. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  12. Lessons Learned From a Healthful Vending Pilot Program in Delaware State Agency Buildings, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Trotter, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Changes in food availability in worksites can result in changes in eating behavior and weight status. Nemours Health and Prevention Services, in conjunction with partners in Delaware, conducted a 6-month pilot program to assess the feasibility and impact of requiring that 75% of the items in vending machines in 3 state agency buildings have healthful items. Methods We collected process evaluation data from October 2011 through April 2012 by taking weekly photographs of all machines to record the number of healthful items available. Outcomes were measured through sales reports designed to enumerate changes in number and type of items sold and overall profit from each building. Results We found challenges in fully implementing the 75% goal. In one of the 3 buildings, all machines were compliant within 7 weeks; in another, full compliance did not occur until week 19. Despite these challenges, the number of items sold in each machine was comparable to numbers from the previous year. Total profits from each building varied across the 3 sites and during the pilot. One building had a 51% increase in profits in January 2012 compared with profits averaged for January 2011 and January 2010. In contrast, monthly profit at another building fluctuated from an increase of 6% to a loss of 30%. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that collaborative efforts can result in a feasible intervention with little negative influence on profits. PMID:25144678

  13. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  14. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  15. Dynamic Undergraduate Climate Change Affinity Program: University of Delaware Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multidisciplinary undergraduate climate change education is critical for students entering any sector of the workforce. The University of Delaware has developed a new interdisciplinary affinity program—UD Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)—open to undergraduate students of all majors to provide a comprehensive educational experience designed to educate skilled climate change problem-solvers for a wide range of professional careers. The program is designed to fulfill all General Education requirements, and includes a residential community commitment and experiential learning in community outreach and problem solving. Seminars will introduce current popular press and research materials and provide practice in confirming source credibility, communications training, and psychological support, as well as team building. As undergraduates, members of the UD CPUG team will define, describe, and develop a solution or solutions for a pressing local climate challenge that has the potential for global impact. The choice of a challenge and approach to addressing it will be guided by the student's advisor. Students are expected to develop a practical, multidisciplinary solution to address the challenge as defined, using their educational and experiential training. Solutions will be presented to the UD community during the spring semester of their senior year, as a collaborative team solution, with enhancement through individual portfolios from each team member. The logic model, structure, curricular and co-curricular supports for the CPUG will be provided. Mechanisms of support available through University administration will also be discussed.

  16. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children ( N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Evaporite dissolution relevant to the WIPP site, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the threat of natural dissolution of host evaporites to the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has taken into consideration (1) the volume of missing rock salt, (2) the occurrence (or not) of characteristic dissolution brines, (3) geomorphic features, some of which are unrelated to dissolution, and (4) the time intervals over which dissolution may have been active. Even under the assumption that all missing halite was originally present and has been removed by dissolution, there is no evidence of active preferential removal of the lower Salado Formation halite by any geologically reasonable process. The geologic record contains evidence of dissolution in the Triassic and Jurassic; to constrain all removal of basinal halite to the late Cenozoic yields an unrealistically high rate of removal. Application to the lower Salado of a stratabound mechanism known to be active in Nash Draw, a near-surface feature within the Basin, allows a minimum survival time of 2,500,000 years to be predicted for the subsurface facility for storage of radioactive waste at WIPP. This calculation is based on an analysis of all known dissolution features in the Delaware Basin, and takes into account the wetter (pluvial) climate during the past 600,000 years. 2 figures, 1 table

  20. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  1. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  3. National Dam Inspection Program. Ingham Creek (Aquetong Lake) Dam (NDI ID PA 00224, PA DER 9-49) Delaware River Basin, Ingham Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Delaware River Basing Ingham Justif icaticn--- L Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Do DEL-AWARE RIVER BASIN Availabilit T Co~es Avail and/or D...about 1.5H:IV and an unknown upstream slope below the water surface. The dam impounds a reservoir with a normal pool surface area of 12.4 acres and a...deep. It was once used to direct water to a mill downstream of the dam and is now in poor condition. The spillway Design Flood (SDF) chosen for this

  4. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  5. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  6. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  7. A comparative analysis among computational intelligence techniques for dissolved oxygen prediction in Delaware River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Olyaie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water quality models previously developed and used in dissolved oxygen (DO prediction are complex. Moreover, reliable data available to develop/calibrate new DO models is scarce. Therefore, there is a need to study and develop models that can handle easily measurable parameters of a particular site, even with short length. In recent decades, computational intelligence techniques, as effective approaches for predicting complicated and significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems such as DO, have created a great change in predictions. In this study, three different AI methods comprising: (1 two types of artificial neural networks (ANN namely multi linear perceptron (MLP and radial based function (RBF; (2 an advancement of genetic programming namely linear genetic programming (LGP; and (3 a support vector machine (SVM technique were used for DO prediction in Delaware River located at Trenton, USA. For evaluating the performance of the proposed models, root mean square error (RMSE, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS, mean absolute relative error (MARE and, correlation coefficient statistics (R were used to choose the best predictive model. The comparison of estimation accuracies of various intelligence models illustrated that the SVM was able to develop the most accurate model in DO estimation in comparison to other models. Also, it was found that the LGP model performs better than the both ANNs models. For example, the determination coefficient was 0.99 for the best SVM model, while it was 0.96, 0.91 and 0.81 for the best LGP, MLP and RBF models, respectively. In general, the results indicated that an SVM model could be employed satisfactorily in DO estimation.

  8. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  9. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  10. Bedload transport over run-of-river dams, Delaware, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam J.; Pizzuto, Jim

    2015-11-01

    We document the detailed morphology and bed sediment size distribution of a stream channel upstream and downstream of a 200-year-old run-of-river dam on the Red Clay Creek, a fifth order stream in the Piedmont of northern Delaware, and combine these data with HEC-RAS modeling and bedload transport computations. We hypothesize that coarse bed material can be carried through run-of-river impoundments before they completely fill with sediment, and we explore mechanisms to facilitate this transport. Only 25% of the accommodation space in our study site is filled with sediment, and maximum water depths are approximately equal to the dam height. All grain-size fractions present upstream of the impoundment are also present throughout the impoundment. A characteristic coarse-grained sloping ramp leads from the floor of the impoundment to the crest of the dam. A 2.3-m-deep plunge pool has been excavated below the dam, followed immediately downstream by a mid-channel bar composed of coarse bed material similar in size distribution to the bed material of the impoundment. The mid-channel bar stores 1472 m3 of sediment, exceeding the volume excavated from the plunge pool by a factor of 2.8. These field observations are typical of five other sites nearby and suggest that all bed material grain-size fractions supplied from upstream can be transported through the impoundment, up the sloping ramp, and over the top of the dam. Sediment transport computations suggest that all grain sizes are in transport upstream and within the impoundment at all discharges with return periods from 1 to 50 years. Our computations suggest that transport of coarse bed material through the impoundment is facilitated by its smooth, sandy bed. Model results suggest that the impoundment is currently aggrading at 0.26 m/year, but bed elevations may be recovering after recent scour from a series of large floods during water year 2011-2012. We propose that impoundments upstream of these run-of-river dams

  11. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  12. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  13. Delaware GK-12: Improvement of Science Education in Vocational Technical High Schools Through Collaborative Learning and Coteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Skalak, K.; Watson, G.; Scantlebury, K.; Allen, D.; Quillen, A.

    2006-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware (UD) in partnership with the New Castle County Vocational Technical School District (NCCoVoTech) in Delaware has initiated a GK-12 Program. In each of year this program, nine full time UD graduate students in the sciences, who have completed all or most of their coursework, will be selected to serve as fellows. Participation in the GK-12 program benefits the graduate fellows in many ways. In addition to gaining general insight into current issues of science education, the fellows enhance their experience as scientific researchers by directly improving their ability to effectively communicate complex quantitative and technical knowledge to an audience with multiple and diverse learning needs. In the first year of this project, fellows have been paired with high school science teachers from NCCoVoTech. These pairs, along with the principal investigators (PIs) of this program have formed a learning community that is taking this opportunity to examine and to reflect on current issues in science education while specifically addressing critical needs in teaching science in vocational technical high schools. By participating in summer workshops and follow-up meetings facilitated by the PIs, the fellows have been introduced to a number of innovative teaching strategies including problem-based learning (PBL). Fellow/teacher pairs have begun to develop and teach PBL activities that are in agreement with State of Delaware science standards and that support student learning through inquiry. Fellows also have the opportunity to engage in coteaching with their teacher partner. In this "teaching at the elbow of another", fellows will gain a better understanding of and appreciation for the complexities and nuances of teaching science in vocational technical high schools. While not taught as a stand-alone course in NCCoVoTech high schools, earth science topics are integrated into the science curriculum at

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-04 to 1976-03-24 (NODC Accession 7700621)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  15. Taxonomic code, physical, and other data collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in New York Bight from net casts and other instruments; 1973-02-20 to 1975-12-16 (NODC Accession 7601402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic Code, physical, and other data were collected using net casts and other instruments in the New York Bight from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms....

  16. Benthic organisms data collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 1957-06-19 to 1978-07-20 (NODC Accession 8000013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 19 June 1957 to...

  17. H11022: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2001-11-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. F00437A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enter or pass through any part of the waterway will be contingent on the vessel's having adequate... facilities are of limited capacity, and permission to occupy them for periods exceeding 24 hours must be...

  20. H11070: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2001-11-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. F00467: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2000-09-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  3. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  4. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  6. Integrating petroleum and sulfur data to map the Guadalupian-Ochoan (Middle to Upper Permian) Boundary of the Delaware Basis, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishron, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Basin of the Permian Basin is a classic intra-cratonic basin of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Hydrocarbon exploration and production have occurred in the region since the early 1920s, and, as a result, the formations related to these oil and gas reserves have been studied in great detail. Some formations in the Delaware Basin, however, have not been studied in such detail, and this thesis examines one, lesser-known unit that could have economic potential. The Lamar Limestone (Lamar Lime) of the Bell Canyon Formation has commonly been dismissed as a production interval; rather, it has been described as a source and seal rock for the Ramsey Sand of the lower Bell Canyon Formation. However, recent studies found that the Lamar Lime was contributing to production, and it has been described by Trentham (2006) as a potentia "mini Barnett" reservoir. The depths of these deposits are in a range that is ideal for oil accumulation. This study made use of data from wells and test holes drilled in the western Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas. Many oil and gas wells have been drilled in the western Delaware Basin, but they are concentrated in the north and east portions of Culberson County. In addition, sulfur wells were drilled in the area in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Analyses of the well logs of these wells and of core and outcrop studies were completed to gain a better understanding of the distribution and economic potential of the Lamar. Both datasets were combined to provide information not readily available in the oil and gas dataset. The Lamar Lime is an excellent marker bed because it underlies thick evaporites. The evaporite sequences are Ochoan in age, and, therefore, the contact of the Lamar Lime (Bell Canyon Formation) and the Castile Formation is the approximate boundary for the Guadalupian-Ochoan Series. The Castile Formation, the Salado Formation, and the Rustler Formation (from oldest to youngest) are the evaporite units that

  7. Chromite and other mineral deposits in serpentine rocks of the Piedmont Upland, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearre, Nancy C.; Heyl, Allen V.

