Creep-fatigue interaction in delamination crack propagation of advanced CFRPs at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uematsu, Y. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Systems; Kitamura, T.; Ohtani, R. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mechanics
1997-12-31
The objective of this study is to elucidate creep-fatigue interaction in Mode 1 delamination crack propagation of polymers reinforced by carbon fibers at high temperatures. The materials tested are two undirectionally reinforced laminates, AS4/PEEK (carbon fiber: AS4, matrix: poly-ether-ether-ketone) and T800H/PMR-15 (carbon fiber: T800H, matrix: polyimide). Crack propagation tests are conducted in cyclic loading conditions with and without hold(s) at maximum tension and zero load at 473 K for AS4/PEEK laminates and 573 K for T800H/PMR-15 laminates, respectively. In fatigue with high frequency, the crack propagation rate per unit cycle da/dN is correlated well with the stress intensity factor range {Delta}K. However, the crack propagation in AS4/PEEK laminates depends strongly on the load waveform, while that in T800H/PMR-15 laminates is independent of it. The crack propagation in AS4/PEEK laminates is accelerated by the tensile load hold due to the creep deformation of matrix and it is purely time-dependent. In the time-dependent crack propagation, the rate per unit time da/dt is correlated well with the stress intensity factor K at the hold. On the other hand, the time-dependent crack propagation is decelerated by the zero-load-hold because of the creep recovery of matrix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongqing Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In a thin film-substrate system in-plane compressive stress is commonly generated in the film due to thermal mismatch in operation or fabrication process. If the stress exceeds a critical value, part of the film may buckle out of plane along the defective interface. After buckling delamination, the interface crack at the ends may propagate. In the whole process, the compliance of the substrate compared with the film plays an important role. In this work, we study a circular film subject to compressive stress on an infinitely thick substrate. We study the effects of compliance of the substrate by modeling the system as a plate on an elastic foundation. The critical buckling condition is formulated. The asymptotic solutions of post-buckling deformation and the corresponding energy release rate of the interface crack are obtained with perturbation methods. The results show that the more compliant the substrate is, the easier for the film to buckle and easier for the interface crack to propagate after buckling.
AE analysis of delamination crack propagation in carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Sang Jae; Arakawa, Kazuo [Kyushu University, kasuga (Japan); Chen, Dingding [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Han, Seung Wook; Choi, Nak Sam [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
Delamination fracture behavior was investigated using acoustic emission (AE) analysis on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) samples manufactured using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). CFRP plate was fabricated using unidirectional carbon fiber fabric with a lay-up of six plies [+30/-30]6 , and a Teflon film was inserted as a starter crack. Test pieces were sectioned from the inlet and vent of the mold, and packed between two rectangular epoxy plates to load using a universal testing machine. The AE signals were monitored during tensile loading using two sensors. The average tensile load of the inlet specimens was slightly larger than that of the vent specimens; however, the data exhibited significant scattering due to non-uniform resin distribution, and there was no statistically significant different between the strength of the samples sectioned from the inlet or outlet of the mold. Each of the specimens exhibited similar AE characteristics, regardless of whether they were from the inlet or vent of the mold. Four kinds of damage mechanism were observed: micro-cracking, fiber-resin matrix debonding, fiber pull-out, and fiber failure; and three stages of the crack propagation process were identified.
The interplay of crack hopping, delamination and interface failure in drying nanoparticle films
Yang, Bin; Sharp, James S.; Smith, Mike I.
2016-08-01
Films formed through the drying of nanoparticle suspensions release the build-up of strain through a variety of different mechanisms including shear banding, crack formation and delamination. Here we show that important connections exist between these different phenomena: delamination depends on the dynamics of crack hopping, which in turn is influenced by the presence of shear bands. We also show that delamination does not occur uniformly across the film. As cracks hop they locally initiate the delamination of the film which warps with a timescale much longer than that associated with the hopping of cracks. The motion of a small region of the delamination front, where the shear component of interfacial crack propagation is believed to be enhanced, results in the deposition of a complex zig-zag pattern on the supporting substrate.
Gear Crack Propagation Investigation
1995-01-01
Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios
Orifici, Adrian C.; Krueger, Ronald
2010-01-01
With capabilities for simulating delamination growth in composite materials becoming available, the need for benchmarking and assessing these capabilities is critical. In this study, benchmark analyses were performed to assess the delamination propagation simulation capabilities of the VCCT implementations in Marc TM and MD NastranTM. Benchmark delamination growth results for Double Cantilever Beam, Single Leg Bending and End Notched Flexure specimens were generated using a numerical approach. This numerical approach was developed previously, and involves comparing results from a series of analyses at different delamination lengths to a single analysis with automatic crack propagation. Specimens were analyzed with three-dimensional and two-dimensional models, and compared with previous analyses using Abaqus . The results demonstrated that the VCCT implementation in Marc TM and MD Nastran(TradeMark) was capable of accurately replicating the benchmark delamination growth results and that the use of the numerical benchmarks offers advantages over benchmarking using experimental and analytical results.
Dynamic fracture mechanics analysis for an edge delamination crack
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Doyle, James F.
1994-01-01
A global/local analysis is applied to the problem of a panel with an edge delamination crack subject to an impulse loading to ascertain the dynamic J integral. The approach uses the spectral element method to obtain the global dynamic response and local resultants to obtain the J integral. The variation of J integral along the crack front is shown. The crack behavior is mixed mode (Mode 2 and Mode 3), but is dominated by the Mode 2 behavior.
Krueger, Ronald
2011-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of an End-Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.
Krueger, Ronald
2012-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard. The example is based on a finite element model of a Double-Cantilever Beam specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.
Development of Benchmark Examples for Static Delamination Propagation and Fatigue Growth Predictions
Kruger, Ronald
2011-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of an End-Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during stable delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.
Modeling Delamination of Interfacial Corner Cracks in Multilayered Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath (Badri); Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
for steady-state propagation has been developed. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters that include the strain energy release rate, crack front profiles and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front. The developed numerical approach...... for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties has been validated with threedimensional models for varying crack front shapes. A custom quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delaminatio stress as a function...
DeCarvalho, N. V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Tay, T. E.
2013-01-01
A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.
DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, Silvestre T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Tay, T. E.
2013-01-01
A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.
Short review: Potential impact of delamination cracks on fracture toughness of structural materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X.C. Arnoult
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The current energy policy envisages extended lifetime for the current nuclear power plants (GEN II NPP. This policy imposes a large research effort to understand the ageing of power plant components. In this goal, it is necessary to improve knowledge about safety, reliability and components’ integrity for more than forty years of operation. In Central and Eastern Europe, the majority of NPPs are VVER types, where some of the components are produced from austenitic steel 08Ch18N10T. Irradiated 08Ch18N10T may exhibit brittle behavior, namely delamination cracks are found in some cases on the fracture surface of irradiated 08Ch18N10T with elongated δ-ferrite. Delamination cracks have also been observed on the fracture surface of high-strength steels or aluminum-lithium alloys. This article presents a state-of-the art review to provide a detailed analysis of the influence of delamination cracks on the toughness of metal alloys. In general, the delamination cracks are present in metal alloys having a high texture and microstructure anisotropy. Three types of delamination cracks have been observed and are classified as crack arrester delamination, crack divider delamination and crack splitting delamination. The microscopy characterization, 3D fracture theories and computational studies explaining possible causes and effects of delamination cracks on the mechanical properties of metal alloys are presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Fatigue tests of the smooth composite laminates and the notched composite laminates under compressive cyclic loading have been carried out. The damage mechanism is discussed and analyzed. Damage evolution is monitored using stiffness decay. From these tests, it is found that the initial delamination occurs at the free boundary of smooth specimens, or the notch boundary of notched specimens, subjected to the compression-compression cyclic load. A point of view in relation to two-phases of compression fatigue delamination of composites is proposed, namely, compression-compression delamination consists of the delamination formation phase and the delamination propagation, and there is a "damage transition point" to separate this two-phases. Furthermore, an empirical modulus degradation formula and its parameters fitting method are presented. According to the test data handling results, it is shown that this formula is univocal and can fit the test data conveniently. In addition, two kinds of new anti-buckling devices are designed for these tests. At last, the E-N curves, the D-N curves and the S-N curve of the smooth carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates of T300/648C are determined to predict the fatigue life of the notched composite laminate. And the E-N curve of the notched specimens at the given load ratio R=10 and minimum load P min=-0.45 kN is also measured to verify the estimated result of fatigue life.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal;
2014-01-01
The densification, delamination and crack growth behavior in a Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) multi-layer ceramic sample was studied using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy (microtomography) to investigate the critical dynamics of crack propagation and delamination...... in a multilayered sample. Naturally occurring defects, caused by the sample preparation process, are shown not to be critical in sample degradation. Instead defects are nucleated during the debinding step. Crack growth is significantly faster along the material layers than perpendicular to them, and crack growth...
Confining crack propagation in defective graphene.
López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina
2015-03-11
Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.
Effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields
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F.V. Antunes
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Crack closure influences fatigue crack growth rate and must be included in the design of components. Plasticity induced crack closure is intimately linked with the crack tip plastic deformation, which becomes residual as the crack propagates. The objective here is to study numerically the effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields. The transient effect observed at the beginning of crack propagation is linked to the hardening behavior of material. The effect of mesh refinement is studied, and a singular behavior is evident, which is explained by the sharp crack associated with mesh topology, composed of a regular pattern of square elements. The plastic zone size measured perpendicularly to crack flank in the residual plastic wake is quantified and compared with literature models. Finally, the removal of material at the first node behind crack tip with load cycling was observed for plane strain state and some hardening models in plane stress state.
Krueger, Ronald
2012-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented. The example is based on a finite element model of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen for 50% mode II. The benchmarking is demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard, however, the example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement as well as delamination length versus applied load/displacement relationships from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall, the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.
Johnston, Patrick H.; Appleget, Chelsea D.; Odarczenko, Michael T.
2012-01-01
Delaminations and transverse matrix cracks often appear concurrently in composite laminates. Normal-incidence ultrasound is excellent at detecting delaminations, but is not optimum for matrix cracks. Non-normal incidence, or polar backscattering, has been shown to optimally detect matrix cracks oriented perpendicular to the ultrasonic plane of incidence. In this work, a series of six composite laminates containing slots were loaded in tension to achieve various levels of delamination and ply cracking. Ultrasonic backscattering was measured over a range of incident polar and azimuthal angles, in order to characterize the relative degree of damage of the two types. Sweptpolar- angle measurements were taken with a curved phased array, as a step toward an array-based approach to simultaneous measurement of combined flaws.
FRACTAL KINEMATICS OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN GEOMATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢和平
1995-01-01
Experimental results indicate that propagation paths of cracks in geomaterials are often irregular, producing rough fracture surfaces which are fractal. A formula is derived for the fractal kinematics of crack propagation in geomaterials. The formula correlates the dynamic and static fracture toughnesses with crack velocity, crack length and a microstructural parameter, and allows the fractal dimension to be obtained. From the equations for estimating crack velocity and fractal dimension it can be shown that the measured crack velocity, Vo , should be much smaller than the fractal crack velocity, V. It can also be shown that the fractal dimension of the crack propagation path can be calculated directly from Vo and from the fracture toughness.
Combined effect of matrix cracking and stress-free edge on delamination
Salpekar, S. A.; Obrien, T. K.
1990-01-01
The effect of the stress-free edge on the growth of local delaminations initiating from a matrix crack in (0 sub 2/90 sub 4) sub s and (+ or - 45.90 sub 4) sub s glass epoxy laminates is investigated using 3-D finite element analysis. The presence of high interlaminar normal stresses at the intersection (corner) of the matrix crack with the stress-free edge, suggests that a mode I delamination may initiate at the corners. The strain energy release rates (G) were calculated by modeling a uniform through-width delamination and two inclined delaminations at 10.6 deg and 45 deg to the matrix crack. All components of G have high values near the free edges. The mode I component of G is high at small delamination length and becomes zero for a delamination length of one-ply thickness. The total G values near the free edge agreed well with previously derived closed form solution. The quasi-3D solutions agreed well with the 3-D interior solutions.
Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures
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B. Schramm
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.
Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingjing Chen
Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.
Interaction between cracking, delamination and buckling in brittle elastic thin films
Vellinga, W. P.; Van den Bosch, M.; Geers, M. G. D.
2008-01-01
A discrete lattice based model for the interaction of cracking, delamination and buckling of brittle elastic coatings is presented. The model is unique in its simultaneous incorporation of the coating and of disorder in the interface and material properties, leading to realistic 3D bending (and buck
Cracking and delamination of metal organic vapour deposited alumina and silica films
Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.
1993-01-01
Amorphous alumina and silica films were deposited on AISI by thermal decomposition at atmospheric pressure of aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide and di-acetoxy-di-tertiary-butoxided-silane respectively. Above a critical coating thickness of the oxide films, cracking and delamination occurred during the
Li, D. H.; Zhang, X.; Sze, K. Y.; Liu, Y.
2016-10-01
In this paper, the extended layerwise method (XLWM), which was developed for laminated composite beams with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks (Li et al. in Int J Numer Methods Eng 101:407-434, 2015), is extended to laminated composite plates. The strong and weak discontinuous functions along the thickness direction are adopted to simulate multiple delaminations and interlaminar interfaces, respectively, whilst transverse cracks are modeled by the extended finite element method (XFEM). The interaction integral method and maximum circumferential tensile criterion are used to calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF) and crack growth angle, respectively. The XLWM for laminated composite plates can accurately predicts the displacement and stress fields near the crack tips and delamination fronts. The thickness distribution of SIF and thus the crack growth angles in different layers can be obtained. These information cannot be predicted by using other existing shell elements enriched by XFEM. Several numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the capabilities of the XLWM in static response analyses, SIF calculations and crack growth predictions.
Krueger, Ronald
2012-01-01
The application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasi-static delamination propagation capabilities is demonstrated for ANSYS. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The examples selected are based on two-dimensional finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End-Notched Flexure (ENF), Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) and Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimens. First, the quasi-static benchmark examples were recreated for each specimen using the current implementation of VCCT in ANSYS . Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in the finite element software. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for three-dimensional solid models is required.
DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems
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R. Citarella
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.
Crack front propagation by kink formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roesch, Frohmut; Trebin, Hans-Rainer [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)
2010-07-01
In a brittle material a travelling crack generates an upper and a lower fracture surface, which meet at a one-dimensional crack front. From a macroscopic point of view there is no reason why this curve should deviate from a straight line, contrary to the atomistic point of view, where a crack propagates by successive rupture of cohesive bonds. We investigate fracture of the C15 NbCr{sub 2} Friauf-laves phase on an atomic level by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The numerical experiments highlight that crack fronts in general do not form a straight line and propagate by kink-pair formation at low loads (EPL 87 (2009) 66004). This mechanism should be relevant for crack propagation in any ordered brittle solid.
Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure
Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang
2014-07-01
Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.
Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks
Mullins, M.
1982-01-01
Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.
Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks
Mullins, M.
1982-01-01
Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.
Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation....
Turon, Albert; Costa, Josep; Camanho, Pedro P.; Davila, Carlos G.
2006-01-01
A damage model for the simulation of delamination propagation under high-cycle fatigue loading is proposed. The basis for the formulation is a cohesive law that links fracture and damage mechanics to establish the evolution of the damage variable in terms of the crack growth rate dA/dN. The damage state is obtained as a function of the loading conditions as well as the experimentally-determined coefficients of the Paris Law crack propagation rates for the material. It is shown that by using the constitutive fatigue damage model in a structural analysis, experimental results can be reproduced without the need of additional model-specific curve-fitting parameters.
Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied
Lewicki, David G.
1999-01-01
Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth
Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Hunston, Donald L.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Wan, Kai-Tak; Stanley, Deborah L.; Gu, Xiaohong
2015-09-01
The channel crack and delamination phenomena that occurred during tensile tests were utilized to study surface cracking and delamination properties of a multilayered backsheet. A model sample of commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet was studied. Fragmentation testing was performed after accelerated aging with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in two relative humidity (RH) levels (5 % RH and 60 % RH) at elevated temperature (85 °C) conditions for 11 days and 22 days. Results suggest that the embrittled surface layer resulting from the UV photo-degradation is responsible for surface cracking when the strain applied on the sample is far below the yielding strain (2.2 %) of the PPE sample. There was no surface cracking observed on the un-aged sample and samples aged without UV irradiation. According to the fragmentation testing results, the calculated fracture toughness (KIC) values of the embrittled surface layer are as low as 0.027 MPa·m1/2 to 0.104 MPa·m1/2, depending on the humidity levels and aging times. Surface analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and atomic force microscopy shows the degradation mechanism of the embrittled surface layer is a combination of the photodegradation within a certain degradation depth and the moisture erosion effect depending on the moisture levels. Specifically, UV irradiation provides a chemical degradation effect while moisture plays a synergistic effect on surface erosion, which influences surface roughness after aging. Finally, there was no delamination observed during tensile testing in this study, suggesting the surface cracking problem is more significant than the delamination for the PPE backsheet material and conditions tested here.
Fatigue Crack and Delamination Growth in Fibre Metal Laminates under Variable Amplitude Loading
Khan, S.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents the investigation into the fatigue propagation and delamination growth of Fibre Metal Laminates under variable amplitude loading. As explained in the first chapter, the motivation of the research is twofold: first, to obtain a clear understanding and detailed characterization of
Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.
Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K
1998-11-01
Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.
Crack Propagation in Compressor Rotor Blade
2012-08-01
by local Public Affairs Office) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Turbomachine blading crack propagation and initiations are one of...the most important problems. Design, operation and modernization of the contemporary turbomachines are impossible without a detailed numerical and...Rao, J. S., Turbine Blade Life Estimation, Narosa Publishing House, (2000). Rao, J. S., Narayan, R. and Ranjith, M. C., Lifing of Turbomachine
Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory
Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.
2016-04-01
Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.
Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.
Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong
2013-10-01
Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.
Extended propagation model for interfacial crack in composite material structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫相桥; 冯希金
2002-01-01
An interfacial crack is a common damage in a composite material structure . An extended propaga-tion model has been established for an interfacial crack to study the dependence of crack growth on the relativesizes of energy release rates at left and right crack tips and the properties of interfacial material characterize thegrowth of interfacial crack better.
Development and Applications of Benchmark Examples for Static Delamination Propagation Predictions
Krueger, Ronald
2013-01-01
The development and application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasistatic delamination propagation capabilities was demonstrated for ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). The examples selected were based on finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimens. First, quasi-static benchmark results were created based on an approach developed previously. Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). Input control parameters were varied to study the effect on the computed delamination propagation. Overall, the benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the appropriate input parameters for the VCCT implementations in ANSYS® and Abaqus/Standard®. However, further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required. Additionally studies should include the assessment of the propagation capabilities in more complex specimens and on a structural level.
Computer Simulations of the Fatigue Crack Propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Materna
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The following hypothesis for design of structures based on the damage tolerance philosophy is laid down: the perpendicular fatigue crack growth rate v in a certain point of a curved crack front is given by the local value of stress intensity factor per unit of nominal stress K' and the local triaxiality T which describes the constraint. The relationship v = f (K', T is supposed to be typical for a given loading spectrum and material. Such relationship for a 2024 Al alloy and the flight-simulation spectrum was derived from the fatigue test of the rectangular panel with the central hole and used for three-dimensional simulation of the corner fatigue crack propagation in the model of the wing spar flangeplate. Finite element and boundary element methods were used for these computations. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with the experiment.
International Conference on Dynamic Crack Propagation
1973-01-01
The planning meeting for a conference on Dynamic Crack Propagation was held at M.LT. in February 1971 and attended by research workers from several industrial, governmental and academic organizations. It was felt that a more specialized meeting would provide a better opportunity for both U.S. and foreign researchers to exchange their ideas and views on dynamic fracture, a subject which is seldom emphasized in national or international fracture conferences. Dynamic crack propagation has been a concern to specialists in many fields: continuum mechanics, metallurgy, geology, polymer chemistry, orthopedics, applied mathematics, as well as structural design and testing. It impinges on a wide variety of problems such as rock breaking and earthquakes, pressure vessels and line pipes, comminution and the per formance of armament and ordnance, etc. Advances have been numerous, covering theories and experiments from both the microscopic and macro scopic points of view. Hence, the need for comparing the theoretical ...
Photoelastic studies of crack propagation and crack arrest. [Homalite 100
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.; Etheridge, J.M.
1977-09-01
This report describes the third year effort on research programs dealing with the characterization of dynamic aspects of fracture. The results included in this report are (1) verification of the BCL one-dimensional computer code; (2) determination of a-dot--K relationship from modified compact-tension specimen of Homalite 100; (3) verification of the MRL procedure for K/sub Ia/ measurement with machine-loaded C-DCB specimen of Homalite 100; (4) influence of adhesive toughness, adhesive thickness, and toughness of the arrest section on crack behavior in duplex specimens of both the M-CT and R-DCB types; (5) crack propagation in a thermally stressed ring specimen; and (6) development of a two-dimensional finite-difference code to predict fracture behavior in specimens of rectangular geometry under various a-dot vs K relationships. 118 figures, 53 tables.
A unified approach to modeling delamination and matrix cracking in smart composite structures
Thornburgh, Robert Preston
The development of smart structures technology has coincided with the increased use of composite materials in structural design. Composite laminates have forms of damage that are not found in other materials, specifically delamination and transverse matrix cracking. An in-depth understanding of the effects of damage on smart composite structures is necessary for predicting not only the life of the structure, but also for modeling any method to be used for damage detection. The objective of this research was to develop a comprehensive model for accurately and efficiently modeling smart composite structures including the effects of composite damage. First, a new, efficient method for modeling smart structures with piezoelectric devices was developed. The coupled model simultaneously solves for the mechanical and electrical response of the system using mechanical displacements and electrical displacements. The developed theory utilizes a refined higher order displacement field that accurately captures the transverse shear deformation in moderately thick laminates. The model was then extended to include internal damage in the form of delamination and matrix cracking. When delamination is present, the sublaminates are modeled as individual plates and continuity is enforced at the interfaces. Matrix cracking was modeled as a reduction in laminate stiffness using parameters determined using finite element analysis of a representative crack. Finally, the simultaneous optimization of both mechanical and electrical parameters in an adaptive structural system was studied. This study demonstrates how multidisciplinary optimization techniques, such as the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function, can be utilized to optimize both structural and electrical aspects of an adaptive structural system. Optimization of piezoelectric actuator placement and electrical circuitry was performed on passive electrical damping systems. Results show that the developed model is capable of accurately
Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAO TengFei; YU Hong
2009-01-01
Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term,which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper,with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holmes, John W.; Liu, Liu; Sørensen, Bent F.
2014-01-01
of delaminations in a typical fibre-reinforced polymer composite was investigated under a constant cyclic loading amplitude. Pure mode I, mode II and mixed-mode crack growth conditions were examined. The results, analysed using a J-integral approach, show that the double cantilever beam loaded with uneven bending......An experimental apparatus utilizing double cantilever beam specimens loaded with uneven bending moments was developed to study the mixed-mode fatigue crack growth in composites. The approach is suitable when large-scale bridging of cracks is present. To illustrate the testing method, cyclic growth...... crack growth rate observed. In addition to details concerning the equipment, a general discussion of the development of cyclic bridging laws for delamination growth in the presence of large-scale bridging is provided....
A Parametric Study of Crack Propagation During Sonic IR Inspection
Chen, J. C.; Kephart, J.; Riddell, W. T.
2006-03-01
We have developed an experiment to study the propagation of synthetic cracks under various controlled conditions during sonic IR inspection. The experiment provides for good repeatability in testing. The parameters of interest include the initial crack length, load history (stress intensity and load ratio) during crack generation, geometry of the crack, material, and also the various conditions involving the ultrasonic source. In general, we find that under typical sonic IR inspection conditions, the initial crack will propagate when subjected to sonic IR testing. The crack growth after each inspection event varies and exhibits a distribution in length of propagation. The results show that the average crack propagation decreases with increasing initial crack length and increasing stress intensity.
Khokhar, Zahid R.; Ashcroft, Ian A.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.
2011-02-01
Two main damage mechanisms of laminates—matrix cracking and inter-ply delaminationare closely linked together (Joshi and Sun 1). This paper is focussed on interaction between matrix cracking and delamination failure mechanisms in CFRP cross-ply laminates under quasi-static tensile loading. In the first part of the work, a transverse crack is introduced in 90o layers of the cross-ply laminate [01/904/01], and the stresses and strains that arise due to tensile loading are analyzed. In the second part, the cohesive zone modelling approach where the constitutive behaviour of the cohesive elements is governed by traction-displacement relationship is employed to deal with the problem of delamination initiation from the matrix crack introduced in the 90o layers of the laminate specimen. Additionally, the effect of microstructural randomness, exhibited by CFRP laminates on the damage behaviour of these laminates is also accounted for in simulations. This effect is studied in numerical finite-element simulations by introducing stochastic cohesive zone elements. The proposed damage modelling effectively simulated the interaction between the matrix crack and delamination and the variations in the stresses, damage and crack lengths of the laminate specimen due to the microstructural randomness.
Fretting fatigue crack propagation rate under variable loading conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Gandiolle
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fretting fatigue experiments aim to represent industrial problems and most of them endure variable loading. Being able to assess lifetime of assemblies, especially for low propagation rate conditions, is essential as experimental validation is often too expensive. Both experimental and numerical approaches are proposed to follow the crack propagation rate of steel on steel cylinder/plane fretting fatigue contact submitted to variable loading conditions. An original experimental monitoring has been implemented on the fretting-fatigue test device to observe crack propagation using a potential drop technique. A calibration curve relating crack length and electrical potential was established for the studied contact. It allows direct knowledge of the crack length and crack propagation rate. It was applied to mixed load test showing crack arrest for the last loading condition. To explain this behavior, a 2-dimensional FE modeling was implemented to simulate the complexes multi-axial contact stressing. The crack propagation rate was formalized using an effective stress intensity factor amplitude ΔKeff coupled with Paris law of the material. The crack arrest condition for a given loading was related to ΔKeff along the expected crack path crossing the material crack arrest threshold ΔK0. The failure was related to ΔKeff reaching the critical stress intensity factor KIC. A good correlation with experiments was observed allowing to predict the crack arrest condition although the model tends to overestimate the final crack length extension.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fucai Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional spectral element method (SEM was developed for analysis of Lamb wave propagation in composite laminates containing a delamination. SEM is more efficient in simulating wave propagation in structures than conventional finite element method (FEM because of its unique diagonal form of the mass matrix. Three types of composite laminates, namely, unidirectional-ply laminates, cross-ply laminates, and angle-ply laminates are modeled using three-dimensional spectral finite elements. Wave propagation characteristics in intact composite laminates are investigated, and the effectiveness of the method is validated by comparison of the simulation results with analytical solutions based on transfer matrix method. Different Lamb wave mode interactions with delamination are evaluated, and it is demonstrated that symmetric Lamb wave mode may be insensitive to delamination at certain interfaces of laminates while the antisymmetric mode is more suited for identification of delamination in composite structures.
Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beggs, Dennis Vinton [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
1981-01-01
Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, Δt greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, Δx, decreased linearly with Δt. With Δt less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, Δx = Δx* which approached a limiting value of 1 μm. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.
FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION THROUGH AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON MICROSTRUCTURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukáš Bubenko
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has a wide range of application, particularly for castings used in automotive and earth moving machinery industries. These components are usually subjected to variable dynamic loading that may promote initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks up to final fracture. Thus, it is important to determine the fatigue crack propagation behavior of ADI. Since fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN vs. stress intensity factor K data describe fatigue crack propagation resistance and fatigue durability of structural materials, da/dN vs. Ka curves of ADI 1050 are reported here. The threshold amplitude of stress intensity factor Kath is also determined. Finally, the influence of stress intensity factor amplitude to the character of fatigue crack propagation through the ADI microstructure is described.
Stability analysis of cracks propagating in three dimensional solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larralde, H.; Al-Falou, A.A.; Ball, R.C. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1996-12-01
The authors present a theory for the morphology of the fracture surface left behind by slowly propagating cracks in linear, isotropic and homogeneous three dimensional solids. The results are based on first order perturbation theory of the equations of elasticity for cracks whose shape is slightly perturbed from planar. For cracks propagating under pure type 1 loading they find that all perturbation modes are linearly stable, from which they can predict the roughness of the fracture surface induced by fluctuations in the material. The authors compare their results with the classical results for cracks propagating in two dimensional systems, and discuss the effects in the three dimensional analysis which result from taking into account contributions from non-singular terms of the stress field, as well as the effects arising from finite speeds of crack propagation.
In Search of a Time Efficient Approach to Crack and Delamination Growth Predictions in Composites
Krueger, Ronald; Carvalho, Nelson
2016-01-01
Analysis benchmarking was used to assess the accuracy and time efficiency of algorithms suitable for automated delamination growth analysis. First, the Floating Node Method (FNM) was introduced and its combination with a simple exponential growth law (Paris Law) and Virtual Crack Closure technique (VCCT) was discussed. Implementation of the method into a user element (UEL) in Abaqus/Standard(Registered TradeMark) was also presented. For the assessment of growth prediction capabilities, an existing benchmark case based on the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen was briefly summarized. Additionally, the development of new benchmark cases based on the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen to assess the growth prediction capabilities under mixed-mode I/II conditions was discussed in detail. A comparison was presented, in which the benchmark cases were used to assess the existing low-cycle fatigue analysis tool in Abaqus/Standard(Registered TradeMark) in comparison to the FNM-VCCT fatigue growth analysis implementation. The low-cycle fatigue analysis tool in Abaqus/Standard(Registered TradeMark) was able to yield results that were in good agreement with the DCB benchmark example. Results for the MMB benchmark cases, however, only captured the trend correctly. The user element (FNM-VCCT) always yielded results that were in excellent agreement with all benchmark cases, at a fraction of the analysis time. The ability to assess the implementation of two methods in one finite element code illustrated the value of establishing benchmark solutions.
Multiaxial mixed-mode cracking - small crack initiation and propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freitas, M. de; Reis, L.; Li Bin [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). ICEMS - Inst. of Material and Surface Science and Engineering
2006-07-01
Both the fatigue crack path and fatigue life of CK45 steel and 42CrMo4 steel under various multiaxial loading paths are studied in this paper. The replica method was applied to monitor the crack initiation and small crack growth, the fractographic analyses were carried out on the fracture surface and the crack initiation angle was measured. The effects of non-proportional loading on both the crack path and fatigue life were studied, and the flattening of asperities on the crack surface due to compressive normal stress was also observed. An improved model is proposed based on correcting the strain range parameter of the ASME code approach, taking into account the additional hardening caused by the non-proportional loading path, which can improve the predictions of the fatigue lives for various non-proportional loading paths and provide an easy way to overcome the drawbacks of the current ASME code approach for non-proportional fatigue. Based on these corrected strain range parameters, a strain intensity factor range is used to correlate with the experimental results of small crack growth rates. It is concluded that the orientation of the early crack growth can be predicted well by the critical damage plane, but the fatigue life can not be predicted accurately using only the parameters on the critical plane, since the damage on all the planes contributes to fatigue damage as stated by the integral approaches. (orig.)
Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies
Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emergy, A. F.
1982-01-01
A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension.
Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik
2013-01-01
Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling approa...
Crack Propagation in Plane Strain under Variable Amplitude Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes
2010-01-01
Crack propagation simulation began with developing of finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth and closure processes. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. In this pa...
Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation of Aluminum Alloy Bearings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Xian-Hua; MA Yan-Yan
2004-01-01
Observation of fatigue crack initiation and propagation during fatigue test in ALSn20Cu bearing has been presented. Journal center orbit, oil film pressure and stress distribution in alloy layer have been calculated and are taken as the basis for theoretically simulating the bearing fatigue process. It is found that the calculated results are in good accordance with the experimental results, which provides a feasible way for investigation of fatigue crack propagation process in the bearing.
Dynamic initiation and propagation of cracks in unidirectional composite plates
Coker, Demirkan
Dynamic crack growth along weak planes is a significant mode of failure in composites and other layered/sandwiched structures and is also the principal mechanism of shallow crustal earthquakes. In order to shed light on this phenomenon dynamic crack initiation and propagation characteristics of a model fiber-reinforced unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate was investigated experimentally. Dynamic fracture experiments were conducted by subjecting the composite plates to in-plane, symmetric and asymmetric, impact loading. The lateral shearing interferometric technique of coherent gradient sensing (CGS) in conjunction with high-speed photography was used to visualize the failure process in real time. It was found that mode-I cracks propagated subsonically with crack speeds increasing to the neighborhood of the Rayleigh wave speed of the composite. Also in mode-I, the dependence of the dynamic initiation fracture toughness on the loading rate was determined and was found to be constant for low loading rates and to increase rapidly above K˙dI>10 5 . The dynamic crack propagation toughness, KID, was observed to decrease with crack tip speed up to the Rayleigh wave speed of the composite. For asymmetric, mode-II, types of loading the results revealed highly unstable and intersonic shear-dominated crack growth along the fibers. These cracks propagated with unprecedented speeds reaching 7400 m/s which is the dilatational wave speed of the composite along the fibers. For intersonic crack growth, the interferograms, featured a shock wave structure typical of disturbances traveling with speeds higher than one of the characteristic wave speeds in the solid. In addition high speed thermographic measurements are conducted that show concentrated hot spots behind the crack tip indicating non-uniform crack face frictional contact. In addition, shear dominated dynamic crack growth is investigated along composite/Homalite interfaces subjected to impact loading. The crack
Stress analysis of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques: crack propagation modeling.
Rezvani-Sharif, Alireza; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam
2016-12-09
Traditionally, the degree of luminal obstruction has been used to assess the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. However, recent studies have revealed that other factors such as plaque morphology, material properties of lesion components and blood pressure may contribute to the fracture of atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques based on the mechanical stress distribution and fatigue analysis by means of numerical simulation. Realistic models of type V plaques were reconstructed based on histological images. Finite element method was used to determine mechanical stress distribution within the plaque. Assuming that crack propagation initiated at the sites of stress concentration, crack propagation due to pulsatile blood pressure was modeled. Results showed that crack propagation considerably changed the stress field within the plaque and in some cases led to initiation of secondary cracks. The lipid pool stiffness affected the location of crack formation and the rate and direction of crack propagation. Moreover, increasing the mean or pulse pressure decreased the number of cycles to rupture. It is suggested that crack propagation analysis can lead to a better recognition of factors involved in plaque rupture and more accurate determination of vulnerable plaques.
Suppression of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Duralumin by Cavitation Peening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hitoshi Soyama
2015-08-01
Full Text Available It was demonstrated in the present paper that cavitation peening which is one of the mechanical surface modification technique can suppress fatigue crack propagation in duralumin. The impacts produced when cavitation bubble collapses can be utilised for the mechanical surface modification technique in the same way as laser peening and shot peening, which is called “cavitation peening”. Cavitation peening employing a cavitating jet in water was used to treat the specimen made of duralumin Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A2017-T3. After introducing a notch, fatigue test was conducted by a load-controlled plate bending fatigue tester, which has been originally developed. The fatigue crack propagation behavior was evaluated and the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate versus stress intensity factor range was obtained. From the results, the fatigue crack propagation rate was drastically reduced by cavitation peening and the fatigue life of duralumin plate was extended 4.2 times by cavitation peening. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation can be suppressed by 88% in the stable crack propagation stage by cavitation peening.
FEM Modeling of Crack Propagation in a Model Multiphase Alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lihe QIAN; Seishi NISHIDO; Hiroyuki TODA; Tosliro KOBAYASHI
2006-01-01
In this paper, several widely applied fracture criteria were first numerically examined and the crack-tip-region Jintegral criterion was confirmed to be more applicable to predict fracture angle in an elastic-plastic multiphase material. Then, the crack propagation in an idealized dendritic two-phase Al-7%Si alloy was modeled using an elastic-plastic finite element method. The variation of crack growth driving force with crack extension was also demonstrated. It is found that the crack path is significantly influenced by the presence of α-phase near the crack tip, and the crack growth driving force varies drastically from place to place. Lastly, the simulated fracture path in the two-phase model alloy was compared with the experimentally observed fracture path.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. F. O. Correia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.
A model for high-cycle fatigue crack propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbi, Marcela Angela [Rosario National Univ. (Argentina); National Council of Scientific Research and Technology (CONICET) (Argentina)
2017-02-01
This paper deals with the prediction of high-cycle fatigue behavior for four different materials (7075-T6 alloy, Ti-6Al-4 V alloy, JIS S10C steel and 0.4 wt.-% C steel) using Chapetti's approach to estimate the fatigue crack propagation curve. In the first part of the paper, a single integral equation for studying the entire propagation process is determined using the recent results of Santus and Taylor, which consider a double regime of propagation (short and long cracks) characterized by the model of El Haddad. The second part of the paper includes a comparison of the crack propagation behavior model proposed by Navarro and de los Rios with the one mentioned in the first half of this work. The results allow us to conclude that the approach presented in this paper is a good and valid estimation of high-cycle fatigue crack propagation using a single equation to describe the entire fatigue crack regime.
Investigation about crack propagation paths in thin rim gears
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F. Curà
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Crack propagation in gears is a problem related not only to the life of the components, but also to the concept of failsafe design. Fail safe design means to design a component in order that, if a failure occurs, this may cause a “safe failure”. This aspect is very important above all in aerospace industry. As a matter of fact, in aerospace application, the need of reducing weight brings to produce gears with very thick rim and web. Considering thin rim gears, when a crack is nucleated near the tooth root, it may propagate through the tooth (causing the loss of the entire tooth or a portion of it or the propagation may follow a path across the wheel diameter (causing the projection of big parts of the gear that may break the gearbox and may cause serious damage to the aircraft. The first failure mode is define as “failsafe failure” and the second one as “catastrophic failure” and of course has to be avoided. Designers need to have robust design criteria in order to predict crack propagation paths and to avoid catastrophic failures. In literature, few works are present concerning this topic, in particular related to the effect of geometrical parameters that may affect the crack propagation. In this work a numerical analysis about crack propagation in gears with respect to the backup ratio (ratio between tooth height and rim thickness, initial crack position and shape has been done by means of the Extended FEM (XFEM technique, realizing 3D models. XFEM 3D is a relatively new technique consisting in enriching traditional finite elements with more complex shape functions; in this way it is possible to propagate crack also between mesh nodes and to have mesh independent results. Aim of this paper is to highlight the crack propagation path in order to give to designers an high confident design criterion, related to the gear geometry. In particular, the effect of both rim thickness and orientation of the initial crack have been considered
Crack Propagation in Honeycomb Cellular Materials: A Computational Approach
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Marco Paggi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Computational models based on the finite element method and linear or nonlinear fracture mechanics are herein proposed to study the mechanical response of functionally designed cellular components. It is demonstrated that, via a suitable tailoring of the properties of interfaces present in the meso- and micro-structures, the tensile strength can be substantially increased as compared to that of a standard polycrystalline material. Moreover, numerical examples regarding the structural response of these components when subjected to loading conditions typical of cutting operations are provided. As a general trend, the occurrence of tortuous crack paths is highly favorable: stable crack propagation can be achieved in case of critical crack growth, whereas an increased fatigue life can be obtained for a sub-critical crack propagation.
Crack spacing threshold of double cracks propagation for large-module rack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵铁柱; 石端伟; 姚哲皓; 毛宏勇; 程术潇; 彭惠
2015-01-01
Large-module rack of the Three Gorges shiplift is manufactured by casting and machining, which is unable to avoid slag inclusions and surface cracks. To ensure its safety in the future service, studying on crack propagation rule and the residual life estimation method of large-module rack is of great significance. The possible crack distribution forms of the rack in the Three Gorges shiplift were studied. By applying moving load on the model in FRANC3D and ANSYS, quantitative analyses of interference effects on double cracks in both collinear and offset conditions were conducted. The variation rule of the stress intensity factor (SIF) influence factor,RK, of double collinear cracks changing with crack spacing ratio,RS, was researched. The horizontal and vertical crack spacing threshold of double cracks within the design life of the shiplift were obtained, which are 24 and 4 times as large as half of initial crack length,c0, respectively. The crack growth rates along the length and depth directions in the process of coalescence on double collinear cracks were also studied.
Gas-initiated crack propagation in a porous solid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitts, J.H.
1976-01-15
The propagation of a crack in porous earth formations following an experimental underground nuclear explosion is analyzed. The three-dimensional analysis includes interaction of gas pressure within the crack, permeation of gas into the porous earth formation, deflection of the crack walls, and crack propagation. Effects of permeability, k, from 10/sup -6/ to 0.1 (..mu..m)/sup 2/ (1(..mu..m)/sup 2/ approximately 1 Darcy), initial crack length and width up to 110 and 170 m, and ratio of maximum earth formation resistive pressure to initial driving pressure, P/sub r//sub max//P/sub 1/, from 0.1 to 0.9 are delineated. Propagation of a crack to the earth's surface following a typical experimental underground nuclear explosion buried at a depth of 500 m occurs only under unlikely conditions, such as when k < 10/sup -4/ (..mu..m)/sup 2/ and P/sub r//sub max//P/sup 1/ < 0.75.
Fatigue crack propagation in self-assembling nanocomposites
Klingler, Andreas; Wetzel, Bernd
2016-05-01
Self-assembling block-copolymers allow the easy manufacturing of nanocomposites due to the thermodynamically driven in situ formation of nanosized phases in thermosetting resins during the curing process. Complex mechanical dispersion processes can be avoided. The current study investigates the effect of a block-copolymer on the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a cycloaliphatic amine cured epoxy resin. It was found that a small amount of MAM triblock-copolymer significantly increases the resistance to fatigue crack propagation of epoxy. Crack growth rate and the Paris law exponent for fatigue-crack growth were considerably reduced from m=15.5 of the neat epoxy to m=8.1 of the nanocomposite. To identify the related reinforcing and fracture mechanisms structural analyses of the fractured surfaces were performed by scanning electron microscope. Characteristic features were identified to be deformation, debonding and fracture of the nano-phases as well as crack pinning. However, the highest resistance against fatigue crack propagation was achieved in a bi-continuous microstructure that consisted of an epoxy-rich phase with embedded submicron sized MAM inclusions, and which was surrounded by a block-copolymer-rich phase that showed rupture and plastic deformation.
Infrared thermography study of the fatigue crack propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.A. Plekhov
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the experimental study of heat dissipation process caused by fatigue crack propagation. To investigate a spatial and time temperature evolution at the crack tip set of experiments was carried out using specimens with pre-grown centered fatigue crack. An original mathematical algorithm for experimental data treatment was developed to obtain a power of heat source caused by plastic deformation at crack tip. The algorithm includes spatial-time filtration and relative motion compensation procedures. Based on the results of mathematical data treatment, we proposed a way to estimate the values of J-integral and stress intensity factor for cracks with pronounced the plastic zone.
Asymmetrical dynamic propagation problems on mode Ⅲ interface crack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L(U) Nian-chun; YANG Ding-ning; CHENG Yun-hong; CHENG Jin
2007-01-01
By the application of the theory of complex functions, asymmetrical dynamic propagation problems on mode Ⅲ interface crack are studied. The universal representations of analytical solutions are obtained by the approaches of serf-similar function. The problems researched can be facilely transformed into Riemann-Hilbert problems and analytical solution to an asymmetrical propagation crack under the condition of point loads and unit-step loads, respectively, is acquired. After those solutions were used by superposition theorem, the solutions of arbitrarily complex problems could be attained.
Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendoza, I., E-mail: ivanmendozabravo@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Villalobos, D. [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Alexandrov, B.T. [The Ohio State University (United States)
2015-10-01
This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids.
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene.
Connelly, G M; Rimnac, C M; Wright, T M; Hertzberg, R W; Manson, J A
1984-01-01
The relative fatigue crack propagation resistance of plain and carbon fiber-reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was determined from cyclic loading tests performed on compact tension specimens machined from the tibial components of total knee prostheses. Both materials were characterized by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The cyclic tests used loading in laboratory air at 5 Hz using a sinusoidal wave form. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy showed that the reinforced UHMWPE had a higher elastic storage modulus than the plain UHMWPE, whereas X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the percent crystallinity and degree of order in the crystalline regions were similar for the two materials. Fatigue crack propagation in both materials proved to be very sensitive to small changes in the applied cyclic stress intensity range. A 10% increase in stress intensity resulted in approximately an order of magnitude increase in fatigue crack growth rate. The fatigue crack propagation resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE was found to be significantly worse than that of the plain UHMWPE. This result was attributed to poor bonding between the carbon fibers and the UHMWPE matrix and the ductile nature of the matrix itself.
Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Rubber-toughened Epoxy Resin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of mass fraction 15% CTBN (carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile), 15% Qishi toughening-agent toughened anhydride-cured epoxy resins (EP), and pure anhydride-cured EP were measured. The results showed that the two main toughening mechanisms, localized shear yielding and void plastics growth, which occurred near the threshold region because the rubber size is much less than the plastics size at the crack front, improved the near threshold FCP behavior and increased the threshold. The stable FCP behavior was obviously improved with the FCP rates decreased to less than 21%.
