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Sample records for del frijol phaseolus

  1. Estudio de la fitohemaglutinina proveniente del frijol colorado (Phaseolus Vulgaris Study of phytohemagglutinin from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Patricia Hernández Díaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron preparaciones crudas de fitohemaglutinina (PHA a partir de frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris por 2 métodos: extracción acuosa y extracción ácida. Por el método ácido se obtuvieron mejores resultados en cuanto a concentración de proteínas y pureza de la misma. Se empleó la cromatografía en hidroxiapatita para separar las isoformas que forman la PHA y se obtuvieron 5 fraccciones proteicas que se evaluaron funcionalmente junto con las preparaciones crudas, a través de sus propiedades eritroaglutinantes y leucoaglutinantes. A medida que se aumentó la fuerza iónica del medio se observó que las fracciones obtenidas presentaban una disminución relativa de la actividad leucoaglutinante, así como un incremento relativo de la actividad eritroaglutinante. Las preparaciones crudas y las fracciones se evaluaron electroforéticamente y se obtuvieron bandas muy similares a la de la PHA patrón utilizadaRaw preparations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA were obtained from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris by 2 methods: aqueous extraction and acid extraction. Better results were obtained with the acid methods as regards the protein concentration and its purity. Hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to separate the isoforms forming the phytohemagglutinin. 5 protein fractions were obtained and functionally evaluated together with the raw preparations through their erythroagglutinating and leukoagglutinating properties. As the ionic force of the medium increased it was observed that the fractions obtained presented a relative decrease of the leukoagglutinating activity as well as a relative rise of the crythroagglutinating activity. The raw preparations and the fractions were electrophoretically evaluated and bands very similar to that of the PHA used as a pattern were obtained

  2. Papel del frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en el estado nutricional de la población guatemalteca

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    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN. En Guatemala existe un fenómeno de superposición epidemiológica, en el que coexisten problemas de salud propios de países desarrollados con otros característicos de poblaciones en vías de desarrollo. Se observan deficiencias marcadas en algunos macronutrientes tales como hierro y vitamina A. en simultaneidad con enfermedades crónicas como diabetes tipo II o enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se conoce muy bien la importancia del frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris) en la dieta habitual de G...

  3. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

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    Del Pino,Victoria H.; Lajolo,Franco M.

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  4. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  5. Efectos de la aplicación simultanea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación simultánea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con dos tratamientos y ocho réplicas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación combinada de Fitomas E (2,0 l.ha-1 y Biobras 16 (0,12 l.ha-1 y una variante control. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas a los 25 y 40 días post siembra, vaina por planta, granos por vainas, granos por plantas, masa de 100 granos y rendimiento agrícola. Se observó en la altura de las plantas diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ambos tratamientos, superando la combinación de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 al tratamiento control, en un 19,43 % y un 17,73 % respectivamente. La variable vainas por planta también mostró diferencias significativas favorables al tratamiento con los bioestimulantes, no así el número de granos por vainas y la masa de 100 granos. El mayor rendimiento agrícola se obtuvo con la variante donde se aplicó Fitomas E y Biobras 16, el cual difirió significativamente del control. Se concluye que el comportamiento agroproductivo del cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se favoreció con el tratamiento evaluado.

  6. Mejoramiento de la producción del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, L con el uso de alternativas de fertilización

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    Rolando Ramírez Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argumenta la evaluación de algunas alternativas de nutrición en el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variedad Velasco Largo, que se desarrolló en áreas de la subestación de Granos de la Unidad de Extensión, Investigación y Capacitación Agropecuaria de Holguín (UEICA-H, ubicada en Velasco, municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido entre diciembre de 2007 y marzo de 2008. Se aplicaron seis (6 variantes de fertilización, que comprendió el uso de fertilizantes químicos a dosis menores que las recomendadas, la utilización de abonos orgánicos: humus de lombriz tanto sólido como líquido y el biofertilizante Ecomic. Se tomaron mediciones de altura de las plantas, nodulación y rendimiento y sus componentes, así como, se realizó un análisis económico en base a los rendimientos obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que la utilización de diferentes alternativas de fertilización provocó un efecto directo sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de frijol, sobre la nodulación natural y el rendimiento y sus componentes, los mismos sugieren la utilización de combinaciones de fertilizantes químicos, orgánicos y biofertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos de forma sostenible en el cultivo del frijol.