    1960-01-01

    The Piedmont Upland in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware is about 160 miles long and at the most 50 miles wide. Rocks that underlie the province are the Baltimore gneiss of Precambrian age and quartzite, gneiss, schist, marble, phyllite, and greenstone, which make up the Glenarm series of early Paleozoic (?) age. These are intruded by granitic, gabbroic, and ultramaflc igneous rocks. Most of the ultramaflc rocks, originally peridotite, pyroxenite, and dunite, have been partly or completely altered to serpentine and talc; they are all designated by the general term serpentine. The bodies of serpentine are commonly elongate and conformable with the enclosing rocks. Many have been extensively quarried for building, decorative, and crushed stone. In addition, chromite, titaniferous magnetite, rutile, talc and soapstone, amphibole asbestos, magnesite, sodium- rich feldspar (commercially known as soda spar), and corundum have been mined or prospected for in the serpentine. Both high-grade massive chromite and lower grade disseminated chromite occur in very irregular and unpredictable form in the serpentine, and placer deposits of chromite are in and near streams that drain areas underlain by serpentine. A group of unusual minerals, among them kammererite, are typical associates of high-grade massive chromite but are rare in lower grade deposits. Chromite was first discovered in the United States at Bare Hills, Md., around 1810. Between 1820 and 1850, additional deposits were discovered and mined in Maryland and Pennsylvania, including the largest deposit of massive chromite ever found in the United States the Wood deposit, in the State Line district. A second period of extensive chromite mining came during the late 1860's and early 1870's. Production figures are incomplete and conflicting. Estimates from the available data indicate that the aggregate production from 27 of 40 known mines before 1900 totaled between 250,000 and 280,000 tons of lode-chromite ore

  8. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  9. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  10. The use of artificial impoundments by two amphibian species in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J.T.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We compared breeding activity of Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) and Rana sylvatica (Wood Frog) in artificial impoundments to patterns in natural wetlands over a three-year period in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Rana sylvatica were 5.6 times more likely to use natural bodies of water for breeding than artificial impoundments, while A. maculatum were 2.7 times more likely to use natural bodies of water. Both species were approximately 9 times more likely to breed in fishless bodies of water than in waters with predatory fish. Ambystoma maculatum were 6 times more likely to breed in wetlands with more stable seasonal hydroperiods, while R. sylvatica were only 2 times more likely to do so. We conclude that the high likelihood of fish presence in impoundments was the primary explanation for why both species were less likely to use impoundments than natural wetlands, while the tendency of A. maculatum to avoid natural wetlands with shorter hydroperiods explained why differences in use between pond types was more pronounced for R. sylvatica.

  11. Health assessment for E. I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, Newport, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980555122. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The E.I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, a seven acre site located adjacent to the Dupont Pigment Plant in Newport, Delaware, was used to bury paint pigments (heavy metals and chlorinated solvents) and radioactive materials from 1902 to 1975. The site was closed in 1975, the surface covered, graded and vegetated, and groundwater monitoring wells installed on- and off-site. Heavy metals (cadmium, barium, lead, zinc), and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene) have been measured in groundwater on-site. Radiation levels appear to be close to background. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. More information is needed concerning levels of contamination in private wells and the Christina River, the direction of groundwater flow, the size and extent of the groundwater contamination plume, the location of the private wells and the public water supply wells, and the composition of the population down gradient of the site

  12. Occurrence and Distribution of Mercury in the SurficialAquifer, Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Andres, A. Scott; Vrabel, Joseph; Crilley, Dianna M.; Szabo, Zoltan; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.; Reyes-Padro, Betzaida

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, mercury (Hg) was detected (500 nanograms per liter, ng/L, or greater) in the distribution system of the Long Neck Water Company (LNWC), Pot Nets, Delaware. By April 2001, two LNWC production wells had been taken off-line because discharge concentrations of total mercury (HgT) either had exceeded or approached the Federal limit of 2,000 ng/L. From October 2003 through January 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Geological Survey, and Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control conducted a cooperative study to (a) determine if the Hg contamination was widespread, (b) identify possible forms of Hg in ground water, and (c) examine Hg occurrence in relation to (geo)chemical conditions and characteristics of ground water and sediment in the surficial aquifer on the Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware. An initial water-quality survey conducted with samples from 22 production wells revealed that concentrations of HgT in ground water in the surficial aquifer ranged from 0.11 to 1,820 ng/L. Shallow ground water (less than 120 feet below land surface) throughout most of the peninsula, including that which contained elevated concentrations of HgT (exceeding 100 ng/L), appeared to be affected by human activities. All samples contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elevated nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, exceeding 0.4 milligrams per liter, mg/L). Most (16 of 22) samples had elevated specific conductance (SC, in excess of 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). Elevated concentrations of HgT, however, only occurred in five production wells in the Pot Nets Bayside and Lakeside communities. The vertical distribution of HgT in shallow ground water (less than 80 feet below land surface) was determined with samples collected at 5 to 6 vertical-nest short-screened (2 - 5-foot length) monitoring wells installed near Bayside and Lakeside production wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng

  13. Evaluation of a simple, point-scale hydrologic model in simulating soil moisture using the Delaware environmental observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legates, David R.; Junghenn, Katherine T.

    2018-04-01

    Many local weather station networks that measure a number of meteorological variables (i.e. , mesonetworks) have recently been established, with soil moisture occasionally being part of the suite of measured variables. These mesonetworks provide data from which detailed estimates of various hydrological parameters, such as precipitation and reference evapotranspiration, can be made which, when coupled with simple surface characteristics available from soil surveys, can be used to obtain estimates of soil moisture. The question is Can meteorological data be used with a simple hydrologic model to estimate accurately daily soil moisture at a mesonetwork site? Using a state-of-the-art mesonetwork that also includes soil moisture measurements across the US State of Delaware, the efficacy of a simple, modified Thornthwaite/Mather-based daily water balance model based on these mesonetwork observations to estimate site-specific soil moisture is determined. Results suggest that the model works reasonably well for most well-drained sites and provides good qualitative estimates of measured soil moisture, often near the accuracy of the soil moisture instrumentation. The model exhibits particular trouble in that it cannot properly simulate the slow drainage that occurs in poorly drained soils after heavy rains and interception loss, resulting from grass not being short cropped as expected also adversely affects the simulation. However, the model could be tuned to accommodate some non-standard siting characteristics.

  14. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 11, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Henry; Horn, Marilee A.

    1997-01-01

    Segment 11 consists of the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, West Virginia, and the Commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia. All but West Virginia border on the Atlantic Ocean or tidewater. Pennsylvania also borders on Lake Erie. Small parts of northwestern and north-central Pennsylvania drain to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; the rest of the segment drains either to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Major rivers include the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, the Rappahannock, the James, the Chowan, the Neuse, the Tar, the Cape Fear, and the Yadkin-Peedee, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ohio and its tributaries, which drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Although rivers are important sources of water supply for many cities, such as Trenton, N.J.; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D.C.; Richmond, Va.; and Raleigh, N.C., one-fourth of the population, particularly the people who live on the Coastal Plain, depends on ground water for supply. Such cities as Camden, N.J.; Dover, Del.; Salisbury and Annapolis, Md.; Parkersburg and Weirton, W.Va.; Norfolk, Va.; and New Bern and Kinston, N.C., use ground water as a source of public supply. All the water in Segment 11 originates as precipitation. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 36 inches in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia to more than 80 inches in parts of southwestern North Carolina (fig. 1). In general, precipitation is greatest in mountainous areas (because water tends to condense from moisture-laden air masses as the air passes over the higher altitudes) and near the coast, where water vapor that has been evaporated from the ocean is picked up by onshore winds and falls as precipitation when it reaches the shoreline. Some of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (evaporation plus transpiration by plants), but much of it either flows overland into streams as

  15. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Stinchcomb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  16. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  17. Health care M&A advisory alert: Delaware court decision illustrates importance of specialized due diligence on Medicare/Medicaid issues in health care acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaglia, Lawrence W; Herman, Dimitry S; Ziegler, Rachel Schneller

    2005-01-01

    Lawyers and clients contemplating a health care transaction must have a strong working knowledge not only of the applicable law, but also of the provider's needs and culture. As illustrated by a recent Delaware court decision, Interim Healthcare, Inc. et al. v. Spherion Corporation, parties engaging in health care provider acquisitions are well advised to select a team of experienced business and legal advisors with specialized knowledge in health care practices that can find and address any suspicious activities before it is too late.

  18. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  19. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  20. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Rosenberry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM (Alasmidonta heterodon in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers, thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling, and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  1. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Voytek, Emily B.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM) (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers), thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling), and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction) methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared) may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  3. Planning and implementing an honors degree in environmental science curricula: a case study from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2015-04-01

    Environmental degradation is undermining the sustainability of our planet. The multi-faceted nature of environmental stressors, which inherently couples human-environment interactions across space and time, necessitates that we train environmental scientists holistically within an interdisciplinary framework. Recruiting top-notch honors students to major in the environmental sciences is a critical step to ensure that we have the human capital to tackle complicated environmental problems successfully. Planning and implementing an honors degree is no trivial task. Based upon a recently completed and implemented set of programmatic revisions*, this poster showcases a successful example of an honors curriculum in environmental science to recruit and educate dynamic thinkers capable of improving the quality of our environment. The interdisciplinary environmental science program at the University of Delaware emphasizes the cross-cutting among earth's spheres through a core set of courses which employ a quantitative approach which is supplemented by several environmental policy courses. The core is coupled with six different thematic concentrations (students choose one) which permit the student to delve into a particular area of environmental science. The honors component of the degree consists of twelve additional credits. These credits are met through a specially designed introductory environmental course, a field experience requiring data collection, analysis, and write-up, a capstone course, and one other environmentally related course. The environmental sciences honors curriculum outlined in this poster may serve as a useful guide to others wishing to establish an honors program of their own in environmental science to recruit and prepare the next generation to mitigate environmental degradation. -------------- * Please note that the planning process for the environmental programs was and is the collective effort of many dedicated people. Current members of the

  4. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Evolution of a Structure-Searchable Database into a Prototype for a High-Fidelity SmartPhone App for 62 Common Pesticides Used in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Barile, Benjamin; Givens, Aaron F

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic pesticides are widely used in the modern world for human benefit. They are usually classified according to their intended pest target. In Delaware (DE), approximately 42 percent of the arable land is used for agriculture. In order to manage insectivorous and herbaceous pests (such as insects, weeds, nematodes, and rodents), pesticides are used profusely to biologically control the normal pest's life stage. In this undergraduate project, we first created a usable relational database containing 62 agricultural pesticides that are common in Delaware. Chemically pertinent quantitative and qualitative information was first stored in Bio-Rad's KnowItAll® Informatics System. Next, we extracted the data out of the KnowItAll® system and created additional sections on a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet detailing pesticide use(s) and safety and handling information. Finally, in an effort to promote good agricultural practices, to increase efficiency in business decisions, and to make pesticide data globally accessible, we developed a mobile application for smartphones that displayed the pesticide database using Appery.io™; a cloud-based HyperText Markup Language (HTML5), jQuery Mobile and Hybrid Mobile app builder.

  6. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  7. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater...

  8. Oceanographic Station, temperature profiles, and other data from CTD, XBT, and bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) from 1972-07-01 to 1972-08-13 (NODC Accession 7201299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station,temperature profiles, and other data were collected from CTD, XBT, and bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II from 01 July 1972 to 13 August...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other Platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1974-09-29 to 1976-12-20 (NODC Accession 7700859)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other Platforms in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the...