Finite Element Analysis of the Crack Propagation for Solid Materials
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Miloud Souiyah
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of fracture mechanics techniques in the assessment of performance and reliability of structure is on increase and the prediction of crack propagation in structure play important part. The finite element method is widely used for the evaluation of SIF for various types of crack configurations. Source code program of two-dimensional finite element model had been developed, to demonstrate the capability and its limitations, in predicting the crack propagation trajectory and the SIF values under linear elastic fracture analysis. Approach: Two different geometries were used on this finite element model in order, to analyze the reliability of this program on the crack propagation in linear and nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics. These geometries were namely; a rectangular plate with crack emanating from square-hole and Double Edge Notched Plate (DENT. Where, both geometries are in tensile loading and under mode I conditions. In addition, the source code program of this model was written by FORTRAN language. Therefore, a Displacement Extrapolation Technique (DET was employed particularly, to predict the crack propagations directions and to, calculate the Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs. Furthermore, the mesh for the finite elements was the unstructured type; generated using the advancing front method. And, the global h-type adaptive mesh was adopted based on the norm stress error estimator. While, the quarter-point singular elements were uniformly generated around the crack tip in the form of a rosette. Moreover, make a comparison between this current study with other relevant and published research study. Results: The application of the source code program of 2-D finite element model showed a significant result on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Based on the findings of the two different geometries from the current study, the result showed a good agreement. And, it seems like very close compare to the other published
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of a single crystalline superalloy
Lerch, B. A.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1990-01-01
Crack propagation mechanisms occurring at various temperatures in a single crystalline Ni-base alloy, Rene N4, were investigated. The rates of crack growth at 21, 704, 927, 1038, and 1093 C were measured in specimens with 001-line and 110-line directions parallel to the load axis and the machined notch, respectively, using a pulsed dc potential drop apparatus, and the fracture surfaces at each temperature were examined using SEM. Crack growth rates (CGRs) for specimens tested at or below 927 C were similar, while at two higher temperatures, the CGRs were about an order of magnitude higher than at the lower temperatures. Results of SEM observations showed that surface morphologies depended on temperature.
Protein unfolding under force: crack propagation in a network.
de Graff, Adam M R; Shannon, Gareth; Farrell, Daniel W; Williams, Philip M; Thorpe, M F
2011-08-03
The mechanical unfolding of a set of 12 proteins with diverse topologies is investigated using an all-atom constraint-based model. Proteins are represented as polypeptides cross-linked by hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and hydrophobic contacts, each modeled as a harmonic inequality constraint capable of supporting a finite load before breaking. Stereochemically acceptable unfolding pathways are generated by minimally overloading the network in an iterative fashion, analogous to crack propagation in solids. By comparing the pathways to those from molecular dynamics simulations and intermediates identified from experiment, it is demonstrated that the dominant unfolding pathways for 9 of the 12 proteins studied are well described by crack propagation in a network. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Incubation time for sub-critical crack propagation in SiC-SiC composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1995-04-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the time for sub-critical crack propagation is SiC-SiC composites at high temperatures. The effects of fiber thermal creep on the relaxation of crack bridging tractions in SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is considered in the present work, with the objective of studying the time-to propagation of sub-critical matrix cracks in this material at high temperatures. Under the condition of fiber stress relaxation in the bridiging zone, it is found that the crack opening and the stress intensity factor increase with time for sub-critical matrix cracks. The time elapsed before the stress intensity reaches the critical value for crack propagation is calculated as a function of the initial crack length, applied stress and temperature. Stability domains for matrix cracks are defined, which provide guidelines for conducting high-temperature crack propagation experiments.
Photoelastic studies of crack propagation and arrest in polymers and 4340 steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Irwin, G.R.; Fourney, W.L.; Kobayashi, T.; Metcalf, J.T.; Dally, J.W.
1978-11-01
Progress is reported concerning the further evaluation of proposed standard procedures for determining arrest toughness; study of crack behavior of 4340 steel with firefringent coatings; comparison of crack behavior in plastic and steel duplex specimen; a dynamic photoelastic study of crack propagation in a ring specimen; characterization of effect of damping on crack behavior; comparison of crack behavior in Araldite B and Homalite 100; and parametric aspects of crack tip stress fields.
Asymptotic analysis of mode Ⅰ propagating crack-tip field in a creeping material
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhen-qing; ZHAO Qi-cheng; LIANG Wen-yan; FU Zhang-jian
2003-01-01
Adopting an elastic-viscoplastic, the asymptotic problem of mode I propagating crack-tip field is investigated. Various asymptotic solutions resulting from the analysis of crack growing programs are presented. The analysis results show that the quasi-statically growing crack solutions are the special case of the dynamic propagating solutions. Therefore these two asymptotic solutions can be unified.
Kato, Masahiko; Nazul, Mahmoud; Itti, Takeshi; Akebono, Hiroyuki; Sugeta, Atsushi; Mitani, Eiji
2014-08-01
The effects of coating thickness and interfacial roughness on the interfacial fracture toughness of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) coatings were evaluated using a ring compression test. WC-Co powder was sprayed on steel (JIS:SS400) rings by a high-velocity air- fuel method in coatings with various thicknesses and values of interfacial roughness. The ring compression test was carried out, and the cracking and delamination behavior of the coatings was observed using charge-coupled-device cameras. The results showed that cracking perpendicular to the loading direction occurred in the coatings during the ring compression test, and the cracking strength obtained from the ring compression test decreased slightly with increasing coating thickness, but was independent of the interfacial roughness. Upon further increase of the compression load, the coatings delaminated from the substrate. The interfacial fracture toughness calculated from the delamination of the coatings during the ring compression test decreased with increasing coating thickness and increased with increasing interfacial roughness.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Xin; WANG Han-gong; KANG Xing-wu
2008-01-01
Based on the mechanics of anisotropic materials,the dynamic propagation problem of a mode Ⅲ crack in an infinite anisotropic body is investigated.Stress,strain and displacement around the crack tip are expressed as an analytical complex function,which can be represented in power series.Constant coefficients of series are determined by boundary conditions.Expressions of dynamic stress intensity factors for a mode Ⅲ crack are obtained.Components of dynamic stress,dynamic strain and dynamic displacement around the crack tip are derived.Crack propagation characteristics are represented by the mechanical properties of the anisotropic materials,i.e.,crack propagation velocity M and the parameter α.The faster the crack velocity is,the greater the maximums of stress components and dynamic displacement components around the crack tip are.In particular,the parameter α affects stress and dynamic displacement around the crack tip.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DELAMINATION GROWTH FOR STIFFENED COMPOSITE LAMINATED PLATES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
白瑞祥; 陈浩然
2004-01-01
A study of postbuckling and delamination propagation behavior in delaminated stiffened composite plates was presented. A methodology was proposed for simulating the multi-failure responses, such as initial and postbuckling, delamination onset and propagation, etc. A finite element analysis was conducted on the basis of the Mindlin first order shear effect theory and the von-Krmn nonlinear deformation assumption. The total energy release rate used as the criteria of delamination growth was estimated with virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). A self-adaptive grid moving technology was adopted to model the delamination growth process. Moreover, the contact effect along delamination front was also considered during the numerical simulation process. By some numerical examples, the influence of distribution and location of stiffener, configuration and size of the delamination, boundary condition and contact effect upon the delamination growth behavior of the stiffened composite plates were investigated. The method and numerical conclusion provided should be of great value to engineers dealing with composite structures.
Pruncu, C I; Azari, Z; Casavola, C; Pappalettere, C
2015-01-01
The behaviour of materials is governed by the surrounding environment. The contact area between the material and the surrounding environment is the likely spot where different forms of degradation, particularly rust, may be generated. A rust prevention treatment, like bluing, inhibitors, humidity control, coatings, and galvanization, will be necessary. The galvanization process aims to protect the surface of the material by depositing a layer of metallic zinc by either hot-dip galvanizing or electroplating. In the hot-dip galvanizing process, a metallic bond between steel and metallic zinc is obtained by immersing the steel in a zinc bath at a temperature of around 460°C. Although the hot-dip galvanizing procedure is recognized to be one of the most effective techniques to combat corrosion, cracks can arise in the intermetallic δ layer. These cracks can affect the life of the coated material and decrease the lifetime service of the entire structure. In the present paper the mechanical response of hot-dip galvanized steel submitted to mechanical loading condition is investigated. Experimental tests were performed and corroborative numerical and analytical methods were then applied in order to describe both the mechanical behaviour and the processes of crack/cracks propagation in a bimaterial as zinc-coated material.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hadi Haeri
2016-01-01
A simultaneous experimental and numerical study on crack propagation in the pre-cracked beams specimens (concrete-like materials) is carried out using three-point bending flexural test. The crack propagation and coalescence paths of internal cracks in side beam specimens are experimentally studied by inserting double internal cracks. The effects of crack positions on the fracturing path in the bridge areas of the double cracked beam specimens are also studied. It has been observed that the breaking of concrete-like cracked beams specimens occurs mainly by the propagation of wing cracks emanating from the tips of the pre-existing cracks in the numerical and experimental analyses, respectively. The same specimens are numerically simulated by an indirect boundary element method (IBEM) known as displacement discontinuity method (DDM) using higher displacement discontinuity. These numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results. This comparison illustrates the higher accuracy of the results obtained by the indirect boundary element method by using only a small number of elements compared with the discrete element method (PFC2D code).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Boulenouar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available When the loading or the geometry of a structure is not symmetrical about the crack axis, rupture occurs in mixed mode loading and the crack does not propagate in a straight line. It is then necessary to use kinking criteria to determine the new direction of crack propagation. The aim of this work is to present a numerical modeling of crack propagation under mixed mode loading conditions. This work is based on the implementation of the displacement extrapolation method in a FE code and the strain energy density theory in a finite element code. At each crack increment length, the kinking angle is evaluated as a function of stress intensity factors. In this paper, we analyzed the mechanical behavior of inclined cracks by evaluating the stress intensity factors. Then, we presented the examples of crack propagation in structures containing inclusions and cavities.
Modelling probabilistic fatigue crack propagation rates for a mild structural steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.A.F.O. Correia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A class of fatigue crack growth models based on elastic–plastic stress–strain histories at the crack tip region and local strain-life damage models have been proposed in literature. The fatigue crack growth is regarded as a process of continuous crack initializations over successive elementary material blocks, which may be governed by smooth strain-life damage data. Some approaches account for the residual stresses developing at the crack tip in the actual crack driving force assessment, allowing mean stresses and loading sequential effects to be modelled. An extension of the fatigue crack propagation model originally proposed by Noroozi et al. (2005 to derive probabilistic fatigue crack propagation data is proposed, in particular concerning the derivation of probabilistic da/dN-ΔK-R fields. The elastic-plastic stresses at the vicinity of the crack tip, computed using simplified formulae, are compared with the stresses computed using an elasticplastic finite element analyses for specimens considered in the experimental program proposed to derive the fatigue crack propagation data. Using probabilistic strain-life data available for the S355 structural mild steel, probabilistic crack propagation fields are generated, for several stress ratios, and compared with experimental fatigue crack propagation data. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted probabilistic fields and experimental data is observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqing Xu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Polyvinyl butyral (PVB laminated glass has been widely used as an important component of mechanical and construction materials. Cracks on PVB laminated glass are rich in impact information, which contribute to its impact resistance design. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D numerical simulation model describing PVB laminated glass under impact loading is firstly established and validated qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the corresponding experimental results recorded by the high-speed photography system. In the meantime, the extended finite element method (XFEM is introduced to analyze the crack propagation mechanism of laminated glass based on dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs and propagations of stress waves. Parametric studies are then carried out to investigate the influence of five critical parameters, that is, plate dimension, crack length, impact energy, glass properties, and PVB properties, on crack propagation characteristics of laminated glass. Results show that the interaction between crack tip and stress waves as well as the propagations of stress waves corresponds to the fluctuations of DSIFs at crack tip. Both the structure and material variables are proven to play a very important role in glass cracking DSIFs and thus govern the crack propagation behavior. Results may provide fundamental explanation to the basic crack propagation mechanism on radial cracks in PVB laminated glass under impact loading conditions, thus to instruct its impact design improvement.
FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION OF Ni-BASE SUPERALLOYS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X.B.Liu; L.Z.Ma; K.M.Chang; E.Barbero
2005-01-01
Time-dependent Fatigue Crack Propagation (FCP) behaviors of five Ni-base superalloys were investigated at various temperatures under fatigue with various holding times and sustained loading conditions.The new concept of damage zone is defined and employed to evaluate the alloys' resistance to hold-time FCP.A special testing procedure is designed to get the maximum damage zone of the alloys.Udimet 720 and Waspaloy show shorter damage zones than alloys 706 and 718.The fractographical analyses show that the fracture surfaces of the specimens under hold-time fatigue conditions are mixtures with intergranular and transgranular modes.As the extension of holding time per cycle, the portion of intergranular fracture increases.The effects of loading stress intensity, temperature, holding time, alloy chemistry, and alloy microstructure on damage zone and the crack growth behaviors are studied.Hold-time usually increases the alloy's FCP rate, but there are few exemptions.For instance, the steady state hold-time FCP rate of Waspaloy at 760℃ is lower than that without hold-time.The beneficial effect of hold-time was attributed to the creep caused stress relaxation during the hold-time.
Development of Benchmark Examples for Delamination Onset and Fatigue Growth Prediction
Krueger, Ronald
2011-01-01
An approach for assessing the delamination propagation and growth capabilities in commercial finite element codes was developed and demonstrated for the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) implementations in ABAQUS. The Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen was chosen as an example. First, benchmark results to assess delamination propagation capabilities under static loading were created using models simulating specimens with different delamination lengths. For each delamination length modeled, the load and displacement at the load point were monitored. The mixed-mode strain energy release rate components were calculated along the delamination front across the width of the specimen. A failure index was calculated by correlating the results with the mixed-mode failure criterion of the graphite/epoxy material. The calculated critical loads and critical displacements for delamination onset for each delamination length modeled were used as a benchmark. The load/displacement relationship computed during automatic propagation should closely match the benchmark case. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate based on the algorithms implemented in the commercial finite element software. The load-displacement relationship obtained from the propagation analysis results and the benchmark results were compared. Good agreements could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters, which were determined in an iterative procedure.
Analysis of crack propagation in concrete structures with structural information entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The propagation of cracks in concrete structures causes energy dissipation and release, and also causes energy redistribution in the structures. Entropy can characterize the energy redistribution. To investigate the relation between the propagation of cracks and the entropy in concrete structures, cracked concrete structures are treated as dissipative structures. Structural information entropy is defined for concrete structures. A compact tension test is conducted. Meanwhile, numerical simulations are also carried out. Both the test and numerical simulation results show that the structural information entropy in the structures can characterize the propagation of cracks in concrete structures.
Modelling of Debond and Crack Propagation in Sandwich Structures Using Fracture and Damage Mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggreen, C.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Toernqvist, Rikard
2003-01-01
Skin-core de-bonding or core crack propagation will often be dominating mechanisms in the collapse modes of sandwich structures. This paper presents two different methods for prediction of crack propagation in a sandwich structure: a fracture mechanics approach, where a new mode-mix method...
In-situ observations on crack propagation along polymer/glass interfaces.
Vellinga, W.P; Timmerman, R.; van Tijum, R.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Buchheit, TE; Minor, AM; Spolenak, R; Takashima, K
2005-01-01
The propagation of crack fronts along a PET-glass interface is illustrated. The experimental set-up consists of an Asymmetric Double Cantilever Beam in an optical microscope. Image processing techniques used to isolate the crack fronts are discussed in some detail. The fronts are found to propagate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
D. Li; F.Y. Meng; X.Q. Ma; L.J. Qiao; W.Y. Chu
2011-01-01
The internal stress induced by a porous layer or passive layer can assist the applied stress to promote dislocation emission and crack propagation, e.9. when the pipeline steel is buried in the soil containing water, resulting in stress corrosion cracking （SCC）. Molecular dynamics （MD） simulation is performed to study the process of dislocation emission and crack propagation in a slab of Fe crystal with and without a porous layer on the surface of the crack. The results show that when there is a porous layer on the surface of the crack, the tensile stress induced by the porous layer can superimpose on the external applied stress and then assist the applied stress to initiate crack tip dislocation emission under lowered stress intensity KI, or stress. To respond to the corrosion accelerated dislocation emission and motion, the crack begins to propagate under lowered stress intensity KI, resulting in SCC.
Modeling of crack propagation in weak snowpack layers using the discrete element method
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J. Gaume
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Dry-snow slab avalanches are generally caused by a sequence of fracture processes including (1 failure initiation in a weak snow layer underlying a cohesive slab, (2 crack propagation within the weak layer and (3 tensile fracture through the slab which leads to its detachment. During the past decades, theoretical and experimental work has gradually led to a better understanding of the fracture process in snow involving the collapse of the structure in the weak layer during fracture. This now allows us to better model failure initiation and the onset of crack propagation, i.e. to estimate the critical length required for crack propagation. On the other hand, our understanding of dynamic crack propagation and fracture arrest propensity is still very limited. For instance, it is not uncommon to perform field measurements with widespread crack propagation on one day, while a few days later, with very little changes to the snowpack, crack propagation does not occur anymore. Thus far, there is no clear theoretical framework to interpret such observations, and it is not clear how and which snowpack properties affect dynamic crack propagation. To shed more light on this issue, we performed numerical propagation saw test (PST experiments applying the discrete element (DE method and compared the numerical results with field measurements based on particle tracking. The goal is to investigate the influence of weak layer failure and the mechanical properties of the slab on crack propagation and fracture arrest propensity. Crack propagation speeds and distances before fracture arrest were derived from the DE simulations for different snowpack configurations and mechanical properties. Then, the relation between mechanical parameters of the snowpack was taken into account so as to compare numerical and experimental results, which were in good agreement, suggesting that the simulations can reproduce crack propagation in PSTs. Finally, an in-depth analysis of the
Naini, Jeevan Kumar; P, Ramesh Babu
2016-08-01
Modern, aero structures are predominantly of curved construction characterized by a skin and stiffeners. The latest generation of large passenger aircraft also uses mostly composite material in their primary structure and there is trend towards the utilization of bonding of subcomponents. The presence of delamination is a major problem in composite laminated panels and so, it is of great concern to both the academic and aeronautical industrial worlds Indeed delamination can strongly affect the material strength and, sometimes, can cause their breaking up in service. A Pre-damaged configuration is loaded to study the delamination location and mode for delamination initiation and propagation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the location of the delamination propagation when delamination is embedded inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface, with the cases i) delamination located at front and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface ii) delamination located in middle and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface iii) delamination located at the end and inbetween plies of the skin- stiffener interface. Further the influence of the location of the delamination on load carrying capacity of the panel is investigated. The effect of location of debonds on crack growth and collapse behavior is analyzed using analysis tool. An analysis tool is applied that includes an approach for predicting interlaminar damage initiation and interlaminar damage growth as well as in-plane damage mechanisms to predict the design of defect free panel.
Time-dependent corrosion fatique crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys. M.S. Thesis
Mason, Mark E.
1995-01-01
The goal of this research is to characterize environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth for the susceptible short-longitudinal orientation of aluminum alloy 7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution. This work is necessary in order to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA-FLAGRO (NASGRO). This effort concentrates on determining relevant inputs to a superposition model in order to more accurately model environmental fatigue crack propagation.
Crack propagation through adhesive interface in glass driven by dynamic loading
Park, Hwun
Dynamic crack behaviors at glass interfaces were investigated to understand dynamic failure mechanisms of glass. To produce highly intensive and rapidly increasing loading, glass specimens jointed with epoxy adhesive in edge-to-edge configurations were impacted on their notched edges with plastic projectiles. Cracks developed from the notch and propagated into the interfaces between glass plates at the maximum speed. The patterns of crack propagation through the interfaces were observed to depend on the interface's conditions. Crack propagation stops at the interface where no adhesive was applied. The crack penetrates through the interface where two glass plates were bonded directly without any space. If the interface has finite thickness of an adhesive layer, a crack passing through the interface branches into multiple cracks immediately when it extends to the second glass plate. Both of the slow crack speed in the epoxy adhesive and resistance for crack initiation in the second glass account for the delay in crack propagation at the interface. The surface conditions of glass at the interface affect the resistance for crack initiation. Mirror-like polished surfaces have better resistance than rough surfaces trimmed by a water jet. If the polished surface is etched with hydrofluoric acid to remove surface flaws, the glass surfaces have higher strength and resistance for damage. This etched glass even ceases crack propagation completely with a sufficiently thick adhesive layer. Crack branching has been an open topic. Exact explanation has not been given yet. As the consistent shape of crack branching are created with the proposed method, diagnostics experiments were conducted to reveal the nature of crack branching. To investigate interaction between stress propagation and crack branching, stress histories synchronizing with high speed images were measured. Two types of specimen were used to vary stress distribution during crack propagation. The apex angle of
Low-Cycle Fatigue Life and Fatigue Crack Propagation of Sintered Ag Nanoparticles
Shioda, Ryutaro; Kariya, Yoshiharu; Mizumura, Noritsuka; Sasaki, Koji
2017-02-01
The low-cycle fatigue life and fatigue crack propagation behavior of sintered silver nanoparticles were investigated using miniature specimens sintered at two different temperatures. The fatigue crack initiation life and fatigue crack propagation rate of sintered Ag nanoparticles were extremely sensitive to changes in the range of inelastic energy density and the cyclic J integral, exhibiting brittle characteristics, in contrast to tin-based lead-free solder alloys. With increasing sintering temperature, the fatigue crack propagation rate decreased. On the other hand, the effect of sintering temperature on the fatigue crack initiation life differed depending on the use of either a smooth specimen (low-cycle fatigue test) or notched specimen (fatigue crack propagation test). For the notched specimens, the probability of grain boundaries around the notch decreased due to increased sintering temperature. Therefore, the fatigue crack initiation life was increased with an increase in sintering temperature in the fatigue crack propagation test. In the smooth specimen, however, the fatigue life decreased with an increase in sintering temperature, as the elastic modulus of the specimen increased with increasing sintering temperature. In the low-cycle fatigue test, the specimen sintered with high internal stress started to develop crack initiation early, causing a decrease in the crack initiation life.
Impacts of bedding directions of shale gas reservoirs on hydraulically induced crack propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keming Sun
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Shale gas reservoirs are different from conventional ones in terms of their bedding architectures, so their hydraulic fracturing rules are somewhat different. In this paper, shale hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out by using the triaxial hydraulic fracturing test system to identify the effects of natural bedding directions on the crack propagation in the process of hydraulic fracturing. Then, the fracture initiation criterion of hydraulic fracturing was prepared using the extended finite element method. On this basis, a 3D hydraulic fracturing computation model was established for shale gas reservoirs. And finally, a series of studies were performed about the effects of bedding directions on the crack propagation created by hydraulic fracturing in shale reservoirs. It is shown that the propagation rules of hydraulically induced fractures in shale gas reservoirs are jointly controlled by the in-situ stress and the bedding plane architecture and strength, with the bedding direction as the main factor controlling the crack propagation directions. If the normal tensile stress of bedding surface reaches its tensile strength after the fracturing, cracks will propagate along the bedding direction, and otherwise vertical to the minimum in-situ stress direction. With the propagating of cracks along bedding surfaces, the included angle between the bedding normal direction and the minimum in-situ stress direction increases, the fracture initiation and propagation pressures increase and the crack areas decrease. Generally, cracks propagate in the form of non-plane ellipsoids. With the injection of fracturing fluids, crack areas and total formation filtration increase and crack propagation velocity decreases. The test results agree well with the calculated crack propagation rules, which demonstrate the validity of the above-mentioned model.
Effect of constraint on crack propagation behavior in BGA soldered joints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王莉; 王国忠; 方洪渊; 钱乙余
2001-01-01
The effects of stress triaxiality on crack propagation behavior in the BGA soldered joint were analyzed using FEM method. The computation results verified that stress triaxiality factor has an important effect on crack growth behavior. Crack growth rate increased with increasing stress triaxiality at the near-tip region, which is caused by increasing crack lengths or decreasing solder joint heights. Solder joint deformation is subjected to constraint effect provided by its surrounding rigid ceramic substrate, the constraint can be scaled by stress triaxiality near crack tip region. Therefore, it can be concluded that crack growth rate increased when the constraint effect increases.
Active Seismic Monitoring of Crack Initiation, Propagation, and Coalescence in Rock
Modiriasari, Anahita; Bobet, Antonio; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.
2017-09-01
Active seismic monitoring was used to detect and characterize crack initiation, crack propagation and crack coalescence in pre-cracked rock specimens. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on Indiana limestone specimens with two parallel pre-existing cracks. During the experiments, the mechanically induced cracks around the flaw tips were monitored by measuring surface displacements using digital image correlation (DIC). Transmitted and reflected compressional and shear waves through the specimens were also recorded during the loading to detect any damage or cracking phenomena. The amplitude of transmitted compressional and shear waves decreased with uniaxial compression. However, the rate of decrease of the amplitude of the transmitted waves intensified well before the initiation of tensile cracks. In addition, a distinct minimum in the amplitude of transmitted waves occurred close to coalescence. The normalized amplitude of waves reflecting from the new cracks increased before new tensile and shear cracks initiated around the flaw tips. In addition, the location of new cracks could be identified using the traveling time of the reflected waves. The experimental results indicate that changes in normalized amplitude of transmitted and reflected signals associated with crack initiation and crack coalescence were detected much earlier than with DIC, at a load of about 80-90% of the load at which the cracks appeared on the surface. The tests show conclusively that active wave monitoring is an effective tool to detect damage and new cracks in rock, as well as to estimate the location of the new cracks.
Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright
2013-10-01
The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650
Denda, Takeshi; Bretz, Perter L.; Tien, John K.
1992-02-01
Low cycle fatigue life of nickel-base superalloys is enhanced as a consequence of inclusion reduction in the melt process; however, the functional dependencies between fatigue characteristics and inclusions have not been well investigated. In this study, the propagation mechanism of the fatigue crack initiated from inclusions is examined in fine-grained IN718, which is a representative turbine disc material for jet engines. There is a faceted-striated crack transition on the fracture surfaces. This faceted-striated transition also appears in the da/dN vs crack length curves. It is observed that the faceted crack propagation time can be more than 50 pct of total lifetime in the low cycle fatigue test. The significance of inclusion size effect is explained on the premise that the faceted fatigue crack propagation time scales with the inclusion size, which is taken as the initial crack length. A predictive protocol for determining inclusion size effect is given.
Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.
Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie
2016-12-01
To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaume, Johan; Reuter, Benjamin
2017-04-01
Dry-snow slab avalanches start with a local failure in a weak snowpack layer buried below cohesive snow slab layers. If the size of the failed zone exceeds a critical size, rapid crack propagation occurs possibly followed by slab release if the slope is steep enough. The probability of skier-triggering a slab avalanche is generally characterized by classical stability indices that do not account for crack propagation. In this study, we propose a new model to evaluate the conditions for the onset of crack propagation in skier-triggered slab avalanches. For a given weak layer, the critical crack length characterizing crack propagation propensity was compared to the size of the area where the skier-induced stress exceeds the shear strength of the weak layer. The ratio between both length scales yields a stability criterion combining the processes of failure initiation and crack propagation. The critical crack length was calculated from a recently developed model based on numerical simulations. The skier-induced stress was computed from analytical solutions and finite element simulations to account for slab layering. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed for simplified snow profiles to characterize the influence of snowpack properties and slab layering on crack propagation propensity. Finally, we applied our approach for manually observed snow profiles and compared our results to rutschblock stability tests.
Perfect elastic-viscoplastic field at mode Ⅰ dynamic propagating crack-tip
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhen-qing; LIANG Wen-yan; ZHOU Bo; SU Juan
2007-01-01
The viscosity of material is considered at propagating crack-tip. Under the assumption that the artificial viscosity coefficient is in inverse proportion to power law of the plastic strain rate, an elastic-viscoplastic asymptotic analysis is carried out for moving crack-tip fields in power-hardening materials under plane-strain condition. A continuous solution is obtained containing no discontinuities. The variations of numerical solution are discussed for mode Ⅰ crack according to each parameter. It is shown that stress and strain both possess exponential singularity. The elasticity, plasticity and viscosity of material at crack-tip only can be matched reasonably under linear-hardening condition. And the tip field contains no elastic unloading zone for mode Ⅰ crack. It approaches the limiting case, crack-tip is under ultra-viscose situation and energy accumulates, crack-tip begins to propagate under different compression situations.
Image-based detection and analysis of crack propagation in cementitious composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.
2011-01-01
after the cracking process has occurred. The alternative nondestructive methods are often either not precise enough or experimentally too demanding. In this study, the use of an image analysis procedure to capture the crack initiation and propagation process is described, which utilizes digital images......The initiation and propagation of cracking in concrete and other cementitious materials is a governing mechanism for many physical and mechanical material properties. The observation of these cracking processes in concrete is typically taking place at discrete locations using destructive methods...... of the concrete while undergoing the cracking process. The results obtained with this method have shown that it is possible to monitor relatively small displacements on the specimen surface independently of the scale of the representative area of interest. The formed cracks are visible at relatively small crack...
Onset of Propagation of Planar Cracks in Heterogeneous Media
Ramanathan, Sharad; Fisher, Daniel S.
1997-01-01
The dynamics of planar crack fronts in hetergeneous media near the critical load for onset of crack motion are investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations. Elasticity of the solid leads to long range stress transfer along the crack front which is non-monotonic in time due to the elastic waves in the medium. In the quasistatic limit with instantaneous stress transfer, the crack front exhibits dynamic critical phenomenon, with a second order like transition from a pinned to a mo...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Amin Manouchehrian; Mohammad Fatehi Marji
2012-01-01
In many situations rocks are subjected to biaxial loading and the failure process is controlled by the lateral confinement stresses.The importance of confinement stresses has been recognized in the literature by many researchers,in particular,its influence on strength and on the angle of fracture,but still there is not a clear description for the influence of confining stress on the crack propagation mechanism of rocks.This paper presents a numerical procedure for the analysis of crack propagation in rock-like materials under compressive biaxial loads.Several numerical simulations of biaxial tests on the rock specimen have been carried out by a bonded particle model (BPM) and the influence of confinement on the mechanism of crack propagation from a single flaw in rock specimens is studied.For this purpose,several biaxial compressive tests on rectangular specimens under different confinement stresses were modeled in (2 dimensional particle flow code) PFC2D.The results show that wing cracks initiate perpendicular to the flaw and trend toward the direction of major stress,however,when the lateral stresses increase,this initiation angle gets wider.Also it is concluded that in addition to the material type,the initiation direction of the secondary cracks depends on confinement stresses,too.Besides,it is understood that secondary cracks may be produced from both tensile and shear mechanisms.
ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITION EFFECTS ON CRACK PROPAGATION IN PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐航; 方岱宁; 姚振汉
2001-01-01
There are three types of cracks: impermeable crack, permeable crack and conducting crack, with different electric boundary conditions on faces of cracks in piezoelectric ceramics, which poses difficulties in the analysis of piezoelectric fracture problems. In this paper, in contrast to our previous FEM formulation, the numerical analysis is based on the use of exact electric boundary conditions at the crack faces, thus the common assumption of electric impermeability in the FEM analysis is avoided. The crack behavior and elasto-electric fields near a crack tip in a PZT-5piezoelectric ceramic under mechanical, electrical and coupled mechanical-electrical loads with different electric boundary conditions on crack faces are investigated. It is found that the dielectric medium between the crack faces will reduce the singularity of stress and electric displacement. Furthermore, when the permittivity of the dielectric medium in the crack gap is of the same order as that of the piezoelectric ceramic, the crack becomes a conducting crack, the applied electric field has no effect on the crack propagation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Haihong, E-mail: huanghaihong@hfut.edu.cn; Jiang, Shilin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng
2014-09-01
Influenced by the geomagnetic field, crack can induce spontaneous magnetic signals in ferromagnetic steels. The normal component of surface spontaneous magnetic signals of the center-cracked sheet specimens, H{sub p}(y), was measured throughout the tension–tension fatigue tests. The variation of H{sub p}(y) and its maximum gradient K{sub max} in the crack propagation stage were studied. It shows that H{sub p}(y) began to change its polarity, just right on the crack position, in the intermediate stage of crack propagation. The cause for this phenomenon was also discussed. The peak-to-peak value, ΔH{sub p}(y), of the magnetic signal when H{sub p}(y) changing its polarity was collected, and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was further used to acquire high frequency components of the H{sub p}(y) signal. The results show that the K{sub max} increased exponentially with the increase of loading cycles; an approximate linear relationship was found between K{sub max} and crack length 2a in the intermediate stage of crack propagation; and the high-frequency component of H{sub p}(y) can be used to identify the late stage of crack propagation. - Highlights: • We investigated how H{sub p}(y) varied in different fatigue crack propagation stages. • The H{sub p}(y) began to change its polarity in the intermediate stage of crack propagation. • An approximate linear relationship was found between the K{sub max} and crack length. • The high-frequency component of H{sub p}(y) can be used to identify the late stage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulnaser M. Alshoaibi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is on the determination of 2D crack paths and surfaces as well as on the evaluation of the stress intensity factors as a part of the damage tolerant assessment. Problem statement: The evaluation of SIFs and crack tip singular stresses for arbitrary fracture structure are a challenging problem, involving the calculation of the crack path and the crack propagation rates at each step especially under mixed mode loading. Approach: This study was provided a finite element code which produces results comparable to the current available commercial software. Throughout the simulation of crack propagation an automatic adaptive mesh was carried out in the vicinity of the crack front nodes and in the elements which represent the higher stresses distribution. The finite element mesh was generated using the advancing front method. The adaptive remising process carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. The onset criterion of crack propagation was based on the stress intensity factors which provide as the most important parameter that must be accurately estimated. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the stress intensity factor. Crack direction is predicted using the maximum circumferential stress theory. The fracture was modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The propagation process is driven by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM approach with minimum user interaction. Results: In evaluating the accuracy of the estimated stress intensity factors and the crack path predictions, the results were compared with sets of experimental data, benchmark analytical solutions as well as numerical results of other researchers. Conclusion/Recommendations: The assessment indicated that the program was highly reliable to evaluate the stress intensity
Monitoring of solidification crack propagation mechanism in pulsed laser welding of 6082 aluminum
von Witzendorff, P.; Kaierle, S.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.
2016-03-01
Pulsed laser sources with pulse durations in the millisecond regime can be used for spot welding and seam welding of aluminum. Seam welds are generally produced with several overlapping spot welds. Hot cracking has its origin in the solidification process of individual spot welds which determines the cracking morphology along the seam welding. This study used a monitoring unit to capture the crack geometry within individual spot welds during seam welding to investigate the conditions for initiation, propagation and healing (re-melting) of solidification cracking within overlapping pulsed laser welds. The results suggest that small crack radii and high crack angles with respect to welding direction are favorable conditions for crack healing which leads to crack-free seam welds. Optimized pulse shapes were used to produce butt welds of 0.5 mm thick 6082 aluminum alloys. Tensile tests were performed to investigate the mechanical strength in the as-welded condition.
Image-based detection and analysis of crack propagation in cementitious composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.
2011-01-01
after the cracking process has occurred. The alternative nondestructive methods are often either not precise enough or experimentally too demanding. In this study, the use of an image analysis procedure to capture the crack initiation and propagation process is described, which utilizes digital images...... of the concrete while undergoing the cracking process. The results obtained with this method have shown that it is possible to monitor relatively small displacements on the specimen surface independently of the scale of the representative area of interest. The formed cracks are visible at relatively small crack...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CRACK CURVING PROPAGATION IN BENDING BEAMS UNDER IMPULSIVE LOAD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Jing; Yao Xuefeng; Xiong Chunyang
2000-01-01
Dynamic fracture behaviour of crack curving in bent beams has been investigated.In order to understand the propagation mechanism of such cracks under impact,an experimental method is used that combines dynamic photoelasticity with dynamic caustics to study the interaction of the flexural waves and the crack.From the state change of the transient stresses in polymer specimen,the curving fracture in the impulsively loaded beams is analyzed.The dynamic responses of crack tips are evaluated by the stress intensity factors for the cracks running in varying curvature paths under bending stress wave.
Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization
Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.
2013-07-23
Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.
Crack propagation studies and bond coat properties in thermal barrier coatings under bending
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Ray; N Roy; K M Godiwalla
2001-04-01
Ceramic based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are currently considered as a candidate material for advanced stationary gas turbine components. Crack propagation studies under bending are described that were performed on plasma sprayed ZrO2, bonded by MCrAlY layer to Ni base superalloy. The crack propagation behaviour of the coatings at room temperature in as received and oxidized conditions revealed a linear growth of the cracks on the coating till the yield point of the super alloy was reached. High threshold load at the interface between the ceramic layer and the bond coat was required to propagate the crack further into the bond coat. Once the threshold load was surpassed the crack propagated into the brittle bond coat without an appreciable increase in the load. At temperatures of 800°C the crack propagated only in the TBC (ceramic layer), as the ductile bond coat offered an attractive sink for the stress relaxation. Effects of bond coat oxidation on crack propagation in the interface region have been examined and are discussed.
Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiane Maachou
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.
Liu, Ping; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze
2014-03-01
Based on low coherence interferometry, a robust optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been built. The system was used to monitor the growth of a delamination between the middle layers of a glass fiber composite under a static loading. Firstly specimens of the material used for the spar webs in wind turbines were prepared with an interlaminar crack from free edges. Then they were statically loaded by a customized tensile test stage to extend the delamination length and simultaneously scanned by the OCT system. To process the acquired data, an optimized signal processing algorithm was developed. The cross-sectional images clearly show the microstructure and the crack within the specimen. The 3D crack profiles show the application of OCT to determine the evolution of the crack structure inside the composite material during the propagation of the delamination, for the first time to the best of our knowledge.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation using the embedded atom method (EAM) potentials shows that for both pure Ni and Ni+H, dislocations are firstly emitted during loading and the crack propagates after enough disloca tions are emitted. In the case of hydrogen embrittlement, local plastic deformat ion is a precondition for crack propagation. For the crack along the (1 11) slip pla ne, one atom fraction in percent of hydrogen can decrease the critical stress in tensity for dislocation emission KIe from 0.42 to 0.36 MPam 1/2, and that for crack propagation KIp from 0.80 to 0.76 MPam1/2. Therefore, hydrogen enhances dislocation emission and crack pro pagation.
Mode III crack propagation in a bimaterial plane driven by a channel of small line defects
Piccolroaz, A; Movchan, A; Movchan, N
2011-01-01
We consider the quasi-static propagation of a Mode III crack along the interface in a bimaterial plane containing a finite array of small line defects (microcracks and rigid line inclusions). The microdefects are arranged to form a channel around the interface that can facilitate (or prevent) the crack propagation. The two dissimilar elastic materials are assumed to be weakly bonded, so that there is no kinking of the main crack from the straight path. On the basis of asymptotic formulae obtained by the authors, the propagation is analysed as a perturbation problem and the incremental crack advance is analytically derived at each position of the crack tip along the interface relative to the position of the defects. Numerical examples are provided showing potential applications of the proposed approach in the analysis of failure of composite materials. Extension to the case of infinite number of defects is discussed.
Kubo, Atsushi; Umeno, Yoshitaka
2017-02-10
Experiments of crack propagation in rubbers have shown that a discontinuous jump of crack propagation velocity can occur as energy release rate increases, which is known as the "mode transition" phenomenon. Although it is believed that the mode transition is strongly related to the mechanical properties, the nature of the mode transition had not been revealed. In this study, dynamic crack propagation on an elastomer was investigated using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperviscoelastic material model. A series of pure shear test was carried out numerically with FEM simulations and crack velocities were measured under various values of tensile strain. As a result, our FEM simulations successfully reproduced the mode transition. The success of realising the mode transition phenomenon by a simple FEM model, which was achieved for the first time ever, helped to explain that the phenomenon occurs owing to a characteristic non-monotonic temporal development of principal stress near the crack tip.
Kubo, Atsushi; Umeno, Yoshitaka
2017-02-01
Experiments of crack propagation in rubbers have shown that a discontinuous jump of crack propagation velocity can occur as energy release rate increases, which is known as the “mode transition” phenomenon. Although it is believed that the mode transition is strongly related to the mechanical properties, the nature of the mode transition had not been revealed. In this study, dynamic crack propagation on an elastomer was investigated using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperviscoelastic material model. A series of pure shear test was carried out numerically with FEM simulations and crack velocities were measured under various values of tensile strain. As a result, our FEM simulations successfully reproduced the mode transition. The success of realising the mode transition phenomenon by a simple FEM model, which was achieved for the first time ever, helped to explain that the phenomenon occurs owing to a characteristic non-monotonic temporal development of principal stress near the crack tip.
Role of sulphur atoms on stress relaxation and crack propagation in monolayer MoS2
Wang, Baoming; Islam, Zahabul; Zhang, Kehao; Wang, Ke; Robinson, Joshua; Haque, Aman
2017-09-01
We present in-situ transmission electron microscopy of crack propagation in a freestanding monolayer MoS2 and molecular dynamic analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 was transferred from sapphire substrate using interfacial etching for defect and contamination minimization. Atomic resolution imaging shows crack tip atoms sustaining 14.5% strain before bond breaking, while the stress field decays at unprecedented rate of 2.15 GPa Å-1. Crack propagation is seen mostly in the zig-zag direction in both model and experiment, suggesting that the mechanics of fracture is not brittle. Our computational model captures the mechanics of the experimental observations on crack propagation in MoS2. While molybdenum atoms carry most of the mechanical load, we show that the sliding motion of weakly bonded sulphur atoms mediate crack tip stress relaxation, which helps the tip sustain very high, localized stress levels.
Bond interface crack propagation of fresh foundation concrete and rock under blasting load
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Liang; LU Wen-bo; ZHONG Dong-wang
2009-01-01
According to concrete age,the dynamic stress intensity factors of bond inter-face crack of concrete-rock was calculated.Result shows that the propagation of concrete interface crack is mainly caused by tensile stress and shear stress for stress wave reflec-tion.With the growth of concrete age,interface crack fracture toughness increases,and its capacity of resisting blasting load strengthens.Therefore,blasting vibration should be strictly controlled for fresh concrete.
Salvadori, A.; Fantoni, F.
2016-10-01
The present work frames the problem of three-dimensional quasi-static crack propagation in brittle materials into the theory of standard dissipative processes. Variational formulations are stated. They characterize the three dimensional crack front "quasi-static velocity" as minimizer of constrained quadratic functionals. An implicit in time crack tracking algorithm that computationally handles the constraint via the penalty method algorithm is introduced and proof of concept is provided.
Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks
Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen
2002-01-01
area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Longzhou
2012-11-30
The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters that includes the strain energy release rate, crack front profiles and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the interface crack front. A numerical approach was then applied for coupling the far field solutions based on the Finite Element Method to the near...... field (crack tip) solutions based on the J-integral. The adopted two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties was compared with three-dimensional models for quarter-circular and straight sided crack front shapes. A quantitative approach was formulated based...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoshihito [Nucelar Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Futakawa, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of mercury immersion on fatigue crack propagation rate in SUS316 was investigated through fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatigue crack growth rate in mercury was estimated by the FRActure Surface Topography Analysis (FRASTA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fatigue crack growth rate was slightly higher in mercury than that in the air in the low cycle fatigue region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This suggests that the crack propagation is accelerated by mercury immersion in high stress imposition regions. - Abstract: Liquid metals are expected to be used as nuclear materials, such as coolant for nuclear reactors and spallation targets for neutron sources, because of their good thermal conductivity and neutron production. However, in specific combinations, liquid metals have the potential to degrade structural integrity of solid metals because of Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME). In this study, the effect of mercury immersion on fatigue crack propagation rate in SUS316 was investigated through fatigue tests with a notched specimen under mercury immersion. FRActure Surface Topography Analysis (FRASTA) with the measurement of the notch opening distance was performed to estimate the fatigue crack growth rate in mercury. The results showed that the fatigue crack growth rate was slightly higher in mercury than that in the air in the low cycle fatigue region. This suggests that the crack propagation is accelerated by mercury immersion in high stress imposition regions.
Compression Stress Effect on Dislocations Movement and Crack propagation in Cubic Crystal
Suprijadi; Ely, Aprilia; Meiqorry, Yusfi
2011-01-01
Fracture material is seriously problem in daily life, and it has connection with mechanical properties itself. The mechanical properties is belief depend on dislocation movement and crack propagation in the crystal. Information about this is very important to characterize the material. In FCC crystal structure the competition between crack propagation and dislocation wake is very interesting, in a ductile material like copper (Cu) dislocation can be seen in room temperature, but in a brittle ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Grognec, P.; Hariri, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, 59 (France); Afzali, M.; Jaffal, H. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques, 60 - Senlis (France)
2008-11-15
The aim of this work is to determine the evolution of the degree of noxiousness of a defect in a pressure equipment during its propagation. The estimation of the degree of noxiousness involves the calculation of stress intensity factors at each advance of the crack front. The cracks considered are semi-elliptic. The geometries and loads can be complex in order to cover the main industrial cases. Numerical modelling by finite element method is based on the creation of a crack-block, representing the optimized mesh near the discontinuity. The Paris law allows to describe the fatigue behaviour under cyclic load. A specific program (Python), having the advantages of the calculation codes Castem and Abaqus, allows to compute the propagation approach and makes easier the estimation of the residual lifetime of a structure under cracked pressure. (O.M.)