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from GLORIA MICHELE, NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the NW Atlantic, North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 1991-03-30 to 1996-08-09 (NODC Accession 9600133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, temperature, and other data were collected from NOAA Ship CHAPMAN, NOAA Ship DELAWARE II, NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, and the GLORIA MICHELE from March 30, 1991...

  11. Oceanographic station, temperature profile, meteorological, and other data from CTD and XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1980-06-25 to 1983-08-04 (NODC Accession 8300119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station, temperature profile, meteorological, and other data were collected from CTD and XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms from...

  12. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  13. Pathogenic bacteria and microbial-source tracking markers in Brandywine Creek Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Wilmington, Delaware, is in the downstream part of the Brandywine Creek Basin, on the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Wilmington uses this stream, which drains a mixed-land-use area upstream, for its main drinking-water supply. Because the stream is used for drinking water, Wilmington is in need of information about the occurrence and distribution of specific fecally derived pathogenic bacteria (disease-causing bacteria) and their relations to commonly measured fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), as well as information regarding the potential sources of the fecal pollution and pathogens in the basin. This study focused on five routinely sampled sites within the basin, one each on the West Branch and the East Branch of Brandywine Creek and at three on the main stem below the confluence of the West and East Branches. These sites were sampled monthly for 1 year. Targeted event samples were collected on two occasions during high flow and two occasions during normal flow. On the basis of this study, high flows in the Brandywine Creek Basin were related to increases in FIB densities, and in the frequency of selected pathogen and source markers, in the West Branch and main stem of Brandywine Creek, but not in the East Branch. Water exceeding the moderate fullbody-contact single-sample recreational water-quality criteria (RWQC) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) was more likely to contain selected markers for pathogenic E. coli (eaeA,stx1, and rfbO157 gene markers) and bovine fecal sources (E. hirae and LTIIa gene markers), whereas samples exceeding the enterococci RWQC were more likely to contain the same pathogenic markers but also were more likely to carry a marker indicative of human source (esp gene marker). On four sample dates, during high flow between October and March, the West Branch was the only observed potential contributor of selected pathogen and bovine source markers to the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Indeed, the stx2 marker, which indicates a highly

  14. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  15. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Introduction MIST Fall 2010 high-density tunnels, stations, and bridges. Another $20 million was provided for intercity ...passenger rail to protect infrastructure and the traveling public.12 This commitment of funds at a time of shrinking budgets demonstrates the essential

  16. H12568: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-08-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H10167: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1984-12-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H10439: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1992-10-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H12569: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-09-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  1. F00504: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Pennsylvania, 2004-12-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. Time as An Important Soil-Forming Factor Influencing Modern and Ancient Magnetic Susceptibility Enhancement Along the Delaware River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, G. E.; Peppe, D. J.; Driese, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is an increasingly popular low-cost method for rapidly assessing paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental impact on buried soils. The goal of this study is to determine the primary influence(s) on soil magnetic susceptibility along floodplain, terrace and upland soils in the middle Delaware River Valley, USA, using environmental magnetic, pedologic, and stratigraphic techniques. Two-hundred thirty samples were collected from age-constrained sandy, quartz-rich, floodplain, terrace, and upland soils (Entisols, Inceptisols). A Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer (T-K) (α=0.05) multiple comparisons analysis on 176 mass-specific low-field susceptibility (Xlf) assays show that A and B horizons are magnetically enhanced compared to C and E horizons (ptesting show that Xlf results, when grouped by floodplain-terrace designation (i.e., chronofunction) are significantly different (p<0.0001). The older T3 terrace and upland Xlf values (0.34±0.14 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) are greater than the younger T2 terrace (0.18±0.06 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) values, which are greater than modern floodplain (0.09±0.01 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) Xlf values. These data suggest that longer intervals of soil formation enhance the Χlf value. This hypothesis is further supported when 159 Xlf values are plotted vs. age for the entire Holocene. A locally-weighted regression smoothing curve (LOESS) shows two distinct intervals of magnetic enhancement during previously established dry intervals, the early and late-middle Holocene. We hypothesize that prolonged drought during the early and middle Holocene reduced flood frequency and magnitude and the likelihood of soil burial, resulting in longer soil forming intervals and higher Xlf values. Although precipitation influences the Xlf signature, the results from this study suggest that the magnetic susceptibility values of well-drained buried floodplain soils along the Delaware River Valley are partly a function of time.

  3. The influence of data characteristics on detecting wetland/stream surface-water connections in the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Lang, Megan W.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    The dependence of downstream waters on upstream ecosystems necessitates an improved understanding of watershed-scale hydrological interactions including connections between wetlands and streams. An evaluation of such connections is challenging when, (1) accurate and complete datasets of wetland and stream locations are often not available and (2) natural variability in surface-water extent influences the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connectivity. The Upper Choptank River watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula in eastern Maryland and Delaware is dominated by a high density of small, forested wetlands. In this analysis, wetland/stream surface water connections were quantified using multiple wetland and stream datasets, including headwater streams and depressions mapped from a lidar-derived digital elevation model. Surface-water extent was mapped across the watershed for spring 2015 using Landsat-8, Radarsat-2 and Worldview-3 imagery. The frequency of wetland/stream connections increased as a more complete and accurate stream dataset was used and surface-water extent was included, in particular when the spatial resolution of the imagery was finer (i.e., watershed contributing direct surface water runoff to streamflow. This finding suggests that our interpretation of the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connections will be influenced not only by the spatial and temporal characteristics of wetlands, streams and potential flowpaths, but also by the completeness, accuracy and resolution of input datasets.

  4. Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Needs of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison in Delaware, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Prohaska, Thomas R; MacLeod, Kara E; Ory, Marcia G; Eisenstein, Amy R; Ragland, David R; Irmiter, Cheryl; Towne, Samuel D; Satariano, William A

    2017-02-10

    Background : Older adults in rural areas have unique transportation barriers to accessing medical care, which include a lack of mass transit options and considerable distances to health-related services. This study contrasts non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service utilization patterns and associated costs for Medicaid middle-aged and older adults in rural versus urban areas. Methods : Data were analyzed from 39,194 NEMT users of LogistiCare-brokered services in Delaware residing in rural (68.3%) and urban (30.9%) areas. Multivariable logistic analyses compared trip characteristics by rurality designation. Results : Rural (37.2%) and urban (41.2%) participants used services more frequently for dialysis than for any other medical concern. Older age and personal accompaniment were more common and wheel chair use was less common for rural trips. The mean cost per trip was greater for rural users (difference of $2910 per trip), which was attributed to the greater distance per trip in rural areas. Conclusions : Among a sample who were eligible for subsidized NEMT and who utilized this service, rural trips tended to be longer and, therefore, higher in cost. Over 50% of trips were made for dialysis highlighting the need to address prevention and, potentially, health service improvements for rural dialysis patients.

  5. Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Needs of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison in Delaware, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older adults in rural areas have unique transportation barriers to accessing medical care, which include a lack of mass transit options and considerable distances to health-related services. This study contrasts non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT service utilization patterns and associated costs for Medicaid middle-aged and older adults in rural versus urban areas. Methods: Data were analyzed from 39,194 NEMT users of LogistiCare-brokered services in Delaware residing in rural (68.3% and urban (30.9% areas. Multivariable logistic analyses compared trip characteristics by rurality designation. Results: Rural (37.2% and urban (41.2% participants used services more frequently for dialysis than for any other medical concern. Older age and personal accompaniment were more common and wheel chair use was less common for rural trips. The mean cost per trip was greater for rural users (difference of $2910 per trip, which was attributed to the greater distance per trip in rural areas. Conclusions: Among a sample who were eligible for subsidized NEMT and who utilized this service, rural trips tended to be longer and, therefore, higher in cost. Over 50% of trips were made for dialysis highlighting the need to address prevention and, potentially, health service improvements for rural dialysis patients.

  6. Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

    Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

  7. Influence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) on fish community structure and function in headwater streams of the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Bennett, R.M.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.

  8. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  10. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  11. Does Extended Preoperative Rehabilitation Influence Outcomes 2 Years After ACL Reconstruction? A Comparative Effectiveness Study Between the MOON and Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Mathew J; Logerstedt, David S; Grindem, Hege; Axe, Michael J; Risberg, May Arna; Engebretsen, Lars; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Rehabilitation before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is effective at improving postoperative outcomes at least in the short term. Less is known about the effects of preoperative rehabilitation on functional outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates 2 years after reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes 2 years after ACLR in a cohort that underwent additional preoperative rehabilitation, including progressive strengthening and neuromuscular training after impairments were resolved, compared with a nonexperimental cohort. We hypothesized that the cohort treated with extended preoperative rehabilitation would have superior functional outcomes 2 years after ACLR. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study compared outcomes after an ACL rupture in an international cohort (Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort [DOC]) treated with extended preoperative rehabilitation, including neuromuscular training, to data from the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) cohort, which did not undergo extended preoperative rehabilitation. Inclusion and exclusion criteria from the DOC were applied to the MOON database to extract a homogeneous sample for comparison. Patients achieved knee impairment resolution before ACLR, and postoperative rehabilitation followed each cohort's respective criterion-based protocol. Patients completed the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at enrollment and again 2 years after ACLR. RTS rates were calculated for each cohort at 2 years. After adjusting for baseline IKDC and KOOS scores, the DOC patients showed significant and clinically meaningful differences in IKDC and KOOS scores 2 years after ACLR. There was a significantly higher (P < .001) percentage of DOC patients returning to preinjury sports (72%) compared with those in the MOON cohort (63%). The cohort treated with additional preoperative

  12. Disturbance of Essential Fish Habitat by Commercial Passive Fishing Gear in the Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia region of the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, C.

    2016-02-01

    Trap fishing is one of the oldest methods utilized to capture fish, and fish traps are currently one of the most dominant fishing gears utilized by commercial fishermen in the DelMarVa (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia) region. Impacts of traps on benthic habitat and emergent epifauna have become an increasing concern since the 1990's, but despite this, there is little published data regarding trap-habitat interactions. Any substrate necessary for fish spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity is deemed Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) and in order to increase capture success, traps are often deployed near or on EFH. We assessed the degree of trap impacts via video observations from commercial traps at four common fishing sites in the DelMarVa region, 27-36 km off the coast, at depths of 20-30 m. Two traps within a 20 trap rig were customized by attaching GoPro® cameras to give views in front of the trap, toward the trap front, and to the rear of the trap. Analysis of 123 trap deployments shows that traps often drag across the ocean floor and habitats during the retrieval process. Duration of the dragging phase is strongly correlated with trap position on the line (r2=0.6; p<0.001); traps farther down the line drag significantly longer than traps closer to the boat and first retrieved (1st vs last trap: p<0.01). Dragging significantly increases trap-habitat interactions. Traps with minimal drag have <1% chance of contacting EFH but dragging increases the proportion of traps interacting with EFH to 46%. Observed trap-habitat interactions include: damaging and breaking coral, and running over sea stars, anemones, and bryozoans. Essential fish habitats located off the DelMarVa coast are highly fragmented and sparse, and adverse impacts of passive fishing gear probably affect a large portion of the available habitat.

  13. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  14. Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

    2007-12-01

    University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an

  15. Habitat persistence for sedentary organisms in managed rivers: the case for the federally endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Lellis, William A.; Bennett, Randy M.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2012-01-01

    1. To manage the environmental flow requirements of sedentary taxa, such as mussels and aquatic insects with fixed retreats, we need a measure of habitat availability over a variety of flows (i.e. a measure of persistent habitat). Habitat suitability measures in current environmental flow assessments are measured on a ‘flow by flow’ basis and thus are not appropriate for these taxa. Here, we present a novel measure of persistent habitat suitability for the dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon), listed as federally endangered in the U.S.A., in three reaches of the Delaware River. 2. We used a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to quantify suitable habitat over a range of flows based on modelled depth, velocity, Froude number, shear velocity and shear stress at three scales (individual mussel, mussel bed and reach). Baseline potentially persistent habitat was quantified as the sum of pixels that met all thresholds identified for these variables for flows ≥40 m3 s−1, and we calculated the loss of persistently suitable habitat by sequentially summing suitable habitat estimates at lower flows. We estimated the proportion of mussel beds exposed at each flow and the amount of change in the size of the mussel bed for one reach. 3. For two reaches, mussel beds occupied areas with lower velocity, shear velocity, shear stress and Froude number than the reach average at all flows. In the third reach, this was true only at higher flows. Together, these results indicate that beds were possible refuge areas from the effects of these hydrological parameters. Two reaches showed an increase in the amount of exposed mussel beds with decreasing flow. 4. Baseline potentially persistent habitat was less than half the areal extent of potentially suitable habitat, and it decreased with decreasing flow. Actually identified beds and modelled persistent habitat showed good spatial overlap, but identified beds occupied only a portion of the total modelled persistent

  16. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  17. Coastal effects of offshore energy systems. An assessment of oil and gas systems, deepwater ports, and nuclear power plants off the coast of New Jersey and Delaware. Volume II. Parts 1 and 2. Working papers 4 thru 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    This report consists of ten working papers prepared as background material for the assessment of the effects of three proposed offshore energy systems on the coastal areas of New Jersey and Delaware. The three proposed offshore energy systems are: exploration for and development of offshore oil and gas, deepwater ports for supertankers, and floating nuclear powerplants. The 10 working papers cover: federal and state regulation of the three systems, the biological impacts, the risk of oil spills in developing oil and gas resources and operating deepwater ports, the air and water quality impacts, regional energy supply and demand considerations, the fiscal effects of developing the three systems, environmental studies, a safety analysis of floating nuclear powerplants, an analysis of fuel and waste handling of floating nuclear powerplants, and an analysis of the economic considerations of floating nuclear powerplants

  18. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Karen L.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    The 54-square-mile Red Clay Creek Basin, located in the lower Delaware River Basin, is underlain primarily by metamorphic rocks that range from Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic in age. Ground water flows through secondary openings in fractured crystalline rock and through primary openings below the water table in the overlying saprolite. Secondary porosity and permeability vary with hydrogeologic unit, topographic setting, and depth. Thirty-nine percent of the water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 79 percent are within 200 feet. The fractured crystalline rock and overlying saprolite act as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The water table is a subdued replica of the land surface. Local ground-water flow systems predominate in the basin, and natural ground-water discharge is to streams, comprising 62 to 71 percent of streamflow. Water budgets for 1988-90 for the 45-square-mile effective drainage area above the Woodale, Del., streamflow-measurement station show that annual precipitation ranged from 43.59 to 59.14 inches and averaged 49.81 inches, annual streamflow ranged from 15.35 to 26.33 inches and averaged 20.24 inches, and annual evapotranspiration ranged from 27.87 to 30.43 inches and averaged 28.98 inches. The crystalline rocks of the Red Clay Creek Basin were simulated two-dimensionally as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The model was calibrated for short-term steady-state conditions on November 2, 1990. Recharge was 8.32 inches per year. Values of aquifer hydraulic conductivity in hillside topographic settings ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 feet per day. Values of streambed hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.08 to 26.0 feet per day. Prior to simulations where ground-water development was increased, the calibrated steady-state model was modified to approximate long-term average conditions in the basin. Base flow of 11.98 inches per year and a ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2.17 inches per

  19. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  20. 2015 State Geodatabase for Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. Level IV Ecoregions of Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  2. Level III Ecoregions of Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  3. County business patterns, 1996 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. Occurrence and distribution of organic chemicals and nutrients and comparison of water-quality data from public drinking-water supplies in the Columbia aquifer in Delaware, 2000-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Betzaida

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and the Delaware Geological Survey, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) describe the occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants, and (b) document any changes in groundwater quality in the Columbia aquifer public water-supply wells in the Coastal Plain in Delaware between 2000 and 2008. Thirty public water-supply wells located throughout the Columbia aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain were sampled from August through November of 2008. Twenty-two of the wells in the sampling network for this project were previously sampled in 2000. Eight new wells were selected to replace wells no longer in use. Groundwater collected from the wells was analyzed for the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides, pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, nutrients, and major inorganic ions. Nine of the wells were analyzed for radioactive elements (radium-226, radium-228, and radon). Groundwater-quality data were compared for sites sampled in both 2000 and 2008 to document any changes in water quality. One or more pesticides were detected in samples from 29 of the 30 wells. There were no significant differences in pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations and similar compounds were detected when comparing sampling results from 2000 and 2008. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were generally less than 1 microgram per liter. Twenty-four compounds, 14 pesticides, and 10 pesticide degradates were detected in at least one sample; the pesticide degradates, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, deethylatrazine, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid were the most frequently detected compounds, each found in more than 50 percent of samples. Almost 80 percent of the detected pesticides were agricultural herbicides, which reflects the prevalence and wide distribution of agriculture in sampled areas, as well the dominance of

  6. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply.Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222.Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  7. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins.The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested

  8. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek

  9. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  10. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  11. National priorities list sites: Delaware, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  12. Vending Machine Policies and Practices in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, Erin; Cotugna, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Overweight has reached alarming proportions among America's youth. Although the cause of the rise in overweight rates in children and adolescents is certainly the result of the interaction of a variety of factors, the presence of vending machines in schools is one issue that has recently come to the forefront. Many states have passed or proposed…

  13. The National Map - Delaware Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  14. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION, DELAWARE COUNTY, NEW YORK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: College Avenue, CONRAIL tracks, South Chapel Street and Chestnut Hill Road X Remainder of New Castle County X Kent County X Sussex County X Delaware—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does... Kent County X Sussex County X Delaware—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type...

  16. 50 CFR 32.27 - Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the field. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of turkey and deer on designated areas of the.... D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We... manager. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer on designated areas of the refuge in...

  17. 76 FR 63700 - Delaware Disaster #DE-00010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...: 09/30/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 11/29/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan... organizations that provide essential services of governmental nature may file disaster loan applications at the... without Credit Available Elsewhere 3.000 For Economic Injury: Non-profit Organizations without Credit...

  18. Consensus Ecological Risk Assessment of Potential Transportation-related Bakken and Dilbit Crude Oil Spills in the Delaware Bay Watershed, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Hayward Walker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unconventionally-produced crude oils, i.e., Bakken oil and bitumen diluted for transport and known as dilbit, have become prominent components of the North American petroleum industry. Spills of these oils have occurred during transport from production areas to refineries via pipeline, rail, and barge. Some of their physical and chemical properties are distinct and present new challenges in mitigating spill impacts on people and the environment. This paper describes the adaptation of a qualitative risk assessment process to improve spill preparedness and response decisions for these oils when transported in an estuarine area. The application of this collaborative, interdisciplinary process drew upon a literature review, the local knowledge and experience of a broad set of decision makers, practitioners, and technical experts who developed consensus-based recommendations aimed at improving response to spills of these oils. Two emphasized components of this consensus ecological risk assessment (CERA concerned risks: (1 to human health and safety and (2 from spilled oil and the associated response actions on endangered species. Participants in the process defined levels of concern associated with Bakken and dilbit oils relative to a set of response actions in freshwater, brackish and saltwater habitats and on resources at risk.

  19. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  20. DPH Disease Information: Tuberculosis - Delaware Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing WIC Additional Services Center Personal Income Tax Privacy Policy Weather & Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax

  1. Delaware 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005. The data...

  2. Delaware 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2010. The data...

  3. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  4. Flood Insurance Rate Map Database, Kent County, Delaware, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ep1iAiu rupILcoa (Kurtz 1860) C x FamilIy Ca Iyp tra oi dae C rmep-idu. Ia fon- nic -tal (Linne 1758) S Crepiduloa convexad Say 1822 SF x x Crepidula...Penn’s home. This reconstruction, based on Penn’s correspondence, was constructed in 1939. Nat. Reg. PB 01 Andalusia (Nicholas Biddle Estate) Pa32...earlier structure. Nicholas Biddle politician and financier of the Revolution designed the classical motif and lived here. NHL. PB 28 St. Elizabeth’s

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DELAWARE COUNTY, OK, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database, Sussex County, Delaware, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  8. The Integration of Nursing Informatics in Delaware Nursing Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a conversion to electronic health records (EHRs) in an effort to improve patient care, access, and efficiency. The goal, which has been supported by federal initiatives, is to meaningfully use informatics to improve the safety and quality of patient care as a major force in improving healthcare. How nurses…

  9. 77 FR 73490 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  10. Solar-heated swimming school--Wilmington, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes operation, installation, and performance of solar-energy system which provides alternative to natural gas pool heating. System is comprised of 2,500 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors connected to 3,600 galloon; gallongalloon storage tank, with microcomputer-based controls. Extension of building incorporates vertical-wall, passive collection system which provides quarter of heated fresh air for office.

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. Delaware Consortium for Undergraduate Minority Training in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sikes, Robert A; Usher, David

    2007-01-01

    ... of the summer with almost 200 other students from several summer student research programs. In a poster session at Lincoln University our DoD students swept the prizes for biology I group competition...

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Roxbury Dam (Inventory Number 788) Delaware River Basin, Delaware County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-21

    service spillway was analyzed as a sharp - crested weir with:.a discharge coefficient (c) of 3.1. The auxiliary spillway channel was analyzed as a broad ...upstream portion of this channel is a concrete structure which forms a 27.4 foot long rectangular weir . There is a 5 foot vertical drop beyond the crest ...I on 1.5 Crest Width (ft) 12 g. Service Spillway Type: Concrete channel-rectangular weir . Five foot vertical drop beyond crest . Masonry and laid up

  14. North Atlantic Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Massachusetts (2001), Delaware Bay (1996), New Hampshire (2004), Hudson River (2006), and Rhode Island, Connecticut, NY/NJ Metro Area (2001) maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0020555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act with amendments by the...