Yang, Bing; Liao, Zhen; Qin, Yahang; Wu, Yayun; Liang, Sai; Xiao, Shoune; Yang, Guangwu; Zhu, Tao
2017-05-01
To describe the complicated nonlinear process of the fatigue short crack evolution behavior, especially the change of the crack propagation rate, two different calculation methods are applied. The dominant effective short fatigue crack propagation rates are calculated based on the replica fatigue short crack test with nine smooth funnel-shaped specimens and the observation of the replica films according to the effective short fatigue cracks principle. Due to the fast decay and the nonlinear approximation ability of wavelet analysis, the self-learning ability of neural network, and the macroscopic searching and global optimization of genetic algorithm, the genetic wavelet neural network can reflect the implicit complex nonlinear relationship when considering multi-influencing factors synthetically. The effective short fatigue cracks and the dominant effective short fatigue crack are simulated and compared by the Genetic Wavelet Neural Network. The simulation results show that Genetic Wavelet Neural Network is a rational and available method for studying the evolution behavior of fatigue short crack propagation rate. Meanwhile, a traditional data fitting method for a short crack growth model is also utilized for fitting the test data. It is reasonable and applicable for predicting the growth rate. Finally, the reason for the difference between the prediction effects by these two methods is interpreted.
Fatigue Crack Propagation in Steel A131 Under Ice Loading of Crushing, Bending and Buckling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Menglan(段梦兰); SONG Lisong(宋立崧); FAN Xiaodong(樊晓东); James C.M.LId; FANG Huacan(方华灿)
2001-01-01
Three types of ice loading, which are most commonly present when ice acts on structures,are chosen and simulated for use of fatigue crack propagation tests on offshore structural steel Al31. The three types of ice categorized in accordance with the failure modes when acting on structures called crushing ice, bending ice, and buckling ice,respectively. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of widely used high strength steel A 131 for offshore jackets in the loading environment of ice crushing, bending, and buckling. The test results of fatigue crack propagation in steel A 13 l under these simulated ice loading at temperature 292K are presented and analyzed in detail in this paper. The amplitude root mean square stress intensity factor is optimized to be the fundamental parameter of fatigue crack propagation for all types of ice loading histories. The results are also compared with constant amplitude fatigue crack propagation conclusions as in wave load mode, and a joint investigation on the results from ice forces, ice-induced vibrations, and ice-induced fatigue crack propagation is conducted, Conclusions are drawn for reference in structural design and material selection for offshore structures in ice environments.
Shear crack propagation in MBC strengthened concrete beams”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas; Carolin, Anders
2008-01-01
study of MBC systems. Emphasis is placed on the cracking behavior of the MBC system used for shear strengthening of RC beams. Traditional foil strain gauges and photometric measurements have been used for monitoring of the cracking behavior. In this study it is shown that the use of mineral based shear...
Fatigue crack propagation in turbine disks of EI698 superalloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.A. Shanyavskiy
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In-service fatigue cracking of turbine disks of EI698 superalloy is discussed based on crack growth analyses. In the bolt joint for disks to shaft connecting there is high level of stress-state, which directed to earlier in-disks fatigue crack origination in low-cycle-fatigue regime. Fracture surface pattern such as fatigue striations were used for their spacing measurement and crack growth duration estimating. Developed disk tests on a special bench by the equivalent program to in-service cyclic loads have allowed discovering one-to-one correlation between fatigue striation spacing and crack increment in one flight. Number of fatigue striations and beach-marks calculations permitted to estimate crack growth period for the different stages of in-service disks cracking. Equivalent stress level for in-service cracked disks was calculated and compared with stress-level in-tested disks under stress equivalent program to in-service operated cyclic loads. Based on this result non-destructive inspection intervals were discussed and recommended for in-service disks in dependence on number of their flights at the moment of developed inspection to exclude in-flight disks fast fracture.
Lifetime prediction for the subsurface crack propagation using three-dimensional dynamic FEA model
Yin, Yuan; Chen, Yun-Xia; Liu, Le
2017-03-01
The subsurface crack propagation is one of the major interests for gear system research. The subsurface crack propagation lifetime is the number of cycles remaining for a spall to appear, which can be obtained through either stress intensity factor or accumulated plastic strain analysis. In this paper, the heavy loads are applied to the gear system. When choosing stress intensity factor, the high compressive stress suppresses Mode I stress intensities and severely reduces Mode II stress intensities in the heavily loaded lubricated contacts. Such that, the accumulated plastic strain is selected to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime from the three-dimensional FEA model through ANSYS Workbench transient analysis. The three-dimensional gear FEA dynamic model with the subsurface crack is built through dividing the gears into several small elements. The calculation of the total cycles of the elements is proposed based on the time-varying accumulated plastic strain, which then will be used to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime. During this process, the demonstration from a subsurface crack to a spall can be uncovered. In addition, different sizes of the elements around the subsurface crack are compared in this paper. The influences of the frictional coefficient and external torque on the crack propagation lifetime are also discussed. The results show that the lifetime of crack propagation decreases significantly when the external load T increasing from 100 N m to 150 N m. Given from the distributions of the accumulated plastic strain, the lifetime shares no significant difference when the frictional coefficient f ranging in 0.04-0.06.
Peak Stress Intensity Factor Governs Crack Propagation Velocity In Crosslinked UHMWPE
Sirimamilla, P. Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare
2013-01-01
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax-Kmin, MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax, during cyclic loading, rather than by ΔK. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasi-static manner. The current study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax. The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components. PMID:23165898
Sirimamilla, Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare
2013-04-01
Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax - Kmin , MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax ), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax , during cyclic loading. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform, and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasistatic manner. This study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax . The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components.
Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter Per-Ole
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity versus KI (stress intensity factor diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness, which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials
Delamination of Composite Cylinders
Davies, Peter; Carlsson, Leif A.
The delamination resistance of filament wound glass/epoxy cylinders has been characterized for a range of winding angles and fracture mode ratios using beam fracture specimens. The results reveal that the delamination fracture resistance increases with increasing winding angle and mode II (shear) fraction (GΠ/G). It was also found that interlaced fiber bundles in the filament wound cylinder wall acted as effective crack arresters in mode I loading. To examine the sensitivity of delamina-tion damage on the strength of the cylinders, external pressure tests were performed on filament-wound glass/epoxy composite cylinders with artificial defects and impact damage. The results revealed that the cylinder strength was insensitive to the presence of single delaminations but impact damage caused reductions in failure pressure. The insensitivity of the failure pressure to a single delamination is attributed to the absence of buckling of the delaminated sublaminates before the cylinder wall collapsed. The impacted cylinders contained multiple delaminations, which caused local reduction in the compressive load capability and reduction in failure pressure. The response of glass/epoxy cylinders was compared to impacted carbon reinforced cylinders. Carbon/epoxy is more sensitive to damage but retains higher implosion resistance while carbon/PEEK shows the opposite trend.
Modelling of Debond and Crack Propagation in Sandwich Structures Using Fracture and Damage Mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggreen, C.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Toernqvist, Rikard
2003-01-01
Skin-core de-bonding or core crack propagation will often be dominating mechanisms in the collapse modes of sandwich structures. This paper presents two different methods for prediction of crack propagation in a sandwich structure: a fracture mechanics approach, where a new mode-mix method...... is presented, and a local damage mechanics approach. The paper presents a real-life application example, where the superstructure in a vessel pulls the skin off the sandwich deck. The calculations show almost unstable crack growth initially followed by a stabilization, and a nearly linear relation between...
Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, S.; Brincker, Rune
-displacement curve where the fictitious crack starts to develope, and the point where the real crack starts to grow will always correspond to the same bending moment. Closed from solutions for the maximum size of the fracture zone and the minimum slope on the load-displacement curve is given. The latter result......An analytical model for load-displacement curves of unreinforced notched and un-notched concrete beams is presented. The load displacement-curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modelled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the mid-section of the beam. Outside...
Propagation of Slepyan's crack in a non-uniform elastic lattice
Nieves, Michael; Jones, Ian; Mishuris, Gennady
2012-01-01
We model and derive the solution for the problem of a Mode I semi-infinite crack propagating in a discrete triangular lattice with bonds having a contrast in stiffness in the principal lattice directions. The corresponding Green's kernel is found and from this wave dispersion dependencies are obtained in explicit form. An equation of the Wiener-Hopf type is also derived and solved along the crack face, in order to compute the stress intensity factor for the semi-infinite crack. The crack stability is analysed via the evaluation of the energy release rate for different contrasts in stiffness of the bonds.
Uncommon deformation mechanisms during fatigue-crack propagation in nanocrystalline alloys.
Cheng, Sheng; Lee, Soo Yeol; Li, Li; Lei, Changhui; Almer, Jon; Wang, Xun-Li; Ungar, Tamas; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K
2013-03-29
The irreversible damage at cracks during the fatigue of crystalline solids is well known. Here we report on in situ high-energy x-ray evidence of reversible fatigue behavior in a nanocrystalline NiFe alloy both in the plastic zone and around the crack tip. In the plastic zone, the deformation is fully recoverable as the crack propagates, and the plastic deformation invokes reversible interactions of dislocation and twinning in the nanograins. But around the crack tip lies a regime with reversible grain lattice reorientation promoted by a change of local stress state. These observations suggest unprecedented fatigue deformation mechanisms in nanostructured systems that are not addressed theoretically.
Comparative Study on Crack Initiation and Propagation of Glass under Thermal Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Wang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the fracture process based on finite element simulation. Both probabilistic and deterministic methods are employed to model crack initiation, and several commonly used criteria are utilized to predict crack growth. It is concluded that the criteria of maximum tensile stress, maximum normal stress, and maximum Mises stress, as well as the Coulomb-Mohr criterion are able to predict the initiation of the first crack. The mixed-mode criteria based on the stress intensity factor (SIF, energy release rate, and the maximum principal stress, as well as the SIF-based maximum circumferential stress criterion are suitable to predict the crack propagation.
Effects of Water Intrusion on Mechanical Properties of and Crack Propagation in Coal
Yao, Qiangling; Chen, Tian; Ju, Minghe; Liang, Shun; Liu, Yapeng; Li, Xuehua
2016-12-01
Studying the mechanical properties of and crack propagation in coal after water intrusion is necessary to tackle a number of geological engineering problems such as those associated with underground water storage in collieries and support for underground roadways in coal mines. To study the mechanical properties and crack development, 12 coal samples with moisture contents of 0, 2.37, 3.78 and 5.29 % were prepared for acoustic emission tests under uniaxial compression. Over about 6 days, the coal samples absorbed moisture from a humidifier in three different phases. In this period, uniaxial tests show that the peak stress, elastic modulus, strain softening modulus and post-peak modulus decreased with rising moisture content in the samples while the peak strain increased. It was further found that, by analysing the relationship between the stiffness and stress and the accumulated acoustic emission counts, all the phases of crack development can be evaluated. This is useful for studying the effect of water intrusion on crack propagation and for calculating the mechanical properties of the coal such as the elastic modulus. This investigation also quantifies the percentage of the stress thresholds for crack closure, crack initiation, and crack damage that constitutes the peak stress. These stress thresholds do not change with moisture content. Our results are of great significance for water storage in coal mines, for determination of pillar dimensions in coal mines, and for expanding the knowledge base of the mechanical properties of coal and the characteristics of crack propagation.
MESHLESS METHOD FOR 2D MIXED-MODE CRACK PROPAGATION BASED ON VORONOI CELL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LouLullang; ZengPan
2003-01-01
A meshless method integrated with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) is presented for 2D mixed-mode crack propagation analysis. The domain is divided automatically into sub-domains based on Voronoi cells, which are used for quadrature for the potential energy. The continuous crack propagation is simulated with an incremental crack-extension method which assumes a piecewise linear discretization of the unknown crack path. For each increment of the crack extension, the meshless method is applied to carry out a stress analysis of the cracked structure. The J-integral, which can be decomposed into mode I and mode II for mixed-mode crack, is used for the evaluation of the stress intensity factors (SIFs). The crack-propagation direction, predicted on an incremental basis, is computed by a criterion defined in terms of the SIFs. The flowchart of the proposed procedure is presented and two numerical problems are analyzed with this method. The meshless results agree well with the experimental ones, which validates the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel
Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.
2016-11-01
In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Framil Carpeño, David, E-mail: david.framil-carpeno@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling [Strength Design Group, Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Leveneur, Jérôme [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Seal, Christopher [International Centre for Advanced Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kennedy, John [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Hyland, Margaret [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)
2015-07-15
Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation.
New model of propagation rates of long crack due to structure fatigue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-tao LIU; Ping-an DU; Ming-jing HUANG; Qing ZHOU
2009-01-01
By comparison of the characteristics of existing models for long fatigue crack propagation rates,a new model,called the generalized passivation-lancet model for long fatigue crack propagation rates (GPLFCPR),and a general formula for characterizing the process of crack growth rates are proposed based on the passivation-lancet theory.The GPLFCPR model overcomes disadvantages of the existing models and can describe the rules of the entire fatiguc crack growth process from the cracking threshold to the critical fracturing point effectively with explicit physical meaning. It also reflects the influence of material characteristics,such as strength parameters,fracture parameters and heat treatment. Experimental results obtained by testing LZ50 steel,AlZnMgCu0.5,0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V steel,etc.,show good consistency with the new model. The GPLFCPR model is valuable in theoretical research and practical applications.
High temperature initiation and propagation of cracks in 12%Cr-steel turbine disks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Foletti
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This work aims to study the crack propagation in 12%Cr steel for turbine disks. Creep Crack Growth (CCG tests on CT specimens have been performed to define the proper fracture mechanics which describes the initiation of the crack propagation and the crack growth behaviour for the material at high temperature. Results have been used to study the occurrence of crack initiation on a turbine disk at the extreme working temperature and stress level experienced during service, and validate the use of C* integral in correlating creep growth rate on the disk component, in case C* is numerically calculated through FEM analysis or calculated by the use of reference stress concept.
Al-Khudairi, Othman; Hadavinia, Homayoun; Little, Christian; Gillmore, Gavin; Greaves, Peter; Dyer, Kirsten
2017-10-03
In this paper, the sensitivity of the structural integrity of wind turbine blades to debonding of the shear web from the spar cap was investigated. In this regard, modal analysis, static and fatigue testing were performed on a 45.7 m blade for three states of the blade: (i) as received blade (ii) when a crack of 200 mm was introduced between the web and the spar cap and (iii) when the crack was extended to 1000 mm. Calibration pull-tests for all three states of the blade were performed to obtain the strain-bending moment relationship of the blade according to the estimated target bending moment (BM) which the blade is expected to experience in its service life. The resultant data was used to apply appropriate load in the fatigue tests. The blade natural frequencies in flapwise and edgewise directions over a range of frequency domain were found by modal testing for all three states of the blade. The blade first natural frequency for each state was used for the flapwise fatigue tests. These were performed in accordance with technical specification IEC TS 61400-23. The fatigue results showed that, for a 200 mm crack between the web and spar cap at 9 m from the blade root, the crack did not propagate at 50% of the target BM up to 62,110 cycles. However, when the load was increased to 70% of target BM, some damages were detected on the pressure side of the blade. When the 200 mm crack was extended to 1000 mm, the crack began to propagate when the applied load exceeded 100% of target BM and the blade experienced delaminations, adhesive joint failure, compression failure and sandwich core failure.
Prediction of three-dimensional crack propagation paths taking high cycle fatigue into account
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guido Dhondt
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Engine components are usually subject to complex loading patterns such as mixed-mode Low Cycle Fatigue Loading due to maneuvering. In practice, this LCF Loading has to be superimposed by High Cyclic Fatigue Loading caused by vibrations. The changes brought along by HCF are twofold: first, the vibrational cycles which are superposed on the LCF mission increase the maximum loading of the mission and may alter the principal stress planes. Secondly, the HCF cycles themselves have to be evaluated on their own, assuring that no crack propagation occurs. Indeed, the vibrational frequency is usually so high that propagation leads to immediate failure. In the present paper it is explained how these two effects can be taken care of in a standard LCF crack propagation procedure. The method is illustrated by applying the Finite Element based crack propagation software CRACKTRACER3D on an engine blade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mieza, J.I., E-mail: mieza@cnea.gov.ar [CNEA, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Dano por Hidrogeno, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina); Vigna, G.L.; Domizzi, G. [CNEA, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Dano por Hidrogeno, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (B1650KNA), Bs. As. (Argentina)
2011-04-15
Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) is a failure mechanism that may occur in zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactor core components. The knowledge of the direct effects of the variables affecting the cracking velocity could be used to minimize the risk of crack propagation. In practice, most of these variables - as for example the alloy yield stress and hydrogen diffusion coefficient - are coupled and vary during reactor operation, leading to a complex variable dependence of the cracking mechanism. In order to get an insight into the relative effect of these variables, experimental data and a theoretical approach using a generally accepted DHC model were used in this work. A series of DHC velocity measurements were made in Zr-2.5Nb tube with different heat treatments. The yield stress, the Nb concentration in {beta} phase, and hydrogen solvus of the alloy were measured for different heat treatments. Niobium concentration in {beta} phase gave an indirect indication of {beta}-phase continuity and, with a proper correlation, of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient. The obtained values were used as inputs in a theoretical calculation of cracking velocity. Good agreement between experimental data and predicted values was obtained, showing that hydrogen diffusion coefficient was the most relevant variable affecting DHC velocity cracking. Furthermore, this approach has been demonstrated to be useful in estimating DHC velocity in irradiated materials.
Fracture tolerance of reaction wood (yew and spruce wood in the TR crack propagation system).
Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Keunecke, Daniel; Tschegg, Elmar K
2011-07-01
The fracture properties of spruce and yew were studied by in-situ loading in an environmental scanning microscope (ESEM). Loading was performed with a micro-wedge splitting device in the TR-crack propagation direction. The emphasis was laid on investigating the main mechanisms responsible for a fracture tolerant behavior with a focus on the reaction wood. The fracture mechanical results were correlated with the features of the surface structure observed by the ESEM technique, which allows loading and observation in a humid environment. Some important differences between the reaction wood and normal wood were found for both investigated wood species (spruce and yew), including the formation of cracks before loading (ascribed to residual stresses) and the change of fracture mode during crack propagation in the reaction wood. The higher crack propagation resistance was attributed mainly to the different cell (i.e. fiber) geometries (shape, cell wall thickness) and fiber angle to the load axis of the reaction wood, as basic structural features are responsible for more pronounced crack deflection and branching, thus leading to crack growth retardation. Fiber bridging was recognized as another crack growth retarding mechanism, which is effective in both wood species and especially pronounced in yew wood.
Development of simplified evaluation method for creep-fatigue crack propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miura, Naoki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: miura@criepi.denken.or.jp; Takahashi, Yukio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Nakayama, Yasunari; Fujishita, Kenichi; Shimakawa, Takashi [Kawasaki Plant Systems Ltd., 2-11-1 Minami-Suna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8588 (Japan)
2008-02-15
In the design assessment of fast reactor plant components, prevention of crack initiation from defect-free structures is a main concern. However, existence of initial defects such as weld defects cannot be entirely excluded and this potential cracks are to be evaluated to determine if initiated cracks do not lead to component failure instantly. Therefore, evaluation of structural integrity in the presence of crack-like defects is also important to complement the formal design assessment. The authors have been developing a guideline for assessing long-term structural integrity of fast reactor components using detailed inelastic analysis and nonlinear fracture mechanics. This guideline consists of two parts, evaluation of defect-free structures and flaw evaluation. In the latter, creep-fatigue is considered to be one of the most essential driving force for crack propagation at high operating temperature exceeding 500 deg. C. The uses of J-integral-type parameters (fatigue J-integral range and creep J-integral) are recommended to describe creep-fatigue crack propagation behavior in the guideline. This paper gives an outline of the simplified evaluation method for creep-fatigue crack propagation.
The effect of endodontic procedures on apical crack initiation and propagation ex vivo.
Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Jindan, P; Kobayashi, C; Suda, H
2013-08-01
To evaluate the potential effects of endodontic procedures (instrumentation and filling) on crack initiation and propagation in apical dentine. Forty extracted single-rooted premolars with two canals were selected, 1.5 mm of the apex was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and the surface polished. The specimens were divided into 4 groups. The buccal canals of groups A, B and C were enlarged to size 40 with manual K-files. Group A was filled with gutta-percha using lateral condensation and vertical compaction without sealer. Group B was filled with the same method as group A except only lateral condensation was used. Group C was left unfilled, while group D was left unprepared and unfilled. Images of the resected surface were taken after resection (baseline), after canal preparation, after filling and after 4-week storage. The images were then inspected for cracks originating from the canal. A significant effect of preparation on crack initiation (P 0.05) or 4-week storage on crack initiation (P > 0.05) was found (logistic regression). Fisher's exact test revealed a significant effect of filling on crack propagation (P propagation (P > 0.05). Root canal procedures can potentially initiate and propagate cracks from within the root canal in the apical region. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gaume, Johan; van Herwijnen, Alec; Chambon, Guillaume; Wever, Nander; Schweizer, Jürg
2017-01-01
The failure of a weak snow layer buried below cohesive slab layers is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for the release of a dry-snow slab avalanche. The size of the crack in the weak layer must also exceed a critical length to propagate across a slope. In contrast to pioneering shear-based approaches, recent developments account for weak layer collapse and allow for better explaining typical observations of remote triggering from low-angle terrain. However, these new models predict a critical length for crack propagation that is almost independent of slope angle, a rather surprising and counterintuitive result. Based on discrete element simulations we propose a new analytical expression for the critical crack length. This new model reconciles past approaches by considering for the first time the complex interplay between slab elasticity and the mechanical behavior of the weak layer including its structural collapse. The crack begins to propagate when the stress induced by slab loading and deformation at the crack tip exceeds the limit given by the failure envelope of the weak layer. The model can reproduce crack propagation on low-angle terrain and the decrease in critical length with increasing slope angle as modeled in numerical experiments. The good agreement of our new model with extensive field data and the ease of implementation in the snow cover model SNOWPACK opens a promising prospect for improving avalanche forecasting.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Yanping; ZHANG Maicang; DONG Jianxin; ZHANG Lina; XIE Xishan
2005-01-01
In situ fatigue tests in special designed SEM were conducted to trace the whole process of crack initiation and propagation till to fracture in nickel-base P/M superalloy seeded inclusions. The experimental results show that non-metallic inclusions can induce crack initiation. When the inclusion size is larger than the critical one, the crack can propagate as the main crack that induces the specimen to fracture. As a result, the LCF life of the specimen decreases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaw ChiaHwan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.
Atomistic aspects of crack propagation along high angle grain boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1997-12-31
The author presents atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration near a high angle {Sigma} = 5 [001](210) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in NiAl. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and embedded atom (EAM) potentials. The cracks are stabilized near a Griffith condition involving the cohesive energy of the grain boundary. The atomistic configurations of the tip region are different in the presence of the high angle grain boundary than in the bulk. Three different configurations of the grain boundary were studied corresponding to different local compositions. It was found that in ordered NiAl, cracks along symmetrical tilt boundaries show a more brittle behavior for Al rich boundaries than for Ni-rich boundaries. Lattice trapping effects in grain boundary fracture were found to be more significant than in the bulk.
CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR AND LIFETIME PREDICTION IN ALUMINA AND ZIRCONIA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The lifetime prediction of ceramics is discussed on the basis of the relationship between stress intensity factor KI and crack velocity v. The effects of water environment, the cyclic loading and microstructure of material on KI-v characteristics are studied by carrying out the crack growth tests by the double torsion (DT) method under the static and cyclic loading in both environments of air and water for alumina and zirconia. KI-v characteristics determined by the double torsion method are used to predict time-to-failure under the cyclic loading of alumina and zirconia ceramics. The predictions agree qualitatively with the experimental results.
Laser cutting silicon-glass double layer wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation
Cai, Yecheng; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang
2016-07-01
This study was aimed at introducing the laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) technology to solve the silicon-glass double layer wafer dicing problems in the packaging procedure of silicon-glass device packaged by WLCSP technology, investigating the feasibility of this idea, and studying the crack propagation process of LITP cutting double layer wafer. In this paper, the physical process of the 1064 nm laser beam interact with the double layer wafer during the cutting process was studied theoretically. A mathematical model consists the volumetric heating source and the surface heating source has been established. The temperature and stress distribution was simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The extended finite element method (XFEM) was added to the simulation as the supplementary features to simulate the crack propagation process and the crack propagation profile. The silicon-glass double layer wafer cutting verification experiment under typical parameters was conducted by using the 1064 nm semiconductor laser. The crack propagation profile on the fracture surface was examined by optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and XFEM status. It was concluded that the quality of the finished fracture surface has been greatly improved, and the experiment results were well supported by the numerical simulation results.
Corrosion fatigue behavior of fastening hole structure and virtual crack propagation tests
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Youhong Zhang; Xinlong Chang; Guozhi Lv; Hui Wang; Zhong Li; Yueliang Cheng
2008-01-01
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy fastener involving a central hole in air or in 3.5wt% NaC1 solution was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate decreased with the increasing loading frequency, and in a corrosive environment, the crack growth rate was slightly larger than that in air.Based on the experimental results, the virtual corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were investigated and the stochastic process method and the AFGROW simulation method were presented. The normal process and lognormal process were considered for the stochastic process method based on the numerically fitted Paris equation. The distribution of crack size and the corresponding prob-abilistic model of crack length distribution for a given number of cycles can be found by integrating the stochastic process over time.Using the AFGROW software, the virtual simulation was carried out to analyze the corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior and the predicted crack growth curve was in good agreement with the experimental results.
Shear crack formation and propagation in reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor
2011-01-01
capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear. The experimental program consists of ECC with short randomly distributed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber beams with different stirrup arrangements and conventional reinforced concrete (R/C) counterparts for comparison. The shear crack formation mechanism of ECC...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.
2002-08-01
Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventional deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.
Compression Stress Effect on Dislocations Movement and Crack propagation in Cubic Crystal
Suprijadi,; Yusfi, Meiqorry
2012-01-01
Fracture material is seriously problem in daily life, and it has connection with mechanical properties itself. The mechanical properties is belief depend on dislocation movement and crack propagation in the crystal. Information about this is very important to characterize the material. In FCC crystal structure the competition between crack propagation and dislocation wake is very interesting, in a ductile material like copper (Cu) dislocation can be seen in room temperature, but in a brittle material like Si only cracks can be seen observed. Different techniques were applied to material to study the mechanical properties, in this study we did compression test in one direction. Combination of simulation and experimental on cubic material are reported in this paper. We found that the deflection of crack direction in Si caused by vacancy of lattice,while compression stress on Cu cause the atoms displacement in one direction. Some evidence of dislocation wake in Si crystal under compression stress at high tempera...
Effect of defect length on rolling contact fatigue crack propagation in high strength steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Makino
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to clarify the effect of defect length in depth direction on rolling contact fatigue (RCF crack propagation in high strength steel. RCF test and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro CT imaging were conducted. In the case of the defect with the 15 m diameter, flaking life decreased with increasing defect length. In a comparison of the CT image and the SEM view, the shapes of defects and the locations of the horizontal cracks were almost the same respectively. The mechanism of RCF crack propagation was discussed by finite element (FE analysis. Defects led to higher tensile residual stress than that without defects in the region where the defect exists. The shear stress range at 0.1 mm in depth on the middle line of the defect and the range of mode II stress intensity factor at the bottom of a vertical crack increased with increasing defect length.
Naoe, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi
2012-12-01
Liquid metals are expected to be used as nuclear materials, such as coolant for nuclear reactors and spallation targets for neutron sources, because of their good thermal conductivity and neutron production. However, in specific combinations, liquid metals have the potential to degrade structural integrity of solid metals because of Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME). In this study, the effect of mercury immersion on fatigue crack propagation rate in SUS316 was investigated through fatigue tests with a notched specimen under mercury immersion. FRActure Surface Topography Analysis (FRASTA) with the measurement of the notch opening distance was performed to estimate the fatigue crack growth rate in mercury. The results showed that the fatigue crack growth rate was slightly higher in mercury than that in the air in the low cycle fatigue region. This suggests that the crack propagation is accelerated by mercury immersion in high stress imposition regions.
Fatigue Property of Nano-grained Delaminated Low-carbon Steel Sheet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X. Li; T.F. Jing; M.M. Lu; R. Xu; B.Y. Liang; J.W. Zhang
2011-01-01
Tension-tension fatigue life tests on nano-grained delaminated Iow-carbon steel sheet under different fatigue loads are carried out to study the fatigue properties of the steel. The three-dimensional microstructures of the steel are observed by TEM. In addition, the morphology of the fatigue fracture of the specimen under different loads is observed by SEM. The results show that micro-cracks form on the weak interface of the nano-grained steel under Iow-stress conditions, which hinders the propagation of the main cracks and reduces the fatigue crack propagation rate, resulting in the extending fatigue life of the steel.
PREDICTION OF MODE Ⅰ CRACK PROPAGATION DIRECTION IN CARBON-FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE PLATE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张少琴; 杨维阳
2004-01-01
A newly developed Z fracture criterion for the composite materials was introduced,the new concepts of in-plane average strain,in-plane dilatational strain energy density factor and reciprocal characteristic function were presented.Many experimental results show that the Z fracture criterion can be well used to predict the crack propagating direction for mode Ⅰ crack in carbon-fiber reinforced composite laminates.
2003-02-01
propagation of metallic materials at high temperature such as Ni-base superalloy for turbine discs . The strong requirements in design procedures have led to the...This paper deals with the extension of a crack growth model to high temperature complex loading and application to turbine disc . The proposed model is...which comprises fatigue with or without hold times and special sequence tests representative to the disc in service. The crack growth model is built up
Nonlocal Peridynamic Modeling and Simulation on Crack Propagation in Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An extended peridynamic approach for crack propagation analysis in concrete structures was proposed. In the peridynamic constitutive model, concrete material was described as a series of interacting particles, and the short-range repulsive force and anisotropic behavior of concrete were taken into account in the expression of the interactive bonding force, which was given in terms of classical elastic constants and peridynamic horizon. The damage of material was defined locally at the level of pairwise bond, and the critical stretch of material bond was described as a function of fracture strength in the classical concrete failure theory. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed model and algorithms were validated by simulating the propagation of mode I and I-II mixed mode cracks in concrete slabs. Furthermore, crack propagation in a double-edge notched concrete beam subjected to four-point load was simulated, in which the experimental observations are captured naturally as a consequence of the solution.
Effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack propagation rate of PMMA bone cement.
Molino, L N; Topoleski, L D
1996-05-01
To determine the effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN = C(delta K)n, of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, radiopaque bone cement, radiolucent bone cement, and commercial PMMA (Plexiglas) were tested using a methodology based on ASTM E647. The crack growth rate of radiopaque bone cement was one order of magnitude less than that of radiolucent. Fractographic analysis showed that the regions of rapid catastrophic fracture were smooth for all materials tested. The radiopaque fatigue surface was rough and characterized by ragged-edged stacked plateaus, a morphology consistent with the model of crack propagation through the interbead matrix. Voids were visible in the interbead matrix on the order of the size of BaSO4 particles. The fatigue surface of radiolucent bone cement was relatively smooth, a morphology consistent with crack propagation through both the PMMA beads and interbead matrix. Fatigue striations were visible, and their spacing correlated well with crack propagation rates. The striations indicated an increased crack growth rate through the PMMA beads.
Experimental and numerical modelling of ductile crack propagation in large-scale shell structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Törnquist, R.
2004-01-01
for steel and aluminium plates, mainly as curves showing the critical element deformation versus the shell element size. These derived crack propagation criteria are then validated against a separate set of experiments considering centre crack specimens (CCS) which have a different crack-tip constraint...... is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations of collision and grounding events with the use of shell elements. As discussed, the paper provides a clean framework for further development...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Józef DREWNIAK
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Versatile hypotheses of fatigue damage accumulation are utilized in order to determine the fatigue life of particular mechanical elements. Such an approach to an analysis of fatigue processes is recognized as being phenomenological. In the present paper, modifications to the Paris and Foreman laws of fracture mechanics have been proposed. The goal of these modifications is an explicit formulation of crack propagation velocity as a function of crack length. Additionally, the process of crack growth was simulated according to the Palmgren-Miner and Pugno-Ciavarella-Cornetti-Carpinteri fatigue hypotheses. The results of simulation were verified based upon test stand experiments.
Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, Steen; Brincker, Rune
1995-01-01
An analytical model for load-displacement curves of concrete beams is presented. The load-displacement curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modeled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the midsection of the beam. Outside the elastic layer the deformations ...... starts to grow correspond to the same bending moment. Closed-form solutions for the maximum size of the fracture zone and the minimum slope on the load-displacement curve are given.......An analytical model for load-displacement curves of concrete beams is presented. The load-displacement curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modeled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the midsection of the beam. Outside the elastic layer the deformations...
Shear crack propagation in MBC strengthened concrete beams”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas; Carolin, Anders
2008-01-01
Repair and upgrading existing concrete structures using FRPs and an epoxy adhesive as the bonding agent has some disadvantages when it comes to compatibility to the base concrete. Epoxies are often restricted by regulations of use, have low permeability which may create freeze/thaw problems, poor...... thermal compatibility to the base concrete and are often sensitive to the surface nature and surrounding temperature. By using mineral based composites (MBC) some of these challenges can be overcome. MBC refers here to a cementitious bonding agent and a carbon FRP grid. This paper is a part of an ongoing...... study of MBC systems. Emphasis is placed on the cracking behavior of the MBC system used for shear strengthening of RC beams. Traditional foil strain gauges and photometric measurements have been used for monitoring of the cracking behavior. In this study it is shown that the use of mineral based shear...
Experimental detection of cracks at rivets using structural wave propagation
Fromme, Paul; Sayir, Mahir B.
2001-04-01
Guided bending waves are used to detect defects in aluminum plates. The scattered field of a notched hole is studied as a model for a crack at a rivet hole in an airplane fuselage. The first anti-symmetric Lamb wave mode is excited using piezoelectric transducers. The scattered field is measured with a heterodyne laser-interferometer. Good agreement between measurements and an analytical model was found. A small notch changes the scattered field and can be detected.
Corner Crack Propagation in the Presence of Residual Stresses (Preprint)
2006-05-01
used to produce compressive residual stresses in regions of a component, such as a bolt hole or blade attachment, that were prone to crack...plasticity burnishing (LPB), have been developed more recently to provide ways of inducing deeper compressive residual stresses while limiting surface...experiments performed for this work were designed to simulate fastener holes like those found in turbine engine components. A double-edge notch tension
Fatigue of Self-Healing Nanofiber-based Composites: Static Test and Subcritical Crack Propagation.
Lee, Min Wook; Sett, Soumyadip; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L
2016-07-20
Here, we studied the self-healing of composite materials filled with epoxy-containing nanofibers. An initial incision in the middle of a composite sample stretched in a static fatigue test can result in either crack propagation or healing. In this study, crack evolution was observed in real time. A binary epoxy, which acted as a self-healing agent, was encapsulated in two separate types of interwoven nano/microfibers formed by dual-solution blowing, with the core containing either epoxy or hardener and the shell being formed from poly(vinylidene fluoride)/ poly(ethylene oxide) mixture. The core-shell fibers were encased in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix. When the fibers were damaged by a growing crack in this fiber-reinforced composite material because of static stretching in the fatigue test, they broke and released the healing agent into the crack area. The epoxy used in this study was cured and solidified for approximately an hour at room temperature, which then conglutinated and healed the damaged location. The observations were made for at least several hours and in some cases up to several days. It was revealed that the presence of the healing agent (the epoxy) in the fibers successfully prevented the propagation of cracks in stretched samples subjected to the fatigue test. A theoretical analysis of subcritical cracks was performed, and it revealed a jumplike growth of subcritical cracks, which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.
Tracking and Motion Analysis of Crack Propagations in Crystals for Molecular Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsap, L V; Duchaineau, M; Goldgof, D B
2001-05-14
This paper presents a quantitative analysis for a discovery in molecular dynamics. Recent simulations have shown that velocities of crack propagations in crystals under certain conditions can become supersonic, which is contrary to classical physics. In this research, they present a framework for tracking and motion analysis of crack propagations in crystals. It includes line segment extraction based on Canny edge maps, feature selection based on physical properties, and subsequent tracking of primary and secondary wavefronts. This tracking is completely automated; it runs in real time on three 834-image sequences using forty 250 MHZ processors. Results supporting physical observations are presented in terms of both feature tracking and velocity analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongshui Kang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Water-bearing rocks exposed to freezing temperature can be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles leading to crack initiation and propagation, which are the main causes of frost damage to rocks. Based on the Griffith theory of brittle fracture mechanics, the crack initiation criterion, propagation direction, and crack length under freezing pressure and far-field stress are analyzed. Furthermore, a calculation method is proposed for the stress intensity factor (SIF of the crack tip under non-uniformly distributed freezing pressure. The formulae for the crack/fracture propagation direction and length of the wing crack under freezing pressure are obtained, and the mechanism for coalescence of adjacent cracks is investigated. In addition, the necessary conditions for different coalescence modes of cracks are studied. Using the topology theory, a new algorithm for frost crack propagation is proposed, which has the capability to define the crack growth path and identify and update the cracked elements. A model that incorporates multiple cracks is built by ANSYS and then imported into FLAC3D. The SIFs are then calculated using a FISH procedure, and the growth path of the freezing cracks after several calculation steps is demonstrated using the new algorithm. The proposed method can be applied to rocks containing fillings such as detritus and slurry.
Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III
Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.
1982-12-01
Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.
1983-12-01
Intergranular stress-corrosion crack (IGSCC) propagation rates were measured in three heats of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel (SS) as a function of applied load and sensitization in high-purity water with 8 ppM. Active-loading tests yielded IGSCC propagation rates ranging from approx. 2 x 10/sup -10/ to 1 x 10/sup -9/ m/s (approx. 2 x 10/sup -5/ to 2 x 10/sup -4/ in./h) over the range of stress intensities from 25 to 46 MPa..sqrt..m (22 to 41 ksi..sqrt..in.). If the dependence of propagation rate on stress intensity is assumed to follow a power law, a least-squares fit of data yields (da/dt) = 1.23 x 10/sup -8/ K/sup 2/ /sup 42/ (in./h) for K in ksi..sqrt..in. Deflection-controlled tests on standard 12.7-mm-thick compact tension specimens yielded IGSCC propagation rates from 7 x 10/sup -12/ to 2 x 10/sup -10/ m/s (10/sup -6/ to 2 x 10/sup -5/ in./h) at effective average stress intensities in the range 21 to 26 MPa..sqrt..m (19 to 24 ksi..sqrt..in.). Crack lengths were determined by compilance measurements using in-situ high-temperature clip gage or LVDT methods, optical metallography on the side faces of the specimen, and fractography of the cracked surface after completion of the tests. The optical metallography measurements did not provide useful estimates of crack lengths, because large variations in IGSCC propagation across the thickness of the specimens occurred. The effects of the degree of sensitization on the IGSCC propagation rate are obscured by the data scatter. However, it seems clear that these variables do not lead to order-of-magnitude changes in the crack propagation rate.
Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading
Wang, Mayao; Gao, Xing; Abdel-Wahab, Adel; Li, Simin; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Riedel, Christoph; Busse, Björn; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.
2015-09-01
Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control), young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM) was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the lowest.
Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Mayao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control, young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the
The influence of edge effects on crack propagation in snow stability tests
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E. H. Bair
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Propagation tests are used to assess the likelihood of crack propagation in a snowpack, yet little is known about how test length affects propagation. Guidelines suggest beams with lengths around 1 m for Extended Column Tests (ECTs and Propagation Saw Tests (PSTs. To examine how test length affects propagation, we performed 163 ECTs and PSTs 1 to 10 m long. On days with full crack propagation in 1.0 to 1.5 m tests, we then made videos of tests 2 to 10 m long. We inserted markers for particle tracking to measure collapse amplitude, collapse wave speed, and wavelength. We also used a finite element model to simulate the strain energy release rate at fixed crack lengths. We find that: (1 the proportion of tests with full propagation decreased with test length; (2 collapse was greater at the ends of the beams than in the centers; (3 collapse amplitudes in the longer tests were consistent with the shorter tests and did not reach a constant value; (4 collapse wavelengths in the longer tests were around 3 m, 2 × greater than what is predicted by the anticrack model. Based on our field tests and FE models, we conclude that the shorter tests fully propagated more frequently because of increased stress concentration from the far edge. The FE model suggests this edge effect occurs for PSTs up to 2 m long or a crack to beam length ratio ≥ 0.20. Our results suggest that ECT and PST length guidelines may need to be revisited.
Crack Propagation in a Toughened Epoxy Adhesive under Repeated Impacts
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Ian A. Ashcroft
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Adhesives are being increasingly used in structural applications, especially in aerospace, automotive and naval structures, making their structural integrity an important issue. In-service loading histories of such structures usually contain low-energy impacts, repetition of which can significantly affect their performance. This paper deals with the behaviour of the toughened epoxy adhesive FM73 under repeated impacts, known as impact fatigue. Izod impact fatigue tests were performed on FM73 specimens in order to study the evolution of damage and to characterise this via measurable parameters, such as the maximum force and the contact time. A finite element model was developed to simulate the impact tests and this was used to calculate the dynamic strain energy release rate, which was compared with that determined using a simple analytical method. A relationship between the maximum dynamic strain energy release rate and impact fatigue crack growth rate was established that was used as the basis of an impact fatigue crack growth law.
Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang
2017-08-01
Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.
Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method.
Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo
2016-03-03
Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method.
Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Chen
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method.
Modelling 3D crack propagation in ageing graphite bricks of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor power plant
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Thi-Tuyet-Giang Vo
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, crack propagation in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR graphite bricks with ageing properties is studied using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM. A parametric study for crack propagation, including the influence of different initial crack shapes and propagation criteria, is conducted. The results obtained in the benchmark study show that the crack paths from X-FEM are similar to the experimental ones. The accuracy of the strain energy release rate computation in a heterogeneous material is also evaluated using a finite difference approach. Planar and non-planar 3D crack growth simulations are presented to demonstrate the robustness and the versatility of the method utilized. Finally, this work contributes to the better understanding of crack propagation behaviour in AGR graphite bricks and so contributes to the extension of the AGR plants’ lifetimes in the UK by reducing uncertainties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique as criterion design. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FD&E SAE Keyhole Specimen Test Load Histories by finite element analysis. The crack propagation simulation was based on release nodes at the minimum loads to minimize convergence problems. To understand the crack propagation processes under variable amplitude loading, retardation effects are discussed.
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Paul, S.C. [Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University (South Africa); Pirskawetz, S. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Zijl, G.P.A.G. van, E-mail: gvanzijl@sun.ac.za [Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University (South Africa); Schmidt, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)
2015-03-15
This paper presents the analysis of crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) under tensile and flexural load by using acoustic emission (AE). AE is a non-destructive technique to monitor the development of structural damage due to external forces. The main objective of this research was to characterise the cracking behaviour in SHCC in direct tensile and flexural tests by using AE. A better understanding of the development of microcracks in SHCC will lead to a better understanding of pseudo strain-hardening behaviour of SHCC and its general performance. ARAMIS optical deformation analysis was also used in direct tensile tests to observe crack propagation in SHCC materials. For the direct tensile tests, SHCC specimens were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre with three different volume percentages (1%, 1.85% and 2.5%). For the flexural test beam specimens, only a fibre dosage of 1.85% was applied. It was found that the application of AE in SHCC can be a good option to analyse the crack growth in the specimens under increasing load, the location of the cracks and most importantly the identification of matrix cracking and fibre rupture or slippage.
Small fatigue crack propagation in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} strengthened steels
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Hutař, P., E-mail: hutar@ipm.cz [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuběna, I. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Ševčík, M. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Šmíd, M.; Kruml, T. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Náhlík, L. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-09-15
This paper is focused on two type of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} strengthened steels (Fe–14Cr ODS and ODS-EUROFER). Small fatigue crack propagation was experimentally measured using special small cylindrical specimens (diameter 2 and 2.6 mm) with shallow notch grinded in the gauge length. In the middle of this notch, a pre-crack of length of 50 μm was fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. Fatigue crack growth rate was measured for different applied total strain amplitudes and described using plastic part of the J-integral. Obtained results were compared with published data of EUROFER 97. The effect of the oxide dispersion on small fatigue crack propagation was found rather insignificant. Ferritic Fe–14Cr ODS steel shows more brittle behaviour, i.e. for the same cyclic plasticity, characterised by the plastic part of the J-integral, the small cracks grow faster. A new methodology for residual lifetime prediction of structures containing physically small cracks, based on plastic part of the J-integral, is presented.
Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels
Hutař, P.; Kuběna, I.; Ševčík, M.; Šmíd, M.; Kruml, T.; Náhlík, L.
2014-09-01
This paper is focused on two type of Y2O3 strengthened steels (Fe-14Cr ODS and ODS-EUROFER). Small fatigue crack propagation was experimentally measured using special small cylindrical specimens (diameter 2 and 2.6 mm) with shallow notch grinded in the gauge length. In the middle of this notch, a pre-crack of length of 50 μm was fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. Fatigue crack growth rate was measured for different applied total strain amplitudes and described using plastic part of the J-integral. Obtained results were compared with published data of EUROFER 97. The effect of the oxide dispersion on small fatigue crack propagation was found rather insignificant. Ferritic Fe-14Cr ODS steel shows more brittle behaviour, i.e. for the same cyclic plasticity, characterised by the plastic part of the J-integral, the small cracks grow faster. A new methodology for residual lifetime prediction of structures containing physically small cracks, based on plastic part of the J-integral, is presented.