  15. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  16. Installation Restoration Program. Site Investigation Report for 166th Tactical Airlift Group, Delaware Air National Guard, Greater Wilmington Airport, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Company , are seasonally pumped to supplement public supply from other wellfields. A third deep well (i.e., Airport No. 1), also along Route 141, is located...S* 4-7y K 0%,Wj *00t0j 30-Zk + M L ..... 7-f 3y# IkeA ~IVe~A~ ___ __ __ j4IC i ..... 4r0 3SO S-9t~ r~ r.A ieew

  17. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Como Dam (DE 00028), Delaware River Basin, Mill Creek, Kent County, Delaware. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract antarod in Block 20, It different frm Report) III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from National Technical...should employ a professional engineer experienced in operation and maintanance of darns to develop written operating procedures and a periodic...100 YEAR FLOOD WOULD CAUSE A DAM TO bE OVERTOPPED THEREFORE THE OWNER SHOULD ENGAGE A QUALIFIED PkOFEbSIONAL CONSULTANT USING MORE PERCISE METHODS

  18. An approach for evaluating the repeatability of rapid wetland assessment methods: The effects of training and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple ob...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  20. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  1. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY92. (Bridgeville Delaware - Key Biscayne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    N (4-1 r4 N1 + not I Ooc’) i1t z 0 0)0)toooooo 0)0 GAO )()(7 )0() 00) to Z a) 0) C) () tooott (7 )0)00 at o IMO "N Ito UA 𔃾C < 1 MtON 8(4 4f o 8-4 Q...0) 1 DOC>-* 11 to -4 C, Wac)CDC)40 0) -4 C> C> -4 0 to ýq M 0 U I MOýt of -J M 04 C1,J N CM " -IT M -4 CY) Cl) M Cn - JINI -4 -j C1) m C*4 -it RT -JC

  2. 76 FR 58120 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... website. Although listed in the electronic docket, some information is not publicly available, i.e...--[AMENDED] 0 1. The authority citation for part 52 continues to read as follows: Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401...

  3. Subsurface radar applications in the Delaware Basin. Final report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Purpose was to find a method of probing into potash to determine if dangers lie ahead. Of specific interest to Sandia, was the problem of outlining a breccia pipe which Mississippi Chemical Company (MCC) found protruded into the potash bed in Carlsbad, New Mexico, they were mining. MCC mined around it and continued their work. If, however, the discontinuity in the ore (breccia pipe) had any fractures linking with a high pressure water zone above the mining level, the act of mining into the pipe could have lost the mine to incoming water. Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. had this happen to them in their only salt mine in England. Chapter II discusses our attempts (unsuccessful) to probe through the potash ore and see the breccia pipe. Chapter III contains data on laboratory measurements of the complex electric permittivity (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of potash samples from MCC

  4. Exemplar: A Model for Social Studies Curriculum Development in Delaware, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is divided into the following five themes: 1) Man develops within his physical and cultural environment. 2) Man functions within an interdependent society. 3) Man seeks justice and order. 4) Man experiences conflict and change. 5)…

  5. Toxicity of oiled sediments treated with bioremediation agents: A shoreline experiment in Delaware, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearna, A.; Doe, K.; Fisher, W.; Lee, K.; Mueller, C.

    1995-01-01

    Using a randomized complete block design, a battery of five pore water and sediment bioassays were used to monitor and compare toxicity among un-oiled, oiled (light Nigerian crude) and nutrient and bacteria-treated shoreline plots on a sandy beach. Tests included sea urchin fertilization, water and modified-solid phase microtox, 10-day amphipod survival and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. During the 13-week study, bioremediation treatment with nutrients and/or bacteria did not decrease toxicity relative to that in untreated plots. Results from at least one bioassay suggested that, relative to no treatment, treatment may have increased toxicity for several weeks. The least and most sensitive tests were sea urchin fertilization (pore water) and 10-day amphipod test, respectively. Coupled with chemical monitoring, the study produced a large data-base for evaluating toxic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy sediments

  6. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Triggering ``on'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and...'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The...

  7. 77 FR 69399 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... ([micro]g/m\\3\\) based on a 3-year average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations and a 24-hour (or daily) standard of 65 [micro]g/m\\3\\ based on a 3-year average of the 98th percentile of 24- hour concentrations... describes how to use a photochemical grid model for ozone and PM 2.5 , to assess whether an area will come...

  8. 77 FR 5207 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... coating operations, paper, film, foil coating units, flat wood paneling products, and flexible packaging... of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information...) adds definitions and terms; (3) establishes exemptions; (4) updates existing work practice standards...

  9. 75 FR 25285 - John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ..., such as tourism, and local economic impacts; and (6) Coordination and communication issues and..., such as the breadth and quality of programs, public access, user conflicts, and use impacts on natural...

  10. 78 FR 11097 - Artificial Island Anchorage No. 2 Partial Closure, Delaware River; Salem, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...-4851, email [email protected] . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the... Port is establishing this safety zone to ensure the safety of life and property of all mariners and...'' W and extending to the southern boundary according to NOAA chart 12311. Vessels will not be...

  11. 78 FR 63877 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... submission deadline of section 110(a)(1) of the CAA, and will be addressed in a separate process. IV... a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). C. Petitions for Judicial Review Under section 307(b)(1) of the CAA, petitions for judicial review of this action must be filed in the United States Court...

  12. 78 FR 14020 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; the 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., procedures and methodologies for the base year emissions inventory submitted by DNREC. EPA found the process.... Petitions for Judicial Review Under section 307(b)(1) of the CAA, petitions for judicial review of this... finality of this action for the purposes of judicial review nor does it extend the time within which a...

  13. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Delaware Coastline: Hurricane Sandy Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.10m GSD. This data set was created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in the...

  14. 78 FR 58465 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... for incorporating by reference Federally- approved SIPs, as a result of consultations between EPA and... and ``Identification of plan'' format are discussed in further detail in the May 22, 1997 Federal... the ``good cause'' exemption in section 553(b)(3)(B) of the Administrative Procedures Act (APA) which...

  15. 76 FR 24372 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... revised the procedures for incorporating by reference Federally- approved SIPs, as a result of... document, IBR procedures and ``Identification of plan'' format are discussed in further detail in the May...) of the Administrative Procedures Act (APA) which, upon finding ``good cause,'' authorizes agencies to...

  16. Federal High School Graduation Rate Policies and the Impact on Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In today's economy, employers increasingly demand that workers have a high school diploma, yet America's graduation rates are unacceptably low, particularly among poor and minority students. Nationally, only about 70 percent of students graduate from high school on time with a regular diploma; for African American and Hispanic students, this…

  17. 77 FR 45527 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... or otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an... Implementation Plan (SIP) (the March 2012 SIP submission). The SIP revision consists of amendments to 7 DE Admin... amendments to 7 DE Admin. Code 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review. The revision fulfills the...

  18. 77 FR 60053 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... documents in the docket are listed in the www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the electronic... revision consists of amendments to sections 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 of 7 DE Admin. Code 1125, ``Requirements for... section 3.9 of DE Admin. Code 1125, ``Source Impact Analysis.'' Other specific requirements of the...

  19. 76 FR 59089 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... http://www.regulations.gov or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access... lithographic printing and letterpress printing (7 DE Admin Code 1124, Section 47.0). The purpose of this SIP...) under 7 DE Admin Code 1124 (Control of VOC Emissions) was originally developed in 1994 after EPA issued...

  20. 76 FR 72626 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some information is not publicly available, i.e... of VOC emissions from offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing (7 DE Admin Code 1124... lithographic printing and letterpress printing (7 DE Admin Code 1124, Section 47.0) as a revision to the...

  1. 76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... term ``small entities'' comprises small businesses, not-for-profit organizations that are independently... effect for only a limited period. Vessel traffic will be diverted through the lower end of Anchorage 7 to...

  2. 78 FR 34013 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, District of Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name.... Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly...

  3. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact..., such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard...

  4. 77 FR 3223 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, New Jersey, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name.... Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly...

  5. 77 FR 71751 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Stationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous... is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic... placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket...

  6. 75 FR 34671 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ..., distribution, and manufacturing of 23 new categories of consumer products and product types, which include personal hygiene and grooming, home cleaning, and cleaning of electrical and electronic equipment. This...

  7. 78 FR 53467 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... inaccuracy of the original base maps, and the manual cartographic techniques used to create the current set..., as well as historical and current aerial imagery, to determine where natural changes (e.g., eroded... Broadkill River, Doty Glade, Old Mill Creek, and Canary Creek. The name of this unit has been changed from...

  8. 78 FR 9410 - Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge; Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Mayes, Ottawa, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... 5: Wind Energy Farms. data of bird/bat migration populations corridors; use GIS affected by wind to delineate high- turbines and risk areas; determine locations quantify impacts; to minimize impacts...- hickory-pine Ozark forest, beneficial to nesting and migrating Neotropical birds as well as cave species...

  9. Protecting Water Quality With Smart Growth Strategies and Natural Stormwater Management in Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a technical assistance project that explored how smart growth and sustainable stormwater management approaches (known as green infrastructure) could be applied to Sussex County, DE.

  10. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  11. F00490: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, New Jersey, 2003-05-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. 77 FR 16854 - John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, Delaware and Philadelphia Counties, PA; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... citizens. We would also focus on playing a more regional role in conservation efforts. Public Availability... environmental education, and to afford visitors an opportunity to study wildlife in its natural habitat. The... rubriventris). The refuge offers unique opportunities for environmental education and interpretation in an...

  13. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self... proceed at the minimum speed necessary to maintain a safe course that minimizes wake near the event area...

  14. 77 FR 17341 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... after designation, or June 15, 2010. See 40 CFR 51.903. However, the Philadelphia Area qualified for a... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment.... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit...

  15. Salt anticlines in the Castile-Salado evaporite sequence, northern Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.; Powers, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Anticlines are more common around basin margin but are present in basin-center areas. Both Halite I and Halite II may have flowed but Halite I was movement more extensive. Depressions associated with anticlines may be due to either flowage or subsequent dissolution. Association with brine flows is common. Anticline probably was formed with mid-Cenozoic uplift and tilting of basin and with adjustments around reef margin

  16. 78 FR 33977 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, District of Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... (or plantwide) control strategy for the American Cyanamid facility in Havre de Grace, Maryland. This... Environmental Control, Air Resources Section, Division of Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401...

  17. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  18. Decadal change of forest biomass carbon stocks and tree demography in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...

  19. 77 FR 46990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... the model prediction that some monitors' future design values exceed the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. EPA... to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by... www.regulations.gov or in hard copy during normal business hours at the Air Protection Division, U.S...

  20. 77 FR 65341 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Delaware County (Muncie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... emissions model. Once this proposal is finalized, future transportation conformity determinations would use... Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) 2010a emissions model. Indiana submitted this request to EPA... Regional Office official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2010, 2010 state, Delaware, 2010 Census Block State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  2. 77 FR 41337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... metal lid, door, casing, panel, or other interior or exterior metal part or accessory that is assembled..., pretreatment coating, repair coating, safety-indicating coating, solar- absorbent coating, solid-film lubricant....5 Metallic 0.420 3.5 0.420 3.5 Pretreatment 0.420 3.5 0.420 3.5 Solar-absorbent 0.360 3.0 0.420 3.5...

  3. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... reasonably available control technology (RACT) controls on emission sources covered by EPA's control..., i.e., confidential business information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by...

  4. F00594: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2010-07-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. Program in the Culture of Biomedicine at the University of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, D. Heyward

    1979-01-01

    An interdisciplinary program is described that provides a humanistically-oriented education for preprofessional students, particularly those in the health sciences. The program offers new and diverse courses for the humanities student and was instrumental in the establishment of a Center for Science and Culture. (Author/MLW)

  6. Environmental Assessment of Demolition Activities at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Setophaga ruticilla), broad- winged hawk (Buteo platypterus), cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), bank swallow ( Riparia riparia ), black vulture...Explosive safety-quantity distance (QD) zones are designated areas designed to safeguard the base population and civilian community from potential...explosions. These clear zones include the area within a safety arc surrounding an explosive storage facility. The QD zones at Dover AFB encompass

  7. 75 FR 48566 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Administrative and Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Regulation 1146 governing the control of mercury emissions. C. Summary of Administrative Changes The...]. Section 4.0 Restrictions on 9/11/08 8/11/10 [Insert page Secondary Metal number where the Operations... the document begins]. Section 19.0 Coating of Metal 9/11/08 8/11/10 [Insert page Furniture. number...

  8. Ensuring Equitable Opportunities for Delaware's Undocumented Career and Technical School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieni-Vento, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes a legal process by which undocumented students enrolled in career and technical schools can obtain cooperative employment and pursue post-secondary opportunities. The recommended process is based on the current plight of undocumented students who are caught between harsh federal immigration policies and…

  9. Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of Surf Zone Injury Occurrence along the Delaware Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, M.; Puleo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, DE collected along the DE coast surf zone injury (SZI) data for seven summer seasons from 2010 through 2016. Data include, but are not limited to, time of injury, gender, age, and activity. Over 2000 injuries were recorded over the seven year period, including 116 spinal injuries and three fatalities. These injuries are predominantly wave related incidents including wading (41%), bodysurfing (26%), and body-boarding (20%). Despite the large number of injuries, beach associated hazards do not receive the same level of awareness that rip currents receive. Injury population statistics revealed those between the ages of 11 and 15 years old suffered the greatest proportion of injuries (18.8%). Male water users were twice as likely to sustain injury as their female counterparts. Also, non-locals were roughly six times more likely to sustain injury than locals. In 2016, five or more injuries occurred for 18.5% of the days sampled, and no injuries occurred for 31.4% of the sample days. The episodic nature of injury occurrence and population statistics indicate the importance of environmental conditions and human behavior on surf zone injuries. Higher order statistics are necessary to effectively assess SZI cause and likelihood of occurrence on a particular day. A Bayesian network using Netica software (Norsys) was constructed to model SZI and predict changes in injury likelihood on an hourly basis. The network incorporates environmental data collected by weather stations, NDBC buoy #44009, USACE buoy at Bethany Beach, and by researcher personnel on the beach. The Bayesian model includes prior (e.g., historic) information to infer relationships between provided parameters. Sensitivity analysis determined the most influential variables to injury likelihood are population, water temperature, nearshore wave height, beach slope, and the day of the week. Forecasting during the 2017 summer season will test model ability to predict injury likelihood.

  10. 76 FR 27973 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Delaware; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... located across a broad geographic area and emit fine particles (PM 2.5 ) (e.g., sulfates, nitrates... Quality Model: The EPA's Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.5.1 is a photochemical...

  11. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    sore throat Slippery Elm Ulmus fulva xkwikpi Drink from soaked strips of bark used to relieve chills Wild Black Cherry Prunus scrotina mwmfeli Boiled...Berries used to make dye for baskets Pokeberry Phytolacca americana cAk%.ngwtm Tonic given to chickens made from roots Slippery Elm Ulmus fulva xkwilpi...along drainages, forests of elm , ash, and cottonwood trees. The grasslands extended up the rockier col- luvial slopes where they gave way in places to

  12. H12152: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 2009-12-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. Shaping Perceptions of Delaware Technical & Community College through a Comprehensive Brand Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciple, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are an integral part of the American higher education system, providing open access to postsecondary education to all who have the ability to benefit. These institutions, however, often suffer from negative perceptions regarding their effectiveness and quality of instruction. Community colleges can address these perceptions by…

  14. 77 FR 60896 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Delaware River, Between Burlington, NJ and Bristol, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... temporary deviation. The bridge will not be able to open in an emergency during lift cable tension... the operating lift cables. DATES: This deviation is effective from 7 a.m. on October 30, 2012 to 3 p.m... 33 CFR 117.5 and 117.716(b) to facilitate the adjustment of the operational lift cables. The...

  15. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  16. 76 FR 76929 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... active outdoors, and individuals with a pre-existing respiratory disease, such as asthma. On April 30... in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone...

  17. Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database, New Castle County, Delaware, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. LAND COVER - CLASSIFICATION and Other Data from UNKNOWN from 19720101 to 19721231 (NODC Accession 7310519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project was undertaken in order to gain an overview of the present plans, projects and information base for Delaware Bay with a view to planning and possible...

  19. 75 FR 33306 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...., a Delaware limited partnership; Tailwind Capital Partners (PP), L.P., a Delaware limited partnership; Tailwind Capital Partners, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership; Tailwind Capital Partners (ERISA), L.P., a Delaware limited partnership; Tailwind HSB Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company; Tailwind...

  20. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either prior to, or after, deposition. These reactions involve reaction of carbonate, chloride, or nitrate salts with at mospheric SO2, sulfuric acid, or a mmonium sulfate to form sulfate minerals. The Na - Al - SO4 phase is unusual, and may have formed by reaction of Na - Al containing phases in aluminum smelter emissions with SO2 , also present in smelter emissions. An aluminum smelter is located in Camden, NJ, 40 miles NE of the Hope Creek Site.

  1. 75 FR 29805 - CSX Transportation, Inc. and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc.-Joint Use Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... attach a document and otherwise comply with the instructions found on the Board's website at `` www.stb... Syracuse and Huntingdon, Que. CSXT interchanges this cross-border rail traffic with Canadian National Railway Company (CN) at Huntingdon, with CN handling the traffic to and from the Montreal terminal area...

  2. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 2010 Urban Areas (UA) within 2010 County and Equivalent for Delaware, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  3. First report of boxwood blight caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxwood (Buxus spp.) are commercially important evergreen ornamental plants with an annual market value of over $103 million in the United States. The recent U.S. incursion of boxwood blight disease caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum, Cy. buxico...

  4. Studies of Contaminant Diffusion in an Aquitard and Groundwater Remediation by Reactive Metals at Dover Air Force Base Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, William

    1998-01-01

    This project focused on analysis of in-situ concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in an aquitard underlying the site of a prior field-scale investigation of pump-and-treat remediation in sheet...

  5. Studies of Contaminant Diffusion in an Aquitard and Groundwater Remediation by Reactive Metals at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, William

    1998-01-01

    This project focused on analysis of in-situ concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in an aquitard underlying the site of a prior field-scale investigation of pump-and-treat remediation in sheet...

  6. THE HIDDEN ECONOMY OF SLAVERY: COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL HIRING IN PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY AND DELAWARE, 1728-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial businesses in the Mid-Atlantic region depended on a controllable workforce of slaves during the eighteenth century. A significant percentage of these slaves were hired from private citizens who regularly profited from the exchange. Because of the almost continuous movement of slaves across township, county and colony borders due to hiring-out practices, slaves in tax and census lists were routinely under-reported. The use of business accounts listing hires and labor done by slaves reveals the extent and importance of slave hiring and additional numbers of slaves owned in the region that were otherwise invisible.

  7. Modeling forest carbon cycle using long-term carbon stock field measurement in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Kevin McCullough; Richard Birdsey

    2017-01-01

    Process-based models are a powerful approach to test our understanding of biogeochemical processes, to extrapolate ground survey data from limited plots to the landscape scale, and to simulate the effects of climate change, nitrogen deposition, elevated atmospheric CO2, increasing natural disturbances, and land-use change on ecological processes...

  8. 76 FR 31678 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Delaware and Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... was structured so that the Town would not incur a freight rail common carrier obligation when it....R., 8 I.C.C.2d 835 (1991). Saratoga is acquiring the easement and the associated freight rail common... Canadian Pacific (CP) a permanent and exclusive freight rail easement over, and to operate, approximately...

  9. 78 FR 76142 - Adequacy Status of the Submitted Attainment Plan for the Delaware Portion of the Philadelphia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... area's PM 2.5 air quality problem. The transportation conformity rule provision at 40 CFR 93.102(b)(2... contribute significantly to the area's PM 2.5 nonattainment problem. This provision of the transportation... National Ambient Air Quality Standard Nonattainment Area for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY...

  10. Health assessment for Newcastle Abandoned Container Site, Newcastle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED058980442. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Newcastle Abandoned Container site is listed on the National Priorities List. On February 28, 1986, radioactive, corrosive, and toxic materials, and a large number of containers filled with unknown material, were inventoried, containerized, and removed. On-site contamination consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, creosote, chloroform, and di-n-butylphthalate in soil; and tetrachloroethylene, acetone, xylene, trichlorofluoromethane, trichloroethylene, and tris(betachloroisopropyl)phosphate in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. The potential for contamination of the lower aquifer should be investigated

  11. Simple decision rules can reduce reinjury risk by 84% after ACL reconstruction: the Delaware-Oslo ACL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Moksnes, Håvard; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna

    2016-07-01

    Knee reinjury after ACL reconstruction is common and increases the risk of osteoarthritis. There is sparse evidence to guide return to sport (RTS) decisions in this population. To assess the relationship between knee reinjury after ACL reconstruction and (1) return to level I sports, (2) timing of RTS and (3) knee function prior to return. 106 patients who participated in pivoting sports participated in this prospective 2-year cohort study. Sports participation and knee reinjury were recorded monthly. Knee function was assessed with the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale, global rating scale of function, and quadriceps strength and hop test symmetry. Pass RTS criteria were defined as scores >90 on all tests, failure as failing any. Patients who returned to level I sports had a 4.32 (p=0.048) times higher reinjury rate than those who did not. The reinjury rate was significantly reduced by 51% for each month RTS was delayed until 9 months after surgery, after which no further risk reduction was observed. 38.2% of those who failed RTS criteria suffered reinjuries versus 5.6% of those who passed (HR 0.16, p=0.075). More symmetrical quadriceps strength prior to return significantly reduced the knee reinjury rate. Returning to level I sports after ACL reconstruction leads to a more than 4-fold increase in reinjury rates over 2 years. RTS 9 months or later after surgery and more symmetrical quadriceps strength prior to return substantially reduce the reinjury rate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  13. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... violations, starting in 2012 and beyond, that the proposed project is designed to alleviate. The Federal... Comment (PEPC) website at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/dewa/ . Dates and Meeting Notices: The public... public an opportunity to review the proposal and project information. All public meetings will be...

  14. Evaporite karst geohazards in the Delaware Basin, Texas: review of traditional karst studies coupled with geophysical and remote sensing characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Stafford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporite karst throughout the Gypsum Plain of west Texas is complex and extensive, including manifestations ranging from intrastratal brecciation and hypogene caves to epigene features and suffosion caves. Recent advances in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction has resulted in increased infrastructure development and utilization in the area; as a result, delineation and characterization of potential karst geohazards throughout the region have become a greater concern. While traditional karst surveys are essential for delineating the subsurface extent and morphology of individual caves for speleogenetic interpretation, these methods tend to underestimate the total extent of karst development and require surficial manifestation of karst phenomena. Therefore, this study utilizes a composite suite of remote sensing and traditional field studies for improved karst delineation and detection of potential karst geohazards within gypsum karst. Color InfraRed (CIR imagery were utilized for delineation of lineaments associated with fractures, while Normalized Density Vegetation Index (NDVI analyses were used to delineate regions of increased moisture flux and probable zones of shallow karst development. Digital Elevation Models (DEM constructed from high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data were used to spatially interpret sinkholes, while analyses of LiDAR intensity data were used in a novel way to categorize local variations in surface geology. Resistivity data, including both direct current (DC and capacitively coupled (CC resistivity analyses, were acquired and interpreted throughout the study area to delineate potential shallow karst geohazards specifically associated with roadways of geohazard concern; however, detailed knowledge of the surrounding geology and local karst development proved essential for proper interpretation of resistivity inversions. The composite suite of traditional field investigations and remotely sensed karst delineations used in this study illustrate how complex gypsum karst terrains can be characterized with greater detail through the utilization of rapidly advancing technologies, especially in arid environments with low vegetation densities.