Effect of segregations on mechanical properties and crack propagation in spring steel
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B. Žužek
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made over the last decades to improve performance of spring steels, which would increase the service time of springs and also allow vehicles weight reduction. There are different possibilities of improving properties of spring steels, from modifying the chemical composition of steels to optimizing the deformation process and changing the heat treatment parameters. Another way of improving steel properties is through refining the microstructure and reducing amount of inclusions. Therefore, the focus of the current investigation was to determine the effect of more uniform and cleaner microstructure obtained through electro-slag remelting (ESR of steel on the mechanical and dynamic properties of spring steel, with special focus on the resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Effect of the microstructure refinement was evaluated in terms of tensile strength, elongation, fracture and impact toughness, and fatigue resistance under bending and tensile loading. After the mechanical tests the fracture surfaces of samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the influence of microstructure properties on the crack propagation and crack propagation resistance was studied. Investigation was performed on hot rolled, soft annealed and vacuum heat treated 51CrV4 spring steel produced by conventional continuous casting and compared with steel additional refined through ESR. Results shows that elimination of segregations and microstructure refinement using additional ESR process gives some improvement in terms of better repeatability and reduced scattering, but on the other hand it has negative effect on crack propagation resistance and fatigue properties of the spring steel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S. Tripathi
2001-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, two grades of steel, viz., plain carbon steel and low alloy steel used in naval ships have been selected for studies on high cycle fatigue, crack propagation, stress intensity and crack opening displacement (COD. Specimen for high cycle fatigue was prepared as per IS: 1608. High cycle fatigue was carried out up to 50,000 cycles at 1000 kgfto 2000 kgfloads. Up to 2000 kgfloads, both the materials were observed within elastic zones. A number of paran1eters, including stress, strain and strain range, which indicate elastic behaviour of steels, have been considered. Low alloy steel specimen was prepared as per ASTM standard: E-399 and subjected to 5,00,000 cycles. Crack propagation, COD, stress intensity, load-cycle variations, load-COD relation, and other related paran1eters have been studied using a modem universal testing machine with state-of-the-art technology
Mode I Cohesive Law Characterization of Through-Crack Propagation in a Multidirectional Laminate
Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min
2014-01-01
A method is proposed and assessed for the experimental characterization of through-the-thickness crack propagation in multidirectional composite laminates with a cohesive law. The fracture toughness and crack opening displacement are measured and used to determine a cohesive law. Two methods of computing fracture toughness are assessed and compared. While previously proposed cohesive characterizations based on the R-curve exhibit size effects, the proposed approach results in a cohesive law that is a material property. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate damage while load and full-field displacements are recorded. These measurements are used to compute the fracture toughness and crack opening displacement from which the cohesive law is characterized. The experimental results show that a steady-state fracture toughness is not reached. However, the proposed method extrapolates to steady-state and is demonstrated capable of predicting the structural behavior of geometrically-scaled specimens.
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
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Huang, Hai [Idaho National Laboratory; Mattson, Earl Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory; Podgorney, Robert Karl [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Investigation of Crack Propagation in Rock using Discrete Sphero-Polyhedral Element Method
Behraftar, S.; Galindo-torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.
2014-12-01
In this study a micro-mechanical model is developed to study the fracture propagation process in rocks. The model is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Sphero-Polyhedral Element Model (DSEM), which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to be a suitable technique to model rock [1]. It allows the modelling of particles of general shape, with no internal porosity. The motivation behind using this technique is the desire to microscopically investigate the fracture propagation process and study the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of rock. The DSEM method is used to model the Crack Chevron Notch Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) test suggested by the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) for determining the fracture toughness of rock specimens. CCNBD samples with different crack inclination angles, are modelled to investigate their fracture mode. The Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) is simulated and the results are validated using experimental results obtained from a previous study [2]. Fig. 1 shows the simulated and experimental results of crack propagation for different inclination angles of CCNBD specimens. The DSEM method can be used to predict crack trajectory and quantify crack propagation during loading. References: 1. Galindo-Torres, S. A., et al. "Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes." Computer Physics Communications 183.2 (2012): 266-277. 2. Erarslan, N., and D. J. Williams. "Mixed-mode fracturing of rocks under static and cyclic loading." Rock mechanics and rock engineering 46.5 (2013): 1035-1052.
Ultrasonic Analysis of Cracking Propagation Morphology in the Fusion Zone of High Strength Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Cracking morphology in the fusion zone of HQ130 high strength steel was researched by "the y-slit test" and "three-point bend test", ultrasonic test and microscope. HQ130 and Q J63 high strength steel was welded by Ar+CO2 gasshielded arc welding under the condition without preheating. Experimental results indicated that welding cracks wereproduced in the partially melted zone of the weld root of HQ130 steel side and propagated parallel to the fusionzone. The cracks were developed alternatively between the weld and the partially melted zone, and are not strictlyruptured at W/F (weld metal/fusion zone) boundary surface. Controlling weld heat input (E) about 16 k J/cm couldmake the cracking rate lowest and satisfy the performance requirement of welded joint zone.
Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu
2016-10-01
This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: eamerchan@gmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2009-08-01
In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.
System for nucleation and propagation of fatigue cracks on SE(B) specimens
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Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Gomes Junyor, Jose Onesimo; Reis, Emil; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: ze_onezo@hotmail.com, E-mail: emilr@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moura, Cassio Melo, E-mail: cassio.moura@gerdau.com.br [Gerdau S.A., Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The degree of safety that a structural component has against catastrophic fracture in service can be obtained from fracture mechanics parameters. The master curve could be used for integrity evaluation in pressure vessel of nuclear power plant. The pre-crack specimens are used in this evaluation. The tests based on ASTM E 8M and ASTM E 647 standards to determination of material properties related to fracture mechanics, most often performed in a servo-hydraulic drive equipment, are time consuming and costly. This paper presents the development of a system for nucleation and propagation of fatigue cracks on SE(B) specimens. The operating principle consists of a cyclic loading, concentrated in the center of the specimen, transmitted and controlled by an eccentric mechanism. The main contribution of this work is the low-cost technology in the production of fatigue pre-crack, and the possibility of performing the nucleation and propagation of the pre-crack required for obtaining the J{sub IC} and CTOD parameters. The experimental results satisfied expectations with respect to the plastic deformation in the crack tip and met the requirements of the standards. (author)
Combined simulation of fatigue crack nucleation and propagation based on a damage indicator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Springer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Fatigue considerations often distinguish between fatigue crack nucleation and fatigue crack propagation. The current work presents a modeling approach utilizing one Fatigue Damage Indicator to treat both in a unified way. The approach is implemented within the framework of the Finite Element Method. Multiaxial critical plane models with an extended damage accumulation are employed as Fatigue Indicators. Locations of fatigue crack emergence are predicted by these indicators and material degradation is utilized to model local material failure. The cyclic loading is continued on the now degraded structure and the next location prone to material failure is identified and degradation modeled. This way, fatigue crack propagation is represented by an evolving spatial zone of material failure. This propagating damage zone leads to a changing structural response of the pristine structure. By recourse to the Fatigue Damage Indicator a correlation between the number of applied load cycles and the changing structural behavior is established. Finally, the proposed approach is exemplified by cyclic bending experiments in the Low Cycle Fatigue regime
Particle Discrete Method Based on Manifold Cover for Crack Propagation of Jointed Rock Mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Ping
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rock mass can be assumed to be homogeneous material from a macroscopic view; however, it is the heterogeneous material in mesoscopic scale and its physicomechanical properties are discontinuous in space. The failure of jointed rock mass was usually caused by the initiation, propagation, and coalescence of new wing cracks derived from primary joint. In order to further study the rock fracture instability, we need to study the expansion of rock cracks under external loads from the macro-meso perspective. This paper, based on the manifold cover concept, proposes a new discrete element numerical method, manifold particle discrete (MPD, combined with the particle contact model and the introduced concept of stress boundary. The proposed method can easily simulate the crack generation, propagation, and coalescence of jointed rock mass from the macro-meso perspective. The whole process of rock fragmentation is thereafter reproduced. By analyzing the manifold cover and sphere particle model, this paper constitutes the sphere unit cover function of three-dimensional manifold cover, establishes tetrahedron units, and obtains the equilibrium equation and compatible equation of the MPD model. For rock-like brittle material, crack propagation process can be simulated, and it also verifies the accuracy of the proposed numerical method.
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Ueda, Y.; Murakawa, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Tanigawa, M. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)
1996-12-31
In order to investigate an effect of the plastic deformation, which was generated on ship side outer platings subjected to collision load before crack initiation, on the crack propagation behavior, crack propagation experiments using pre-strained specimens and simulation analysis by means of FEM method were carried out, to discuss about the practical simulation analysis method. As a result of the crack propagation experiments using pre-strained center notched plate specimens, a phenomenon where the crack is apt to propagate due to the pre-strains was confirmed, and measured data of crack tip opening angles were obtained. A method was proposed, in which the critical crack tip opening angle values are corrected by considering the difference between the crack shapes obtained from the FEM analysis model and actually measured, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The finite element size effect was also examined. A method using an equivalent plastic strain as the crack propagation condition was shown to determine the relationship between the element size and the critical value of equivalent plastic strain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.
Crack propagation in X38CrMoV5 (AISI H11) tool steel
Shah, Masood; Mabru, Catherine; Boher, Christine; Le Roux, Sabine; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad
2009-01-01
A method is proposed for the evaluation of surface fatigue damage of hot forming tools that undergo severe thermo mechanical loading. Fatigue crack propagation in a hot work tool steel X38CrMoV5-47HRC is investigated using single-edge cracked tension specimens (SET). The effect of thickness (ranging from 2,5mm to 0.10mm) and R values is investigated. Numerical simulation is performed by ABAQUS® Standard to evaluate J integral and stress intensity factor KI. The Paris curves are established. S...
Development of X-FEM methodology and study on mixed-mode crack propagation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhuo Zhuang; Bin-Bin Cheng
2011-01-01
The extended finite element method (X-FEM) is a novel numerical methodology with a great potential for using in multi-scale computation and multi-phase coupling problems.The algorithm is discussed and a program is developed based on X-FEM for simulating mixed-mode crack propagation.The maximum circumferential stress criterion and interaction integral are deduced.Some numerical results are compared with the experimental data to prove the capability and efficiency of the algorithm and the program.Numerical analyses of sub-interfacial crack growth in bi-materials give a clear description of the effect on fracture made by interface and loading condition.
3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones
Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.
2012-04-01
Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (Actis 130/150 industrial micro CT was used for imaging the interior of the samples (100keV/80mA). The dimensions of the voxel, corresponding to the resolution of the images, are 0.024x0.024x0.027 mm. Core position has been accurately checked in order to maintain the same orientation and numbering of CT slices throughout the cores after different loading cycles. The main results of this study, clearly imaged by microCT scanning, can be summed up as follows: - in all the lithotypes (AT, BT, CV and RC) fracture patterns are unrelated to major textural characters of the rock (fig. 1). - In all the cases, first phases of fracture opening can be seen in CT images but there is not a corresponding load drop in the stress-strain curve. - For all the samples, fractures
A simulation of fatigue crack propagation in a welded T-joint using 3D boundary element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiang Zhihai; Lie, S.T.; Wang Bo; Cen Zhangzhi
2003-02-01
A general procedure to investigate the fatigue propagation process of a 3D surface crack based on multi-region Boundary Element Method is detailed in this paper. The mesh can be automatically regenerated as the crack propagates. A new formula for estimating the effective stress intensity factor is used to calculate the crack extension. The maximum principal stress criterion is then employed to predict the crack growth direction. Comparison between numerical and experimental results of a welded T-joint shows that the proposed procedure is reliable.
Modeling time-dependent corrosion fatigue crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys
Mason, Mark E.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1994-01-01
Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted with the susceptible S-L orientation of AA7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution, to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO. This environment enhances da/dN by five to ten-fold compared to fatigue in moist air. Time-based crack growth rates from quasi-static load experiments are an order of magnitude too small for accurate linear superposition prediction of da/dN for loading frequencies above 0.001 Hz. Alternate methods of establishing da/dt, based on rising-load or ripple-load-enhanced crack tip strain rate, do not increase da/dt and do not improve linear superposition. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by two regimes of frequency dependence; da/dN is proportional to f(exp -1) below 0.001 Hz and to F(exp 0) to F(exp -0.1) for higher frequencies. Da/dN increases mildly both with increasing hold-time at K(sub max) and with increasing rise-time for a range of loading waveforms. The mild time-dependence is due to cycle-time-dependent corrosion fatigue growth. This behavior is identical for S-L nd L-T crack orientations. The frequency response of environmental fatigue in several 7000 series alloys is variable and depends on undefined compositional or microstructural variables. Speculative explanations are based on the effect of Mg on occluded crack chemistry and embritting hydrogen uptake, or on variable hydrogen diffusion in the crack tip process zone. Cracking in the 7075/NaCl system is adequately described for life prediction by linear superposition for prolonged load-cycle periods, and by a time-dependent upper bound relationship between da/dN and delta K for moderate loading times.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhanqi Cheng; Danying Gao; Zheng Zhong
2010-01-01
In this paper,a finite crack with constant length(Yoffe type crack)propagating in a functionally graded coating with spatially varying elastic properties bonded to a homoge-neous substrate of finite thickness under anti-plane loading was studied.A multi-layered model is employed to model arbitrary variations of material properties based on two linearly-distributed material compliance parameters.The mixed boundary problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations that are solved numerically.Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy,efficiency and versatility of the model.The numerical results show that the graded parameters,the thicknesses of the interracial layer and the two homogeneous layers,the crack size and speed have significant effects on the dynamic fracture behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kwang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Bong [Kyungnam University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Hawong, Jai Sug [Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
The stress and displacement fields at the crack tip were studied during the unsteady propagation of a mode Ⅲ crack in a direction that was different from the property graduation direction in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The property graduation in FGMs was assumed based on the linearly varying shear modulus under a constant density and the exponentially varying shear modulus and density. To obtain the solution of the harmonic function, the general partial differential equation of the dynamic equilibrium equation was transformed into a Laplace equation. Based on the Laplace equation, the stress and displacement fields, which depended on the time rates of change in the crack tip speed and stress intensity factor, were obtained through an asymptotic analysis. Using the stress and displacement fields, the effects of the angled property variation on the stresses, displacements, and stress intensity factors are discussed.
Gupta, Vipul; Hochhalter, Jacob; Yamakov, Vesselin; Scott, Willard; Spear, Ashley; Smith, Stephen; Glaessgen, Edward
2013-01-01
A systematic study of crack tip interaction with grain boundaries is critical for improvement of multiscale modeling of microstructurally-sensitive fatigue crack propagation and for the computationally-assisted design of more durable materials. In this study, single, bi- and large-grain multi-crystal specimens of an aluminum-copper alloy are fabricated, characterized using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and deformed under tensile loading and nano-indentation. 2D image correlation (IC) in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is used to measure displacements near crack tips, grain boundaries and within grain interiors. The role of grain boundaries on slip transfer is examined using nano-indentation in combination with high-resolution EBSD. The use of detailed IC and EBSD-based experiments are discussed as they relate to crystal-plasticity finite element (CPFE) model calibration and validation.
Fractography of composite delamination
Bascom, W. D.
1990-01-01
The microdamage that occurs for Mode 1 and Mode 2 delamination was examined by potting delaminated specimens in a clear epoxy, sectioning through the damage, polishing the cut sections and examining using light microscopy. For Mode 1 delamination of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, the major observation was fiber bridging including large ligaments of fiber bundles. The Mode 2 delamination of unidirectional laminates revealed a very narrow crack opening with only occasional fiber bridging. Impact testing by repetitive impacts with increasing energy was studied and it was found that this technique does not discern changes in the type of damage with increasing cumulative impact energy. Instead, the changes in the impact response, notably stiffness, are the result of changes in the extent of damage. For laminates with a brittle thermoplastic matrix, 3501-6, there were distinct changes in stiffness that corresponded to the development of through the thickness damage and then to the extension of the damage to the specimen edges. For PEEK and polycarbonate, the changes in stiffness were not as abrupt as for the thermoset. None the less, the damage progressed in the same manner.
Crack Propagation Behaviors of Multi-Layered SiC Composite Tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Daejong; Lee, Donghee; Lee, Hyeon-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
SiC composite cladding has various advantages compared to current Zr alloy cladding in terms of accident resistance and neutron economy. However, its brittle properties and corresponding low reliability make it difficult for a use of SiC ceramics as cladding materials. In this study, fracture behaviors of several SiC composite cladding tubes, particularly crack propagation behavior were evaluated using an acoustic emission method. AE analysis is a useful tool for examination of the multi-layered SiC composite with complex structure which provides information of crack propagation. Failure of an inner monolith SiC in the triplex SiC composite tube will cause significant problems such as hermeticity, degradation of SiC{sub f}/SiC. Duplex SiC composite might be the alternative.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyoda, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
1995-05-01
Thermal fatigue crack propagation under random temperature fluctuation is theoretically investigated from a probabilistic view point by the use of a Markov approximation method, under the condition that the temporary variation of the inner surface temperature of plate is modeled as a wide-band stationary Gaussian process. First, a crack growth equation is formulated on the basis of the Paris law under the assumption that the stress intensity factor range {Delta}K can be approximated by the local expectation of a relative maximum of the stress intensity factor K. Next it is extended to a random differential equation, where the randomness in crack propagation resistance is taken into account. The Markov approximation method is then applied to derive a residual life distribution function as well as a probability distribution function of the crack length. Finally, numerical examples are shown to examine the quantitative behavior of the residual life distribution, whose results indicate that the present model is applicable even if the spectrum of temperature is of narrow-band type. (author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Keisuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-12-31
The effect of the stress ratio on the propagation behavior of Mode II interlaminar fatigue cracks was studied with unidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates, Toray T800H/{number_sign}3631. End-notched flexure (ENF) specimens were used for fatigue tests under the stress ratios of R = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.6; and end-loaded split (ELS) specimens were used for tests under R = {minus}1.0, {minus}0.5, and 0.2. For each stress ratio, the crack propagation rate was given by a power function of the stress intensity range, {Delta}K{sub 11}, in the region of rates above 10{sup {minus}9} m/cycle. Below this region, there exists the threshold for fatigue crack propagation. The threshold condition is given by a constant value of the stress intensity range, {Delta}K{sub 11th} = 1.8 MPa{radical}m. The crack propagation rate is determined by {Delta}K{sub 11} near the threshold, while by the maximum stress identity factor, K{sub 11max}, at high rates. A fracture mechanics equation is proposed for predicting the propagation rate of Mode II fatigue cracks under various stress ratios. The effect of the stress ratio on the micromechanism of Mode II fatigue crack propagation was discussed on the basis of the microscopic observations of fracture surfaces and near-crack-tip regions.
Nanotube attachment for prevention of interfacial delamination
Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Karumuri, Anil K.
2010-09-01
A new approach to suppressing interfacial delamination in composites has been investigated. It involves growing strongly attached nanotubes on the surface of the core phase prior to matrix infiltration. Unusually durable interfaces between epoxy and graphite have been demonstrated using this technique. Two types of graphitic core materials have been studied: complex cellular foams having open-interconnected porosity and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) providing a model flat interface. When untreated foam is infiltrated with epoxy, the resulting composite is brittle, and shatters before 10% compression. However, when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on the foam prior to epoxy infiltration, the specimen becomes pliable, and visibly flattens out rather than fracturing. Model studies on a flat graphite-epoxy interface were performed by joining two HOPG specimens with a thin layer of epoxy, and testing the flexural response of the 'seam' using the three-point bend test. The untreated HOPG sandwich fails easily, whereas nanotube-attached HOPG sandwich shows an over three times increase in flexural load-carrying capacity, close to that of seamless monolithic graphite having identical dimensions. Microscopic evaluations of fractured interfaces indicate that, in all geometries, CNT grafting prevents delamination at the graphite-epoxy interface, and forces any crack(s) to propagate through the graphitic phase. This added inter-laminar strength and toughness can be related to the hierarchical morphology of the interface created by CNT attachment, and unprecedented composite structures can be envisioned.
Cyclic deformation, fatigue and fatigue crack propagation in Ni-base alloys
Antolovich, Stephen D.; Lerch, Brad
1989-01-01
Ni-base superalloys' cumulative glide behavior, damage accumulation, low-cycle fatigue, and crack propagation characteristics are directly dependent on deformation behavior which is in turn a strong function of microstructural characteristics. Microstructural instabilities and environmental interactions become additional factors at elevated temperatures. An account is presently given of microstructural, chemical, and processing techniques that may be used to obtain the properties that appear most critical or desirable in specific applications.
DYNAMIC PROPAGATION PROBLEM ON DUGDALE MODEL OF MODE Ⅲ INTERFACE CRACK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L(U) Nian-chun; CHENG Yun-hong; TIAN Xiu-bo; CHENG Jin
2005-01-01
By the theory of complex functions, the dynamic propagation problem on Dugdale model of mode Ⅲ interface crack for nonlinear characters of materials was studied. The general expressions of analytical solutions are obtained by the methods of self-similar functions. The problems dealt with can be easily transformed into RiemannHilbert problems and their closed solutions are attained rather simply by this approach.After those solutions were utilized by superposition theorem, the solutions of arbitrarily complex problems could be obtained.
Uniaxial compression CT and acoustic emission test on the coal crack propagation destruction process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing-hong LIU; Yao-dong JIANG; Yi-xin ZHAO; Jie ZHU
2013-01-01
Acoustic emission test and CT scanning are important techniques in the study of coal crack propagation.A uniaxial compression test was performed on coal samples by integrating CT and acoustic emission.The test comparison analyzes the acoustic emission load and CT images for an effective observation on the entire process,from crack propagation to the samples' destruction.The box dimension of the coal samples' acoustic emission series and the CT images were obtained through calculations by using the authors' own program.The results show that the fractal dimension of both the acoustic emission energy and CT image increase rapidly,indicating coal and rock mass has entered a dangerous condition.Hence,measures should be taken to unload the pressure of the coal and rock mass.The test results provide intuitive observation data for the coal meso-damage model.The test contributes to in-depth studies of coal or rock crack propagation mechanisms and provides a theoretical basis for rock burst mechanism.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Tao; LI Feng; CHEN Hua; YU Cui-yan
2005-01-01
The formation and growth of thermal fatigue crack in low-chromium semi-steel were investigated by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the function of RE in low-chromium semi-steel was analyzed. The results show that the thermal fatigue cracks are mainly generated at eutectic carbides, and the cracks not only grow and spread but also join each other. RE can improve the eutectic carbide′s morphology, inhibit the generation and propagation of thermal fatigue cracks, and therefore promote the activation energy for the crack′s propagation, which is especially more noticeable in case of the RE modification in combination with heat treatment. The mathematical model of the crack propagation is put forward.
Analysis of crack propagation in nuclear graphite using three-point bending of sandwiched specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi Li; Li Haiyan; Zou Zhenmin [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Fok, Alex S.L. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: alex.fok@manchester.ac.uk; Marsden, Barry J. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hodgkins, Andrew; Mummery, Paul M.; Marrow, James [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)
2008-01-31
The aim of this paper was to assess the suitability of the sandwiched beam in three-point bending as a technique for determining fracture toughness and R-curve behaviour of nuclear graphite using small beam specimens. Surface displacements of the cracked beam specimen were measured using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Image Correlation in order to accurately monitor crack propagation and frictional contact between the test specimen and the sandwiching beams. The results confirmed that solutions based on the simple beam theory could overestimate the fracture toughness of graphite. Finite element analysis using a Continuum Damage Mechanics failure model indicated that both friction and shape of the notch played an important part in providing resistance to crack growth. Inclusion of these factors and the use of more accurate load vs. crack length curves derived from the FE model would provide a satisfactory measure of fracture toughness in small beam specimens under such a loading configuration. The particular graphite tested, IG-110, showed a decrease in fracture toughness with increasing crack length.
Assessment of damage localization based on spatial filters using numerical crack propagation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deraemaeker, Arnaud, E-mail: aderaema@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Civil Engineering Department (BATir), 50 av. Franklin Roosevelt, CP 194/02, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2011-07-19
This paper is concerned with vibration based structural health monitoring with a focus on non-model based damage localization. The type of damage investigated is cracking of concrete structures due to the loss of prestress. In previous works, an automated method based on spatial filtering techniques applied to large dynamic strain sensor networks has been proposed and tested using data from numerical simulations. In the simulations, simplified representations of cracks (such as a reduced Young's modulus) have been used. While this gives the general trend for global properties such as eigen frequencies, the change of more local features, such as strains, is not adequately represented. Instead, crack propagation models should be used. In this study, a first attempt is made in this direction for concrete structures (quasi brittle material with softening laws) using crack-band models implemented in the commercial software DIANA. The strategy consists in performing a non-linear computation which leads to cracking of the concrete, followed by a dynamic analysis. The dynamic response is then used as the input to the previously designed damage localization system in order to assess its performances. The approach is illustrated on a simply supported beam modeled with 2D plane stress elements.
Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Elkhoury, Jean; Toussaint, Renaud; Daniel, Guillaume; Maloy, Knut Jurgen
2010-05-01
Observations of aseismic transients in several tectonic context suggest that they might be linked to seismicity. However a clear observation and description of these phenomena and their interaction is lacking. This owes to the difficulty of characterizing with a sufficient resolution processes taking place at depth. Here we aim to study these interactions between aseismic and seismic slip taking advantage of an unique experimental setup. We conducted a series of mode I crack propagation experiments on transparent materials (PMMA). The crack advance is trapped in a weakness plane which is the interface between two previously sandblasted and annealed plexiglass plates. A fast video camera taking up to 500 frames per second ensures the tracking of the front rupture. The acoustic system is composed of a maximum of 44 channels continuously recording at 5 MHz for a few tens of seconds. Piezo-electric sensors are composed of a 32 elements linear array and individual sensors surrounding the crack front. An automatic detection and localization procedure allows us to obtain the position of acoustic emission (A.E.) that occurred during the crack advance. Crack front image processing reveals an intermittent opening which might be linked to the time and space clustering of the AE. An analogy between the mode I (opening) and the mode III (antiplane slip) allows us to interpret our results in term of slip on faults. Our experiment thus helps to reveal the interplay between seismic and aseismic slip on faults.
Steady-state propagation of a Mode III crack in couple stress elastic materials
Mishuris, G; Radi, E
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of a semi-infinite crack steadily propagating in an elastic solid with microstructures subject to antiplane loading applied on the crack surfaces. The loading is moving with the same constant velocity as that of the crack tip. We assume subsonic regime, that is the crack velocity is smaller than the shear wave velocity. The material behaviour is described by the indeterminate theory of couple stress elasticity developed by Koiter. This constitutive model includes the characteristic lengths in bending and torsion and thus it is able to account for the underlying microstructure of the material as well as for the strong size effects arising at small scales and observed when the representative scale of the deformation field becomes comparable with the length scale of the microstructure, such as the grain size in a polycrystalline or granular aggregate. The present analysis confirms and extends earlier results on the static case by including the effects of crack velocity an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Vargas-Arista
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughness and critical crack length, and a transgranular brittle final fracture with an area fraction of dimple zones connecting cleavage facets. A fractographic analysis proved that as the normalizing time increased the crack length decreased. The increase in the river patterns on the fatigue crack propagation in zone II was also evidenced and final brittle fracture because of transgranular quasicleavage was observed. Larger grains induced a deterioration of the fatigue resistance of the HAZ.
The role of crack tip plasticity on the propagation of fracture in rocks and other brittle solids
Borja, R. I.; Rahmani, H.; Liu, F.; Aydin, A.
2009-12-01
Small-scale plastic yielding around a crack tip plays a key role in the propagation of fractures in brittle materials such as rocks. Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) quantifies the asymptotic strain field around a crack tip under the assumptions of linear elasticity and infinitesimal deformation. However, no material can withstand an infinite stress, and plastic yielding is expected to take place near and around a crack tip. Plastic yielding governs the extension of an existing crack, as well as determines the direction of propagation of splay cracks. Unlike in LEFM, however, no closed-form solution is available for the asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip in the presence of inelastic deformation. In this work, we resort to finite element modeling for capturing plastic yielding and asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip. Novel features of the modeling include an enhanced finite element around the crack tip that captures the expected asymptotic strain field, and an elastoplastic constitutive law for near-tip yielding. Through numerical simulations, we infer the likely orientation of splay cracks from the prevailing crystal orientation and overall stress field around the crack tip. We also compare the angular variation of the crack-tip enrichment function in the presence of plastic yielding with the closed-form solution derived from LEFM for different loading conditions and elastoplastic bulk constitutive laws.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodgdon, Jennifer A.; Sethna, James P.
1993-01-01
We derive a general crack-propagation law for slow brittle cracking, in two and three dimensions, using discrete symmetries, gauge invariance, and gradient expansions. Our derivation provides explicit justification for the ‘‘principle of local symmetry,’’ which has been used extensively to describe...
Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih
2015-11-01
The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the energy density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming energy release rate (ERR), which represents the energy available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and deformation of the current moment, and the definition of the energy density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Dae-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myung-Je [Korea Aerospace Industry, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Goto, Masahiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita University, Oita (Japan); Lee, Hong-Chul [Republic of Korea Air Force (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangshik, E-mail: sang@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔK{sub th} value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔK{sub th} values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc.
Gasem, Zuhair Mattoug
The need to predict the fatigue performance of aging aerospace structures has focused interest on environmentally assisted cracking in thick-section damage-tolerant aluminum alloys (AA). The objective of this research is to characterize and understand the time-dependent processes that govern environmental fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) in 7XXX series aluminum alloys exposed to an aggressive environment. Results are utilized to identify the rate-controlling step in growth enhancement in order to develop a mechanistic model describing the time dependency of EFCP. Aluminum alloy 7075, tested in the sensitive (SL) orientation and exposed to aqueous chloride solution, is studied. Da/dNcrit for different D K levels depends on 1/√fcrit, as predicted by process zone hydrogen-diffusion-limited crack growth modeling. A model based on hydrogen diffusion controlled growth is modified to include a stress-dependent critical hydrogen concentration normalized with the crack tip hydrogen concentration (Ccrit/CS). It is proposed that da/dNcrit for a given D K and R corresponds to the distance ahead of the crack tip where the local tensile stress associated with Kmax is maximum. The reversed plasticity estimate of this location equals da/dNcrit for two aging conditions of 7075 (SL)/NaCl at R = 0.1. The EFCP dependencies on alloy microstructure (T6 vs. T7), crack orientation (SL vs. LT), and stress ratio are measured and interpreted based on their effect on da/dN crit and fcrit as well as environmental closure. Chromate addition to the chloride solution eliminates the environmental acceleration of crack growth and reduces corrosion-product induced closure. In chromate-inhibited solution, the frequency dependence of EFCP in 7075 (SL) is unique. Da/dN is reduced at moderate and low frequencies to a value similar to crack growth rate in moist air, probably due to formation of a passive film which inhibits hydrogen uptake. Inhibition is mitigated by increasing frequency or increasing
A Property of Crack Propagation at the Specimen of CFRP with Layer Angle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Gue Wan; Cho, Jae Ung [Kongju Univ., Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong Du [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
CFRP is the composite material manufactured by the hybrid resin on the basis of carbon fiber. As this material has the high specific strength and the light weight, it has been widely used at various fields. Particularly, the unidirectional carbon fiber can be applied with the layer angle. CFRP made with layer angle has the strength higher than with no layer angle. In this paper, the property of crack growth due to each layer angle was investigated on the crack propagation and fracture behavior of the CFRP compact tension specimen due to the change of layer angle. The value of maximum stress is shown to be decreased and the crack propagation is slowed down as the layer angle is increased. But the limit according to the layer angle is shown as the stress is increased again from the base point of the layer angle of 60°.This study result is thought to be utilized with the data which verify the probability of fatigue fracture when the defect inside the structure at using CFRP of mechanical structure happens.
Interplay between polarization rotation and crack propagation in PMN-PT relaxor single crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Fang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Investigations on the interconnection between the polarization rotation and crack propagation are performed for [110]-oriented 74Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-26PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric single crystal under electric loadings along [001] direction. The crystal is of predominantly monoclinic MA phase with scatter distributed rhombohedral (R phase under a moderate poling field of 900 V/mm in [001] direction. With magnitude of 800 V/mm, a through thickness crack is initiated near the electrode by electric cycling. Static electric loadings is then imposed to the single crystal. As the applied static electric field increases, domain switching in the monoclinic MA phase and phase transition from MA to R phase occur near the crack. The results indicate that the crack features a conducting one. Whether domain switching or phase transition occurs depends on the intensity of the electric field component that is perpendicular to the applied electric field.
Mechanical properties and crack propagation behaviors of laminated Ti/Al2O3 composite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Wu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Laminated Ti/Al2O3 composite was fabricated by tape casting and vacuum hot-pressing sintering with intent to research mechanical properties including the fracture strength and toughness. The results showed that the flexural strength and fracture toughness improved according to the amount of layers. When the amount of layers was 35, the flexural strength and fracture toughness reached 361 MPa and 9.72 MPa m1/2, respectively. Based on the observation of microstructures, it was concluded that the improvement of mechanical properties was attributed to various crack propagation (such as crack deflection, crack bifurcation, crack termination and interface dissociation. The characterization of EDX and XRD at interfaces indicated that the initiative diffusion of O2− from Al2O3 to Ti layer led to the passive diffusion of Al3+ (aggregating near the interface and reacted with Ti to form Ti3Al, Ti[O] and AlTiO2 solid solution.
Modeling Delamination in Postbuckled Composite Structures Under Static and Fatigue Loads
Bisagni, Chiara; Brambilla, Pietro; Bavila, Carlos G.
2013-01-01
The ability of the Abaqus progressive Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to model delamination in composite structures was investigated for static, postbuckling, and fatigue loads. Preliminary evaluations were performed using simple Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimens. The nodal release sequences that describe the propagation of the delamination front were investigated. The effect of using a sudden or a gradual nodal release was evaluated by considering meshes aligned with the crack front as well as misaligned meshes. Fatigue simulations were then performed using the Direct Cyclic Fatigue (DCF) algorithm. It was found that in specimens such as the DCB, which are characterized by a nearly linear response and a pure fracture mode, the algorithm correctly predicts the Paris Law rate of propagation. However, the Abaqus DCF algorithm does not consider different fatigue propagation laws in different fracture modes. Finally, skin/stiffener debonding was studied in an aircraft fuselage subcomponent in which debonding occurs deep into post-buckling deformation. VCCT was shown to be a robust tool for estimating the onset propagation. However, difficulties were found with the ability of the current implementation of the Abaqus progressive VCCT to predict delamination propagation within structures subjected to postbuckling deformations or fatigue loads.
Fracture Mechanics, Crack Propagation and Microhardness Studies on Flux Grown ErAlO3 Single Crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Results on fracture mechanics and crack propagation have been obtained, making use of Vickers microhardness studies on two different crystallographic planes [(110) and (001)] of flux grown erbium aluminate crystals in the load ranging from 10～100 g. The variation of microhardness with load which is best explained by Hays and Kendall's law leads to the load independent values of hardness. Classification of cracks is dealt with and it is reported that the transition from Palmqvist to median types of cracks occurs at higher loads. The values of fracture toughness (Kc), and brittleness index (Bi) are calculated using median types of cracks.
NEW METHOD FOR MEASURING RANDOM THRESHOLDS F LONG FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yong-xiang; YANG Bing; LIANG Hong-qin; WU Ping-bo; ZENG Jing
2005-01-01
A so-called "local probabilistic Paris relation method" was presented for measuring the random thresholds of long fatigue crack propagation. A check was made to the conventional method, in which the thresholds were measured statistically and directly by the test data. It was revealed that this method was not reasonable because the test data have seldom a unified level of crack growth rates. Differently,in the presented method the Paris-Erdogan equation was applied to model the local test data around the thresholds. Local probabilistic relations with both the survival probability and the confidence were established on a lognormal distribution of the stress density factors.And then, the probabilistic thresholds were derived from the probabilistic factors with a given critical level of growth rate. An analysis on the test data of LZ50 axle steel for the Chinese railway vehicles verifies that the present method is feasible and available.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Interface Crack Propagation in Foam Cored Sandwich Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Borum, Kaj Kvisgård
2007-01-01
This article deals with the prediction of debonding between core and face sheet in foam-cored sandwich structures. It describes the development, validation, and application of a FEM-based numerical model for the prediction of the propagation of debond damage. The structural mechanics is considered...... to be geometrically nonlinear while the local fracture mechanics problem is assumed to be linear. The presented numerical procedure for the local fracture mechanics is a further development of the crack surface displacement method, here denoted as the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. The considered...... application example is to tear off one of the face laminates from the sandwich. This configuration can be found in many applications but is considered here to be occurring in a ship structure, particularly at the hard spot where the superstructure meets the deck. Face tearing experiments are carried out...
A study of spectrum fatigue crack propagation in two aluminum alloys. 1: Spectrum simplification
Telesman, J.; Antolovich, S. D.
1985-01-01
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of two commercial Al alloys was studied using spectrum loading conditions characteristics of those encountered at critical locations in high performance fighter aircraft. A tension dominated (TD) and tension compression (TC) spectrum were employed for each alloy. Using a mechanics-based analysis, it was suggested that negative loads could be eliminated for the TC spectrum for low to intermediate maximum stress intensities. The suggestion was verified by subsequent testing. Using fractographic evidence, it was suggested that a further similification in the spectra could be accomplished by eliminating low and intermediate peak load points resulting in near or below threshold maximum peak stress intensity values. It is concluded that load interactions become more important at higher stress intensities and more plasticity at the crack tip. These results suggest that a combined mechanics/fractographic mechanisms approach can be used to simplify other complex spectra.
Telesman, J.; Antolovich, S. D.
1985-01-01
The important metallurgical factors that influence both constant amplitude and spectrum crack growth behavior in aluminum alloys were investigated. The effect of microstructural features such as grain size, inclusions, and dispersoids was evaluated. It was shown that a lower stress intensities, the I/M 7050 alloy showed better fatigue crack propagation (FCP) resistance than P/M 7091 alloy for both constant amplitude and spectrum testing. It was suggested that the most important microstructural variable accounting for superior FCP resistance of 7050 alloy is its large grain size. It was further postulated that the inhomogenous planar slip and large grain size of 7050 limit dislocation interactions and thus increase slip reversibility which improves FCP performance. The hypothesis was supported by establishing that the cyclic strain hardening exponent for the 7091 alloy is higher than that of 7050.
Ponson, Laurent; Pindra, Nadjime
2017-05-01
The dynamics of a planar crack propagating within a brittle disordered material is investigated numerically. The fracture front evolution is described as the depinning of an elastic line in a random field of toughness. The relevance of this approach is critically tested through the comparison of the roughness front properties, the statistics of avalanches, and the local crack velocity distribution with experimental results. Our simulations capture the main features of the fracture front evolution as measured experimentally. However, some experimental observations such as the velocity distribution are not consistent with the behavior of an elastic line close to the depinning transition. This discrepancy suggests the presence of another failure mechanism not included in our model of brittle failure.
Cyclic Deformation Behavior and Fatigue Crack Propagation of Low Carbon Steel Prestrained in Tension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. G. Wang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The tests were performed on low carbon steel plate. In the tension fatigue tests, two angle values (ϕ=0° and ϕ=45°, ϕ is the angle between the loading and the rolling direction have been chosen. The influence of strain path change on the subsequent initial work softening rate and the saturation stress has been investigated. Dislocation microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the strain amount of preloading in tension has obviously affected the cyclic softening phenomenon and the initial cyclic softening rate. It was observed that the reloading axial stress for ϕ=45° case increased more than that of ϕ=0° case, due to the anisotropism of Q235. In the fatigue crack propagation tests, the experimental results show that with increasing the pretension deformation degree, the fatigue crack growth rate increases, especially at the near threshold section.
Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2013-01-01
The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.
Impact Delamination and Fracture in Aluminum/Acrylic Sandwich Plates
Liaw, Benjamin; Zeichner, Glenn; Liu, Yanxiong; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Impact-induced delamination and fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy were generated in an instrumented drop-weight impact machine. Although only a small dent was produced on the aluminum side when a hemispherical penetrator tup was dropped onto it from a couple of inches, a large ring of delamination at the interface was observed. The delamination damage was often accompanied by severe shattering in the acrylic substratum. Damage patterns in the acrylic layer include radial and ring cracks and, together with delamination at the interface, may cause peeling-off of acrylic material from the sandwich plate. Theory of stress-wave propagation can be used to explain these damage patterns. The impact tests were conducted at various temperatures. The results also show clearly that temperature effect is very important in impact damage. For pure cast acrylic nil-ductile transition (NDT) occurs between 185-195 F. Excessive impact energy was dissipated into fracture energy when tested at temperature below this range or through plastic deformation when tested at temperature above the NDT temperature. Results from this study will be used as baseline data for studying fiber-metal laminates, such as GLARE and ARALL for advanced aeronautical and astronautical applications.
Simulation of Interfacial Corner Cracks in Bimaterial Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2012-01-01
. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters that include the strain energy release rate, crack front profiles and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front. A numerical approach is then applied for coupling the far field solutions utilizing......, a custom quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stress as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms...... of crack front profiles and the critical stresses, which can then be used as the framework for modeling reliability of advanced interconnects system....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Dae-Hwan; Hwang, Woong-Ki; Kim, Jae-Seong; Lee, Sang-Yul; Lee, Bo-Young [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
2008-05-15
Thermal fatigue crack is one of the life-limiting mechanisms in nuclear power plant conditions. During the operation of a power plant thermal fatigue cracks can initiate and grow in various components (straight pipe sections, valve bodies, pipe elbows, and collector head screw holes). Causes for this are mixing, striping or stratification of hot and cold water. A typical component, where thermal fatigue cracking occurs, is a T-joint where hot and cold fluids meet and mix. The turbulent mixing of fluids with different temperatures induces rapid temperature changes to the pipe wall. The resulting uneven temperature distribution prevents thermal expansion and gives rise to thermal stresses. The successive thermal transients cause varying, cyclic thermal stresses. These cyclic thermal stresses cause fatigue crack initiation and growth similar to cyclic mechanical stresses. In order to fabricate thermal fatigue crack similar to realistic crack, successive thermal transients were applied to the specimen. In this study, in order to identify propagation characteristic of thermal fatigue crack, thermal fatigue crack specimens of 4000cycle, 6000cycle, 9000cycle were fabricated. Thermal transient cycles were combined with heating (60sec) and cooling cycle (30sec). Destructive testing and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to identify the crack propagation characteristic and fracture surface morphology.
Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K L Singh; B Dattaguru; T S Ramamurthy; P D Mangalgiri
2000-08-01
Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria. Large deformation analysis is necessary to cater for excessive rotational deformations in the delaminated sublaminate. Modified Virtual Crack Closure Integral (MVCCI) is used to estimate all the three SERR components at the delamination front from the finite element output containing displacements, strains and stresses. The applied loading conditions are particularly critical and compressive loading on the panel could lead to buckling of the delaminated sublaminate and consequent growth of delamination. Numerical results are presented for circular delamination of varioussizes and delamination at various interfaces (varying depth-wise location) between the base- and the sub-laminates. Numerical data are also presented on the effect of bi-axial loading and in particular on compressive loading in both directions. The results can be used to estimate delamination tolerance at various depths (or at various interfaces) in the laminate.
Inhibition of environmental fatigue crack propagation in age-hardenable aluminum alloys
Warner, Jenifer S.
Age-hardenable aluminum alloys, such as C47A-T86 (Al-Cu-Li) and 7075-T651 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu), used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environment assisted fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) by hydrogen environment embrittlement. This research demonstrates effective inhibition of EFCP in C47A-T86 and 7075-T651 under both full immersion in aqueous chloride solution and atmospheric exposure which more accurately describes aircraft service conditions. Inhibition is attributed to the presence of a crack tip passive film reducing H production and uptake, as explained by the film rupture-hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, and can be accomplished through both addition of a passivating ion (ion-assisted inhibition) and localized-alloy corrosion creating passivating conditions (self inhibition). Addition of molybdate to both bulk chloride solution and surface chloride droplets eliminates the effect of environment on fatigue crack propagation in C47A-T86 and 7075-1651 at sufficiently low loading frequencies and high stress ratio by yielding crack growth rates equivalent to those for fatigue in ultra high vacuum. The preeminent corrosion inhibitor, chromate, has not been reported to produce such complete inhibition. Inhibition is promoted by reduced loading frequency, increased crack tip molybdate concentration, and potential at or anodic to free corrosion; each of which favors passivity. The inhibiting effect of molybdate parallels chromate, establishing molybdate as a viable chromate replacement inhibitor. The ability of molybdate to inhibit EFCP is enhanced by atmospheric exposures producing surface electrolyte droplets; crack growth rates are reduced by an order of magnitude under loading frequencies as high as 30 Hz, a frequency at which inhibition was not possible under full immersion. Al-Cu-Mg/Li alloys, including 2024-T351, are capable of self inhibition of EFCP. This behavior is attributed to localized corrosion through dealloying of anodic Al2CuMg or Al2Cu
Influence of nano-inclusions' grain boundaries on crack propagation modes in materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karakasidis, T.E., E-mail: thkarak@uth.gr [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38834 Volos (Greece); Charitidis, C.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, 9 Heroon Polytechniou st., Zografos, 157 80 Athens (Greece)
2011-04-15
The effect of nano-inclusions on materials' strength and toughness has attracted great interest in recent years. It has been shown that tuning the morphological and microstructural features of materials can tailor their fracture modes. The existence of a characteristic size of inclusions that favours the fracture mode (i.e. transgranular or intergranular) has been experimentally observed but also predicted by a 2D model based on energetic arguments which relates the crack propagation mode to the ratio of the interface area between the crystalline inclusion and the matrix with the area of the crystallite inclusion in a previous work. In the present work, a 3D model is proposed in order to extend the 2D model and take into account the influence of the size of grain boundary zone on the toughening/hardening behavior of the material as it was observed experimentally in the literature. The model relates crack propagation mode to the ratio of the volume of the grain boundary zone between the crystalline inclusion and the matrix with the volume of the nano-inclusion. For a ratio below a critical value, transgranular propagation is favoured while for larger values, intergranular propagation is favoured. We also demonstrate that the extent of the grain boundary region also can significantly affect this critical value. The results of the model are in agreement with the literature experimental observations related to the toughening/hardening behavior as a function of the size of crystalline inclusions as well as the width of the grain boundary regions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva Diniz, D.; Almeida Silva, A. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB (Brazil); Andrade Barbosa, J.M. [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife-PE (Brazil); Palma Carrasco, J.