  15. Report on the Comprehensive Survey of the Water Resources of the Delaware River Basin. Volume 8. Appendix O

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-12-01

    disposed into the sewers provided that the material is soluble. (2) Radioactive levels include the following: strontium 90 or polonium 210 , not to...prime importance is water; man can survive without food more easily than without water., What is true of the individual is true of his civili- zation...abundant fish species at each of the survey stations, ranked according to their abundance 21-27 9 Frequency of occurrence of food organisms in the

  16. Delaware: Taking Stock and Pushing Forward. 2014 State Progress Report on the Challenge to Lead 2020, Goals for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Taking Stock and Pushing Forward" (2014) reports states' progress toward the Challenge to Lead 2020 Goals for Education. State-specific documents report on student achievement as well as essential state policies to improve it. Among the many metrics: how states are improving achievement on NAEP [National Assessment of Educational…

  17. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    affects (NISC 2001). A key management objective on both national and installation levels must be prevention of invasive species introduction and...species (National Research Council 2002): ◘ Long flowering/ fruiting period, which increases seed production and dispersal. ◘ Ability to reach...mycorrhizal fungi that they rely on. NOTE: Garlic mustard may grow with native species that are similar in appearance, such as toothworts (Dentaria

  18. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  19. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  20. Rates of mass gain and energy deposition in red knot on their final spring staging site is both time- and condition-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Philip W.; Baker, Allan J.; Bennett, Karen A.; Clark, Nigel A.; Clark, Jacquie A.; Cole, Kimberly B.; Dekinga, Anne; Dey, Amanda; Gillings, Simon; Gonzalez, Patricia M.; Kalasz, Kevin; Minton, Clive D. T.; Newton, Jason; Niles, Lawrence J.; Piersma, Theunis; Robinson, Robert A.; Sitters, Humphrey P.; Stevens, Phil

    1. Millions of shorebirds migrate each year through a small number of highly productive staging areas where they often conflict with fisheries interests. Delaware Bay, USA, is a major shorebird stopover site where, in spring, many thousands of shorebirds undergo rapid mass gain by feeding on the

  1. 78 FR 25482 - Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... HANDLING SERVICE CO., CHALMERS & KUBECK, CHEF'E CATERING, CINTAS, CLEAN VENTURES, INC., CM TOWERS, INC... & Kubeck, Chef'e Catering, Cintas, Clean Ventures, Inc., CM Towers, Inc., Compu-Com, Delaware Bay and River... Services), Catalyst Handling Service Co., Chalmers & Kubeck, Chef'e Catering, Cintas, Clean Ventures, Inc...

  2. 19 CFR 101.3 - Customs service ports and ports of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Service Ports. Many of the ports listed were created by the President's message of March 3, 1913....S.C. 1). Subsequent orders of the President or of the Secretary of the Treasury which affected these... Port of the Delaware River and Bay described in T.D. 96-4. Perth Amboy New Mexico Albuquerque Including...

  3. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  4. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  5. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  6. National Dam Safety Program. Clove Lake Dam (NJ 00259) Delaware River Basin, Shimers Brook, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    it be reclassified as low hazard. The spillway will pass the 100-year flood and is considered adequate. e. Ownership. The dam is owned by Clubhouse ...Associates. For information, contact Mr. Gerald Roby, Clubhouse Associates, RD 4, Box 108, Montague, New Jersey 07827. f. Purpose. The Clove Lake Dam...into what appears to be a man-made lake downstream of Clove Lake Dam about 0.5 mile. Although no homes are presently constructed around this downstream

  7. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science, Incorporated (20th) Held at Newark, Delaware on August 22, 23 and 24, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    vitro flow visualization system for observing the left ventricular flow patterns generated by prosthetic mitral valves has been developed. The system...ials science and applied mathematics. Multiple sessions have been or- ganized on phase transitions, biomechanics, heat transfer, geomechanics, fracture ... Fracture Mechanics ..................... 123 FR-2 Contact Problems with Friction ........................... 133 FR-3 Lubricated Contact Problems

  8. How to Plant a Colony in the New World. Rules and Practices in New Sweden and the Seventeenth-Century Delaware Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The colony of New Sweden (1638–55), like other colonial settlements in America, was structured by a set of laws and regulations. The comprehensive instructions given to the subsequent governors ordered the particulars of everyday life. They dictated settlers’ means of sustenance and rights to trade......, detailed rules of engagement with other European colonists and Native Americans, established a system of criminal justice and regulated religious life. Most of these regulations were unquestioned and followed because they constituted a cohesive set of rules that helped to reconstruct settlers’ lives...... in the colony and instilled a sense of continuity. Others, particularly those laws pertaining to moral and orderly conduct and trade with Native Americans, were frequently transgressed by the colonists, despite the risk of severe punishments. Using historical and archaeological records, this chapter examines...

  9. Stable isotopic study of soil water from the WIPP site: Constraints on the origin of water in the Rustler Fm, Delaware Basin, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.R.; Vanlandingham, R.J.; Phillips, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Rustler Fm. overlies the salt beds in Salado Fm. in which the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is being developed. The water in the Rustler Fm. aquifers have been the subject of various studies, including stable isotopes. Lambert and Harvey note that the Rustler waters all have δD below -43% whereas the other young ground waters in the region have δD's above 41%. They conclude that the water in the Rustler is not from modern recharge but is fossil water from a past climatic regime. Chapman on the other hand concludes that waters on Carlsbad Caverns are isotopically heavier than the Rustler water due to cave evaporation, and thus the Rustler water could be from modern recharge. The two different interpretations have very different implications for the hydrological characterization of the WIPP site. In order to further study this issue the authors have collected six shallow cores from the unconsolidated sand in the vicinity of WIPP. Water was extracted from each sample by vacuum distillation. For these samples the projected meteoric waters would have δD values in the range of -45 to -55%. This falls well within the range of the δD values for the Rustler Fm. From this the author concludes that the Rustler water could result from modern precipitation, although not from infiltration through a soil where evaporation is active. Soil waters may provide important isotopic constraints on the origins of water in regional aquifer systems

  10. Wilmington Area Planning Council, New Castle County, Delaware and Cecil County, Maryland : a performance-based approach to integrating congestion management into the metropolitan planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Wilmington Area Planning Council takes an objectives-driven, performance-based approach to its metropolitan transportation planning, including paying special attention to integrating its Congestion Management Process into its planning efforts. Th...

  11. Presbyterian Patriots: The Historical Context of the Shared History and Prevalent Ideologies of Delaware’s Ulster-Scots who took up Arms in the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    including Francis Bacon, Descartes, Grotius, Marcus Aurelius , and 71 The Newark Academy is the...34In fine I believe in the divinity of L. S. (Lord Shaftesbury) the saintship of Marcus Antoninus, the perspicuity and sublimity of Aristotle, and

  12. Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Craddock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A traverse across the Stone Church syncline in the Ordovician Martinsburg turbidites reveals an axial planar cleavage (N40°E, SE dips in regional thrust-related folds (N40°E, shallow plunges and five phases of sparry calcite. Calcite fillings are bedding-parallel, cleavage-parallel, and one vein set cross-cuts both earlier phases; the youngest calcite filling is a bedding-parallel fault gouge that crosscuts the cleavage and preserves top-down-to-the-southeast normal fault kinematics. Calcite veins unique to disharmonically-folded calcareous siltstones (Maxwell, 1962 were also analyzed. Stable isotopic analysis (O, C of all of the calcite phases indicates a uniform fluid source (δ13C −2.0, δ18O −13.3 VPDB and, potentially, a similar precipitation and mechanical twinning age. The twinning strains (n = 1341; average Δσ = −32 MPa; average ε1 = −2.9% in the calcite suite are consistent with SE-NW thrust shortening, and sub-horizontal shortening perpendicular to evolving axial planar cleavage planes in the Stone Church syncline. Calcareous siltstone layers within the Martinsburg Fm. turbidites share concordant bedding planes and are unique, chemically (XRF, but folded and cleaved differently than the surrounding clay-rich Martinsburg turbidites. Neither sediment type yielded detrital zircons. Electron backscatter X-ray diffraction (EBSD and calcite twinning results in a folded calcareous siltstone layer preserving a layer-normal SE-NW shortening strain and Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO. Shortening axes for the five-phase calcite suite trends ~N40°W, consistent with tectonic transport associated with crystalline nappe emplacement of the Reading Prong within the Piedmont province.

  13. The Politics of Genre and Medium apropos of Frank O’Hara’s “On Seeing Larry Rivers’s Washington Crossing the Delaware (1955)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    Frank O’Hara’s ekphrastic poem “On Seeing Larry Rivers’s Washington Crossing the Delaware” is only one work among others in a series of 1950s works in different genres and media relating to Emanuel Leutze’s romantic representation of the father of the American nation in his painting Washington...... event in American history. Inversely, only few critics take seriously the difference in both genre and medium between these different textual and graphic representations of Washington’s crossing and the questions such a difference may give rise to. In this paper I shall make an intergeneric......) and by narrativizing Rivers’s painting, the poem opens up alternative representational possibilities of the former and thus poses the question of whose ‘truth’ gets told or not told depending on the choice of genre and medium in representation. Thus, the intertextual relationship existing between Rivers’s painting...

  14. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  15. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  16. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  17. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  18. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  19. Second order tidally induced flow in the inlet of a coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiluz, Ana; Wong, Kuo-Chuin

    2005-08-01

    Current meter data obtained in Indian River Inlet and Indian River Bay, Delaware are analyzed to compute second order low-frequency tidal flow and tidally induced mean flow in the system. Results from least-squares harmonic analysis show that nonlinearly induced M4 currents in the inlet and bay occur at order 10 -1 of the M2 amplitudes, indicating weak nonlinearity in the system. Tidally rectified mean flow computed from Mm and Msf is ˜3 cm s -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed mean current. The estimated low-frequency tidal flow and the tidally induced mean flow agree well with scalings computed for the inlet and with results found by Münchow et al. [Münchow, A., Masse, A.K., Garvine, R.W., 1992. Astronomical and nonlinear tidal currents in a coupled estuary shelf system. Continental Shelf Research 12, 471-498] in Delaware Bay.

  20. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  1. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  2. Shared Decision Making in Education Governance Using Business Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Adrian L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address a high-volume problem for the Delaware Department of Education Office of Professional Accountability (OPA). This problem was addressed by sharing the certification decision with qualified personnel located at each of the four teacher preparation programs located in Delaware at Delaware State University…

  3. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Delaware limited partnership with one general partner, Freeport LNG-GP, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which...). Freeport LNG's limited partners are: (1) Freeport LNG Investments, LLLP, a Delaware limited liability limited partnership, which owns a 45% limited partnership interest in Freeport LNG; (2) Cheniere FLNG, L.P...

  4. 76 FR 58005 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... liability company; PIMCO BRAVO Fund, L.P., Newport Beach, California, a Delaware limited partnership; PIMCO GP IX, LLC, Newport Beach, California, a Delaware limited partnership; Pacific Investment Management Company LLC, Newport Beach, California, a Delaware limited liability company; PIMCO BRAVO Fund Special...