2012-05-15
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the effect of hydrogen atomic diffusion on fatigue crack propagation on structural steels. The simulation was performed with a specimen type CT of API 5CT P110 steel, loaded in the tensile opening mode, in plane strain state and under the effects of a cyclic mechanical load and the hydrogen concentration at the crack tip. As hydrogen source, a cathodic protection system was considered, commonly used in subsea pipelines. The equations of evolution of variables at the crack tip form a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations that was solved by means of the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The solid-solid diffusion through the lattice ahead of the crack tip was simulated using the finite difference method. The simulations results show that under these conditions, the fatigue crack evolution process is enhanced by the hydrogen presence in the material, and that the start time of the crack propagation decreases as its concentration increases. These results show good correlation and consistency with macroscopic observations, providing a better understanding of hydrogen embrittlement in fatigue crack propagation processes in structural steels. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A Damage Model for the Simulation of Delamination in Advanced Composites under Variable-Mode Loading
Turon, A.; Camanho, P. P.; Costa, J.; Davila, C. G.
2006-01-01
A thermodynamically consistent damage model is proposed for the simulation of progressive delamination in composite materials under variable-mode ratio. The model is formulated in the context of Damage Mechanics. A novel constitutive equation is developed to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. A delamination initiation criterion is proposed to assure that the formulation can account for changes in the loading mode in a thermodynamically consistent way. The formulation accounts for crack closure effects to avoid interfacial penetration of two adjacent layers after complete decohesion. The model is implemented in a finite element formulation, and the numerical predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in both composite test specimens and structural components.
A Simulation Method for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using a Cohesive Zone Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Turon, A.; Lindgaard, Esben;
2016-01-01
on parameter fitting of any kind. The method has been implemented as a zero-thickness eight-node interface element for Abaqus and as a spring element for a simple finite element model in MATLAB. The method has been validated in simulations of mode I, mode II, and mixed-mode crack loading for both self......A novel computational method for simulating fatigue-driven mixed-mode delamination cracks in laminated structures under cyclic loading is presented. The proposed fatigue method is based on linking a cohesive zone model for quasi-static crack growth and a Paris' law-like model described......-similar and non-self-similar crack propagation. The method produces highly accurate results compared with currently available methods and is capable of simulating general mixed-mode non-self-similar crack growth problems....
3D numerical analysis of crack propagation of heterogeneous notched rock under uniaxial tension
Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.; Sheng, D. C.; Tang, C. A.
2016-05-01
Macroscopic notches play an important role in evaluating the fracture process zone (FPZ) and the strengths of a heterogeneous rock mass. Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence for unnotched, single-notched and double-notched rock specimens are numerically simulated in a 3-D numerical model (RFPA3D). A feature of the code RFPA3D is that it can numerically simulate the evolution of cracks in three-dimensional space, as well as the heterogeneity of the rock mass. For the unnotched case, special attention is given to the complete stress-strain curve and the corresponding AE events for the failure process of rock specimen. By comparing with published experimental results, the simulation results from RFPA3D are found to be satisfactory. For the single-notched case, the effect of the length and the depth of the single notch and the thickness of the specimen on the failure mode and peak stress are evaluated. The 3D FPZ is very different from that in two dimensions. For the double-notched case, the effects of the separation distance and overlap distance of the double notches, as well as influence of the homogeneity index (m) are also investigated. As the overlap distance increases, the direction of the principal tensile stress at each notch-end changes from a perpendicular direction (tensile stress field) to a nearly parallel direction (compressive stress field), which affects the evolution of the cracks from the two notches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bannikov, Mikhail, E-mail: mbannikov@icmm.ru, E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru, E-mail: naimark@icmm.ru; Oborin, Vladimir, E-mail: mbannikov@icmm.ru, E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru, E-mail: naimark@icmm.ru; Naimark, Oleg, E-mail: mbannikov@icmm.ru, E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru, E-mail: naimark@icmm.ru [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UrB RAS, Perm, 614013 (Russian Federation)
2014-11-14
Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ∼300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.
Application of digital radiography in evaluation of crack propagation rate in cast steel specimens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sikora
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A technology that utilizes penetrating X-rays is one of the oldest non-destructive testing methods. Digital radiography combines modern digital image processing algorithms with traditional X-ray testing method. The following paper describes the present use of digital radiograms in flaw detection, and the use of identification and classification algorithms in detection of cracks that occur under the effect of thermal fatigue process in creep-resistant steel castings operating as structural elements in heat treatment furnaces. The number and length of cracks formed in specimens of Ø37×5 mm dimensions as a result of shock heating and cooling was evaluated. The test alloy was austenitic cast steel of 30Ni-18Cr type, containing 1.75% Nb and 0.93% Ti (wt.%. It has been indicated that the applied methods of non-destructive testing using digital radiography are fully successful in evaluation of the fatigue crack propagation rate in steel castings.
Schweizer, Jürg; Reuter, Benjamin; van Herwijnen, Alec; Richter, Bettina; Gaume, Johan
2016-11-01
If a weak snow layer below a cohesive slab is present in the snow cover, unstable snow conditions can prevail for days or even weeks. We monitored the temporal evolution of a weak layer of faceted crystals as well as the overlaying slab layers at the location of an automatic weather station in the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps). We focussed on the crack propagation propensity and performed propagation saw tests (PSTs) on 7 sampling days during a 2-month period from early January to early March 2015. Based on video images taken during the tests we determined the mechanical properties of the slab and the weak layer and compared them to the results derived from concurrently performed measurements of penetration resistance using the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). The critical cut length, observed in PSTs, increased overall during the measurement period. The increase was not steady and the lowest values of critical cut length were observed around the middle of the measurement period. The relevant mechanical properties, the slab effective elastic modulus and the weak layer specific fracture, overall increased as well. However, the changes with time differed, suggesting that the critical cut length cannot be assessed by simply monitoring a single mechanical property such as slab load, slab modulus or weak layer specific fracture energy. Instead, crack propagation propensity is the result of a complex interplay between the mechanical properties of the slab and the weak layer. We then compared our field observations to newly developed metrics of snow instability related to either failure initiation or crack propagation propensity. The metrics were either derived from the SMP signal or calculated from simulated snow stratigraphy (SNOWPACK). They partially reproduced the observed temporal evolution of critical cut length and instability test scores. Whereas our unique dataset of quantitative measures of snow instability provides new insights into the
Mode Mixity for Orthotropic Interface Delamination in Laminated Composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Xue-ling; SUN Qin; YUAN Mei-ni; Masanori Kikuchi
2009-01-01
The mode mixity is defined based on nonoscillatory strain energy release rate components of delamination between two different orthotropic materials to evaluate the delamination behavior of laminated composites.The result showes that the relative location of the delamination through the thickness influences the mode mixity in a relatively well-regulated way,and that the reinforcement directions of the adjacent plies along the delamination front have a more complicated impact on the mode mixity.This is caused by the bending/twist coupling and bending/bending coupling in the stress field at the crack tip for delamination between multidirectional plies,which completely modifies the stress and strain fields ahead of the crack tip.These kinds of couplings account for the non-uniform distribution of mode mixity values along the delamination front.Application of appropriate mode mixity values is necessary for accurate prediction of delamination growth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Jiling
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Spur gears are one of the commonly used transmission parts in industry, due to its simplicity in structures and low cost in manufacturing. Due to a performance requirement, a spur gear may be coated with a specific coating arrangement. Under working conditions, the coating on the teeth may be damaged due to contact fatigue, in the forms such as micro-pitting and/or delamination. The failure mechanism of the coated surface under the gearing contact loading has been investigated intensively through experiment. A comprehensive computational model, which could be used to investigate the propagation of cracks in the coated surfaces, is still lacking. In the research reported in this paper, several finite element modelling techniques, including that for submodelling and irreversible cohesive zone modelling (CZM, have been developed to investigate the failure mechanisms of the coated surfaces of gears under the gearing contact fatigue loading. These techniques not only allow the localized stresses distribution and deformation in the interested locations in the coating and the substrate to be investigated in detail but also enable visual observation on the development of fatigue damages in the coating.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spear, A. D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City UT USA; Hochhalter, J. D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA USA; Cerrone, A. R. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna NY USA; Li, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Lind, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Suter, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA USA; Ingraffea, A. R. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA
2016-04-27
In an effort to reproduce computationally the observed evolution of microstructurally small fatigue cracks (MSFCs), a method is presented for generating conformal, finite-element (FE), volume meshes from 3D measurements of MSFC propagation. The resulting volume meshes contain traction-free surfaces that conform to incrementally measured 3D crack shapes. Grain morphologies measured using near-field high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy are also represented within the FE volume meshes. Proof-of-concept simulations are performed to demonstrate the utility of the mesh-generation method. The proof-of-concept simulations employ a crystal-plasticity constitutive model and are performed using the conformal FE meshes corresponding to successive crack-growth increments. Although the simulations for each crack increment are currently independent of one another, they need not be, and transfer of material-state information among successive crack-increment meshes is discussed. The mesh-generation method was developed using post-mortem measurements, yet it is general enough that it can be applied to in-situ measurements of 3D MSFC propagation.
Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing
2012-04-01
An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Jun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical simulation procedure to model crack propagation in TGO layer and TGO growth near a surface groove in metal substrate upon multiple thermal-mechanical cycles. The material property change method is employed to model TGO formation cycle by cycle, and the creep properties for constituent materials are also incorporated. Two columns of repeated nodes are placed along the interface of the potential crack, and these nodes are bonded together as one node at a geometrical location. In terms of critical crack opening displacement criterion, onset of crack propagation in TGO layer has been determined by finite element analyses in comparison with that without predefined crack. Then, according to the results from the previous analyses, the input values for the critical failure parameters for the subsequent analyses can be decided. The robust capabilities of restart analysis in ABAQUS help to implement the overall simulation for TGO crack propagation. The comparison of the TGO final deformation profile between numerical and experimental observation shows a good agreement indicating the correctness and effectiveness of the present procedure, which can guide the prediction of the failure in TGO for the future design and optimization for TBC system.
Taisne, B.; Tait, S.
2009-06-01
When a volume of magma is released from a source at depth, one key question is whether or not this will culminate in an eruption or in the emplacement of a shallow intrusion. We address some of the physics behind this question by describing and interpreting laboratory experiments on the propagation of cracks filled with fixed volumes of buoyant liquid in a brittle, elastic host. Experiments were isothermal, and the liquid was incompressible. The cracks propagated vertically because of liquid buoyancy but were then found to come to a halt at a configuration of static mechanical equilibrium, a result that is inconsistent with the prediction of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics in two dimensions. We interpret this result as due to a three-dimensional effect. At the curved crack front, horizontal cracking is necessary in order for vertical propagation to take place. As the crack elongates and thins, the former becomes progressively harder and, in the end, impossible to fracture. We present a scaling law for the final length and breadth of cracks as a function of a governing dimensionless parameter, constructed from the liquid volume, the buoyancy, and host fracture toughness. An important implication of this result is that a minimum volume of magma is required for a volcanic eruption to occur for a given depth of magma reservoir.
Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan
2017-03-01
Tensile deformation of nanoscale bicrystal nickel film with twist grain boundary, which includes various twist angles, is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation to obtain the influence of twist angle on crack propagation. The twist angle has a significant influence on crack propagation. At the tensile strain of 0.667, as for the twist angles of 0°, 3.54° and 7.05°, the bicrystal nickel films are subjected to complete fracture, while as for the twist angles of 16.1° and 33.96°, no complete fracture occurs in the bicrystal nickel films. When the twist angles are 16.1° and 33.96°, the dislocations emitted from the crack tip are almost unable to go across the grain boundary and enter into the other grain along the slip planes {111}. There should appear a critical twist angle above which the crack propagation is suppressed at the grain boundary. The higher energy in the grain boundary with larger twist angle contributes to facilitating the movement of the glissile dislocation along the grain boundary rather than across the grain boundary, which leads to the propagation of the crack along the grain boundary.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Hjalte Sylvest; Puig-Molina, A.; Dalskov, N.
2016-01-01
properly, cracks may arise and propagate during the sintering of the tablets. This can lead to weak sintered tablets that get rejected in the quality control. For this work, crack-containing samples of rejected tabletized support were provided. The formation, growth and closure of internal cracks during......For hydrogen production, by steam reforming, porous ceramics are broadly used as catalyst support, due to their stability and ease in shaping. Catalyst supports in the form of tablets are conventionally produced by powder pressing and subsequent sintering. However, if the process is not done...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.Citarella
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An edge crack propagation in a steel bar of circular cross-section undergoing multiaxial fatigue loads is simulated by Finite Element Method (FEM. The variation of crack growth behaviour is studied under axial and combined in phase axial+torsional fatigue loading. Results show that the cyclic Mode III loading superimposed on the cyclic Mode I leads to a fatigue life reduction. Numerical calculations are performed using the FEM software ZENCRACK to determine the crack path and fatigue life. The FEM numerical predictions have been compared against corresponding experimental and numerical data, available from literature, getting satisfactory consistency.
Comparison of Crack Initiation, Propagation and Coalescence Behavior of Concrete and Rock Materials
Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal
2017-04-01
There are many previously studies carried out to identify crack initiation, propagation and coalescence behavior of different type of rocks. Most of these studies aimed to understand and predict the probable instabilities on different engineering structures such as mining galleries or tunnels. For this purpose, in these studies relatively smaller natural rock and synthetic rock-like models were prepared and then the required laboratory tests were performed to obtain their strength parameters. By using results provided from these models, researchers predicted the rock mass behavior under different conditions. However, in the most of these studies, rock materials and models were considered as contains none or very few discontinuities and structural flaws. It is well known that rock masses naturally are extremely complex with respect to their discontinuities conditions and thus it is sometimes very difficult to understand and model their physical and mechanical behavior. In addition, some vuggy rock materials such as basalts and limestones also contain voids and gaps having various geometric properties. Providing that the failure behavior of these type of rocks controlled by the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence formed from their natural voids and gaps, the effect of these voids and gaps over failure behavior of rocks should be investigated. Intact rocks are generally preferred due to relatively easy side of their homogeneous characteristics in numerical modelling phases. However, it is very hard to extract intact samples from vuggy rocks because of their complex pore sizes and distributions. In this study, the feasibility of concrete samples to model and mimic the failure behavior vuggy rocks was investigated. For this purpose, concrete samples were prepared at a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water and their physical and mechanical properties were determined by laboratory experiments. The obtained physical and mechanical properties were used to
Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang
2016-08-01
It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.
Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.
2015-12-01
Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of conduits and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a conduit with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the conduit and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the conduit, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the conduit-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the conduit and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.
Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.
2014-04-01
Tungsten is a promising candidate for the plasma-facing components of a future fusion reactor, but its use is strongly restricted by its inherent brittleness. An innovative concept to overcome this problem is tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite. In this paper we present the first mechanical test of such a composite material using a sample containing multiple fibres. The in situ fracture experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope for close observation of the propagating crack. Stable crack propagation accompanied with rising load bearing capacity is observed. The fracture toughness is estimated using the test results and the surface observation.
裂纹扩展阻裂在边坡加固中的应用%The Application of the Crack Propagation Crack Resistance in Slope Reinforcement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁月华; 胡屈强; 陈君
2013-01-01
Article by introducing the fracture damage mechanics crack propagation crack resistance theory, the slope before and after the prestressed anchor cable safety factor changes and changes in the sliding surface . ABAQUS software to create a two-dimensional slope model , by comparison, prestressing , an increase of the deformation energy of the surface to form a new crack surface and crack promote the process so that the crack is not easy to continue to develop , indicate that the prestressed anchor cable to prevent cracks carried out in the initial sliding surface effect is very signifcant .% 文章通过介绍断裂损伤力学中裂纹扩展阻裂理论，分析边坡在施加预应力锚索前后，边坡的安全系数变化情况及滑动面变动。通过abaqus软件建立二维边坡模型，通过对比发现，预应力施加以后，增加了形成新裂纹表面的表面能和裂纹推进过程中的形变能，使得裂纹不易继续发展，表明预应力锚索阻止裂纹在初始滑动面的开展效果是十分显著的。
Ohmura, Etsuji; Kawahito, Yuta; Fukumitsu, Kenshi; Okuma, Junji; Morita, Hideki
2011-02-01
Stealth dicing (SD) is an innovative dicing method developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In the SD method, a permeable nanosecond laser is focused inside a silicon wafer and scanned horizontally. A thermal shock wave propagates every pulse toward the side to which the laser is irradiated, then a high dislocation density layer is formed inside the wafer after the thermal shock wave propagation. In our previous study, it was concluded that an internal crack whose initiation is a dislocation is propagated when the thermal shock wave by the next pulse overlaps with this layer partially. In the experimental result, the trace that a crack is progressed gradually step by step was observed. In this study, the possibility of internal crack propagation by laser pulses was investigated. A two-dimensional thermal stress analysis based on the linear fracture mechanics was conducted using the stress distribution obtained by the axisymmetric thermal stress analysis. As a result, the validity of the hypothesis based on a heat transfer analysis result previously presented was supported. Also it was concluded that the internal crack is propagated by at least two pulses.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joki, R. K.; Grytten, F.; Hayman, Brian
2016-01-01
-scale bridging and the multi-axial state of stress in the test specimen. The fracture resistance is calculated from the applied moments, the elastic material properties and the geometry of the test specimen. The cohesive law is then determined in a three step procedure: 1) Obtain the bridging law...... that the changing state of stress and deformation across the width of the test specimen is taken into account. The changing state of stress and deformation across the specimen width is shown to be significant for small openings (small fracture process zone size). This will also be important for the initial part......The cohesive law for Mode I delamination in glass fibre Non-Crimped Fabric reinforced vinylester is determined for use in finite element models. The cohesive law is derived from a delamination test based on DCB specimens loaded with pure bending moments taking into account the presence of large...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the aerospace and aviation sectors, the damage tolerance concept has been applied widely so that the modeling analysis of fatigue crack growth has become more and more significant. Since the process of crack propagation is highly nonlinear and determined by many factors, such as applied stress, plastic zone in the crack tip, length of the crack, etc., it is difficult to build up a general and flexible explicit function to accurately quantify this complicated relationship. Fortunately, the artificial neural network (ANN is considered a powerful tool for establishing the nonlinear multivariate projection which shows potential in handling the fatigue crack problem. In this paper, a novel fatigue crack calculation algorithm based on a radial basis function (RBF-ANN is proposed to study this relationship from the experimental data. In addition, a parameter called the equivalent stress intensity factor is also employed as training data to account for loading interaction effects. The testing data is then placed under constant amplitude loading with different stress ratios or overloads used for model validation. Moreover, the Forman and Wheeler equations are also adopted to compare with our proposed algorithm. The current investigation shows that the ANN-based approach can deliver a better agreement with the experimental data than the other two models, which supports that the RBF-ANN has nontrivial advantages in handling the fatigue crack growth problem. Furthermore, it implies that the proposed algorithm is possibly a sophisticated and promising method to compute fatigue crack growth in terms of loading interaction effects.
CRACK PROPAGATION IN POLYCRYSTALLINE ELASTIC-VISCOPLASTIC MATERIALS USING COHESIVE ZONE MODELS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Cohesive zone model was used to simulate two-dimensional plane strain crack propagation at the grain level model including grain boundary zones. Simulated results show that the original crack-tip may not be separated firstly in an elastic-viscoplastic polycrystals. The grain interior's material properties (e.g. strain rate sensitivity) characterize the competitions between plastic and cohesive energy dissipation mechanisms.The higher the strain rate sensitivity is, the larger amount of the external work is transformed into plastic dissipation energy than into cohesive energy, which delays the cohesive zone rupturing. With the strain rate sensitivity decreased, the material property tends to approach the elastic-plastic responses. In this case, the plastic dissipation energy decreases and the cohesive dissipation energy increases which accelerates the cohesive zones debonding. Increasing the cohesive strength or the critical separation displacement will reduce the stress triaxiality at grain interiors and grain boundaries. Enhancing the cohesive zones ductility can improve the matrix materials resistance to void damage.
Mode I and mixed I/III crack initiation and propagation behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy at 25{degrees}C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-04-01
The mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture behavior of the production-scale heat (No. 832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated at 25{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens for a mode I crack and modified CT specimens for a mixed-mode I/III crack. The mode III to mode I load ratio was 0.47. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h after final machining. Both mode I and mixed-mode I/III specimens were fatigue cracked prior to J-integral testing. It was noticed that the mixed-mode I/III crack angle decreased from an initial 25 degrees to approximately 23 degrees due to crack plane rotation during fatigue cracking. No crack plane rotation occurred in the mode I specimen. The crack initiation and propagation behavior was evaluated by generating J-R curves. Due to the high ductility of this alloy and the limited specimen thickness (6.35 mm), plane strain requirements were not met so valid critical J-integral values were not obtained. However, it was found that the crack initiation and propagation behavior was significantly different between the mode I and the mixed-mode I/III specimens. In the mode I specimen crack initiation did not occur, only extensive crack tip blunting due to plastic deformation. During J-integral testing the mixed-mode crack rotated to an increased crack angle (in contrast to fatigue precracking) by crack blunting. When the crack initiated, the crack angle was about 30 degrees. After crack initiation the crack plane remained at 30 degrees until the test was completed. Mixed-mode crack initiation was difficult, but propagation was easy. The fracture surface of the mixed-mode specimen was characterized by microvoid coalescence.
Transient cracks and triple junctions induced by Cocos-Nazca propagating rift
Schouten, H.; Smith, D. K.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Mitchell, G. A.; Cann, J. R.
2009-12-01
The Galapagos triple junction is a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction where the Cocos, Nazca, and Pacific plates meet around the Galapagos microplate (GMP). On the Cocos plate, north of the large gore that marks the propagating Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, a 250-km-long and 50-km-wide band of NW-SE-trending cracks crosscuts the N-S-trending abyssal hills of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These appear as a succession of minor rifts, accommodating some NE-SW extension of EPR-generated seafloor. The rifts successively intersected the EPR in triple junctions at distances of 50-100 km north of the tip of the C-N Rift. We proposed a simple crack interaction model to explain the location of the transient rifts and their junction with the EPR. The model predicts that crack locations are controlled by the stress perturbation along the EPR, induced by the dominant C-N Rift, and scaled by the distance of its tip to the EPR (Schouten et al., 2008). The model also predicts that tensile stresses are symmetric about the C-N Rift and thus, similar cracks should have occurred south of the C-N Rift prior to formation of the GMP about 1 Ma. There were no data at the time to test this prediction. In early 2009 (AT 15-41), we mapped an area on the Nazca plate south of the C-N rift out to 4 Ma. The new bathymetric data confirm the existence of a distinctive pattern of cracks south of the southern C-N gore that mirrors the pattern on the Cocos plate until about 1 Ma, and lends support to the crack interaction model. The envelope of the symmetric cracking pattern indicates that the distance between the C-N Rift tip and the EPR varied between 40 and 65 km during this time (1-4 Ma). The breakdown of the symmetry at 1 Ma accurately dates the onset of a southern plate boundary of the GMP, now Dietz Deep Rift. At present, the southern rift boundary of the GMP joins the EPR with a steep-sided, 80 km long ridge. This ridge releases the stress perturbation otherwise induced along the EPR by elastic
Crack barriers improve the mechanical and thermal properties of non-metallic sinter materials
Gruenthaler, K. H.; Heinrich, W.; Janes, S.; Nixdorf, J.
1979-01-01
Means of improving the tensile strength of ceramic composites by introducing ductile intermediate layers capable of absorbing the elastic energy at the rupture front are studied. Tests with an Al203 laminate with niobium inclusions showed that crack propagation could be successfully precluded by dissipation of the energy by deformation and/or delamination at the inclusion/matrix interface.
Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca
2017-08-01
The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.
Hedan, S.; Pop, O.; Valle, V.; Cottron, M.
2006-08-01
We propose in this paper, to analyse, the evolution of out-of-plane displacement fields for a crack propagation in brittle materials. As the crack propagation is a complex process that involves the deformation mechanisms, the out-of-plane displacement measurement gives pertinent information about the 3D effects. For investigation, we use the interferometric method. The optical device includes a laser source, a Michelson interferometer and an ultra high-speed CCD camera. To take into account the crack velocity, we dispose of a maximum frame rate of 1Mfps. The experimental tests have been carried out for a SEN (Single Edge Notch) specimen of PMMA material. The crack propagation is initiated by adding a dynamic energy given by the impact of a cutter on the initial crack. The obtained interferograms are analysed with a new phase extraction method entitled MPC [6]. This analysis, which has been developed specially for dynamic studies, gives the out-of-plane displacement with an accuracy of about 10 nm.
SRμCT study of crack propagation within laser-welded aluminum-alloy T-joints
Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Riekehr, S.; Bayraktar, F. S.; Haibel, A.; Staron, P.; Donath, T.; Utcke, S.; Kocak, M.; Schreyer, A.
2008-08-01
Using laser welding in fabrication of metallic airframes reduces the weight and hence fuel consumption. Currently only limited parts of the airframes are welded. To increase laser beam welded parts, there is the need for a better understanding of crack propagation and crack-pore interaction within the welds. Laser beam welded Al-alloys may contain isolated small process pores and their role and interaction with growing crack need to be investigated. The present paper presents the first results of a crack propagation study in laser beam welded (LBW) Al-alloy T-joints using synchrotron radiation based micro computed tomography (SRμCT). A region-of-interest technique was used, since the specimens exceeded the field of view of the X-ray detector. As imaging with high density resolution at high photon energies is very challenging, a feasibility measurement on a small laser weld, cut cylindrically from the welded region of a T-joint, was done before starting the crack-propagation study. This measurement was performed at the beamline HARWI-II at DESY to demonstrate the potential of the SRμCT as non-destructive testing method. The result has shown a high density resolution, hence, the different Al alloys used in the T-joint and the weld itself were clearly separated. The quantitative image analysis of the 3D data sets allows visualizing non-destructively and calculating the pore size distribution.
Effect of oxidation on delamination of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components.
Bell, C J; Walker, P S; Abeysundera, M R; Simmons, J M; King, P M; Blunn, G W
1998-04-01
Whether oxidation of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) causes delamination of the plastic in total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) was investigated. Examination of retrieved TKAs has shown that oxidation of UHMWPE can be caused by postirradiation damage leading to a subsurface band or, to a lesser extent, by mechanical forces during use leading to surface oxidation. Delamination cracks propagated through the subsurface oxidized band. In wear tests, delamination occurred in artificially aged UHMWPE where only subsurface oxidized bands had formed. Increased surface wear predominated where oxidation was associated with the surface of the plastic. Similarly, in tensile and fatigue tests of oxidized UHMWPE, there was a significant reduction in the ultimate tensile strength and in the fatigue resistance of specimens that had developed a subsurface band. Oxidation increased fatigue crack growth rate. It was observed that UHMWPE from different manufacturers varied in its resistance to oxidation. This study demonstrates that the effect of oxidation, which results in the development of a subsurface white band, combined with high subsurface shear forces observed in TKAs, is to enhance delamination wear.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何家胜; 李超; 朱晓明; 陈伟; 路远明; 杨峰
2013-01-01
To explore the influence of hydrogen corrosion delaminating crack on the mechanical properties and bearing capacity in operation of the layered heat exchanger shell, the material capability of layered heat exchanger shell was analyzed by using chemical constituents analysis, hardness test, tensile tests, Charpy V-notch pendulum impact test. The finite element method was used to calculate the stress distribution of heat exchanger shell and to discuss the stress intensity factors of crack tip. The results show that the Mn element is lower in the chemical constituents, other elements accord with the National Standards; the material hardness meets the requirements, but the toughness declines obviously. The material of heat layered exchanger shell is deteriorated by the hydrogen corrosion, which destroys the continuity and uniformity of the material, decreases the ultimate strength, but increases the yield-strength ratio. The film stress state is destroyed, and material resistance to crack growth decreases. The hydrogen corrosion delaminating crack causes biggish partial stress and makes bearing capacity of the heat exchanger shell decrease.%为了解换热器筒体发生氢腐蚀分层后,其简体局部材料的性能发生的变化及对换热器运行中的承载能力带来的影响,采用化学成分分析、硬度测试、拉伸试验、夏比V口冲击韧性试验等方法对换热器筒体材料的性能进行了分析；运用有限元分析方法计算了简体分层处的应力分布,并探讨了裂纹尖端应力强度因子的变化情况.研究结果表明:材料化学成分中除Mn元素的含量偏低外,其它元素含量符合国家标准；材料的硬度符合要求,材料的强度极限降低,屈强比上升,韧性明显降低.氢腐蚀分层使换热器筒体材料局部劣化,破坏了材料的均匀性和连续性,破坏了简体的薄膜应力状态,产生了较大的局部应力,使换热器筒体承载能力下降.
Cohesive Laws for Analyzing Through-Crack Propagation in Cross Ply Laminates
Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.
2015-01-01
The laminate cohesive approach (LCA) is a methodology for the experimental characterization of cohesive through-the-thickness damage propagation in fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. LCA has several advantages over other existing approaches for cohesive law characterization, including: visual measurements of crack length are not required, structural effects are accounted for, and LCA can be applied when the specimen is too small to achieve steady-state fracture. In this work, the applicability of this method is investigated for two material systems: IM7/8552, a conventional prepreg, and AS4/VRM34, a non-crimp fabric cured using an out-of-autoclave process. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate stable Mode I damage. Trilinear cohesive laws are characterized using the fracture toughness and the notch tip opening displacement. Test results are compared for the IM7/8552 specimens with notches machined by waterjet and by wire slurry saw. It is shown that the test results are nearly identical for both notch tip preparations methods, indicating that significant specimen preparation time and cost savings can be realized by using the waterjet to notch the specimen instead of the wire slurry saw. The accuracy of the cohesive laws characterized herein are assessed by reproducing the structural response of the test specimens using computational methods. The applicability of the characterization procedure for inferring lamina fracture toughness is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junru, Yang; Chuanjuan, Song; Minglan, Wang; Yeukan, Zhang; Jing, Sun [College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)
2016-01-15
The interface crack propagation problem in the cermet cladding material structure was studied. A comparative propagation property parameter (CP) suitable to judge the propagation direction of the interface crack in the cermet cladding material structure was proposed. The interface crack propagation criterion was established. Theoretical models of the CPs for the crack normal to and dwelling on the interface deflecting separately into the clad, the interface and the substrate were built, and the relations between the CPs and the load action angle, the clad thickness ratio and the load were investigated with an example. The research results show that, under the research conditions, the interface crack will more easily propagate into the clad layer than into the substrate.
Stormo, Arne; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Hansen, Alex
2016-05-01
We compare experimental observations of a slow interfacial crack propagation along an heterogeneous interface to numerical simulations using a soft-clamped fiber bundle model. The model consists of a planar set of brittle fibers between a deformable elastic half-space and a rigid plate with a square root shape that imposes a non linear displacement around the process zone. The non-linear square-root rigid shape combined with the long range elastic interactions is shown to provide more realistic displacement and stress fields around the crack tip in the process zone and thereby significantly improving the predictions of the model. Experiments and model are shown to share a similar self-affine roughening of the crack front both at small and large scales and a similar distribution of the local crack front velocity. Numerical predictions of the Family-Viscek scaling for both regimes are discussed together with the local velocity distribution of the fracture front.
Molecular statics simulation of crack propagation in {alpha}-Fe using EAM potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shastry, V.; Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1996-12-01
The behavior of mode 1 cracks in {alpha}-Fe is investigated using molecular statics methods with embedded atom (EAM) potentials. A double ended crack of finite size embedded in a cylindrical simulation cell and fixed boundary conditions are prescribed along the periphery of the cell, whereas periodic boundary conditions are imposed parallel to the crack front. The displacement field of the finite crack is represented by that of an equivalent pileup of opening dislocations distributed in a manner consistent with the anisotropy of the crystal and traction free conditions of the crack faces. The crack lies on the {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane and the crack front is located either along <100>< <110> or <111> directions. The crack tip response is rationalized in terms of the surface energy ({gamma}{sub s}) of the cleavage plane and the unstable stacking energies ({gamma}{sub us}) of the slip planes emanating from the crack front.
Bashir, S.; Thomas, M. C.
1993-08-01
Alloy 720 is a high-strength cast and wrought turbine disc alloy currently in use for temperatures up to about 650 °C in Allison’s T800, T406, GMA 2100, and GMA 3007 engines. In the original composition in-tended for use as turbine blades, large carbide and boride stringers formed and acted as preferred crack initiators. Stringering was attributed to relatively higher boron and carbon levels. These interstitials are known to affect creep and ductility of superalloys, but the effects on low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation have not been studied. Recent emphasis on the total life approach in the design of turbine discs necessitates better understanding of the interactive fatigue crack propagation and low-cycle fatigue behavior at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to improve the damage tolerance of Alloy 720 by systematically modifying boron and carbon levels in the master melt, without altering the low-cy-cle fatigue and strength characteristics of the original composition. Improvement in strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue life was achieved by fragmenting the continuous stringers via composition modifica-tion. The fatigue crack propagation rate was reduced by a concurrent reduction of both carbon and bo-ron levels to optimally low levels at which the frequency of brittle second phases was minimal. The changes in composition have been incorporated for production disc forgings.
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.
2011-01-01
This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and
Buckling and Delamination Growth Analysis of Composite Laminates Containing Embedded Delaminations
Hosseini-Toudeshky, H.; Hosseini, S.; Mohammadi, B.
2010-04-01
The objective of this work is to study the post buckling behavior of composite laminates, containing embedded delamination, under uniaxial compression loading. For this purpose, delamination initiation and propagation is modeled using the softening behavior of interface elements. The full layer-wise plate theory is also employed for approximating the displacement field of laminates and the interface elements are considered as a numerical layer between any two adjacent layers which delamination is expected to propagate. A finite element program was developed and the geometric non-linearity in the von karman sense is incorporated to the strain/displacement relations, to obtain the buckling behavior. It will be shown that, the buckling load, delamination growth process and buckling mode of the composite plates depends on the size of delamination and stacking sequence of the laminates.
Telesman, J.; Antolovich, S. D.
1986-01-01
An investigation of the fatigue crack propagation FCP behavior of two aluminum alloys is performed to simulate spectrum loading conditions found at critical locations in high performance fighter aircraft. Negative loads are shown to be eliminated for the tension-compression spectrum for low to intermediate maximum stress intensities, and load interactions are found to be more significant at higher stress intensities and with more plasticity at the crack tip. In the second part, the influence of microstructural features including grain size, inclusions, and dispersoids on constant amplitude and spectrum crack growth behavior in aluminum alloys is studied. At low stress intensities the I/M alloy demonstrated better FCP resistance than the P/M 7091 alloy for both constant amplitude and spectrum testing, and the inhomogeneous planar slip and large grain size of 7050 limit dislocation interactions, thereby improving FCP performance.
Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Yang, Weibo
2017-07-25
Accurate on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation is of great meaning for prognostics and health management (PHM) technologies to ensure structural integrity, which is a challenging task because of uncertainties which arise from sources such as intrinsic material properties, loading, and environmental factors. The particle filter algorithm has been proved to be a powerful tool to deal with prognostic problems those are affected by uncertainties. However, most studies adopted the basic particle filter algorithm, which uses the transition probability density function as the importance density and may suffer from serious particle degeneracy problem. This paper proposes an on-line fatigue crack propagation prognosis method based on a novel Gaussian weight-mixture proposal particle filter and the active guided wave based on-line crack monitoring. Based on the on-line crack measurement, the mixture of the measurement probability density function and the transition probability density function is proposed to be the importance density. In addition, an on-line dynamic update procedure is proposed to adjust the parameter of the state equation. The proposed method is verified on the fatigue test of attachment lugs which are a kind of important joint components in aircraft structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.
Hall, R
2005-10-01
Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.
Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei; Ren, Yuanqiang
2016-05-01
For aerospace application of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions must be addressed and the SHM technology has to be fully validated on real aircraft structures under realistic load conditions on ground before it can reach the status of flight test. In this paper, the guided wave (GW) based SHM method is applied to a full-scale aircraft fatigue test which is one of the most similar test status to the flight test. To deal with the time-varying problem, a GW-Gaussian mixture model (GW-GMM) is proposed. The probability characteristic of GW features, which is introduced by time-varying conditions is modeled by GW-GMM. The weak cumulative variation trend of the crack propagation, which is mixed in time-varying influence can be tracked by the GW-GMM migration during on-line damage monitoring process. A best match based Kullback-Leibler divergence is proposed to measure the GW-GMM migration degree to reveal the crack propagation. The method is validated in the full-scale aircraft fatigue test. The validation results indicate that the reliable crack propagation monitoring of the left landing gear spar and the right wing panel under realistic load conditions are achieved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Wen
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the influence of two-step aging treatments on hardness, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of two high Zn-containing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with zinc content variation was investigated and the detailed T76 aging parameters were proposed. The microstructure of the precipitates were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM and then quantitatively investigated with the aid of an image analysis. The fatigue performances were researched by the fatigue crack propagation (FCP rate test and fracture morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that the matrix precipitate size distributions of both alloys had significant difference, so as to fatigue crack propagation rates and fracture appearance. The shear and bypass mechanisms of dislocation-precipitate interactions were employed to explain the difference. Among the shearable precipitates, the proportion of larger size precipitates for the higher zinc content alloy is bigger than that for the lower zinc content alloy. The coarse shearable precipitates hinder the propagation of the fatigue cracks, leading to inferior FCP rate. For both alloys, the shear mechanism possesses the dominant factor, finally causing a preponderance in the FCP resistance for the higher zinc content alloy than the lower one.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Tovo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper reports results of fatigue tests of friction stir welded (FSW aluminium tubes. Relatively small 38 mm diameter tubes were used and hence an automated FSW process using a retracting tool was designed for this project, as the wall thickness of the aluminium tube was similar to the diameter of the FSW tool. This is a more complex joint geometry to weld than the more usual larger diameter tube reported in the literature. S-N fatigue testing was performed using load ratios of R = 0.1 and R = -1. Crack path analysis was performed using both low magnification stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in order to identify crack initiation sites and to determine the direction of crack propagation. Work is still in progress to follow the crack path through the various microstructural zones associated with the weld. A simple statistical analysis was used to characterize the most typical crack initiation site. This work forms part of a wider project directed at determining multiaxial fatigue design rules for small diameter 6082-T6 aluminium tubes that could be of use in the ground vehicle industry.
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
Saravanos, D. A.; Hopkins, D. A.
1995-01-01
Analytical and experimental work is presented on the damped free-vibration of delaminated laminates and beams. A laminate theory is developed where the unknown kinematic perturbations induced by a delamination crack are treated as additional degrees of freedom. The generalized stiffness, inertia and damping matrices of the laminate are formulated. An analytical solution is developed for the prediction of natural frequencies, modes and modal damping in composite beams with delamination cracks. Evaluations of the mechanics on various cantilever beams with a central delamination are performed. Experimental results for the modal frequencies and damping of composite beams with a single delamination are also presented and correlations between analytical predictions and measured data are shown. The effects of delamination vary based on crack size, laminate configuration, and mode order. The implications of the mechanics in developing delamination detection techniques are also discussed.
Atomistic study of crack propagation and dislocation emission in Cu-Ni multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clinedinst, J.; Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
1997-09-01
The authors present atomistic simulations of the crack tip configuration in multilayered Cu-Ni materials. The simulations were carried out using molecular statics and EAM potentials. The atomistic structure of the interface was studied first for a totally coherent structure. Cracks were simulated near a Griffith condition in different possible configurations of the crack plane and front with respect to the axis of the layers. Results show that interface effects predominantly control the mechanical behavior of the system studied.
Multiple crack propagation by DBEM in a riveted butt-joint: a simplified bidimensional approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Citarella
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A Multi-Site Damage (MSD crack growth simulation is presented, carried out by means of Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM, in a two-dimensional analysis of a cracked butt-joint made of aluminium 2024 T3. An equivalent crack length is proposed for an approximated 2D analysis of a 3D problem where the crack front assumes a part elliptical shape due to secondary bending effects. The assumptions made to perform such simplified bidimensional analyses are validated by comparing numerical results with experimental data, the latter obtained from a fatigue tested riveted butt-joint.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assire, A
2000-10-13
results. Concerning local approach, intergranular creep damage model of the Ecole des Mines de Paris is used for crack initiation and growth under creep and creep fatigue loading. Crack propagations are simulated with an adaptive re-meshing technique and are compared with experimental results for crack located in weld and base metal. A sensibility analysis shows that crack propagation strongly depend on the characteristic distance, which is needed to simulate crack growth with local approach, for the weld metal parameters. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ancelet, O
2005-07-01
The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)
Vibration of composite beams with two overlapping delaminations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Christian N. Della; Dongwei Shu; Yapu Zhao
2005-01-01
Delaminations in composite laminates may develop from small cracks due to fabrication and impact loading, or from places of high stress concentration. The locations of the delaminations are not determinate. In this research, an analytical solution for the free vibration of a composite beam with two overlapping delaminations is presented. The delaminated beam is analyzed as seven interconnected beams using the delaminations as their boundaries. The continuity and equilibrium conditions are satisfied between the adjoining regions of the beams. Classical beam theory is applied to each of the beams. Complex vibration behaviors emerge for different sizes and locations of the delaminations. Comparison with analytical results reported in the literature verifies the validity of the present solution.
THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navid Zarif Karimi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.
Crack Propagation on ESE(T) Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Jensen, Peter Holmstrøm; Dyrelund, Jens;
2009-01-01
In this paper fatigue tests on side notched steel test specimens strengthened with adhesive bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are presented. The specimens are subject to crack growth both in the steel and bond line. Influence of the load ratio and initial crack length on the overall en...
Shear crack formation and propagation in fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor
2012-01-01
and strain hardening of both FRCC materials was observed under shear loading. The influence of fibers, fiber type, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polypropylene (PP) fibers, and shear crack angle were investigated. Based upon photogrammetric results, fundamental descriptions of shear crack opening...
Shear crack formation and propagation in fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor
2011-01-01
and strain hardening of both FRCC materials was observed under shear loading. The influence of fibers, fiber type, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polypropylene (PP) fibers, and shear crack angle were investigated. Based upon photogrammetric results, fundamental descriptions of shear crack opening...
Delamination-Debond Behaviour of Composite T- Joints in Wind Turbine Blades
Gulasik, H.; Coker, D.
2014-06-01
Wind turbine industry utilizes composite materials in turbine blade structural designs because of their high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. T-joint is one of the design configurations of composite wind turbine blades. T-joints consist of a skin panel and a stiffener co-bonded or co-cured together with a filler material between them. T-joints are prone to delaminations between skin/stiffener plies and debonds between skin-stiffener-filler interfaces. In this study, delamination/debond behavior of a co-bonded composite T-joint is investigated under 0° pull load condition by 2D finite element method. Using Abaqus® commercial FE software, zero-thickness cohesive elements are used to simulate delamination/debond in ply interfaces and bonding lines. Pulling load at 0° is applied and load-displacement behavior and failure scenario are observed. The failure sequence consists of debonding of filler/stringer interface during one load drop followed by a second drop in which the 2nd filler/stringer debonds, filler/skin debonding and skin delamination leading to total loss of load carrying capacity. This type of failure initiation has been observed widely in the literature. When the debond strength is increased 30%, failure pattern is found to change in addition to increasing the load capacity by 200% before total loss of loading carrying capacity occurs. Failure initiation and propagation behavior, initial and max failure loads and stress fields are affected by the property change. In all cases mixed-mode crack tip loading is observed in the failure initiation and propagation stages. In this paper, the detailed delamination/debonding history in T-joints is predicted with cohesive elements for the first time.
Gencur, Sara J; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M
2006-03-01
To prolong the life of total joint replacements, highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) have been introduced to improve the wear resistance of the articulating surfaces. However, there are concerns regarding the loss of ductility and potential loss in fatigue crack propagation (FCP) resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation-induced crosslinking with two different post-irradiation thermal treatments on the FCP resistance of UHMWPE. Two highly crosslinked and one virgin UHMWPE treatment groups (ram-extruded, orthopedic grade, GUR 1050) were examined. For the two highly crosslinked treatment groups, UHMWPE rods were exposed to 100 kGy and then underwent post-irradiation thermal processing either above the melt temperature or below the melt temperature (2 h-150 degrees C, 110 degrees C). Compact tension specimens were cyclically loaded to failure and the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, vs. cyclic stress intensity factor, DeltaK, behavior was determined and compared between groups. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine fracture surface characteristics. Crosslinking was found to decrease the ability of UHMWPE to resist crack inception and propagation under cyclic loading. The findings also suggested that annealing as a post-irradiation treatment may be somewhat less detrimental to FCP resistance of UHMWPE than remelting. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the fracture surfaces demonstrated that the virgin treatment group failed in a more ductile manner than the two highly crosslinked treatment groups.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres, Y.; Rodriguez, S.; Llanes, L.; Anglada, M.