  5. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  6. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  7. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  8. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  9. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  10. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  11. Physical and Biological Processes Underlying the Sudden Appearance of a Red-Tide Surface Patch in the Nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    internal wave troughs (Lennert-Cody and 6 Franks, 1999). Swimming has been implicated in the accumulation of larvae at internal 7 tidal fronts (e.g...phytoplankton and harmful algal blooms in shrimp ponds: a review with special reference to the situation in the Gulf of California. Aquaculture, 219, 317...E. Epifanio (1989), Distribution of crab larvae in relation to tidal fronts in Delaware Bay, USA, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 57, 77-82

  12. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  13. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  14. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  15. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  16. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  17. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  18. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  19. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  20. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  1. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  2. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  3. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  4. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  5. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  6. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  7. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  8. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  9. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  12. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  13. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  14. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  15. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  16. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  17. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  18. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  19. Anthropogenic impacts on an oyster metapopulation: Pathogen introduction, climate change and responses to natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bushek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans rely on marine ecosystems for a variety of services but often impact these ecosystems directly or indirectly limiting their capacity to provide such services. One growing impact is the emergence of marine disease. We present results from a unique case study examining how oysters, a dominant organism in many coastal bays and estuaries that is often harvested for food, have responded to pathogens influenced by human activities, namely the introduction of novel pathogens. Climate change has enabled a northward spread and establishment of Dermo disease in oysters along the eastern seaboard of North America and human activities inadvertently introduced MSX disease along this same coast. Oysters in Delaware Bay have responded differently to each pathogen, and uniquely to MSX disease by developing a highly resistant baywide population not documented in any other bay. Offspring were produced using parents collected from low or high disease (MSX and Dermo regions of Delaware Bay and exposed in a common garden experiment along with a naïve population from Maine. Results indicated widespread resistance to MSX disease, but not to Dermo disease, across Delaware Bay. One striking result was the demonstration of resilience in the population through its capacity to spread, presumably through larval transport, resistance to MSX disease into portions of the population that have experienced little to no MSX disease pressure themselves. Related studies indicated that larval transport mechanisms allowed widespread dispersal such that the entire metapopulation could acquire a high level of resistance over time if disease resistance is sufficiently heritable. The findings have implications for restoration, management and recovery of diseased populations. Namely, that if left to their own devices, natural selection may find a solution that enables populations to recover from introduced pathogens.

  20. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  1. Latest results from Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Vit; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to measure θ 13, the smallest mixing angle in the three-neutrino mixing framework, with unprecedented precision. The experiment consists of eight functionally identical detectors placed underground at different baselines from three pairs of nuclear reactors in South China. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably for more than 4 years, and has collected the largest reactor anti-neutrino sample to date. Daya Bay is able to greatly improve the precision on θ 13 and to make an independent measurement of the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel. Daya Bay can also perform a number of other precise measurements, such as a high-statistics determination of the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, as well as a search for sterile neutrino mixing, among others. The most recent results from Daya Bay are discussed in this paper, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experiment.

  2. Daya bay reactor neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a large international collaboration experiment under construction. The experiment aims to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 by detecting the neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. θ 13 is one of two unknown fundamental parameters in neutrino mixing. Its magnitude is a roadmap of the future neutrino physics, and very likely related to the puzzle of missing antimatter in our universe. The precise measurement has very important physics significance. The detectors of Daya Bay is under construction now. The full operation is expected in 2011. Three years' data taking will reach the designed the precision, to determine sin 2 2θ 13 to better than 0.01. Daya Bay neutrino detector is an underground large nuclear detector of low background, low energy, and high precision. In this paper, the layout of the experiment, the design and fabrication progress of the detectors, and some highlighted nuclear detecting techniques developed in the detector R and D are introduced. (author)

  3. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico, NW Atlantic and other waters from 1991-01-04 to 1994-12-06 (NODC Accession 9600123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Gulf of Mexico, Mid-Atlantic Bight, and NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) using NOAA Ship...

  4. National Dam Inspection Program. Quakake Dam (NDI ID Number PA-00613, DER ID Number 13-11), Delaware River Basin, Quakake Creek, Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    1 CHECKED IT____________ - DATE 3 264 &MAbh.: & &E),~iAS 4Ke A wACE )_’ 7Z LS.&.S. PLA IL - W&S6 Af8aLw)" A.-~ 1PE*)𔃾X F_ ?LATF- E - 8-77)r4liS IA...STORAGE (END OF PERIOD) SIMMARY FOR MULTIPLE PLAN-RATIO ECONOMIC COMPUTATION. FLOWS IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND (CUBIC METERS PER SECOND) AREA IN SQUARE MILES...MULTIPLE PLAN-RATIO ECONOMIC COMTATIONS FLOWS IN CUBIC FEET PER SECON) (CUBIC METERS PER SECOND) AREA IN SQUARE MILES (SOUARE KILOMETERS) RATIOS APPLIED

  5. How does a combined pre-operative and post-operative rehabilitation program influence the outcome of ACL reconstruction 2 years after surgery? A comparison between patients in the Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort and the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, H.; Granan, LP.; Risberg, MA.; Engebretsen, L.; Snyder-Mackler, L.; Eitzen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preoperative knee function is associated with successful postoperative outcome after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). However, there are few longer-term studies of patients who underwent progressive preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation compared to usual care Objectives To compare preoperative and 2 year postoperative patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients undergoing progressive preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation at a sports medicine clinic compared with usual care Methods We included patients aged 16–40 years undergoing primary unilateral ACLR. The preoperative and 2 year postoperative KOOS of 84 patients undergoing progressive pre- and postoperative rehabilitation at a sports medicine clinic (Norwegian Research Center for Active Rehabilitation [NAR] cohort) were compared with the scores of 2690 patients from the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry (NKLR). The analyses were adjusted for sex, age, months from injury to surgery, and cartilage/meniscus injury at ACLR. Results The NAR cohort had significantly better preoperative KOOS in all subscales, with clinically relevant differences (>10 points) observed in KOOS Pain, ADL, Sports and Quality of Life. At 2 years, the NAR cohort still had significantly better KOOS with clinically relevant differences in KOOS Symptoms, Sports and Quality of Life. At 2 years, 85.7–94.0 % of the patients in the NAR cohort scored within the normative range of the different KOOS subscales, compared to 51.4–75.8 % of the patients in the NKLR cohort. Conclusion Patients in a prospective cohort who underwent progressive pre- and postoperative rehabilitation at a sports medicine clinic showed superior patient-reported outcomes both preoperatively and 2 year postoperatively compared to patients in the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry who received usual care. PMID:25351782

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ud_134 deployed by University of Delaware in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-24 to 2015-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0137993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to do station keeping to resolve the time series of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This...

  7. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and Other Platforms From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) and Others from 1978-09-20 to 1982-12-20 (NODC Accession 8900136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains chlorophyll and phaeophytin measurements made in the Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, and middle Atlantic Shelf areas between 1978-1982. The data...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ud_134 deployed by University of Delaware in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from 2016-08-30 to 2016-09-07 (NCEI Accession 0156682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The scales of the sensing and prediction of bioluminescence represent a significant research challenge. Relevant scales range from 10s-1000s of meters and time...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider ud_134 deployed by University of Delaware in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-05 to 2015-01-21 (NCEI Accession 0137992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to do cross canyon transects of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This multi-platform field...

  10. Cities, Towns and Villages, Parcel-based Corporate limits for Muncie, Eaton, Albany, Gaston, Yorktown, Selma, and Daleville. Geography are updated as needed, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Delaware County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2008. Parcel-based Corporate limits for Muncie, Eaton, Albany, Gaston, Yorktown, Selma, and Daleville. Geography are...

  11. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the state line were dominantly cow and horse with one ribotype from bird. Escherichia coli was detected in only one well sample. Bacterial ribotypes in water from that upgradient well indicated human and dog feces as sources for bacteria, and that on site wastewater treatment may not always be adequate in these highly permeable soils. Greater concentrations of nitrate in Cave Springs Branch and O'Brien Spring relative to the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall may be due, in part, to conversion of ammonia from poultry processing plant wastewater. The poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall sample collected in March 2000 contained greater concentrations of ammonia and total organic nitrogen plus ammonia than the spring, stream, and well samples collected during August 1999. Cave Springs Branch and Honey Creek contributed approximately equal loads of nitrogen to Honey Creek below the confluence and the greatest loads of nitrogen were introduced to Cave Springs Branch by the poultry processing plant wastewater outfall and O'Brien Spring. Nitrate concentrations in upgradient well samples ranged from 0.38 to 4.60 milligrams per liter, indicating that there are sources of ground-water nitrogen other than Cave Springs Branch, such as animal waste, fertilizer, or human waste. Nitrogen compounds in water from wells downgradient of Cave Springs Branch may be from Cave Springs Branch, fertilizers, animal waste, or human waste.

  12. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II, NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms in the NW Atlantic from 1986-06-19 to 1989-12-15 (NODC Accession 9000100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD); and other data were collected from eleven cruises conducted using four different ships from NW Atlantic (limit-40 W)....

  13. Current measurements from five ARGOS-tracked drifters in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, April 2003, in support of investigations of across-margin transport of biologically, geological, and chemically important materials (NODC Accession 0002346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collectors: Dr. Richard Garvine, University of Delaware, College of Marine Studies and Dr. Charles Tilburg, University of Georgia

  14. 34 CFR 272.12 - What geographic regions do the DACs serve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont. (b) New York, New Jersey, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. (c) Delaware..., Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee. (e) Illinois, Indiana, Michigan...

  15. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  17. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  18. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  19. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  20. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  1. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  2. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  3. Safety culture development at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2001-01-01

    From view on Organization Behavior theory, the concept, development and affecting factors of safety culture are introduced. The focuses are on the establishment, development and management practice for safety culture at Daya Bay NPP. A strong safety culture, also demonstrated, has contributed greatly to improving performance at Daya Bay

  4. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  5. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  6. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Diversity of marine invertebrates in a thermal effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Maurer, D.

    1975-01-01

    Invertebrates were collected at four sites in the Indian River and Indian River Bay in Delaware to study the effects of thermal effluents from a steam-generating plant. A list of species of anemones, nemerteans, annelids, molluscs, and crustaceans is presented. Differences in species composition, an increase in relative numbers of a pollution indicator organism, and reduction in species number and in the total number of organisms in the effluent were noted. The period of highest diversity corresponded to that of the lowest numbers of species and individuals and highest effluent temperatures. (U.S.)

  8. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  9. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  10. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  11. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  12. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  13. 75 FR 52778 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...) the Delaware Sand and Gravel Superfund Site in Delaware; (7) the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site in New... assessment costs relating to natural resource damages with respect to the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site; and... Georgia pursuant to the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q; the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387...

  14. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin Compact...

  15. 75 FR 65703 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...: Application of Compass Airlines, Inc. (``Compass'') requesting the Department ofTransportation disclaim jurisdiction over the corporate reorganization of Compass inwhich Compass will be converted from a Delaware corporation to a Delaware limitedliability company bearing the name Compass Airlines, LLC, and immediately...

  16. 75 FR 73967 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  17. 75 FR 73996 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Resources and Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  19. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  20. 76 FR 27674 - PennantPark Investment Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    .... middle market private companies. The Investment Adviser, a Delaware limited liability company, is the... securities. 2. PennantPark SBIC, a Delaware limited liability company, is a small business investment company... section 3(c)(7) of the Act. The Company directly owns 99% of PennantPark SBIC in the form of limited...