2001-07-01
It is studied the fatigue crack growth behavior of two grades of WC-Co cemented carbides, both with a 10%{sub w}t of Co but with different carbide grain size, 0,8 and 2,5 {mu}m. Crack growth kinetics, measured under different load ratios, is described using an alternative form to the Paris equation. hence, it is used a model that takes into account both maximum and range of the applied stress intensity factor, k{sub m}ax and {delta}K respectively, within an equation of the form da/dN=f(K{sub m}ax, {delta}K). It is observed a significant dependence with respect to K{sub m}ax, yielding evidence of the prominence of static modes of rupture. Under these considerations, the fatigue crack growth sensitivity of the materials studied is evaluated. Finally, the damage mechanisms associated with stable and unstable fatigue crack propagation are analyzed. (Author) 11 refs.
Gubeljak, N.; Predan, J.; Senčič, B.; Chapetti, M. D.
2016-03-01
An integrated fracture mechanics approach is proposed to account for the estimation of the fatigue resistance of component. Applications, estimations and results showed very good agreements with experimental results. The model is simple to apply, accounts for the main geometrical, mechanical and material parameters that define the fatigue resistance, and allows accurate predictions. It offers a change in design philosophy: It could be used for design, while simultaneously dealing with crack propagation thresholds. Furthermore, it allows quantification of the material defect sensitivity. In the case of the set of fatigue tests carried out by rotational bending of specimens without residual stresses, the estimated results showed good agreement and that an initial crack length of 0.5 mm can conservatively explain experimental data. In the case of fatigue tests carried out on the springs at their final condition with bending at R = 0.1 our data shows the influence of compressive residual stresses on fatigue strength. Results also showed that the procedures allow us to analyze the different combinations of initial crack length and residual stress levels, and how much the fatigue resistance can change by changing that configuration. For this set of tests, the fatigue resistance estimated for an initial crack length equal to 0.35 mm, can explain all testing data observed for the springs.
Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Reinforced Concrete Beams without Debonding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulfkjær, J. P.; Brincker, Rune
1994-01-01
, the crack growth is further simplified by introducing a continuous layer of springs at the midsection mainly representing a simplified material response around the fracture zone. In the reinforcement the strain condition is assumed to be equal to the strain condition in the concrete. the important question......The non-linear fracture mechanical problem of combined crack growth and reinforcement action is modelled by adopting a simplified fictitious crack model for concrete and a linear elastic-plastic action for the reinforcement. The softening relation of the concrete is assumed to be linear, however...
May, R Alan; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D
2013-03-14
In this (Paper I) and the companion paper (Paper II; R. May, R. Smith, and B. Kay, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 104502 (2013)), we investigate the mechanisms for the release of trapped gases from underneath amorphous solid water (ASW) films. In prior work, we reported the episodic release of trapped gases in concert with the crystallization of ASW, a phenomenon that we termed the "molecular volcano." The observed abrupt desorption is due to the formation of cracks that span the film to form a connected pathway for release. In this paper, we utilize the "molecular volcano" desorption peak to characterize the formation of crystallization-induced cracks. We find that the crack length distribution is independent of the trapped gas (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, O2, or CO). Selective placement of the inert gas layer is used to show that cracks form near the top of the film and propagate downward into the film. Isothermal experiments reveal that, after some induction time, cracks propagate linearly in time with an Arrhenius dependent velocity corresponding to an activation energy of 54 kJ∕mol. This value is consistent with the crystallization growth rates reported by others and establishes a direct connection between crystallization growth rate and the crack propagation rate. A two-step model in which nucleation and crystallization occurs in an induction zone near the top of the film followed by the propagation of a crystallization∕crack front into the film is in good agreement with the temperature programmed desorption results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The stress-induced martensitic transformation and its relation with crack nucleation and propagation in CuNiAl shape memory alloy were investigated through in-situ tensile tests by SEM and TEM.The results indicated that the stress concentration ahead of the crack tip could induce formation of stacking faults and different types of martensites.TEM observations showed that the martensites could transform from one type to another and even reversely to the parent during loading.The micro-cracks nucleated along the martensite/parent interface and intersection between two martensites.When the crack propagated a certain distance,the stress concentration ahead of the crack tip was large enough to result in formation of slip bands,and in this condition the microcrack nucleated along slip bands more easily.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugiyama, Y.; Asami, K.; Kuroiwa, H. (Musashi Institute of Technoloyg, Tokyo (Japan))
1991-01-15
In order to enhance the fatigue crack propagation resistance of ductile cast iron, the effect of austempering from a ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase region was studied. As the dual phase matrix microstructure of ferrite and pearlite in as-casted iron was changed into the dual phase one of ferrite and bainite by partial austempering from 800 {degree} C, the fatigue crack propagation resistance was enhanced over the whole range of a {Delta} K region. The enhancement of the fatigue crack propagation resistance was caused by remarkable development of crack closures from higher {Delta} K regions which was induced by fracture contact and fretting because of an increase in fracture roughness and easy formation of oxide deposits. In addition, the static tensile and ductility of ductile cast iron were possibly enhanced simultaneously by partial austempering for changing pearlite into bainite superior in both tensile and ductility. 9 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.
The use of COD and plastic instability in crack propagation and arrest in shells
Erdogan, F.; Ratwani, M.
1974-01-01
The initiation, growth, and possible arrest of fracture in cylindrical shells containing initial defects are dealt with. For those defects which may be approximated by a part-through semi-elliptic surface crack which is sufficiently shallow so that part of the net ligament in the plane of the crack is still elastic, the existing flat plate solution is modified to take into account the shell curvature effect as well as the effect of the thickness and the small scale plastic deformations. The problem of large defects is then considered under the assumptions that the defect may be approximated by a relatively deep meridional part-through surface crack and the net ligament through the shell wall is fully yielded. The results given are based on an 8th order bending theory of shallow shells using a conventional plastic strip model to account for the plastic deformations around the crack border.
Interface fatigue crack propagation in sandwich X-joints – Part I: Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian
2013-01-01
In this study, face/core fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints is investigated numerically and experimentally. The work presented here covers Part I of the study which includes an experimental investigation of fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints and characterization of the face/core int......In this study, face/core fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints is investigated numerically and experimentally. The work presented here covers Part I of the study which includes an experimental investigation of fatigue crack growth in sandwich X-joints and characterization of the face....../core interface of the joints. Sandwich tear test specimens with a face/core debond representing a debonded sandwich X-joint were tested under cyclic loading. Fatigue tests were conducted on the sandwich tear test specimens with H45, H100 and H250 PVC cores and glass/polyester face sheets. The Digital Image...
Crack Propagation in Electron Beam Welded Ti-6Al-4V under Spectrum Loading Conditions.
1980-12-18
data points could be reasonably bounded by straight lines. The crack length vs. life expectancy curves are hyperbola -like and not amenable to graphical...failure, or life expectancies. The total crack lengths (2 1) were then plotted against the logarithms of the life expectancies so that the range of...uniform tension and is illustrated in Figure 7. In the figure, the curve for c/b = .125, the hole radius to panel half-wi~dth ratio for the specimen
Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.
Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W
2012-04-28
Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes.
Numerical Modeling of the Surface Fatigue Crack Propagation Including the Closure Effect
Guchinsky, Ruslan; Petinov, Sergei
2016-01-01
Presently modeling of surface fatigue crack growth for residual life assessment of structural elements is almost entirely based on application of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Generally, it is assumed that the crack front does not essentially change its shape, although it is not always confirmed by experiment. Furthermore, LEFM approach cannot be applied when the stress singularity vanishes due to material plasticity, one of the leading factors associated with the material degradation and fracture. Also, evaluation of stress intensity factors meets difficulties associated with changes in the stress state along the crack front circumference. An approach proposed for simulation the evolution of surface cracks based on application of the Strain-life criterion for fatigue failure and of the finite element modeling of damage accumulation. It takes into account the crack closure effect, the nonlinear behavior of damage accumulation and material compliance increasing due to the damage advance. The damage accumulation technique was applied to model the semi-elliptical crack growth from the initial defect in the steel compact specimen. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the published experimental data.
Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony
2013-03-01
We investigate force-induced and temperature-induced unfolding of proteins using the combination of a Gaussian network model and a crack propagation model based on “bond”-breaking independent events. We assume the existence of threshold values for the mean strain and strain fluctuations that dictate bond rupture. Surprisingly, we find that this stepwise process usually leads to a few cooperative, first-order-like, transitions in which several bonds break simultaneously, reminiscent of the “avalanches” seen in disordered networks.
Investigation of crack propagation in X38CrMoV5 (AISI H11) tool steel at elevated temperatures
Shah, Masood; Mabru, Catherine; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad
2010-01-01
A method is developed to evaluate the surface fatigue damage of hot forming tools (forging, HPDC) that undergo thermo mechanical loading and environmental attack. Crack propagation under fatigue loading in a hot work tool steel X38CrMoV5-47HRC is investigated using SENT (single edge notched tension) specimens of 2.5*8 mm*mm section. The effect of different testing conditions has been investigated: effect of thickness (ranging from 2.5mm – 0.10mm), effect of R value and effect of temperature a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochi, Y.; Ishii, A. [University of Electro Communications, Tokyo (Japan); Ogata, T. [Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-10-15
Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) in order to investigate the statistical properties of life distributions of crack initiation and propagation, and also the evaluation of fatigue life. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The size of crack initiation sites of the material was represented by a Weibull distribution without regarding to the kinds of crack initiation sites such as microshrinkage and graphite grain. The crack initiation life scattered widely, but the scatter became much smaller as soon as the cracks grew. (2) The crack propagation life Nac which was defined as the minimum crack propagation rate showed lower scatter than the crack initation life. (3) The fatigue life of the material was evaluated well by Nac and the propagation rate after Nac. It was clear that the fatigue life of ductile cast iron was goverened by the scatter of Nac. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.
Modeling of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Alloys Using an Energy Based Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Khelil
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Materials fatigue is a particularly serious and unsafe kind of material destruction. Investigations of the fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue life constitute very important and complex problems in mechanics. The understanding of the cracking mechanisms, taking into account various factors such as the load pattern, the strain rate, the stress ratio, etc., is of a first need. In this work an energy approach of the Fatigue Crack Growth (FCG was proposed. This approach is based on the numerical determination of the plastic zone by introducing a novel form of plastic radius. The experimental results conducted on two aluminum alloys of types 2024-T351 and 7075-T7351 were exploited to validate the developed numerical model. A good agreement has been found between the two types of results.
Sensing delamination in epoxy encapsulant systems with fiber Bragg gratings
Jones, Brad H.; Rohr, Garth D.; Kaczmarowski, Amy K.
2016-05-01
Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well-suited for embedded sensing of interfacial phenomena in materials systems, due to the sensitivity of their spectral response to locally non-uniform strain fields. Over the last 15 years, FBGs have been successfully employed to sense delamination at interfaces, with a clear emphasis on planar events induced by transverse cracks in fiber-reinforced plastic laminates. We have built upon this work by utilizing FBGs to detect circular delamination events at the interface between epoxy films and alumina substrates. Two different delamination processes are examined, based on stress relief induced by indentation of the epoxy film or by cooling to low temperature. We have characterized the spectral response pre- and post-delamination for both simple and chirped FBGs as a function of delamination size. We show that delamination is readily detected by the evolution of a non-uniform strain distribution along the fiber axis that persists after the stressing condition is removed. These residual strain distributions differ substantially between the delamination processes, with indentation and cooling producing predominantly tensile and compressive strain, respectively, that are well-captured by Gaussian profiles. More importantly, we observe a strong correlation between spectrally-derived measurements, such as spectral widths, and delamination size. Our results further highlight the unique capabilities of FBGs as diagnostic tools for sensing delamination in materials systems.
Ozevin, Didem; Fazel, Hossein; Cox, Justin; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth S.; Timmons, Alan
2014-04-01
Gearbox components of aerospace structures are typically made of brittle materials with high fracture toughness, but susceptible to fatigue failure due to continuous cyclic loading. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) methods are used to monitor the crack growth in gearbox components. Damage detection methodologies developed in laboratory-scale experiments may not represent the actual gearbox structural configuration, and are usually not applicable to real application as the vibration and wave properties depend on the material, structural layers and thicknesses. Also, the sensor types and locations are key factors for frequency content of ultrasonic waves, which are essential features for pattern recognition algorithm development in noisy environments. Therefore, a deterministic damage detection methodology that considers all the variables influencing the waveform signature should be considered in the preliminary computation before any experimental test matrix. In order to achieve this goal, we developed two dimensional finite element models of a gearbox cross section from front view and shaft section. The cross section model consists of steel revolving teeth, a thin layer of oil, and retention plate. An ultrasonic wave up to 1 MHz frequency is generated, and waveform histories along the gearbox are recorded. The received waveforms under pristine and cracked conditions are compared in order to analyze the crack influence on the wave propagation in gearbox, which can be utilized by both active and passive SHM methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1995-12-31
In the previous paper, a simulation model of fatigue crack opening and closing phenomena in an arbitrary stress distribution field for the purpose of obtaining RPG load is shown. From the calculation and experimental results of RPG load, the effects of stress ratio and delayed retardation on fatigue crack propagation are quantitatively assessed. Moreover it becomes clear that the stopping condition of fatigue crack propagation is {delta}K{sub RP}{le}0. In this paper, fatigue crack propagation tests in residual stress distribution field are carried out. Two types of center notched specimens are prepared: one is that gas heating is made at the center line of the specimen which leads to tensile residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen, the other at near the edges of the specimen which leads to compressive residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen. It becomes clear that tensile residual stress descends RPG load and compressive residual stress raises RPG load. Moreover if the large compressive residual stress exists, crack closes even when tensile yield zone generates at the crack tip under loading process. In this case, plastic zone could not grow until crack becomes fully open. Simulated RPG load is in good agreement with experimental one even in the field of residual stress distribution. And compressive residual stress has a large effect of decreasing the fatigue crack propagation rate. These effects can be successfully estimated by the simulation model. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
2012-01-01
The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...
Wave propagation analysis of edge cracked circular beams under impact force.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş
Full Text Available This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an impact force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin-Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected waves are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected waves.
Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Hui-min; PENG Bo
2012-01-01
The compressive behavior of laminates with a deeply embedded circular delamination was studied numerically and experimentally.In the finite element analysis（FEA）,virtual crack closure technique（VCCT） and B-K law were employed to simulate the delamination growth,and the contact of the two substrates was considered.The effect of the delamination size and through-thickness position on the compressive behavior of laminates with an artificially embedded circular delamination was discussed.It is found that the through-thickness position affects the buckling mode,which then strongly influences delamination growth speed and direction,as well as the dominant component energy release rate（ERR）.The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Huan Chun; Yang, Bin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Chen, Yue Feng; Chen, Xu Dong [Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, Beijing (China)
2017-06-15
The fatigue crack propagation behaviors of Z3CN20.09M duplex stainless steel (DSS) were investigated by studying oxide films of specimens tested in 290°C water and air. The results indicate that a full oxide film that consisted of oxides and hydroxides was formed in 290°C water. By contrast, only a half-baked oxide film consisting of oxides was formed in 290°C air. Both environments are able to deteriorate the elastic modulus and hardness of the oxide films, especially the 290°C water. The fatigue lives of the specimens tested in 290°C air were about twice of those tested in 290°C water at all strain amplitudes. Moreover, the crack propagation rates of the specimen tested in 290°C water were confirmed to be faster than those tested in 290°C air, which was thought to be due to the deteriorative strength of the oxide films induced by the mutual promotion of oxidation and crack propagation at the crack tip. It is noteworthy that the crack propagation can be postponed by the ferrite phase in the DSS, especially when the specimens were tested in 290°C water.
Fourth order phase-field model for local max-ent approximants applied to crack propagation
Amiri, Fatemeh; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino; Silani, Mohammad; Rabczuk, Timon
2016-01-01
We apply a fourth order phase-field model for fracture based on local maximum entropy (LME) approximants. The higher order continuity of the meshfree LME approximants allows to directly solve the fourth order phase-field equations without splitting the fourth order differential equation into two second order differential equations. We will first show that the crack surface can be captured more accurately in the fourth order model. Furthermore, less nodes are needed for the fourth order model ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raquet, O.
1994-11-25
A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a `riddle` for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author).
Aminjikarai Vedagiri, Srinivasa Babu
An active field of research that has developed due to the increasing use of computational techniques like finite element simulations for analysis of highly complex structural mechanics problems and the increasing use of composite laminates in varied industries such as aerospace, automotive, bio-medical, etc. is the development of numerical models to capture the behavior of composite materials. One of the big challenges not yet overcome convincingly in this field is the modeling of delamination failure which is one of the primary modes of damage in composite laminates. Hence, the primary aim of this work is to develop two numerical models for finite element simulations of delamination failure in composite laminates and implement them in the explicit finite element software DYNA3D/LS-DYNA. Dynamic fracture mechanics is an example of a complex structural analysis problem for which finite element simulations seem to be the only possible way to extract detailed information on sophisticated physical quantities of the crack-tip at any instant of time along a highly transient history of fracture. However, general purpose, commercial finite element software which have capabilities to do fracture analyses are still limited in their use to stationary cracks and crack propagation along trajectories known a priori. Therefore, an automated dynamic fracture procedure capable of simulating dynamic propagation of through-thickness cracks in arbitrary directions in linear, isotropic materials without user-intervention is first developed and implemented in DYNA3D for its default 8-node solid (brick) element. Dynamic energy release rate and stress intensity factors are computed in the model using integral expressions particularly well-suited for the finite element method. Energy approach is used to check for crack propagation and the maximum circumferential stress criterion is used to determine the direction of crack growth. Since the re-meshing strategy used to model crack growth
Elshabasy, Mohamed Mostafa Yousef Bassyouny
In this research, life extending control logic is proposed to reduce the cost of treating the aging problem of military aircraft structures and to avoid catastrophic failures and fatal accidents due to undetected cracks in the airframe components. The life extending control logic is based on load tailoring to facilitate a desired stress sequence that prolongs the structural life of the cracked airframe components by exploiting certain nonlinear crack retardation phenomena. The load is tailored to include infrequent injections of a single-cycle overload or a single-cycle overload and underload. These irregular loadings have an anti-intuitive but beneficial effect, which has been experimentally validated, on the extension of the operational structural life of the aircraft. A rigid six-degree-of freedom dynamic model of a highly maneuverable air vehicle coupled with an elastic dynamic wing model is used to generate the stress history at the lower skin of the wing. A three-dimensional equivalent plate finite element model is used to calculate the stress in the cracked skin. The plate is chosen to be of uniform chord-wise and span-wise thickness where the mechanical properties are assigned using an ad-hoc approach to mimic the full scale wing model. An in-extensional 3-node triangular element is used as the gridding finite element while the aerodynamic load is calculated using the vortex-lattice method where each lattice is laid upon two triangular finite elements with common hypotenuse. The aerodynamic loads, along with the base-excitation which is due to the motion of the rigid aircraft model, are the driving forces acting on the wing finite element model. An aerodynamic control surface is modulated based on the proposed life extending control logic within an existing flight control system without requiring major modification. One of the main goals of life extending control logic is to enhance the aircraft's service life, without incurring significant loss of vehicle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabiri, M.R
2003-12-01
This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C{sup *} and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C{sup *} parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C{sup *} parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q{sup *}, is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C{sup *} parameter (da/dt - C{sup *}), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C{sup *} type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C{sup *}), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical
Guided Wave Delamination Detection and Quantification With Wavefield Data Analysis
Tian, Zhenhua; Campbell Leckey, Cara A.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Yu, Lingyu
2014-01-01
Unexpected damage can occur in aerospace composites due to impact events or material stress during off-nominal loading events. In particular, laminated composites are susceptible to delamination damage due to weak transverse tensile and inter-laminar shear strengths. Developments of reliable and quantitative techniques to detect delamination damage in laminated composites are imperative for safe and functional optimally-designed next-generation composite structures. In this paper, we investigate guided wave interactions with delamination damage and develop quantification algorithms by using wavefield data analysis. The trapped guided waves in the delamination region are observed from the wavefield data and further quantitatively interpreted by using different wavenumber analysis methods. The frequency-wavenumber representation of the wavefield shows that new wavenumbers are present and correlate to trapped waves in the damage region. These new wavenumbers are used to detect and quantify the delamination damage through the wavenumber analysis, which can show how the wavenumber changes as a function of wave propagation distance. The location and spatial duration of the new wavenumbers can be identified, providing a useful means not only for detecting the presence of delamination damage but also allowing for estimation of the delamination size. Our method has been applied to detect and quantify real delamination damage with complex geometry (grown using a quasi-static indentation technique). The detection and quantification results show the location, size, and shape of the delamination damage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.
1980-01-01
The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norris, D.M. Jr. (ed.)
1977-06-01
Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Bär
2015-10-01
Full Text Available During fatigue crack propagation experiments with constant force as well as constant stress intensity lock in thermography and heat flow measurements with a new developed peltier sensor have been performed. With lock in thermography space resolved measurements are possible and the evaluation allows to distinguish between elastic and dissipated energies. The specimens have to be coated with black paint to enhance the emissivity. The thickness of the coating influences the results and therefore quantitative measurements are problematic. The heat flow measurements are easy to perform and provide quantitative results but only integral in an area given by the used peltier element. To get comparable results the values measured with thermography were summarized in an area equivalent to that of the peltier element. The experiments with constant force show a good agreement between the thermography and the heat flow measurements. In case of the experiments with a constant stress intensity some differences become visible. Whereas the thermography measurements show a linear decrease of the signal with rising crack length, the heat flow measurements show a clearly nonlinear dependency. Obviously the measured energies in thermography and peltier based heat flow measurement are not comparable
Effect of superplastic forming exposure on fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
Jeong, Daeho; Kwon, Yongnam; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Sangshik
2016-09-01
The effect of superplastic forming (SPF) exposure on the ɛ (strain)-N (number of cycles to failure) fatigue and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy was examined at 298 and 473 K. To simulate the thermal exposure during superplastic forming process, the mill-annealed Ti64 alloy sheet was heated in the vacuum chamber with the pre-determined temperature profile. Notable microstructural change during the SPF exposure included the shape of transformed β phase from fine and round particles in the as-received specimen to coarse angular particles in the as-exposed specimen. The effective grain size tended to increase with the exposure, enhancing the slip reversibility and the resistance to FCP. However, the crack hindering effect by fine, particle-like β phase became weak with the exposure, offseting the beneficial effect associated with the increment of effective grain size. The effect of SPF exposure on ɛ-N fatigue and FCP behavior of mill-annealed Ti64 alloy was therefore marginal, excluding the effect of α-case (the oxygen-enriched phase) on the surface.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KUMAR Rajeev; MISRA Ashok
2006-01-01
This paper presents some investigations on the effect of processing parameters on the emission of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) during plastic deformation and crack propagation in copper-zinc alloys. Timing of the EMR emissions, maximum stress during crack instability, stress-intensity factor, elastic strain energy release rate, maximum EMR amplitude, RMS value of EMR amplitude, EMR frequency and electromagnetic energy release rate were analysed for the effect of rolling directions at different percentage of zinc content in Cu-Zn alloy specimens. The same parameters were also analysed for 68-32 Cu-Zn alloy specimens at different annealing temperatures and at different angles θ, to the rolling direction. EMR emissions are observed to be highly anisotropic in nature. At θ=45° to 60°, marked changes in mechanical and electromagnetic parameters were observed.Specimens annealed at 500 °C, just above the recrystallization temperature, and at 700 °C, when grain-size growth is rapid, EMR responses have been found to have well-defined patterns.
New Developments in the Embedded Statistical Coupling Method: Atomistic/Continuum Crack Propagation
Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.; Glaessgen, E.
2008-01-01
A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain has been enhanced. The concurrent MD-FEM coupling methodology uses statistical averaging of the deformation of the atomistic MD domain to provide interface displacement boundary conditions to the surrounding continuum FEM region, which, in turn, generates interface reaction forces that are applied as piecewise constant traction boundary conditions to the MD domain. The enhancement is based on the addition of molecular dynamics-based cohesive zone model (CZM) elements near the MD-FEM interface. The CZM elements are a continuum interpretation of the traction-displacement relationships taken from MD simulations using Cohesive Zone Volume Elements (CZVE). The addition of CZM elements to the concurrent MD-FEM analysis provides a consistent set of atomistically-based cohesive properties within the finite element region near the growing crack. Another set of CZVEs are then used to extract revised CZM relationships from the enhanced embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM) simulation of an edge crack under uniaxial loading.
Fatigue and Mechanical Damage Propagation in Automotive PEM Fuel Cells
Banan, Roshanak
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are generally exposed to high magnitude road-induced vibrations and impact loads, frequent humidity-temperature loading cycles, and freeze/thaw stresses when employed in automotive applications. The resultant mechanical stresses can play a significant role in the evolution of mechanical defects in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The focus of this research is to investigate fatigue challenges due to humidity-temperature (hygrothermal) cycles and vibrations and their effects on damage evolution in PEM fuel cells. To achieve this goal, this thesis is divided into three parts that provide insight into damage propagation in the MEA under i) hygrothermal cycles, ii) external applied vibrations, and iii) a combination of both to simulate realistic automotive conditions. A finite element damage model based on cohesive zone theory was developed to simulate the propagation of micro-scale defects (cracks and delaminations) in the MEA under fuel cell operating conditions. It was found that the micro-defects can propagate to critical states under start-up and shut-down cycles, prior to reaching the desired lifespan of the fuel cell. The simultaneous presence of hygrothermal cycles and vibrations severely intensified damage propagation and resulted in considerably large defects within 75% of the fuel cell life expectancy. However, the order of generated damage was found to be larger under hygrothermal cycles than vibrations. Under hygrothermal cycles, membrane crack propagation was more severe compared to delamination propagation. Conversely, the degrading influence of vibrations was more significant on delaminations. The presence of an anode/cathode channel offset under the combined loadings lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the delamination length compared to the aligned-channel case. The developed model can be used to investigate the damage behaviour of current materials employed in fuel cells as well as to evaluate the
Modeling Quasi-Static and Fatigue-Driven Delamination Migration
De Carvalho, N. V.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Tay, T. E.
2014-01-01
An approach was proposed and assessed for the high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials. It combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration were captured failure and migration criteria based on fracture mechanics. Quasi-static and fatigue loading were modeled within the same overall framework. The methodology proposed was illustrated by simulating the delamination migration test, showing good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youseffi, K.; Finnie, I.
1978-02-01
The fatigue crack initiation life of AISI 1018 steel was investigated using compact tension specimens having sharp notch root radii. The data were analyzed using two methods for predicting initiation in strain cycling experiments. Also, another approach in which initiation is related to the stress intensity factor was developed. The next phase, that of propagation, was studied using AISI 1018 steel and a new high strength steel HY-180. The crack propagation data obtained for both steels tested in air can be described accurately by the power law first suggested by Paris, da/dN = C(..delta..K)/sup n/, where a is the crack length, N the number of cycles, and C and n are material constants. However, the exponent n was found to be two times larger for AISI 1018 steel than HY-180 steel.
Fully Noncontact Wave Propagation Imaging in an Immersed Metallic Plate with a Crack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Ryul Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a noncontact sensing technique with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging algorithm, for damage visualization of liquid-immersed structures. An aluminum plate specimen (400 mm × 400 mm × 3 mm with a 12 mm slit was immersed in water and in glycerin. A 532 nm Q-switched continuous wave laser is used at an energy level of 1.2 mJ to scan an area of 100 mm × 100 mm. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used as a noncontact ultrasonic sensor, which measures guided wave displacement at a fixed point. The tests are performed with two different cases of specimen: without water and filled with water and with glycerin. Lamb wave dispersion curves for the respective cases are calculated, to investigate the velocity-frequency relationship of each wave mode. Experimental propagation velocities of Lamb waves for different cases are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows that the dispersion and attenuation of the Lamb wave is affected by the surrounding liquid, and the comparative experimental results are presented to verify it. In addition, it is demonstrated that the developed fully noncontact ultrasonic propagation imaging system is capable of damage sizing in submerged structures.
Ma, Longzhou; Roy, Shawoon K.; Hasan, Muhammad H.; Pal, Joydeep; Chatterjee, Sudin
2012-02-01
The fatigue crack propagation (FCP) as well as the sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior of two solid-solution-strengthened Ni-based superalloys, INCONEL 617 (Special Metals Corporation Family of Companies) and HAYNES 230 (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), were studied at increased temperatures in laboratory air under a constant stress-intensity-factor ( K) condition. The crack propagation tests were conducted using a baseline cyclic triangular waveform with a frequency of 1/3 Hz. Various hold times were imposed at the maximum load of a fatigue cycle to study the hold time effect. The results show that a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter, stress intensity factor ( K), is sufficient to describe the FCP and SLCG behavior at the testing temperatures ranging from 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C). As observed in the precipitation-strengthened superalloys, both INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 exhibited the time-dependent FCP, steady SLCG behavior, and existence of a damage zone ahead of crack tip. A thermodynamic equation was adapted to correlate the SLCG rates to determine thermal activation energy. The fracture modes associated with crack propagation behavior were discussed, and the mechanism of time-dependent FCP as well as SLCG was identified. Compared with INCONEL 617, the lower crack propagation rates of HAYNES 230 under the time-dependent condition were ascribed to the different fracture mode and the presence of numerous W-rich M6C-type and Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides. Toward the end, a phenomenological model was employed to correlate the FCP rates at cycle/time-dependent FCP domain. All the results suggest that an environmental factor, the stress assisted grain boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) mechanism, is mainly responsible for the accelerated time-dependent FCP rates of INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230.
Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.
Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos
2012-04-28
An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.
Noda, H.; Dunham, E. M.; Rice, J. R.
2006-12-01
We have conducted rupture propagation simulations allowing for the combined effects of thermal pressurization of pore fluid and flash heating of microscopic contact asperities. Rapid, large slip as in earthquakes produces a large amount of frictional heat, and probably activates such thermal weakening mechanisms. They act until macroscopic fault temperature T nears the melting point, and are coupled through T and macroscopic fault surface pore pressure p. Because we consider two mechanisms, the characteristic slip for each of them is physically important; a compromise on one of them can eventually nullify its effect compared to the other. We use a range of realistic hydraulic properties for thermal pressurization (hydro-thermal diffusivity factor 20-450 mm2/s; factor corresponds to f2VL_*/4=(ρ c/Λ)2(√{αth}+√{αhy})2 [Rice, JGR, 2006] where f is the friction coefficient, V is slip rate, L_* is a characteristic slip defined in the thermal pressurization analysis, ρ c is specific heat, Λ is pore pressure rise per unit temperature rise in undrained conditions, and αth and αhy are thermal and hydraulic diffusivities), and microns of contact evolution distance L for flash heating with a slip law formulation and the direct effect. We use the spectral implementation of the BIE method for elastodynamic calculations, and set a 1d FD grid normal to the fault plane at each node to calculate local heat and fluid transport assuming an infinitesimally thin slipping plane. We also use a multi-step time increment procedure by setting longer steps for slip history storage and shorter steps for integration of state variable, T, and p. Elasticity and the constitutive relation are solved simultaneously at every shorter time step with linearly interpolated stress transfer. This method reduces the amount of memory but produces numerical stability. We nucleated rupture by adding a sudden perturbation to the shear stress, which is initially uniform and much lower than the static
Repair of prestressed concrete cylinder with localized delamination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Shen, E-mail: swang@bechtel.com; Munshi, Javeed A., E-mail: jamunshi@bechtel.com
2015-12-15
For prestressed concrete cylindrical structures such as nuclear containments, tanks and silos, the curvature effect of the tendons introduces radial tensile stresses in the concrete shell which are generally neglected in the design of such structures. For example, many prestressed concrete nuclear containments in US, especially those which were not designed following radial reinforcement requirement of ACI-359, are reinforced only in the circumferential (hoop) and meridional (vertical) directions but not in the radial direction. This leaves these structures vulnerable to potential laminar cracking and delamination, especially during post-tensioning and/or detensioning process. Should delamination occur, the structure needs to be repaired by either replacing cracked concrete or by “pinning” the delaminated concrete layers together by post-installed anchors. The latter option of post-installed anchors is less invasive from construction stand point and generally suitable for repairing small or localized delamination only. A comprehensive study is undertaken to explore various aspects and design consideration of post-installed anchors for prestressed concrete cylinders. The radial tension demand is first established by combining a mechanical based model with a detailed finite element analysis. With such design demand for post-installed anchors established, the next step aims at developing the tightness requirement of existing delamination cracks for effective use of post-installed anchors. A comprehensive literature search and evaluation is carried out for shear transfer capacity across cracks of various widths. The findings are used to develop specific recommendations for acceptable crack widths to ensure adequate in-plane shear transfer capacity for various design load conditions. A design process for post-installed anchors is proposed for repairing a delaminated prestressed concrete cylindrical structure at the end of the paper, supplemented by an illustrative
Mohammadi, H; Klassen, R J; Wan, W-K
2008-10-01
Pyrolytic carbon mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are widely used to replace dysfunctional and failed heart valves. As the human heart beats around 40 million times per year, fatigue is the prime mechanism of mechanical failure. In this study, a finite element approach is implemented to develop a model for fatigue analysis of MHVs due to the impact force between the leaflet and the stent and cavitation in the aortic position. A two-step method to predict crack propagation in the leaflets of MHVs has been developed. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are computed at a small initiated crack located on the leaflet edge (the worst case) using the boundary element method (BEM). Static analysis of the crack is performed to analyse the stress distribution around the front crack zone when the crack is opened; this is followed by a dynamic crack analysis to consider crack propagation using the finite element approach. Two factors are taken into account in the calculation of the SIFs: first, the effect of microjet formation due to cavitation in the vicinity of leaflets, resulting in water hammer pressure; second, the effect of the impact force between the leaflet and the stent of the MHVs, both in the closing phase. The critical initial crack length, the SIFs, the water hammer pressure, and the maximum jet velocity due to cavitation have been calculated. With an initial crack length of 35 microm, the fatigue life of the heart valve is greater than 60 years (i.e. about 2.2 x 10(9) cycles) and, with an initial crack length of 170 microm, the fatigue life of the heart valve would be around 2.5 years (i.e. about 9.1 x 10(7) cycles). For an initial crack length greater than 170 microm, there is catastrophic failure and fatigue cracking no longer occurs. A finite element model of fatigue analysis using Patran command language (PCL custom code) in MSC software can be used to evaluate the useful lifespan of MHVs. Similar methodologies can be extended to other medical devices under cyclic
Reliability Analysis of Propagation Lives of Sucker Rod's Surface Crack%抽油杆表面裂纹扩展寿命可靠性分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李鹤; 马铭蔚; 陶婷; 闻邦椿
2012-01-01
The crack propagation life was calculated under the tensile load using the sectional type numerical integration method based on the Paris formula considering the relation of geometric modified index f and crack size a. The Monte Carlo method was also used to get the reliability of different types of surface crack propagation lives. The results showed that taking the defect as an elliptical crack governed by depth ration and aspect ratio is better than circular arc crack or straight-edged crack only governed by depth ration. The sucker rods with the circular crack break first. The critical crack propagation life based on the traditional fracture mechanics is not accurate, and the sucker rod may break before the critical crack propagation lives.%在拉伸载荷的作用下，以Paris公式为基础，考虑几何修正系数f与裂纹尺寸α的内在关系，结合分段数值积分方法计算抽油杆裂纹扩展寿命，并应用MonteCarlo法计算不同类型表面裂纹扩展寿命可靠度．计算结果表明，在其他条件相同情况下，把裂纹处理为受深度比、纵横比两个参数控制的椭圆裂纹比仅受深度比控制的圆弧裂纹和直裂纹适应性更强；带有环形裂纹的抽油杆最先断裂；断裂力学中将各个参数作为确定值计算得到的临界裂纹扩展寿命不够准确，可能导致部分抽油杆还未达到临界裂纹扩展寿命就发生断裂．
Micromechanical models of delamination in aluminum-lithium alloys
Messner, Mark Christian
Aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloys are lighter, stiffer, and tougher than conventional aerospace aluminum alloys. Replacing conventional aluminums with Al-Li could substantially decrease the weight and cost of aerospace structures. However, Al-Li alloys often fracture intergranularly via a mechanism called delamination cracking. While secondary delamination cracks can improve the effective toughness of a component, no current model accurately predicts the initiation and growth of intergranular cracks. Since simulations cannot incorporate delamination into a structural model, designers cannot quantify the effect of delamination cracking on a particular component. This uncertainty limits the application of Al-Li alloys. Previous experiments identify microstructural features linked to delamination. Fractography of failed surfaces indicates plastic void growth triggers intergranular failure. Furthermore, certain types of soft/stiff grain boundaries tend to localize void growth and nucleate delamination cracks. This dissertation develops a mechanism for the initiation of delamination on the microscale that accounts for these experimental observations. Microscale simulations of grain boundaries near a long primary crack explore the delamination mechanism on the mesoscale. In these simulations, a physically-based crystal plasticity (CP) model represents the constitutive response of individual grains. This CP model incorporates plastic voriticity correction terms into a standard objective stress rate integration, to accurately account for the kinematics of lattice deformation. The CP model implements slip system hardening with a modular approach to facilitate quick testing and calibration of different theories of hardening. The microscale models reveal soft/stiff grain boundaries develop elevated mean stress and plastic strain as a consequence of the mechanics of the interface. These elevated stresses and strain drive plastic void growth. The results indicate plastic void
Cherepanov, Genady P
2015-03-28
By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polvora, J.P
1998-12-31
This study deals with crack propagation at 650 deg C on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17-12 (316L(NN)). It is based on an experimental work concerning two different cracked specimens: CT specimens tested at 650 deg C in fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue with load controlled conditions (27 tests), tube specimens containing an internal circumferential crack tested in four points bending with displacement controlled conditions (10 tests). Using the fracture mechanics tools (K, J and C* parameters), the purpose here is to construct a methodology of calculation in order to predict the evolution of a crack with time for each loading condition using a fracture mechanics global approach. For both specimen types, crack growth is monitored by using a specific potential drop technique. In continuous fatigue, a material Paris law at 650 deg C is used to correlate crack growth rate with the stress intensity factor range corrected with a factor U(R) in order to take into account the effects of crack closure and loading ratio R. In pure creep on CT specimens, crack growth rate is correlated to the evolution of the C* parameter (evaluated experimentally) which can be estimated numerically with FEM calculations and analytically by using a simplified method based on a reference stress approach. A modeling of creep fatigue growth rate is obtained from a simple summation of the fatigue contribution and the creep contribution to the total crack growth. Good results are obtained when C* parameter is evaluated from the simplified expression C*{sub s}. Concerning the tube specimens tested in 4 point bending conditions, a simulation based on the actual A 16 French guide procedure proposed at CEA. (authors) 104 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [UAEM, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Garcia-Ochoa, E. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica Aplicada; Diaz-Sanchez, A. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Toluca (Mexico). Dept. de Materiales
1997-09-01
Corrosion potential transients were associated with nucleation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks in a 17-4 precipitation-hardenable (PH) martensitic stainless steel (SS) during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at 90 C in deaerated sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, Test solutions included 20 wt% NaCl at pH 3 and 7, similar to normal and faulted steam turbine environments, respectively. Time series were analyzed using the fast Fourier transform method. At the beginning of straining, the consistent noise behavior was perturbed with small potential transients, probably associated with rupture of the surface oxide layer. After yielding, these transients increased in intensity. At maximum load, the transients were still higher in intensity and frequency. These potential transients were related to crack nucleation and propagation. When the steel did not fail by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), such transients were found only at the beginning of the test. The power spectra showed some differences in all cases in roll-off slope and voltage magnitude, but these were not reliable tools to monitor the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Sheng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The multiscale analysis method based on traction-separation law (TSL and cohesive zone law was used to describe the cross-scale defective process of alpha titanium (α-Ti material with compounding microdefects in this paper. First, the properties of T-S curve and the reasonable range of T-S area relative to the length of defects were discussed. Next, based on the conclusions above, the molecule dynamics analysis of three models of α-Ti with compounding microdefects was conducted and cross-scaly simulated. The phenomenon, principles, and mechanisms of different compound microscale defects propagation of α-Ti were observed and explained at atomic scale, and the effects of different microdefects on macrofracture parameters of materials were studied.
Simulation of cusp formation in mode II delamination
Sluys, L.J.; Van der Meer, F.P.
2014-01-01
On the microlevel, cusps are formed during delamination crack growth under mode II loading conditions. In this work, two different approaches to simulate this process are presented. Firstly a cohesive zone method where cohesive segments are introduced between a pair of neighbouring elements when the
Crack propagation analysis of welded thin-walled joints using boundary element method
Mashiri, F. R.; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Grundy, P.
Tube-to-plate nodal joints under cyclic bending are widely used in the road transport and agricultural industry. The square hollow sections (SHS) used in these constructions are thin-walled and cold formed, and they have thicknesses of less than 4mm. Some fatigue failures have been observed. The weld undercut may affect the fatigue life of welded tubular joints especially for thin-walled sections. The undercut dimensions were measured using the silicon imprint technique. Modelling of thin-walled cruciform joints, as a simplification of welded tubular joints, is described in this paper to determine the effect of weld undercut on fatigue propagation life. The Boundary Element Analysis System Software (BEASY) is used. The results of the effect of weld toe undercut from this analysis are compared with results from previous research to determine the comparative reduction in fatigue life between thin-walled joints (T=3mm) and those made of thicker sections (T=20mm). The loss in fatigue strength of the thin-walled joints is found to be relatively more than that for thicker walled joints. A 3D model of a tube to plate T-joint is also modelled using the boundary element software, BEASY. The nodal joint consists of a square hollow section, 50×50×3 SHS, fillet welded to a 10-mm thick plate, and subjected to cyclic bending stress. Fatigue analyses are carried out and the results are compared with the only available S-N design curve.
STUDY ON FAILURE PROCESS OF DELAMINATED STIFFENED COMPOSITE PLATES UNDER COMPRESSION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈浩然; 白瑞祥; 王蔓
2003-01-01
Failure behavior of the delaminated stiffened composite plates under compression is studied by the finite element method, based on a Global-Local variational model. A virtual crack closure technique and a self-adaptive grid moving scheme are proposed to predict the delamination growth process. The contact effect along the delamination front is considered. The numerical results show that the influences of the distribution and location of the stiffeners, the configuration and size of the delamination, the boundary condition and the contact upon the failure behavior of the plates are significant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-12-31
A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.
Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan
2015-02-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P propagation (P = .0004). The other procedures had no significant effects on crack initiation and propagation (P > .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merino C, F.J. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fuentes C, P. [ITT, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fjmc@nuclear.inin.mx
2004-07-01
In this work, the obtained results when applying the Hydrogen Chemistry to a test tube type Compact Tension (CT), built in austenitic stainless steel 304l, simulating the conditions to those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa are presented. With the application of this water chemistry, seeks to be proven the diminution of the crack propagation speed. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menouillard, T
2007-09-15
Computerized simulation is nowadays an integrating part of design and validation processes of mechanical structures. Simulation tools are more and more performing allowing a very acute description of the phenomena. Moreover, these tools are not limited to linear mechanics but are developed to describe more difficult behaviours as for instance structures damage which interests the safety domain. A dynamic or static load can thus lead to a damage, a crack and then a rupture of the structure. The fast dynamics allows to simulate 'fast' phenomena such as explosions, shocks and impacts on structure. The application domain is various. It concerns for instance the study of the lifetime and the accidents scenario of the nuclear reactor vessel. It is then very interesting, for fast dynamics codes, to be able to anticipate in a robust and stable way such phenomena: the assessment of damage in the structure and the simulation of crack propagation form an essential stake. The extended finite element method has the advantage to break away from mesh generation and from fields projection during the crack propagation. Effectively, crack is described kinematically by an appropriate strategy of enrichment of supplementary freedom degrees. Difficulties connecting the spatial discretization of this method with the temporal discretization of an explicit calculation scheme has then been revealed; these difficulties are the diagonal writing of the mass matrix and the associated stability time step. Here are presented two methods of mass matrix diagonalization based on the kinetic energy conservation, and studies of critical time steps for various enriched finite elements. The interest revealed here is that the time step is not more penalizing than those of the standard finite elements problem. Comparisons with numerical simulations on another code allow to validate the theoretical works. A crack propagation test in mixed mode has been exploited in order to verify the simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtit, F
2000-07-01
This study realised in LISN Laboratory of CEA Saclay, deals with the creep fatigue propagation of semi elliptical crack at the temperature of 650 deg C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints. A vast majority of the studies on creep fatigue propagation models are based on specimen (CT) especially designed for crack propagation study. The PLAQFLU program performed in LISN laboratory deals with the application and adaptation of these models to complex crack shape, which are more representative of the cracks observed in industrial components. In this scope, we use propagation tests realised at the temperature of 650 deg C with wide plates containing semi elliptical defects. For some of them, the initial defect is machined in the middle of a welded joint, which constitute a privileged site for the crack initiation. The approach used in this study is based on global parameters of fracture mechanics. At first, tests on CT specimen are used in order to determine the propagation laws correlating the crack growth rate to the global parameters K or C{sup *}. These laws are then supposed to be intrinsic to our materials and are used to analysed the semi elliptical crack propagation. The analysis of the comportment of the crack during the hold time demonstrates the possibility to establish a correlation between the crack propagation both in the deepest and the surface point and the local value of C{sup *}. These correlations are coherent in the different points of the crack front for the different applied hold times, and they present a reasonably good agreement with the creep propagation law identified on CT specimen. The simulation of test performed on based metal specimen with a model of summation of both creep and pure fatigue crack growth gives acceptable results when the calculus of the simplified expression of C{sup *}{sub s} considers a continuous evolution of creep deformations rate during the all test. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1995-12-01
In the previous report, load causing tensional plastic region or in other words the load limit above RPG load was an effective load limit for fatigue crack propagation and corresponding to this, the relation between the stress expansion coefficient limit {delta}K{sub RP} and fatigue crack propagation rate including the periphery of lower limit region showed linear relation in logarithm graph. In this report, many informations were achieved from the fatigue crack propagation experiment under same load condition using center notched specimens for the three cases such as tension residual stress and compression residual stress are applied to the near edges of the specimen, and for the case where residual stress do not exist in order to study whether the stress expansion coefficient limit {delta}K{sub RP} corresponding to load range above RPG load can be a parameter of fatigue crack propagation rate or not even in case of residual stress field and further, whether the simulation of RPG load can be materialize even in case of residual stress field or not. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晶; 王强
2013-01-01
针对裂纹损伤易引发严重后果且难以观测这一问题,对Lamb波传播能量谱结构裂纹检测技术进行了研究.利用Lamb波传播距离远,对微小损伤敏感的特点,对传播路径上不同点观测得到的期望模式Lamb波进行分析,得出其传播距离与能量关系谱,根据能量谱的突变检测出结构损伤的位置.在真实结构试件上进行了实验验证,实验观测得到的期望模式Lamb波传播能量谱反映出结构裂纹的具体位置,证明了该方法的有效性和实用性.%Crack damage may cause serious accidents and is hard to be detected intuitively. A new crack damage detection technique based on propagation energy spectrum of Lamb wave was researched. By using its long propagation distance and sensitivity to small damages, the analysis of the expected Lamb waves mode was performed to obtain their propagation energy spectrum. These Lamb waves were collected from different monitoring point along the propagation path. The damage location would be indicated by a sudden change of the energy spectrum. Experimental validation was conducted on an actual structural specimen. The propagation energy spectrum of expected Lamb wave mode observed in the experiments showed the happening and location of the crack damage, which improved the effect and practicability of the method.
1984-07-01
Science Division, Library Trans-Australia Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited SEC of Vic., Herman Research Laboratory, Library Ansett Airlines of...linear relationship was found between the log. life and log. crack depth for individual specimens. At the smallest crack depth usedfor analysis (0.3 mm...any attempt made to extrapolate the curves back to zero crack depth. A further analysis of the basic data for specimens tested under Spectrum I was
The study of crack resistance of TiAlN coatings under mechanical loading and thermal cycle testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akulinkin, Alexandr, E-mail: aaa@ispms.tsc.ru; Shugurov, Artur, E-mail: shugurov@ispms.tsc.ru; Sergeev, Viktor, E-mail: retc@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Panin, Alexey, E-mail: pav@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Cheng, C.-H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)
2015-10-27
The effect of preliminary ion bombardment of 321 stainless steel substrate on crack resistance of TiAlN coatings at uniaxial tension and thermal cycling is studied. The ion-beam treatment of the substrate is shown to substantially improve the adhesion strength of the coatings that prevents their delamination and spalling under uniaxial tension. The resistance to crack propagation and spalling by the thermal shock is higher in the TiAlN coating deposited onto the substrate subjected to Ti ion bombardment as compared to that in the TiAlN coating deposited onto the initial substrate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张术宽; 郭峰; 李茂东; 吴文栋; 涂欣; 张胜军; 王新华
2014-01-01
重点介绍了影响聚乙烯塑料管材快速裂纹扩展的主要因素，阐述了聚乙烯塑料管材快速裂纹扩展的评价方法。%The main factors that influenced the rapid crack propagation of polyethylene plastic pipe were introduced,and the evaluation method of rapid the crack propagation of polyethylene plastic pipe were illustrated.
Reliability at the Chip Interfaces: Delaminating the Silicon Die from Molding Compound
Schlottig, G.
2012-01-01
This book describes a setup that allows to delaminate the Silicon-to-Molding Compound interface for obtaining interfacial fracture parameters: the Mixed Mode Chisel setup (MMC). With this device for the first time the delamination can be initiated and propagated, while preventing the occurrence of r
Reliability at the Chip Interfaces: Delaminating the Silicon Die from Molding Compound
Schlottig, G.
2012-01-01
This book describes a setup that allows to delaminate the Silicon-to-Molding Compound interface for obtaining interfacial fracture parameters: the Mixed Mode Chisel setup (MMC). With this device for the first time the delamination can be initiated and propagated, while preventing the occurrence of r
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuentes C, P
2003-07-01
This work presents the results of the assays carried out in the Laboratory of Hot Cells of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to a type test tube Compact Tension (CT), built in steel austenitic stainless type 304L, simulating those conditions those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), at temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa, to determine the speed to which the cracks spread in this material that is of the one that different components of a reactor are made, among those that it highlights the reactor core vessel. The application of the Hydrogen Chemistry of the Water is presented (HWC) that is one alternative to diminish the corrosion effect low stress in the component, this is gets controlling the quantity of oxygen and of hydrogen as well as the conductivity of the water. The rehearsal is made following the principles of the Mechanics of Elastic Lineal Fracture (LEFM) that considers a crack of defined size with little plastic deformation in the tip of this; the measurement of crack advance is continued with the technique of potential drop of direct current of alternating signal, this is contained inside the standard Astm E-647 (Method of Test Standard for the Measurement of Speed of Growth of Crack by fatigue) that is the one that indicates us as carrying out this test. The specifications that should complete the test tubes that are rehearsed as for their dimensions, it forms, finish and determination of mechanical properties (tenacity to the fracture mainly) they are contained inside the norm Astm E-399, the one which it is also based on the principles of the fracture mechanics. The obtained results were part of a database to be compared with those of other rehearsals under different conditions, Normal Chemistry of the Water (NWC) and it dilutes with high content of O{sub 2}; to determine the conditions that slow more the phenomena of stress corrosion cracking, as well as the effectiveness of the used chemistry and of the method of
Hudson, C. M.; Lewis, P. E.
1979-01-01
A round-robin study was conducted which evaluated and compared different methods currently in practice for predicting crack growth in surface-cracked specimens. This report describes the prediction methods used by the Fracture Mechanics Engineering Section, at NASA-Langley Research Center, and presents a comparison between predicted crack growth and crack growth observed in laboratory experiments. For tests at higher stress levels, the correlation between predicted and experimentally determined crack growth was generally quite good. For tests at lower stress levels, the predicted number of cycles to reach a given crack length was consistently higher than the experimentally determined number of cycles. This consistent overestimation of the number of cycles could have resulted from a lack of definition of crack-growth data at low values of the stress intensity range. Generally, the predicted critical flaw sizes were smaller than the experimentally determined critical flaw sizes. This underestimation probably resulted from using plane-strain fracture toughness values to predict failure rather than the more appropriate values based on maximum load.
De Carvalho, Nelson V.; Krueger, Ronald
2016-01-01
A new methodology is proposed to model the onset and propagation of matrix cracks and delaminations in carbon-epoxy composites subject to fatigue loading. An extended interface element, based on the Floating Node Method, is developed to represent delaminations and matrix cracks explicitly in a mesh independent fashion. Crack propagation is determined using an element-based Virtual Crack Closure Technique approach to determine mixed-mode energy release rates, and the Paris-Law relationship to obtain crack growth rate. Crack onset is determined using a stressbased onset criterion coupled with a stress vs. cycle curve and Palmgren-Miner rule to account for fatigue damage accumulation. The approach is implemented in Abaqus/Standard® via the user subroutine functionality. Verification exercises are performed to assess the accuracy and correct implementation of the approach. Finally, it was demonstrated that this approach captured the differences in failure morphology in fatigue for two laminates of identical stiffness, but with layups containing ?deg plies that were either stacked in a single group, or distributed through the laminate thickness.
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.
2016-08-01
An analytical-numerical method, based on the use of wavelet spectral finite elements (WSFE), is presented for studying the nonlinear interaction of flexural waves with a breathing crack present in a slender beam. The cracked beam is discretized using wavelet spectral finite elements which use compactly supported Daubechies scaling functions for approximating the temporal dependence of the transverse displacement. Rotational spring is used to model the open crack condition, and behavior of the beam in closed-crack condition is assumed to be similar to that of an intact beam. An intermittent switching between the open- and closed-crack conditions simulates crack-breathing, leading to a set of nonlinear equations which is solved using an iterative method. Results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained using the Fourier spectral finite element (FSFE) and 1D finite element (FE) methods, which show a close agreement. Existence of the higher-order harmonic components, indicative of the crack-induced bilinearity, is confirmed in the frequency domain response. Moreover, the time domain analysis reveals separation of harmonics resulting from the dispersive nature of the waveguide, which is further used for localizing the damage. A parametric study is presented to bring out the influence of crack-severity and -location on the extent of harmonic separation and on the relative strength of higher order harmonic. In addition to elaborating the use of WSFE in addressing the nonlinear wave-damage interaction, results of the present investigation can be potentially useful in devising strategies for an inverse analysis.
TC4钛合金的疲劳裂纹扩展Walker公式%Walker Formula of Fatigue Crack Propagation of TC4 Titanium Alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
上官晓峰; 付小琪
2012-01-01
In order to study fatigue crack propagation characteristics of TC4 titanium alloy under different stress ratios, Warker formula was used to describe the fatigue crack growth rate under the different stress ratios. The fatigue crack propagation rates of TC4 titanium alloy were measured by means of standard test methods. The test load stress ratios were 0. 06,0. 5 and 0. 7. The curves of fatigue crack growth rate of TC4 titanium alloy were plotted with data processing by incremental polynomial calculation program, and fatigue fracture surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The material constants in the formula Walker were calculated. The results showed that fatigue crack propagation rate,namely fatigue strip space,increased,with the increasing of stress ratio, when the stress ratio R was bigger than 0. The material constants m, n and C in the formula Walker were 4. 08216, -0. 02391 and 6. 96304 ×10-7 respectively.%为了研究不同应力比下TC4钛合金疲劳裂纹扩展特性,用Warker公式来描述不同应力比下的疲劳裂纹扩展速率.按照标准试验方法,试验加载应力比分别为0.06,0.5,0.7.利用递增多项式数据处理的计算程序,绘制了铸造TC4钛合金疲劳裂纹扩展速率曲线,并对疲劳断口进行扫描分析,计算Walker公式下的材料常数.结果表明,当应力比R≥0时,疲劳裂纹扩展速率随应力比的增大而增大,表现为疲劳条带间距增大.计算得材料常数m为4.082 16,n为-0.023 91,C为6.963 04×10-7.
Characterizing Delamination Migration in Carbon/Epoxy Tape Laminates
Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Obrien, Thomas K.
2012-01-01
A new test method is presented for the purpose of investigating migration of a delamination between neighboring ply interfaces in fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix tape laminates. The test is a single cantilever beam configuration consisting of a cross-ply laminate with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insert implanted at the mid-plane and spanning part way along the length of the specimen. The insert is located between a 0-degree ply (specimen length direction) and a stack of four 90-degree plies (specimen width direction). The specimen is clamped at both ends onto a rigid baseplate and is loaded on its upper surface via a piano hinge. Tests were conducted with the load-application point located on the intact portion of the specimen in order to initiate delamination growth onset followed by migration of the delamination to a neighboring 90/0 ply interface by kinking through the 90- degree ply stack. Varying this position was found to affect the distance relative to the load-application point at which migration initiated. In each specimen, migration initiated by a gradual transition of the delamination at the 0/90 interface into the 90- degree ply stack. In contrast, transition of the kinked crack into the 90/0 interface was sudden. Fractography of the specimens indicated that delamination prior to migration was generally mixed mode-I/II. Inspection of the kink surface revealed mode-I fracture. In general, use of this test allows for the observation of the growth of a delamination followed by migration of the delamination to another ply interface, and should thus provide a means for validating analyses aimed at simulating migration.
Liu, P. F.; Zheng, J. Y.
2013-12-01
Multiple delamination causes severe degradation of the stiffness and strength of composites. Interactions between multiple delamination, and buckling and postbuckling under compressive loads add the complexity of mechanical properties of composites. In this paper, the buckling, postbuckling and through-the-width multiple delamination of symmetric and unsymmetric composite laminates are studied using 3D FEA, and the virtual crack closure technique with two delamination failure criteria: B-K law and power law is used to predict the delamination growth and to calculate the mixed-mode energy release rate. The compressive load-strain curves, load-central deflection curves and multiple delamination process for eight composite specimens with different initial delamination sizes and their distributions as well as two angle-ply configurations 04//(± θ)6//04 ( θ = 0° and 45°, and "//" denotes the delaminated interface) are comparatively studied. From numerical results, the unsymmetry decreases the local buckling load and initial delamination load, but does not affect the global buckling load compared with the symmetric laminates. Besides, the unsymmetry affects the unstable delamination and buckling behaviors of composite laminates largely when the initial multiple delamination sizes are relatively small.
Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach
Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.
1992-01-01
A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.V. Bannikov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fatigue (high- and gigacycle crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and electronic microscope to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue (HCF regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both HCF and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometerprofiler New View 5010 data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent. Area 1 with diameter ~300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; McGugan, Malcolm
2015-01-01
This research presents a novel method to asses a crack growing/damage event in composite material, in polymer, or in structural adhesive using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the host material, and its application in to a composite material structure: Wind Turbine Trailing Edge. A S...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Šimonová
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the attention is paid to investigation of the importance of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ in selected fine-grained cement-based composites for the global fracture behaviour. This is a region of cement paste around the aggregate particles which specific features could have significant impact on the final behaviour of cement composites with a crack tip nearby this interface under applied tension. The aim of this work is to show the basic interface microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM done by MIRA3 TESCAN and to analyse the behaviour of such composite by numerical modelling. Numerical studies assume two different ITZ thicknesses taken from SEM analysis. A simplified cracked geometry (consisting of three phases – matrix, ITZ, and aggregate is modelled by means of the finite element method with a crack terminating at the matrix–ITZ interface. ITZ’s modulus of elasticity is taken from generalized self-consistent scheme. A few conclusions are discussed based on comparison of the average values of the opening stress ahead of the crack tip with their critical values. The analyses dealing with the effect of ITZ’s properties on the stress distribution should contribute to better description of toughening mechanisms in silicate-based composites.
Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw
2016-04-01
The aim of this paper is to present aspects of Lamb wave propagation in randomly oriented short fiber reinforce composites with delamination. Prediction of elastic constants is based on mechanics of composites, rule of mixture and total mass balance tailored to the spectral element mesh composed of 3D brick elements. Piezoelectric excitation as well as glue layer are taken into account. Complex full wave field includes multiple reflections at short fibers. This wave pattern is also obtained by the use of laser vibrometry confirming good quality of the model. Further studies are related to symmetrical and non-symmetrical delamination in respect to the thickness of the composite plate. Square delamination of the side length 10 mm is investigated. It has been found that reflections from delamination are mostly superimposed with reflections coming from short fibers. Hence, delamination detection by direct analysis of wave propagation pattern on the surface of the plate is ineffective. However, adaptive wavenumber filtering method overcome these difficulties and enables not only to detect the delamination but also is helpful for delamination size estimation. Moreover, the method is more effective if the full wavefield measurements are acquired on the surface of the plate which is closer to the delamination.
Application of the Refined Zigzag Theory to the Modeling of Delaminations in Laminated Composites
Groh, Rainer M. J.; Weaver, Paul M.; Tessler, Alexander
2015-01-01
The Refined Zigzag Theory is applied to the modeling of delaminations in laminated composites. The commonly used cohesive zone approach is adapted for use within a continuum mechanics model, and then used to predict the onset and propagation of delamination in five cross-ply composite beams. The resin-rich area between individual composite plies is modeled explicitly using thin, discrete layers with isotropic material properties. A damage model is applied to these resin-rich layers to enable tracking of delamination propagation. The displacement jump across the damaged interfacial resin layer is captured using the zigzag function of the Refined Zigzag Theory. The overall model predicts the initiation of delamination to within 8% compared to experimental results and the load drop after propagation is represented accurately.
Edge effects and delamination failures
Herakovich, C. T.
1989-01-01
The fundamental relationship between the morphology of a composite laminate and the resulting free edge effects is explored and related to delamination failures. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates are discussed in detail. It is shown that the local mismatch in elastic properties of adjacent layers and the global stacking sequence of a laminate both have a significant influence on the interlaminar stresses and delamination failures.
Cini, Andrea
2012-01-01
Mechanical damages, like scratches, are commonly detected on the surfaces of aircraft components and structures. They can be accidentally introduced during machining or maintenance operations or be the result of wear and impacts during aircraft service. Under the action of service loads, such mechanical damage can generate fatigue cracks reducing the component fatigue life and compromising the aircraft structural integrity. The evaluation of the effect of scratches and other sm...
1986-01-24
strength and toughness if a mixed ’ martensite structure with 50% bainite is obtained. It also can prolong the pregnant period of nucleation of fatigue crack...has high No and low da/dN. If the bainite is more than 90%, its fracture will show the characteristic of quasicleavage and da/dN increases remarkably...toughness simultaneously is an urgent problem needing to be solved. Recently, from the studies of mixed structures of bainite and ,.. martensite, it was
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad S.R.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the application of the metal magnetic memory (MMM technique for investigations on fatigue crack propagation in a ferromagnetic material. Fatigue failure caused by stress concentration is serious in practical engineering. However, early fatigue damages cannot be detected by using traditional nondestructive testing (NDT methods. Therefore this paper study about NDT method called metal magnetic memory (MMM that has potentials for evaluating the fatigue damage at the early damage and critical fracture stages. While its capacity to evaluate the distribution of self-magnetic leakage field signals on the component’s surface is well-established, there remains a need to scrutinize the physical mechanism and quantitative analysis aspects of this method. To begin with, a fatigue test involving a loading of 7kN was conducted on a SAE 1045 carbon steel specimen. This material is frequently used in the manufacturing of automotive transmission components that include the axle and spline shaft. MMM signals were measured along a scanning distance of 100 mm and analysed during the propagation stage. Other than revealing that the value of the magnetic flux gradient signals dH(y/dx increased in tandem with the crack length, the results also led to the detection of the crack growth location. It was anticipated that the dH(y/dx value will also exhibit an upward trend with a rise in the fatigue growth rate of da/dN. A modified Paris equation was utilized to correlate dH(y/dx with da/dn through the replacement of the stress intensity factor range ΔK. This resulted in the log-log plot of da/dN versus dH(y/dx portraying an inclination similar to the log-log plot of da/dN versus ΔK. A linear relationship was established between dH(y/dx and ΔK with the R2 value as 0.96. Players in the automotive industry can benefit from the disclosure that dH(y/dx can effectively replace ΔK for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth
Study of Crack Distribution Effects on Sound Wave Propagation in Basalt%玄武岩中裂隙分布形式对声波传播的影响
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓向允; 徐松林; 李广场; 刘永贵; 郑文; 席道瑛
2009-01-01
Engineering rock mass contains lots of cracks and defects, whose size and distribution form have strong influence on elastic wave propagation. In this paper, wave velocities in basalt specimens with single, two and three prefabricated cracks were measured by using five different frequencies that is 25kHz, 50kHz, 400kHz, 600kHz and 1000kHz. Taking into account the cracks vertical or parallel to the wave propagation direction, the influence of different crack lengths and different crack distributions on elastic wave propagation, the dispersion effect and wave attenuation in basalt were analyzed based on these experimental results. Results show that the included angle between crack direction and wave propagation direction has intensive effect on wave propagation: when the crack direction is vertical to the wave propagation direction, the attenuation effect is most intensive; when the crack direction is parallel to the wave propagation direction, the attenuation affect is minimum. Above results may be helpful for theoretical and numerical analysis of elastic wave propagation in basalt.%复杂岩体含有大量的裂隙,这些裂隙尺寸及其分布形式等对弹性波传播都有很大的影响.本文加工了含单个裂隙、双裂隙和三个裂隙的玄武岩岩样单元对其进行组合,进行了25kHz、 50kHz、 400kHz、 600kHz和1000kHz 等5种频率的声波测试.通过考虑垂直或平行波传播方向的裂隙长度,来探索裂隙分布形式和不同裂隙长度对弹性波传播的影响,研究玄武岩的频散效应和波的衰减.结果表明:裂隙方向与波传播方向夹角对弹性波传播有很大的影响.当裂隙方向与波传播方向垂直时,散射效应最大;而当裂隙方向与波传播方向平行时,影响最小.上述结果可为理论模型和数值分析提供依据.
Chuvashova, Irina; Sun, Yi-min
2016-04-01
mantle beneath the northern Songliao basin and that admixture of the common sub-lithospheric component was locally introduced into the melted region by mechanism of propagating crack. This study is based on analytical data obtained for volcanic rocks in the Chinese-Russian Wudalianchi-Baikal Research Center on recent volcanism and environment. Major oxides were determined by "wet chemistry" at the Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS, Irkutsk. Trace-elements were measured by ICP-MS technique using mass-spectrometer Agilent 7500ce of the Center for collective use "Microanalysis" (Limnological Institute of SB RAS, Irkutsk) and Nd, Pb, and Sr isotopes by TIMS technique using mass-spectrometer Finnigan MAT 262 of the Center for collective use "Geodynamics and geochronology" (Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS). The work was supported by the RFBR grant № 16-05-00774. References Chuvashova, I.S., Rasskazov, S.V., Liu, J., Meng, F., Yasnygina, T.A., Fefelov, N.N., Saranina, E.V., 2009. Isotopically-enriched components in evolution of Late Cenozoic potassic magmatism in Heilongjiang province, northeast China, Proceedings of the Irkutsk State University. Series of Earth Sciences, 2 (2), pp. 181-198. Guide book for field mission to Wudalianchi National Park, China, 2010. Prepared by Wudalianchi National Park and Nature Management Committee Heilongjiang province, 50 p. Foulger, G.R., 2010. Plates vs. plumes: a geological controversy. Wiley-Blackwell, 328 p. Rasskazov, S.V., Yasnygina, T.A., Chuvashova, I.S. Mantle sources of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of East Asia: Derivatives of slabs, the sub-lithospheric convection, and the lithosphere. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology. 2014. V. 8 (5), 355-371. Wang, Y., Chen, H., 2005. Tectonic controls on the Pleistocene-Holocene Wudalianchi volcanic field (northeastern China), Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, pp. 419-431.
Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Kesim, Bertan; Tuncay, Oznur
2014-07-01
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of crack initiation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed by using 2 rotary retreatment systems and hand files with additional instrumentation. Eighty extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were selected. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the control group, and no preparation was performed. The remaining 60 teeth were prepared to size 35 with rotary files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Specimens were then divided into 3 groups (n = 20), and retreatment procedures were performed with the following devices and techniques: ProTaper Universal retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, and hand files. After retreatment, the additional instrumentation was performed by using size 40 ProTaper, Mtwo, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surface were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation, after filling, after retreatment, and after additional instrumentation. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. Data were analyzed with the logistic regression and Fisher exact tests. All experimental groups caused crack initiation and propagation after use of retreatment instruments. The ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment groups caused greater crack initiation and propagation than the hand instrument group (P propagation, whereas hand files caused neither crack initiation nor propagation (P propagation in apical dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chudnovsky, A.
1984-01-01
A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.
Fatigue crack propagation of aluminum alloy based on acoustic emission monitoring%铝合金疲劳裂纹扩展声发射监测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱荣华; 刚铁
2013-01-01
The acoustic emission technique was used to monitor the fatigue crack propagation of 7N01 aluminum alloy single-edge notched three-point bend specimens under different stress ratio and peak load. The relationship between the crack growth rate, acoustic emission count rate and stress intensity factor range was established. The results show that most of the a-coustic emission signals were produced in the low stress cyclic loading stage because the acoustic emission activity in low-stress phase was mainly related to the plastic deformation and crack closure in crack tip, and the acoustic emission count exponentially grew with the stress intensity factor. Based on the relationship between the acoustic emission count rate and crack growth rate, the remaining life of fatigue-damaged structures could be predicted.%采用声发射(acoustic emission,AE)技术对7N01铝合金单边缺口三点弯曲试样不同应力比、不同峰值载荷下疲劳裂纹扩展过程中声发射信号进行了监测,建立了裂纹扩展速率、声发射计数(count)与应力强度因子之间的关系.结果表明,大部分的声发射信号主要产生于疲劳循环载荷的低应力阶段,这主要是低应力阶段的声发射活动主要与裂纹尖端的塑性变形和裂纹闭合现象有关,声发射计数与应力强度因子之间呈指数增长的关系.基于所建立的声发射计数率与裂纹扩展速率的关系,可以预测疲劳损伤结构的剩余寿命.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Menghan Wang∗,Zongmin Yue; Lie Meng
2016-01-01
In order to prevent cracking appeared in the work⁃piece during the hot stamping operation, this paper proposes a hybrid optimization method based on Hammersley sequence sampling ( HSS) , finite analysis, back⁃propagation ( BP ) neural network and genetic algorithm ( GA ) . The mechanical properties of high strength boron steel are characterized on the basis of uniaxial tensile test at elevated temperatures. The samples of process parameters are chosen via the HSS that encourages the exploration throughout the design space and hence achieves better discovery of possible global optimum in the solution space. Meanwhile, numerical simulation is carried out to predict the forming quality for the optimized design. A BP neural network model is developed to obtain the mathematical relationship between optimization goal and design variables, and genetic algorithm is used to optimize the process parameters. Finally, the results of numerical simulation are compared with those of production experiment to demonstrate that the optimization strategy proposed in the paper is feasible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginebra, M. P.; Albuixech, L.; Fernandez-Barragan, E.; Gil, F. J.; Planell, J. A.; San Roman, J.; Vazquez, B.
2001-07-01
In this work the 2,5-diiodo-8-quinolyl methacrylate (IHQM), is proposed as a new radiopaque agent. The addition of the iodine containing methacrylate provided a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength, fracture toughness and ductility, with respect to the barium sulphate containing cement. This effect was attributed to the fact that the use of a radiopaque monomer eliminated the porosity associated to the barium sulphate particles. However, since fatigue resistance is one of the main properties required to ensure a good long-term performance of permanent pros these, as is the case of acrylic bone cements, it is important to compare the fatigue properties of this new bone cement formulation with the radiolucent and the BaSO{sub 4} containing bone cements. The results show that the absence of inorganic particles with no matrix adhesion plays a negative role when the fatigue crack propagation is considered. (Author) 26 refs.
Adu, Stephen Aboagye
Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) possess very high specific strength and stiffness and this has accounted for their wide use in structural applications, most especially in the aerospace industry, where the trade-off between weight and strength is critical. Even though they possess much larger strength ratio as compared to metals like aluminum and lithium, damage in the metals mentioned is rather localized. However, CFRPs generate complex damage zones at stress concentration, with damage progression in the form of matrix cracking, delamination and fiber fracture or fiber/matrix de-bonding. This thesis is aimed at performing; stiffness degradation analysis on composite coupons, containing embedded delamination using the Four-Point Bend Test. The Lamb wave-based approach as a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is used for damage detection in the composite coupons. Tests were carried-out on unidirectional composite coupons, obtained from panels manufactured with pre-existing defect in the form of embedded delamination in a laminate of stacking sequence [06/904/0 6]T. Composite coupons were obtained from panels, fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), a liquid composite molding (LCM) process. The discontinuity in the laminate structure due to the de-bonding of the middle plies caused by the insertion of a 0.3 mm thick wax, in-between the middle four (4) ninety degree (90°) plies, is detected using lamb waves generated by surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. From the surface mounted piezoelectric sensors, response for both undamaged (coupon with no defect) and damaged (delaminated coupon) is obtained. A numerical study of the embedded crack propagation in the composite coupon under four-point and three-point bending was carried out using FEM. Model validation was then carried out comparing the numerical results with the experimental. Here, surface-to-surface contact property was used to model the
1984-08-10
34Elastodynamic Analysis of Cracks by Finite Element Method Using Singular Element", Int. J. Fracture, 14, pp 59-68, 1978. [4] Bazant , Z. 0., Glazik, J. L., Jr...tions of the bilinear stress-strain relation. DD FORM I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE S/N 0102- LF- 014-6601 Unclassified...unloading region can be obtained from the work of Achenbach and Bazant (1975). In the elastic region the displacement rate must satisfy for plane strain
Mechanistic Study of Delamination Fracture in Al-Li Alloy C458 (2099)
Tayon, W. A.; Crooks, R. E.; Domack, M. S.; Wagner, J. A.; Beaudoin, A. J.; McDonald, R. J.
2009-01-01
Delamination fracture has limited the use of lightweight Al-Li alloys. In the present study, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were used to characterize crack paths in Al-Li alloy C458 (2099). Secondary delamination cracks in fracture toughness samples showed a pronounced tendency for fracture between grain variants of the same deformation texture component. These results were analyzed by EBSD mapping methods and simulated with finite element analyses. Simulation procedures include a description of material anisotropy, local grain orientations, and fracture utilizing crystal plasticity and cohesive zone elements. Taylor factors computed for each grain orientation subjected to normal and shear stresses indicated that grain pairs with the largest Taylor factor differences were adjacent to boundaries that failed by delamination. Examination of matching delamination fracture surface pairs revealed pronounced slip bands in only one of the grains bordering the delamination. These results, along with EBSD studies, plasticity simulations, and Auger electron spectroscopy observations support a hypothesis that delamination fracture occurs due to poor slip accommodation along boundaries between grains with greatly differing plastic response.
Thermally induced delamination of multilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Sarraute, S.; Jørgensen, O.
1998-01-01
Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficie...... coefficients may be an effective way of reducing the delamination energy release rate. Uneven layer thickness and increasing elastic mismatch are shown to raise the energy release rate. Experimental work confirms important trends of the model.......Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion...
Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Ramadas, C.; Padiyar, Janardhan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.
2011-06-01
Delamination is one of the critical failure modes that laminated composites structures encounter during their fabrication and/or in-service. When guided Lamb wave (Ao) is employed for sizing of delamination, it is necessary to understand the wave interaction with the defect. Studies were carried out on the interaction of Ao mode with symmetric and asymmetric delaminations and transmission of turning modes in the sub-laminates. An attempt was also made to understand the propagation of Ao mode in composite structural T-joint. During the interaction of Ao mode with structural discontinuity in a T-joint, generation of a new mode, So, and propagation of turning modes were observed. Length and width of interface delamination in composite T-joint have been worked out using D-scan and B-scan respectively. All studied were carried out through numerical simulations and experimental verifications through Non- Contact Ultrasound (NCU) technique.
Fracture and Delamination of Chromium Thin Films on Polymer Substrates
Cordill, M. J.; Taylor, A.; Schalko, J.; Dehm, G.
2010-04-01
New emerging technologies in the field of flexible electronic devices require that metal films adhere well and flex with polymer substrates. Common thin film materials used for these applications include copper (Cu) with an adhesion interlayer of chromium (Cr). Copper can be quite ductile and easily move with the polymer substrate. However, Cr is more brittle and fractures at lower strains than Cu. This study aims to examine the fracture and subsequent buckling and delamination of strained Cr films on polyimide (PI). In-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) straining is used to systematically study the influence of film thickness on fracture and buckling strains. Film fracture and delamination depend on film thickness, and increases in crack and buckle density with decreasing thickness are explored by a shear lag model.
Xu, Rong; Fan, Xueling; Wang, T. J.
2016-05-01
A systematic study of factors affecting the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system (TBCs) with double ceramic layers (DCL) is presented. Crack driving forces for delaminations at two weak interfaces are examined. The results show that a thicker outermost ceramic layer can induce dramatic increase in crack driving force and make the interface between two ceramic coatings become more prone to delamination. The behavior is shown to be more prominent in TBCs with stiffer outmost coating. The thickness ratio of two ceramic layers is an important parameter for controlling the failure mechanisms and determining the lifetime of DCL TBCs under inservice condition. By accounting for the influences of thickness ratio of two ceramic layers and interfacial fracture toughnesses of two involved interfaces, the fracture mechanism map of DCL TBCs has been constructed, in which different failure mechanisms are identified. The results quanlitatively agree with the aviliable experimental data.
表面裂纹疲劳扩展寿命可靠性分析%Reliability Analysis for Fatigue Propagation Life of Surface Crack
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙鹏飞; 袁杰红
2011-01-01
A method for reliability analysis for fatigue propagation life of surface crack is presented based on the line - spring model and Paris formula. Aiming at inefficiency of direct Monte Carlo method, latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method was used for random sampling so as to improve convergent velocity of calculation. The fatigue life is obtained at the given reliability and the reliability is obtained at the given life, in consideration of the uncertainty and correlation of parameters such as the crack size, cycle loading and fatigue parameters. The results of example accord with the existing results. The present method is effective and universal for engineering application.%在线弹簧模型和Paris公式的基础上，提出了对表面裂纹疲劳扩展寿命进行可靠性分析的方法。针对直接Monte Carlo法效率较低的问题，采用拉丁超立方法(LHS)进行随机抽样，以提高计算的收敛速度。考虑裂纹几何尺寸、交变载荷和疲劳参数等的随机性及相关性，求得了给定可靠度下的疲劳寿命和给定寿命下的可靠度。本文结果与已有文献结果具有较好的一致性。该方法简便有效、通用性强，适合于工程应用。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱杰; 方从启
2013-01-01
依据非均匀锈胀理论提出钢筋锈胀作用的计算方法,应用扩展有限元法(XFEM)建立了钢筋锈胀保护层开裂的有限元模型.数值分析表明:采用XFEM与混凝土黏聚力模型能有效模拟混凝土开裂及裂纹扩展,避免了网格重剖分的问题;预裂纹的存在抑制了混凝土裂纹萌生,却加速了裂纹扩展贯通保护层,且萌生始于预裂纹尖端,而非钢筋-混凝土锈蚀层界面处;初始无损伤结构裂纹萌生位置对称分布于锈蚀层界面一定范围内,裂尖距交界面距离越大,单元受锈胀影响越小,最终贯通保护层主要是锈胀位移与锈蚀产物渗入裂缝产生作用力共同作用的结果,且裂纹扩展角趋于120°;提高混凝土等级和增大保护层厚度能有效延缓锈胀裂缝的产生与发展,有利于提高结构耐久性.%Based on the theory of non-uniform corrosion expansion, a method for calculating the effect of reinforcement rust expansion was given. Also, a finite element model for simulating cracking propagation of the protection layer on the base of extended finite element method(XFEM) was established. The simulation analysis shows that implementation of XFEM and cohesive crack model for the analysis of concrete fracture and propagation are effective, and capable of simulating crack initiation and extension path without remeshing. Existence of pre-crack restrains crack initiation, which begins in the pre-crack tips instead of the interface of reinforcement and concrete, accelerates crack propagation through the cover. Nevertheless, the positions of crack initiation are distributed in the interface symmetrically within a certain distance for the non-defective structures. The greater of distance between crack tips and interface is, the weaker of damage of concrete element around the crack-tips. Furthermore, the rust expansion and forces produced by the infiltration into crack of the corrosion products coefficiently lead to the breakthrough of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico -Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Mexico (Mexico); Castano M, V. [Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, UNAM, Km 15.5 Carretera Queretaro-San Luis Potosi, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico)]. e-mail: ads@nuclear.inin.mx
2006-07-01
Velocities of crack growth in samples type CT pre cracking of stainless steel AISI 304l solder and sensitized thermally its were obtained by the Rising Displacement method or of growing displacement. It was used a recirculation circuit that simulates the operation conditions of a BWR type reactor (temperature of 280 C and a pressure of 8 MPa) with the chemistry modified by the addition of hydrogen with and without the addition of impurities of a powerful oxidizer like the Cu{sup +} ion. In each essay stayed a displacement velocity was constant of 1x10{sup -9} m/s, making a continuous pursuit of the advance of the crack by the electric potential drop technique. Contrary to the idea of mitigation of the crack propagation velocity by effect of the addition of the hydrogen in the system, the values of the growth velocities obtained by this methodology went similar to the opposing ones under normal operation conditions. To the finish of the rehearsal one carries out the fractographic analysis of the propagation surfaces, which showed cracks growth in trans and intergranular way, evidencing the complexity of the regulator mechanisms of the IGSCC like in mitigation conditions as the alternative Hydrogen Chemistry. (Author)
Self-Replicating Cracks: A Collaborative Fracture Mode in Thin Films
Marthelot, Joël; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José; Teisseire, Jérémie; Dalmas, Davy; Melo, Francisco
2014-08-01
Straight cracks are observed in thin coatings under residual tensile stress, resulting into the classical network pattern observed in china crockery, old paintings, or dry mud. Here, we present a novel fracture mechanism where delamination and propagation occur simultaneously, leading to the spontaneous self-replication of an initial template. Surprisingly, this mechanism is active below the standard critical tensile load for channel cracks and selects a robust interaction length scale on the order of 30 times the film thickness. Depending on triggering mechanisms, crescent alleys, spirals, or long bands are generated over a wide range of experimental parameters. We describe with a simple physical model, the selection of the fracture path and provide a configuration diagram displaying the different failure modes.
Choudhury, Pannalal; Das, Subhankar; Halder, Sudipta; Pandey, Krishna Murari
2016-10-01
Finite element analyses of laminated composites were done in the present study with respect to suppression of free edge delamination by an innovative technique. Wrap-around configuration was considered to determine its effectiveness over the wrapper-less laminated configuration on laminated composites. Nodal stresses were generated ahead of the crack tip through finite element analysis. This was used for determining interlaminar normal stress and inter laminar shear stress distributions at the critical interface. Later virtual crack closure technique was used to estimate the strain energy release rate components for several sizes of virtual crack extensions through a single finite element analysis. Computational analysis predicts Mode-I delamination as dominant mode of failure. This mode of delamination was significantly suppressed with wrap-around configuration on laminated composites.
Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drury, W.J. [P and L Technologies, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Gokhale, A.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
1995-10-01
The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheider, I.
2001-07-01
This thesis introduces a concept for fracture mechanical assessment of structures with heterogenuous material properties like weldments. It is based on the cohesive zone model for numerical crack propagation analysis. With that model the failure of examined structures due to fracture can be determined. One part of the thesis contains the extension of the capabilities of the cohesive zone model regarding modelling threedimensional problems, shear fracture and unloading. In a second part new methods are developed for determination of elastic-plastic and fracture mechanical material properties, resp., which are based on optical determination of the specimen deformation. The whole concept has been used successfully for the numerical simulation of small laser welded specimens. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, mit dem es moeglich ist, Bauteile mit heterogenen Materialeigenschaften, wie z.B. Schweissverbindungen, bruchmechanisch zu bewerten. Es basiert auf einem Modell zur numerischen Rissfortschrittsimulation, dem Kohaesivzonenmodell, um das Versagen des zu untersuchenden Bauteils infolge von Bruch zu bestimmen. Ein Teil der Arbeit umfasst die Weiterentwicklung des Kohaesivzonenmodells zur Vorhersage des Bauteilversagens in Bezug auf die Behandlung dreidimensionaler Probleme, Scherbuch und Entlastung. In einem zweiten Teil werden Methoden zur Bestimmung sowohl der elastischplastischen als auch der bruchmechanischen Materialparameter entwickelt, die zum grossen Teil auf optischen Auswertungsmethoden der Deformationen beruhen. Das geschlossene Konzept wird erfolgreich auf lasergeschweisste Kleinproben angewendet. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buirette, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.buirette@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Huez, Julitte, E-mail: julitte.huez@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Gey, Nathalie, E-mail: Nathalie.gey@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR CNRS 7239, Université de Lorraine, Île du Saulcy, 57045 METZ Cedex 1 (France); DAMAS, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures, Université de Lorraine (France); Vassel, Alain, E-mail: alain.vassel@titane.asso.fr [Association Française du Titane, 16 quai Ernest Renaud, BP 70515, 44105 Nantes Cedex 4 (France); Andrieu, Eric, E-mail: eric.andrieu@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France)
2014-11-17
The impact toughness of two highly textured rolled plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with an α equiaxed and an α lamellar microstructures has been investigated. The results show a strong anisotropy of the fracture energy for both materials and underline that a coincidence of the prismatic planes with the shear bands at the notch tip is favorable for higher fracture energies. Moreover, it is pointed out, as it was already done by previous studies, that the α lamellar microstructure presents higher fracture energy than the α equiaxed one. Thanks to electron back scattering diffraction, and tensile tests, local microstructure heterogeneities, called macrozones, have been observed and characterized. Their size depends on microstructure element and is larger for α lamellar microstructure than for the α equiaxed. High strain is localized on the macrozones favorably oriented for prismatic slip with respect to the direction of impact and leads to a particular dimple free zone on the fracture surface. The contribution of these macrozones in the fracture behavior, and more precisely on the crack propagation rate was evaluated; thus the effects of the macroscopic texture and of the microstructure element on the impact toughness are discussed separately.
The Delamination Theory of Wear
1974-09-01
junctions, it is still based on the assumption that the deformation occurs at the asperities. Rabinowicz [14] advanced an adhesion theory of friction...shown that bronze particles were indeed bigger than steel particles. The compilation of wear particle sizes given by Rabinowicz [14] also indicates...Waterhouse [32] has shown that, in fact, fretting occurs by delamination. 6) Minimum Load for Loose Particle Formation Rabinowicz [14] found that no wear
Mixed-Mode Decohesion Finite Elements for the Simulation of Delamination in Composite Materials
Camanho, Pedro P.; Davila, Carlos G.
2002-01-01
A new decohesion element with mixed-mode capability is proposed and demonstrated. The element is used at the interface between solid finite elements to model the initiation and non-self-similar growth of delaminations. A single relative displacement-based damage parameter is applied in a softening law to track the damage state of the interface and to prevent the restoration of the cohesive state during unloading. The softening law for mixed-mode delamination propagation can be applied to any mode interaction criterion such as the two-parameter power law or the three-parameter Benzeggagh-Kenane criterion. To demonstrate the accuracy of the predictions and the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state delamination growth is simulated for quasistatic loading-unloading cycles of various single mode and mixed-mode delamination test specimens.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于航海; 王守仁; 杨丽颖
2012-01-01
用氮化硼纳米管（BNNT）增强氮化硅（Si3N4）陶瓷制备了BNNT／Si3N4复合材料，利用三点弯曲强度及单边切口梁（SENB）法测定了BNNT／Si3N4复合材料的弯曲强度和断裂韧性。通过SEM观察了BNNT／Si3N4复合材料微观形貌。基于BNNT增强Si3N4陶瓷复合材料的裂纹扩展阻力计算公式，构建了BNNT对Si3N4陶瓷裂纹屏蔽区的裂纹扩展阻力的数学模型。用该模型的计算结果与Si3N4陶瓷的裂纹扩展阻力进行了对比。结果表明：BNNT／Si3N4复合材料的弯曲强度和断裂韧性明显高于Si3N4陶瓷，说明BNNT对Si3N4陶瓷的裂纹扩展有阻力作用，摩擦拔出是Si3N4陶瓷抗裂纹扩展能力提高的主要原因；BNNT对Si3N4陶瓷有明显的升值阻力曲线行为。通过有限元模拟裂纹尖端应力分布，发现BNNT使Si3N4陶瓷裂纹尖端的最大应力转移到纳米管上，而且BNNT降低了Si3N4陶瓷裂纹尖端的应力，对Si3N4陶瓷尖端的裂纹有屏蔽作用，从而提高了Si3N4陶瓷的裂纹扩展阻力。%BNNT/Si3N4 composites were prepared with Si3N4 ceramics enhanced by BN nanotubes (BNNT). Bending strength and fracture toughness of BNNT/Si3 N4 composites were tested by three point bending strength and SENB method. BNNT/Si3N4 composite microstructures were observed by SEM. The mathematical model of the crack propagation resistance of Si3N4 ceramics crack shielding region enhanced by BNNT was constructed, which was based on the crack propagation resistance formula of BNNT reinforcing Si3N4 ceramics. The calculated results used this model were compared with crack propagation resistance of Si3 N4 ceramics. The results show that bending strength and fracture toughness of BNNT/Si3 N4 composites are obviously higher than those of pure Si3 N4 ceramics and BNNT increases the crack propagation resistance of Si3 N4 ceramics. It can be seen that the friction resistance to pull out is the main reason of reducing the Si3 N4
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王平; 白象忠
2011-01-01
对含裂纹的45钢钢板进行了电热效应裂纹止裂(简称电热正裂)实验研究,发现电热止裂后的裂纹尖端附近发生了相变,并对相变组织进行了实验观察.针对裂尖处的相变区域,进行了相变应变的X射线衍射实验测定,采用Eshelby等效夹杂模型,利用等效夹杂理论进行了放电后裂尖处的相变应力场的理论分析计算.计算结果表明,在裂尖处的相变区域,形成了相变压应力场.分析了相变压应力对止裂效果的长效影响,发现相变压应力对裂纹扩展的阻碍影响是非常明显的,其对裂纹扩展速率降低的影响更是显而易见,起到了长期限制裂纹扩展的作用.研究结果表明,电热止裂技术既具有理论的可行性,也具有实际应用的实效性.%An experimental investigation of arresting crack propagation by pulse discharging to a 45 # steel plate with crack was shown herein. Through the microstructure analysis near crack tip after crack prevention by using electromagnetic heating effect, it is found that the phase transformation has been occurred. Also, the residual strain of phase transformation near crack tip has gotten by X-ray diffusion method. The theoretical calculation of the phase transformation stress was finished by Eshelby's model of imaginary cutting method. The affection of the residual stress on the crack propagation was discussed. It is found that the residual stress will have a long term effect for crack prevention. The results obtained show that the technique of arresting crack propagation by using electric magnetic heat effect has both academic feasibility and practicability.
Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordill, M.J. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C. [Max-Plank-Insitut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany)
2014-11-28
Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. - Highlights: • Measuring the adhesion energies of ductile metal–polymer interfaces is difficult. • A Cu film would plastically deform under tensile strain without a Cr overlayer. • A Cr overlayer forces cracking and induces buckling between the crack fragments. • The adhesion energy of the metal–polymer interface can be measured.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calonne, V
2001-07-15
Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)
Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John
2015-05-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zoltán Juhász
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We analyse the buckling process of composite plates with through-the-width delamination and straight crack front applying uniaxial compression. We are focusing on the mixed mode buckling case, where the non-uniform distribution of the in-plane forces controls the occurence of the buckling of the delaminated layers. For the analysis, semi-discrete finite elements will be derived based on the Lèvy-type method. The method of harmonic balance is used for taking into account the force distribution that is generally non uniform in-plane.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
祝力伟; 朱知寿; 王新南; 曹春晓
2011-01-01
The effects of lamellar microstructure on fatigue crack propagation behavior of damage tolerance for TC4-DT alloy plate were studied. Lamellar microstructure of TC4-DT alloy plate was obtained using different β heat treatment. Fatigue crack growth rate with fine and coarse lamellar structure were characterized. The experimental results show that in near threshold and low growth region of Paris region, microstructure with coarse lamellar has tremendous influence to the fatigue crack growth rate; Microstructure with fine lamellar structure had a lower fatigue crack growth rate and flexuous crack propagating route in the lamellar microstructure compared with the coarse lamellar structure. With the increasing of lamellar thickness, fatigue crack growth rate accelerated. In order to achieve an excellent damage tolerance, it is necessary to obtain fine lamellar structure with near β heat treatment by controlling the parameter strictly.%采用三种β热处理制度对TC4-DT钛合金板材进行热处理,调整合金的显微组织和损伤容限性能.利用金相显微镜对不同热处理制度下合金的片层组织特征参数进行观察,分析了不同片层组织对合金疲劳裂纹扩展速率的影响.结果表明,粗片层组织的疲劳裂纹扩展速率在近门槛区对组织比较敏感;在Paris区,细片层组织具有较低的疲劳裂纹扩展速率,随着片层厚度的增加,裂纹扩展速率加快;合金在β区短时保温具有更好的综合性能.
Regional adaptive delaminating algorithm for rapid prototyping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Daosheng; SHI Yusheng; HUANG Shuhuai
2005-01-01
With the development of rapid prototyping (RP) technology, the contradiction between fabricating speed and precision becomes more and more acute. In order to solve the contradiction, a regional effective adaptive delaminating algorithm is proposed in this paper. It is different from the traditional method that the regional adaptive delaminating method divides slicing contours into several regions and adaptively delaminates in respective region only according to the contours information. Namely, this method can not only adaptively delaminate at different height of CAD model but also adaptively delaminate different regions in one slicing layer. Furthermore, because the two-dimensional contour data adopted in this method are necessary for rapid prototyping system, this regional effective adaptive delaminating method is suitable for all RP systems. A comparative study is used to analyze the effectiveness of this method, which can demonstrate that this method can increase the fabricating speed and reduce the running cost under the condition of ensuring fabricating precision.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugiyama, Y.; Asami, K.; Matsuoka, S. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))
1991-06-15
The spheroidal graphite cast iron is better characterized in resistivity against the abrasion and heat, and economical efficiency than the normal carbon steel. Notice being taken of treatment temperature (800 to 840 centigrade) in the ({alpha}+{gamma}) phase region for the partial austempering treatment condition, able to improve the spheroidal graphite cast iron simultaneously in both statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance, the present report compared dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite. As a result, the morphological ratio of bainite becomes about 20% to the base morphology at 800 centigrade in treatment temperature. Then with progressively heightening to 815, 830 and 840 centigrade in it, the above ratio so heightens to about 40, 80 and 90%, respectively. The fatigue crack propagation resistance in the low DeltaK (low stress intensity factor) region is heightened by the partial austempering treatment to higher than that of dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite, and most done at 800 centigrade in temperature where the bainite becomes about 20% in morphological ratio. 830 centigrade where the bainite becomes about 80% is judged to be the most appropriate treatment temperature for both the statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance. 3 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
A nanometer scale mechanism for micro crack propagation under uniaxial tension in single crystals is investigated using phase field crystal (PFC) simulation. The uniaxial tensile loading is strain controlled. And three initial typical stresses of pre-existing center crack in (111) crystal plane of face centered cubic structure are chosen to study the effects of initial stress state on micro-crack propagation. Moreover, the influences of different crystal orientations, when the crystal suffers from uniaxial tension, are also investigated. Due to the influence of time scale and length scale in the PFC method, the motion of dislocations, vacancies, shear band and twinning structure should be observed and described during the propagation process of micro cracks. In addition, the free energy curves of different processes are drawn and discussed in order to explain the different behaviors of the crystal in the propagation of cracks. Simulation results show that the propagation behavior of micro cracks can be closely associated with the initial stress state. It is found that the propagation behavior mainly occurs in the ⟨0¯11⟩(111) slip system. Besides, the crystal orientation has a significant effect on the mechanism of activation and evolution. In the pre-stretching system, slip dislocation is induced near the micro-crack tip, and then its slide in [0¯11] direction will cause the cleavage of a certain crystal plane, and promote the micro cracks to extend. However, to a certain level, the propagating direction of the micro-crack tip will turn to another slip direction [10¯1]. As a result, zigzag edge appears. By contrast, in the pre-shear system, the tip of the micro crack propagates in a cleavage mode, and results in the appearance of slip dislocation [10¯1] near the micro-crack tip. Afterwards, the motion of slip dislocation promotes the production of vacancies. And owing to the aggregation and combination of vacancies, secondary cracks form and propagate in
Detailed modelling of delamination buckling of thin films under global tension.
Toth, F; Rammerstorfer, F G; Cordill, M J; Fischer, F D
2013-04-01
Tensile specimens of metal films on compliant substrates are widely used for determining interfacial properties. These properties are identified by the comparison of experimentally observed delamination buckling and a mathematical model which contains the interface properties as parameters. The current two-dimensional models for delamination buckling are not able to capture the complex stress and deformation states arising in the considered uniaxial tension test in a satisfying way. Therefore, three-dimensional models are developed in a multi-scale approach. It is shown that, for the considered uniaxial tension test, the buckling and associated delamination process are initiated and driven by interfacial shear in addition to compressive stresses in the film. The proposed model is able to reproduce all important experimentally observed phenomena, like cracking stress of the film, film strip curvature and formation of triangular buckles. Combined with experimental data, the developed computational model is found to be effective in determining interface strength properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1993-08-01
Fatigue life has been estimated as a sum of crack initiation life and crack propagation life, by using a fracture dynamical method. In order to make the method more reliable, a method is being discussed to estimate a growth curve for fatigue cracks from notch bottom under a unified theoretical system without a need of introducing the presence of initial cracks. Subsequently to the previous report, this paper describes a fatigue test that uses CT test pieces with the notch bottom finished in arc, an investigation on initiation and propagation behaviors of micro cracks, and discussions on their possibilities. From a large number of findings obtained, an algorithm was proposed to estimate the crack growth curve in approximation. The proposal was made by introducing a hypothesis that the growth of compressed plastic region is restricted by such a barrier as crystal particle boundaries until a developed crack can reach the first crystal particle boundary when the effective loading is maintained constant. The estimated curves and the experimental results have agreed well with each other. Stagnating crack phenomenon at a notch bottom and coaxing effect were explained qualitatively. 30 refs., 24 figs.
Okabe, Yoji; Fujibayashi, Keiji; Shimazaki, Mamoru; Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi
2010-11-01
A new ultrasonic propagation system has been constructed using macrofiber composite (MFC) actuators and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The MFCs and FBGs can be integrated into composite laminates because of their small size and high fracture strain. The developed system can send and receive broadband Lamb waves. In this research, this system was used to detect delamination damage in composite laminates. First, the multiple modes of Lamb waves in a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) quasi-isotropic laminate were identified by transmitting and receiving the symmetric and antisymmetric modes separately. Then, the mode conversions at both tips of a delamination were investigated through an experiment and a two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). A new delamination detection method was proposed on the basis of the mode conversions, and experiments were carried out on laminates with an artificial delamination. When antisymmetric modes were excited, the frequency dispersion of the received A1 mode changed, depending on the delamination length owing to the mode conversion between the A1 mode and the S0 mode. This phenomenon was confirmed through the FEA and these results prove that this new method is effective in detecting a delamination in CFRP laminates.
Undulatory delamination of thin polymer films on gold surfaces.
Chah, Soonwoo; Noolandi, Jaan; Zare, Richard N
2005-10-20
Using two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance measurements, we have observed the formation of traveling waves in the delamination of thin films of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) exposed to methanol. Films were spin-coated on a gold surface and the methanol was added to the top surface. The stress-induced instability caused by the swelling of the PDMS thin film when its edge is pinned to the gold surface leads to wrinkle formation and propagation at the interface. The periodic pattern is thought to be the result of an Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld (ATG) instability.
Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim Dalsten; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...
Crack Propagation of Corona 5.
1986-07-01
for 5 minutes and air cooled. Annealed panels were then descaled by grit blasting and pickled in nitric-hydrofluoric mixed acid to remove the oxygen...enriched surface layer of metal. The anneal, grit blast, and pickle were repeated after each cycle of cold rolling. In general, the cold rolling went...F. /Yolton Research Engineer Approved by: 1J. H. Moll Technical Director P/M & Titanium . E. J. Dulis President _ 76 mbk. SRockwell International
Delamination Detection Using Guided Wave Phased Arrays
Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara
2016-01-01
This paper presents a method for detecting multiple delaminations in composite laminates using non-contact phased arrays. The phased arrays are implemented with a non-contact scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). The array imaging algorithm is performed in the frequency domain where both the guided wave dispersion effect and direction dependent wave properties are considered. By using the non-contact SLDV array with a frequency domain imaging algorithm, an intensity image of the composite plate can be generated for delamination detection. For the proof of concept, a laboratory test is performed using a non-contact phased array to detect two delaminations (created through quasi-static impact test) at different locations in a composite plate. Using the non-contact phased array and frequency domain imaging, the two impact-induced delaminations are successfully detected. This study shows that the non-contact phased array method is a potentially effective method for rapid delamination inspection in large composite structures.
Assembly induced delaminations in composite structures
Goering, J.; Bohlmann, R.; Wanthal, S.; Kautz, E.; Neri, Lawrence M.
1992-01-01
Experimental and analytical studies of the development of delaminations around fastener holes in composite structures are presented. This type of delamination is known to occur in composite skins that are mechanically fastened to a poorly mating substructure. Results of an experimental study to determine the resistance of laminates to the initiation of assembly induced delaminations and the residual strength of assembly damaged coupons are presented for AS4/3501-6, IM7/8551-7A, and AS4/PEEK material systems. A survey of existing analytical models for predicting the residual strength and stability of delaminations is presented, and the development of a new model for predicting the initiation of delaminations around a fastener hole is outlined. The fastener hole damage initiation model utilizes a finite element based Fourier series solution, and is validated through comparisons of analytical and experimental results.
AZ31B镁合金焊接接头的疲劳裂纹扩展行为%Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of as-Extruded AZ31B Mg Alloy Welded Joint
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张红霞; 裴飞飞; 闫志峰; 王文先; 梁培阳; 李娟; 卫英慧
2012-01-01
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of as-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy welded joint and heat affected zone have been studied.Compact tensions [C(T)] of welded joint [L-T(W)] and heat affected zone(welded joint is parallel [T-L(H)]and vertical [L-T(H)] to the extruded direction) were researched.Results indicate that the crack propagation direction is parallel to the extrusion direction for L-T(W); fatigue crack propagation rate is a rapid-slow process.T-L(H) is parallel to the notch direction and L-T(H) can be divided into two states (i.e.,parallel to or angularly deflected towards the notch direction);crack propagation rate initially goes through a rapid course before it slows down.The fracture modes of crack tip remain a mixed-mode of transgranular and intergranular fractures.The fatigue fracture consists of quasi-cleavage and is a brittle fracture.%对AZ31B镁合金焊接接头和热影响区的疲劳裂纹扩展行为进行研究,分析了焊接接头[L-T(W)]和热影响区的紧凑拉伸试验[C(T)],其中热影响区的C(T)试验包括焊缝平行于挤压方向[T-L(H)]和垂直于挤压方向[L-T(H)]两种.结果表明:对于L-T(W)试样,裂纹沿挤压方向扩展,裂纹扩展经历先快后慢的扩展过程；T-L(H)试样裂纹平行于缺口方向扩展,L-T(H)试样裂纹为平行于缺口方向和与缺口成一定角度两种扩展方向,裂纹扩展经历先慢后快的扩展过程.裂纹尖端扩展为穿晶和沿晶的混合模式,疲劳断口为准解理特征的脆性断口.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄汝清; 隋育栋; 蒋业华; 李祖来; 山泉
2012-01-01
利用负压实型铸渗工艺,通过涂覆预制块法,成功地制备了以高铬钢为基材,WC为增强颗粒的表层复合材料,通过氧化增重法、热震实验法及扫描电镜等分析测试方法重点研究了氧化对WC/钢基表层复合材料热裂纹萌生及扩展的影响.研究结果表明:WC颗粒在高于600℃时,会氧化成为结构疏松的WO3,并且随着温度的升高,氧化反应的速度加快,而WC的氧化,对热疲劳裂纹的萌生和扩展产生重要的影响.在500℃以上的空气环境中,复合材料基体会在裂纹源的尖端处形成氧化物.结合环境中的氧对裂纹扩展影响的分析可知,生成的氧化物为裂纹的扩展提供了途径,并且使复合材料极易在热应力的作用下导致开裂.%With casting-infiltration method, WC particles reinforced steel matrix surface-layer composites were successfully gained. The effects of oxidation on initiation and propagation of thermal fatigue crack for WC/steel matrix surface composite were tested by oxidation weight increase method, thermal shock experiment method, SEM and EDS. The results show that WC particles would become WO3 when the temperature was more than 600 ℃ . As the temperature increases, the oxidation reaction speeds. The oxidation of WC has great effects on initiation and propagation of thermal fatigue crack for WC/steel matrix surface composite. Composites matrix would form oxide at the point of crack source above 500 ℃ . Combined with the analysis of the effect of oxygen in the environment on crack propagation, we can conclude that oxide provides ways for the propagation of the crack, and the composite materials easily craze under the thermal stress.
A Test for Characterizing Delamination Migration in Carbon/Epoxy Tape Laminates
Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael W.; O'Brien, Thomas K.
2013-01-01
A new test method is presented for the purpose of investigating migration of a delamination between neighboring ply interfaces in fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix tape laminates. The test is a single cantilever beam configuration consisting of a cross-ply laminate with a polytetrafluoroethylene insert implanted at the mid-plane and spanning part way along the length of the specimen. The insert is located between a 0- degree ply (specimen length direction) and a stack of four 90-degree plies (specimen width direction). The specimen is clamped at both ends onto a rigid baseplate and is loaded on its upper surface via a piano hinge. Tests were conducted with the load-application point located on the intact portion of the specimen in order to initiate delamination growth onset followed by migration of the delamination to a neighboring 90/0 ply interface by kinking through the 90-degree ply stack. Varying this position was found to affect the distance relative to the load-application point at which migration initiated. In each specimen, migration initiated by a gradual transition of the delamination at the 0/90 interface into the 90-degree ply stack. In contrast, transition of the kinked crack into the 90/0 interface was sudden. Fractography of the specimens indicated that delamination prior to migration was generally mixed mode-I/II. Inspection of the kink surface revealed mode-I fracture. In general, use of this test allows for the observation of the growth of a delamination followed by migration of the delamination to another ply interface, and should thus provide a means for validating analyses aimed at simulating migration.
Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Chunchu, Prasad B.
2007-01-01
The influence of delamination on the progressing damage path and initial failure load in composite laminates is investigated. Results are presented from a numerical and an experimental study of center-notched tensile-loaded coupons. The numerical study includes two approaches. The first approach considers only intralaminar (fiber breakage and matrix cracking) damage modes in calculating the progression of the damage path. In the second approach, the model is extended to consider the effect of interlaminar (delamination) damage modes in addition to the intralaminar damage modes. The intralaminar damage is modeled using progressive damage analysis (PDA) methodology implemented with the VUMAT subroutine in the ABAQUS finite element code. The interlaminar damage mode has been simulated using cohesive elements in ABAQUS. In the experimental study, 2-3 specimens each of two different stacking sequences of center-notched laminates are tensile loaded. The numerical results from the two different modeling approaches are compared with each other and the experimentally observed results for both laminate types. The comparisons reveal that the second modeling approach, where the delamination damage mode is included together with the intralaminar damage modes, better simulates the experimentally observed damage modes and damage paths, which were characterized by splitting failures perpendicular to the notch tips in one or more layers. Additionally, the inclusion of the delamination mode resulted in a better prediction of the loads at which the failure took place, which were higher than those predicted by the first modeling approach which did not include delaminations.
Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Shingo, Ii; Takeda, Nobuo
2012-10-01
This study develops a delamination detection system by extending our previous approach for monitoring surface cracks in a large-scale composite structure. In the new system, numerous thin glass capillaries are embedded into a composite structure, and internal pressure in the built-in capillary sensors, based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), is maintained as a vacuum. When delamination is induced, the capillary sensors located within the delaminated area are breached, and atmospheric air flows into the capillaries. The consequent pressure change within the capillaries is then converted into axial strain in a surface-mounted optical fiber through a transducing mechanism, which is connected to the capillaries. By monitoring the strain distribution along the optical fiber, it is possible to identify a transducing mechanism in which the pressure change occurred and thus to specify the location of the delamination. This study begins by establishing a novel sensor embedding/extracting method. The airflow characteristic in the capillary sensors is then comprehensively evaluated, determining the basic performance of the new system. The proposed detection technique is validated by taking a step-by-step approach, and finally the hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system is demonstrated. A further advance to be combined with a self-healing concept is also discussed.
A subregional model for delamination prediction of rubber composite under fatigue loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Zhen-hui; TAN Hui-feng
2005-01-01
Results from fatigue experiments of cross-laminated steel cord-rubber composites (SCRC) indicate that fatigue damage life can be categorized into three regimes. In terms of fatigue modes, a subregional fatigue model is developed to describe the damages evolution of SCRC under fatigue loads. Firstly, finite element analysis is introduced to determine interply stress distribution of the specimen. Then, based on the experimental fatigue data, subregional models are introduced to simulate relations between maximum strain, effective stiffness,delamination shear stress and fatigue cycles. Relations between crack density, delamination length growth rate,macro crack density and cycles are modeled by two semi-empirical models. A reasonable prediction result was achieved by the current model, where model parameters can be determined by basic outputs of fatigue testing.
Ⅰ型裂缝经层理岩石界面拐折扩展规律研究∗%Crack Propagation Law Research of Bedding rock Interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张影; 王素玲; 杨萍萍
2015-01-01
According to the structural feature of unconventional reservoir stratified rock mass,stratified rock mass speci-mens of different materials and interface properties are manufactured on the basis of similarity principle.Veer extension after cracks cross different elastic material interface is found through the three point bending experiment,the more difference be-tween the mechanical properties,the weaker interfacial strength,and the larger steering angle the crack has.Based on the experiment parameter,a plane strain model of vertical crack propagation is established,the stress field of vertical crack via sand/shale interface in the process of the extension is obtained,the stress intensity factor variation of crack tip is calculated, and the angle of crack deflection is gained.The results of calculations show that the veer extension is caused by that theⅠtype crack turning toⅠ-Ⅱtype compound crack when the shear stress intensity factor increases because of the increasing interfacial shear strain.%依据非常规储层层状岩体的结构特点，根据相似原理制作不同材料、不同界面性质的层状岩体试件，通过三点弯曲试验发现裂缝经过异弹性材料界面后扩展转向，力学性能差异越大，界面强度越弱，裂缝转向角度越大。以试验参数为基础，建立了垂直裂缝扩展的平面应变模型，并获得了垂直裂缝经过砂/泥岩界面扩展过程中应力场，计算了裂缝尖端应力强度因子的变化规律，获得了裂缝偏转角度。通过计算发现：裂缝偏转是由界面的剪切应变增大而引起剪切应力强度因子增加，使得Ⅰ型裂缝经异弹界面而发展为Ⅰ—Ⅱ型复合裂缝引起的。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maillot, V
2004-07-01
We studied the behaviour of a 304 L type austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue. Using the SPLASH equipment of CEA/SRMA we tested parallelepipedal specimens on two sides: the specimens are continuously heated by Joule effect, while two opposites faces are cyclically. cooled by a mixed spray of distilled water and compressed air. This device allows the reproduction and the study of crack networks similar to those observed in nuclear power plants, on the inner side of circuits fatigued by mixed pressurized water flows at different temperatures. The crack initiation and the network constitution at the surface were observed under different thermal conditions (Tmax = 320 deg C, {delta}T between 125 and 200 deg C). The experiment produced a stress gradient in the specimen, and due to this gradient, the in-depth growth of the cracks finally stopped. The obtained crack networks were studied quantitatively by image analysis, and different parameters were studied: at the surface during the cycling, and post mortem by step-by-step layer removal by grinding. The maximal depth obtained experimentally, 2.5 mm, is relatively coherent with the finite element modelling of the SPLASH test, in which compressive stresses appear at a depth of 2 mm. Some of the crack networks obtained by thermal fatigue were also tested in isothermal fatigue crack growth under 4-point bending, at imposed load. The mechanisms of the crack selection, and the appearance of the dominating crack are described. Compared to the propagation of a single crack, the crack networks delay the propagation, depending on the severity of the crack competition for domination. The dominating crack can be at the network periphery, in that case it is not as shielded by its neighbours as a crack located in the center of the network. It can also be a straight crack surrounded by more sinuous neighbours. Indeed, on sinuous cracks, the loading is not the same all along the crack path, leading to some
Problem of Delamination in RC Beams Strengthened by FRP with Rheological Model of Adhesive Leyer
Kula, Krzysztof; Socha, Tomasz
2016-12-01
This paper deals with one of the most dangerous failure modes in layered structures, namely delamination. The strengthening layer is modelled by a solid-shell finite element. The mechanical modelling of delamination onset and propagation is based upon a cohesive zone model implemented into a cohesive element located between adhesive layer and a concrete structure. The long time behavior of epoxy adhesive layer is modelled with the five-parameter rheological model. The numerical simulations are accomplished within the commercial software package Abaqus by the implementation of a user-written finite element and user-written material.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张志贤; 王生楠; 詹福宇
2012-01-01
利用Python脚本语言对Abaqus进行了二次开发,预测双轴载荷状态下裂纹扩展轨迹.对双轴载荷下中心带孔板的裂纹扩展进行了模拟,并与FRANC2D得到的计算结果进行比较.结果表明利用二次开发程序计算得到的裂纹扩展轨迹及其断裂参数与FRANC2D得到的结果基本一致,计算结果是可靠的；利用二次开发程序对双轴载荷状态下的进行裂纹扩展分析能够有效减少计算时间,提高计算效率.%This paper uses Python scripting language for second - development of Abaqus to predict crack propagation path under biaxial loading condition. The crack propagation of plane with a center hole under biaxial loading condition is analyzed using the second - development program and the results are compared with those obtained by FRANC2D. The conclusion is that the results based on Abaqus second- development are basically agreed with those by FRANC2D,which shows that the results by the secondary- development program are reliable. Using the program to analyze the crack propagation under biaxial loading condition can effectively reduce the computation time,improve calculation efficiency.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
Piascik, Robert S.
2015-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
Characterization of delamination onset and growth in a composite laminate
Obrien, T. K.
1981-01-01
The onset and growth of delaminations in unnotched (+ or - 30/+ or - 30/90/90 bar) sub S graphite epoxy laminates is described quantitatively. These laminates, designed to delaminate at the edges under tensile loads, were tested and analyzed. Delamination growth and stiffness loss were monitored nondestructively. Laminate stiffness decreased linearly with delamination size. The strain energy release rate, G, associated with delamination growth, was calculated from two analyses. A critical G for delamination onset was determined, and then was used to predict the onset of delaminations in (+45 sub n/-45 sub n/o sub n/90 sub n) sub s (n=1,2,3) laminates. A delamination resistance curve (R curve) was developed to characterize the observed stable delamination growth under quasi static loading. A power law correlation between G and delamination growth rates in fatigue was established.
Detection of Delamination in Composite Beams Using Broadband Acoustic Emission Signatures
Okafor, A. C.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Jiang, Y. P.
1996-01-01
Delamination in composite structure may be caused by imperfections introduced during the manufacturing process or by impact loads by foreign objects during the operational life. There are some nondestructive evaluation methods to detect delamination in composite structures such as x-radiography, ultrasonic testing, and thermal/infrared inspection. These methods are expensive and hard to use for on line detection. Acoustic emission testing can monitor the material under test even under the presence of noise generated under load. It has been used extensively in proof-testing of fiberglass pressure vessels and beams. In the present work, experimental studies are conducted to investigate the use of broadband acoustic emission signatures to detect delaminations in composite beams. Glass/epoxy beam specimens with full width, prescribed delamination sizes of 2 inches and 4 inches are investigated. The prescribed delamination is produced by inserting Teflon film between laminae during the fabrication of composite laminate. The objectives of this research is to develop a method for predicting delamination size and location in laminated composite beams by combining smart materials concept and broadband AE analysis techniques. More specifically, a piezoceramic (PZT) patch is bonded on the surface of composite beams and used as a pulser. The piezoceramic patch simulates the AE wave source as a 3 cycles, 50KHz, burst sine wave. One broadband AE sensor is fixed near the PZT patch to measure the AE wave near the AE source. A second broadband AE sensor, which is used as a receiver, is scanned along the composite beams at 0.25 inch step to measure propagation of AE wave along the composite beams. The acquired AE waveform is digitized and processed. Signal strength, signal energy, cross-correlation of AE waveforms, and tracking of specific cycle of AE waveforms are used to detect delamination size and location.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Krutitskii
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Dirichlet problem for the 2D Helmholtz equation in an exterior domain with cracks is studied. The compatibility conditions at the tips of the cracks are assumed. The existence of a unique classical solution is proved by potential theory. The integral representation for a solution in the form of potentials is obtained. The problem is reduced to the Fredholm equation of the second kind and of index zero, which is uniquely solvable. The asymptotic formulae describing singularities of a solution gradient at the edges (endpoints of the cracks are presented. The weak solution to the problem may not exist, since the problem is studied under such conditions that do not ensure existence of a weak solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzad Sadeghi-Tohidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface.
Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures
Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.
1997-12-01
This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation
Acoustic emission assessment of interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings
Yang, Li; Zhong, Zhi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Zhu, Wang; Zhang, Zhi-Biao; Cai, Can-Ying; Lu, Chun-Sheng
2016-04-01
In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation methods were applied to monitor interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings under compression. The interface failure process can be identified via its AE features, including buckling, delamination incubation and spallation. According to the Fourier transformation of AE signals, there are four different failure modes: surface vertical cracks, opening and sliding interface cracks, and substrate deformation. The characteristic frequency of AE signals from surface vertical cracks is 0.21 MHz, whilst that of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. The energy released of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. Based on the energy released from cracking and the AE signals, a relationship is established between the interface crack length and AE parameters, which is in good agreement with experimental results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋礼; 伍晓霞; 潘毅; 张健
2011-01-01
After a case study on single solder joint, an equivalent impedance model was established for lead-free solder joints based on the crack propagation and skin effect of the joint, and the way to calculate the parameters included in the model was introduced. Simulation was then performed using the Matlab software. The results show that with the crack propagation, the impedance of solder joints changes slowly first and then abruptly. And, the higher the signal frequency is, the earlier the abrupt change takes place. At a frequency of 500 MHz, the abrupt change of impedance occurs when the area of crack is about 75% of the cross section of solder joint; while the DC resistance only changes sharply right before the failure of solder joint.%以单个无铅焊点为研究对象,根据裂纹扩展及趋肤效应建立了无铅焊点的阻抗等效模型,给出了模型参数的计算方法,并用Matlab软件对模型进行了仿真.结果表明:随裂纹扩展,焊点阻抗经历了一个由缓慢变化到突变的过程,且信号频率越高,阻抗突变时间越早；在500 MHz信号作用下,当裂纹面积约为焊点横截面的75％时,焊点阻抗便发生突变,而直流电阻则在焊点临近断裂时才有较大的变化.
2014-07-01
Distribution A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This report contains color. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES PA Case Number: 88ABW-2014...1993. [11] W. Lee, S. J. Howard, and W. J. Clegg, "Growth of interface defects and its effect on crack deflection and toughening criteria," Acta
Kumari, Manju Raj; Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore
2016-07-01
Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to 'endodontic triad'. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each - a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL -1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by 'Phi' and 'Cramers' test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed lesser number of cracks. All groups showed cracks formation
Pereira, G F; Mikkelsen, L P; McGugan, M
2015-01-01
In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material's mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G F Pereira
Full Text Available In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material's mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP, the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination, and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model.
Bao, Yi; Valipour, Mahdi; Meng, Weina; Khayat, Kamal H.; Chen, Genda
2017-08-01
This study develops a delamination detection system for smart ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) overlays using a fully distributed fiber optic sensor. Three 450 mm (length) × 200 mm (width) × 25 mm (thickness) UHPC overlays were cast over an existing 200 mm thick concrete substrate. The initiation and propagation of delamination due to early-age shrinkage of the UHPC overlay were detected as sudden increases and their extension in spatial distribution of shrinkage-induced strains measured from the sensor based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. The distributed sensor is demonstrated effective in detecting delamination openings from microns to hundreds of microns. A three-dimensional finite element model with experimental material properties is proposed to understand the complete delamination process measured from the distributed sensor. The model is validated using the distributed sensor data. The finite element model with cohesive elements for the overlay-substrate interface can predict the complete delamination process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏波; 陈军斌; 谢青; 张杰; 王汉青; 赵逸然
2016-01-01
考虑裂缝内流体流动和岩石受力变形，建立页岩水平井水力压裂裂缝扩展数学模型，采用扩展有限元方法求解该模型。分析水平主应力、岩石力学特征参数及注入速度对裂缝扩展长度的影响，并研究多条裂缝的扩展及转向规律。结果表明：岩石弹性模量越大，泊松比越小，形成的裂缝越长；最小主应力越小，压裂液注入速度越大，裂缝扩展长度越长。同时扩展的2条裂缝之间存在应力干扰使裂缝向外转，裂缝间距越近，转向越明显。3条裂缝同时扩展，中间裂缝受到左右两边裂缝的制约作用，起裂较晚，扩展受到限制；随着压裂时间的延长，中间裂缝会摆脱两边裂缝的影响，冲出应力干扰区。%The mathematical model for the hydraulic fracturing crack propagating of horizontal well in shale reservoir was established under considering the flow of fluid in cracks and the deformation of rock,and it was solved using the extended finite element method. The influences of horizontal principal stress,the mechanics parameters of rock and the injection rate of fracturing fluid on the propaga-tion length of cracks were analyzed,and the propagation and steering law of multiple fractures was researched. The results show that the greater the elasticity modulus of reservoir rock and the less the Poissonˊs ratio of it,the longer the fractures;the lower the minimum prin-cipal stress and the greater the injection rate,the longer the fractures. There is stress interference between two simultaneously propaga-ting fractures,which makes two fractures turning to the outside. The closer the fractures are,the more obvious the steering is. When the three fractures simultaneously propagate,the fracture in middle is restricted,and its initiation is later than on both sides. With the fractu-ring time increasing,the middle fracture breaks away from the stress interference of the cracks on both sides and
On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe;
2007-01-01
Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used....... Further, a quantitative condition is established indicating when a bridged crack model can be approximated with a cohesive crack model with smooth crack closure in terms of the ratio between the energy dissipation associated with the crack tip and the process zone....
Effect of Location of Delamination on Free Vibration of Cross-Ply Conical Shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudip Dey
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Location of delamination is a triggering parameter for structural instability of laminated composites. In this paper, a finite element method is employed to determine the effects of location of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy cross-ply composite pre-twisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is exercised by using an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element based on Mindlin's theory. Multi-point constraint algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the numerical results concerning the effects of location of delamination, twist angle and rotational speed on the natural frequencies of cross-ply composite shallow conical shells. The mode shapes are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Numerical results obtained from parametric studies of both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply laminates are the first known non-dimensional natural frequencies for the type of analyses carried out here.
Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore
2016-01-01
Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at pProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed lesser number of cracks. Conclusion All groups showed cracks formation, the stainless steel group
Seifi, Mohsen; Dahar, Matthew; Aman, Ron; Harrysson, Ola; Beuth, Jack; Lewandowski, John J.
2015-03-01
This preliminary work documents the effects of test orientation with respect to build and beam raster directions on the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of as-deposited EBM Ti-6Al-4V. Although ASTM/ISO standards exist for determining the orientation dependence of various mechanical properties in both cast and wrought materials, these standards are evolving for materials produced via additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. The current work was conducted as part of a larger America Makes funded project to begin to examine the effects of process variables on the microstructure and fracture and fatigue behavior of AM Ti-6Al-4V. In the fatigue crack growth tests, the fatigue threshold, Paris law slope, and overload toughness were determined at different load ratios, R, whereas fatigue precracked samples were tested to determine the fracture toughness. The as-deposited material exhibited a fine-scale basket-weave microstructure throughout the build, and although fracture surface examination revealed the presence of unmelted powders, disbonded regions, and isolated porosity, the resulting mechanical properties were in the range of those reported for cast and wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Remote access and control of testing was also developed at Case Western Reserve University to improve efficiency of fatigue crack growth testing.
Rice, R. C.; Reynolds, J. L.
1976-01-01
Fatigue, fatigue-crack-propagation, and fracture data compiled and stored on magnetic tape are documented. Data for 202 and 7075 aluminum alloys, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, and 300M steel are included in the compilation. Approximately 4,500 fatigue, 6,500 fatigue-crack-propagation, and 1,500 fracture data points are stored on magnetic tape. Descriptions of the data, an index to the data on the magnetic tape, information on data storage format on the tape, a listing of all data source references, and abstracts of other pertinent test information from each data source reference are included.
Orogenic delamination - dynamics, effects, and geological expression
Ueda, Kosuke; Gerya, Taras
2010-05-01
Unbundling of continental lithosphere and removal of its mantle portion have been described by two mutually rather exclusive models, convective thinning and integral delamination. Either disburdens the remaining lithosphere, weakens the remainder, and causes uplift and extension. Increased heat flux is likely to promote high-degree crustal melting, and has been viewed as a source for voluminous granitic intrusions in late or collapsing orogenic settings. Collapse may be driven by any of gravitational potential differences from orogen to foreland, by stress inversion in the unburdened domain, or by suction of a retreating trench. In this study, we investigate prerequisites, mechanism, and development paths for orogeny-related mantle lithosphere removal. Our experiments numerically reproduce delamination which self-consistently results from the dynamics of a decoupling collision zone. In particular, it succeeds without a seed facilitating initial separation of layers. External shortening of a continent - ocean - continent assembly, such as to initiate oceanic subduction, is lifted before the whole oceanic part is consumed, leaving slab pull to govern further convergence. Once buoyant continental crust enters, the collision zone locks, and convergence diminishes. Under favourable conditions, delamination then initiates close to the edge of the mantle wedge and at deep crustal levels. While it initially separates upper crust from lower crust according to the weakness minimum in the lithospheric strength profile, the lower crust is eventually also delaminated from the subducting lithospheric mantle, owing to buoyancy differences. The level of delamination within the lithosphere seems thus first rheology-controlled, then density-controlled. Subduction-coupled delamination is contingent on retreat and decoupling of the subducting slab, which in turn is dependent on effective rheological weakening of the plate contact. Weakening is a function of shear-heating and hereby of
The Use of Sprint Interface Element Delamination Simulation of Sandwich Composite Beam
Xu, Geng; Yan, Renjun
2016-12-01
Sandwich composite beams have been more and more used in various industries because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the mismatched performance between face sheet and foam core always lead to such as cracks and damages in the core or face/core interface during the processes of manufacturing or service. Delamination damage at the adhesive interface is the most dangerous and could be one main source that the mechanical capability of the structure is serous degenerated. In this paper, a simple and natural model to evaluate the stiffness of the spring interface elements, which is based on the physics and the geometry of the adhesive layers, is proposed. In order to validate the model, cantilever beam bending test were conducted for marine sandwich composite I-beam. A good comparison has been found between predictions and experimental results, and results indicate that the spring interface element can provide an efficient model for the delamination simulation of sandwich composite structures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王璞; 董建新; 张麦仓; 郑磊; 谢锡善
2011-01-01
The crack propagation behavior of GH864 alloy was studied at 650 ℃ under fatigue/creep interaction with different dwell time; the effects of creep and oxidation and the meaning of transition point were analyzed in da-dN and a-N curves. The results indicate that the crack growth rate under dwell 90 s is higher than that under dwell S s. The alloy is mainly trans-granular fracture under dwell 5 s and the fatigue effect is principle. The alloy is mainly inter-granular fracture under dwell 90 s and the creep effect is dominant. The crack propagation rate curves of fatigue/creep interaction at 650 ℃ could well be described by Saxena model under the condition of this test. The descriptions could estimate the crack growth rates at lower and higher stress intensity factors. In addition, the expressions of different alloys from Saxena could contrast the effects of fatigue and creep as well as their proportion. At last, the transition points of a-Ni/Nf, da/dN-a and da/dN-N curves were obtained and the meaning of these points was analyzed with fracture analysis. The curve analysis method can also be used for the crack propagation rate curves of superalloys and other materials.%研究了GH864合金不同保载时间下650℃蠕变/疲劳裂纹扩展行为,分析了裂纹扩展过程中蠕变和氧化的作用,以及a-N曲线的转折点含义.结果表明:保载5 s时GH864合金以穿晶断裂为主,疲劳作用占主导;保载90 s时GH864合金以沿晶断裂为主,蠕变作用占主导.利用Saxena模型可较好地表征本实验条件下650℃蠕变/疲劳交互作用的裂纹扩展速率曲线,可估算较高应力强度因子和较低应力强度因子的裂纹扩展速率.另外,用Saxena模型可求出蠕变和疲劳的表达式,对比分析高温蠕变,疲劳交互作用的裂纹扩展过程中蠕变和疲劳的作用及所占的比例.最后针对a-N/Nf、da/dN-a曲线及da/dN-N曲线变换中出现的拐点,结合断口形貌分析了转折点对应的含义.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫玉曦; 孙权; 陈建钧; 潘红良
2012-01-01
Edge crack is a kind of defects in the cold rolling process of silicon steel, causes rupture of the steel in the rolling mill and need to be removd. Hence, it is necessary to understand the formation of edge cracks The damage distribution, as well as the initiation and propagation of edge cracks around the tips of the precut notches during cold rolling process are investigated by using GTN damage model. The damage parameters fo, fc and fy are determined by tensile tests and scanning electron microscope(SEM) observation. The influence of various rolling parameters on damage distribution and crack length is studied by numerical simulation. The numerical results show that the GTN damage model is available to prediction the initiation and propagation of edge cracks during rolling process. Parametric study carry out in present work reveals that it is more possible to occur edge cracks at larger reduction, higher friction coefficient, smaller roll radius and stronger unit tension. The simulation and experimental results have a good agreement.%针对硅钢板容易在冷轧过程中形成边部裂纹,使用Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman(GTN)微观损伤模型对带有边部微小缺口的硅钢板在冷轧过程中损伤分布以及裂纹的萌生和扩展进行研究.通过拉伸试验和扫描电镜观察分析得到材料的损伤参数fo、fc和fF,进而通过有限元软件ABAQUS模拟得到各轧制工艺参数对缺口尖端区域损伤分布及微裂纹萌生与扩展的影响,仿真与试验结果表明,在缺口尖端形成两条损伤带,最大损伤值随着压下率的增大而增大,同时裂纹长度随着压下率的增大而迅速增加；当工作辊半径较小时更加容易出现裂纹;沿着轧制方向缺口前侧的比后侧更容易产生裂纹,两侧的裂纹长度都随着摩擦因数的增大而增大;裂纹长度会随着张力的增大而明显增大.研究结果为轧制工艺参数的选择提供理论依据和参考.
基于裂纹扩展的齿轮弯曲疲劳寿命仿真分析%Simulative analysis of gear bending fatigue life based on crack propagation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石万凯; 汤庆儒
2012-01-01
从齿轮内部存在缺陷这一事实出发,研究不同载荷、不同缺陷位置对齿轮寿命的影响.根据齿轮无损探伤验收标准设定的初始缺陷,应用边界元分析软件FRANC3D(fracture analysis code in 3dimensions)计算了裂纹前沿不同位置处的应力强度因子,对齿轮在不同载荷条件下进行裂纹扩展的仿真,得到不同载荷条件下载荷循环次数与裂纹长度关系曲线及齿轮寿命与齿根应力幅值曲线.%Taking account of the fact that there are defects in the interior of a gear, the influence of the different loads and locations of the defects on the gear life was investigated. The Initial defect was set according to gear nondestructive flaw detection acceptance criteria. The boundary element analysis software-FRANC3D was used to calculate the stress intensity factor at different locations of the crack front and simulate the crack propagation in different gear loading conditions, so that the relationship curve of load cycles versus crack length and the curve of gear life versus tooth root stress amplitude were obtained under different load conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张可成; 罗广恩; 李良碧
2012-01-01
Cone-cylinder parts is the hot spots of fatigue damage of submarine. In this paper, typical joints at the cone-cylinder parts of submarine are chosen as the research object. Basing on the theory of fracture mechanics, the typical welding joints of cone-cylinder hull structure is studied by ansys software developed in APDL language. The propagation process of the surface crack under alternating loads are simulated. Comparing with the experimental results, the result shows that this method can simulate the fatigue expansion of the surface crack excellently.%锥柱结合处是潜艇结构疲劳破坏的热点区域.本文以潜艇锥柱结合壳结构典型节点为研究对象,以断裂力学为理论基础,使用APDL语言对ANSYS软件进行2次开发,分析潜艇耐压壳结构典型节点表面裂纹在交变载荷作用下的扩展过程,并与试验结果进行对比,结果表明本方法可较好地模拟表面裂纹的疲劳扩展.
Crack Growth in Concrete Gravity Dams Based on Discrete Crack Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Lohrasbi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Seepage is the most parameter in water management safety and in stable agricultural. This seepage is passed through the cracks that are present to some degree in hydraulic structures. They may exist as basic defects in the constituent materials or may be induced in construction or during service life. To avoid such failure in concrete dams, safety would be an important factor. Over-design carries heavy penalty in terms of excess weight. So the fracture mechanics theory is a principal necessity of evaluating the stability of such crack propagation. For the process of crack propagation analysis in concrete structures, there are two general models: discrete crack and smeared crack. This study surveys the crack propagation in concrete gravity dams based on discrete crack methods. Moreover, we use a program provided specifically for this purpose.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bathke, W.; Stahlfeld, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe V.5 - Sicherheit in der Fuegetechnik
2000-07-01
This contribution demonstrates how a thermometric procedure might be applied to determine crack initiation during fatigue testing of joints at steel sheets. The procedure is based on the measurement of the temperature increase which is produced by the heat at the respective joint caused by deformation energy. Such investigations are aimed at detection of crack initiation before it becomes visible at the specimen surface. Thermografic measurements at different mechanical joints and resistance welded spots are compared and various applications are suggested. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie sich ein thermometrisches Verfahren einsetzen laesst, um die Rissentstehung waehrend der Dauerschwingpruefung von Stahlblechen zu erfassen. Vergleichend werden Messungen an Proben, die durch Stanznieten, Clinchen und Widerstandspunktschweissen gefuegt wurden, gegenuebergestellt. Hierzu wird die am Fuegepunkt waehrend der Pruefung in Waerme umgewandelte Formaenderungsenergie kontinuierlich in Form der Temperaturerhoehung gemessen. Ziel dieser Untersuchungen ist es, solche Temperaturerhoehungen zur Erkennung der Rissentstehung zu verwenden, bevor der Riss die Blechoberflaeche erreicht hat und visuell erkennbar wird. Zudem werden verschiedene Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten vorgeschlagen. (orig.)
Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence
Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata
2012-11-01
Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.
Delamination of Compressed thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Sørensen, Kim Dalsten
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic film, attached to a substrate with a corner, is carried out. The film is in compression and the analysis is performed by combining results from fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. The results show a very strong dependency of the angle...
Failure and Delamination in Microelectronic Packages
Sadeghinia, M.
2013-01-01
Thin layers of dissimilar materials are used in most microelectronic components in order to achieve special functional requirements. Generally, the interface between two adjacent materials forms a weak link, not only because of the relatively low delamination strength, but also because of the existi
Jiao, Kexin; Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit; Poudel, Anish; Chu, Tsuchin
2015-03-01
Buckling, delamination, and cracking are very well known phenomenon observed in most thin films. They were theoretically explained by the existence of mechanical instability due to the residue stress generated when a thin film is deposited on substrates or undergoing environmental stimulus. Buckled structures at micro- or nano-scale have been of great interests and have been used extensively in many applications including particles self-assembling, surface wettability modification, and micro-electronic device fabrication. However, peeling of a layer from a substr