  7. EFECTO DEL ABONO DE SUSTRATO GASTADO DE CHAMPIÑÓN EN EL RENDIMIENTO DE FRIJOL Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Helio Adán García Mendívil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La manipulación de los desechos orgánicos y sus compostas representan una fuente de nutrientes imprescindible para la agricultura sostenible, ya que provee de fertilizantes naturales y reduce la contaminación ambiental, bajando con ello el costo de producción. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de composta a base de sustrato gastado de champiñón, enriquecida con silicio, al suelo, en cultivo de frijol, a través de mediciones fisiológicas y rendimiento en frijol. El experimento se estableció en campo, sembrándose frijol var. Pinto Saltillo en Huatabampo, Sonora, en un suelo de tipo aluvión ligero. El diseño experimental utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar, compuesto de 4 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones: 1.- testigo (sin aplicación, 2-2.5, 3 5 y 4-7.5 Mg ha 1 de composta. Las variables evaluadas fueron: clorofila total, tasa fotosintética (µg CO2 S-1 cm-2, número de vainas por planta y rendimiento. Con los datos se realizó un análisis de varianza y las medias se compararon con la prueba de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05. Se observaron respuestas significativas en la mayoría las variables evaluadas, en clorofila total hubo aumentos de hasta 26.2% en el tratamiento dos, para fotosíntesis de 26.1% en el tratamiento cuatro, en el número de vainas 8.7% en el tratamiento tres, siendo este el de mayor rendimiento (P ≤ 0.05 con 2.91 Mg ha-1, seguido del tratamiento dos con 2.89 Mg ha-1, el tratamiento cuatro con 2.85 Mg ha-1, y por último el testigo con 1.4 Mg ha 1. Los resultados sugieren que el empleo de composta es una alternativa de fertilización viable para la producción de frijol.

  8. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos Inhibitory effect of carioca bean tannins on phaseolin digestibility assessed by two multi-enzymatic systems

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    Victoria H. Del Pino; Franco M. Lajolo

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  9. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

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    Del Pino Victoria H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró el efecto adverso de los taninos condensados sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, después de producirse una significativa inhibición en el grado de hidrólisis de esa proteína por los dos sistemas multienzimáticos. Se comprobó la dificultad de hidrólisis de la faseolina cuando esta unida al tanino en el punto de saturación (proporción 5/20 tanino/proteína p/p y mayores, después de detectarse en los perfiles electroforéticos, péptidos de 45.7 y 24KDa, resistentes a la hidrólisis hasta por prolongados períodos de incubación. Esto se debió a la existencia de un complejo de naturaleza refractária no digeríble, incluso en condiciones excesivas de enzima. Los resultados sugieren la unión simultánea del tanino con mas de un ligante a través de sus múltiples grupos hidróxilos libres, formando un complejo proteína-tanino-enzima (PTE* que correspondería a la fracción no digeríble de la faseolina.

  10. Avances en la selección de fuentes de resistencia a las principales enfermedades del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Costa Rica

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    Carlos M. Araya; Rodolfo Araya

    2000-01-01

    En esta investigación se evaluaron diversos genotipos de frijol en la búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) y a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola). Se evaluó germoplasma del programa nacional de hibridaciones y de tres viveros internacionales distribuidos por el CIAT: VIFURE, VIPADOGEN y CORE COLLECTION. Los ensayos se establecieron en Puriscal (1017 msnm), Alajuela (814 msnm) y Fraijanes (1650 msnm), durante los ...

  11. Estudio etnobotánico del frijol yepatlaxtle (Phaseolus coccineus L., en el área natural protegida Corredor Biológico Chichinautzin, Morelos, México

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    R. Monroy

    2010-01-01

    alimentación y la comercialización de excedentes y aporta ingresos económicos. En otras localidades de la entidad, aún se cultiva en parcelas pequeñas o en el traspatio. El conocimiento tradicional del manejo y uso del frijol es fundamental como alternativa para su conservación; por tanto, se planteó describir el proceso productivo hasta su comercialización y las formas tradicionales de consumo. El proceso productivo del yepataxtle, desde la siembra hasta la cosecha, se registró durante un ciclo agrícola en una parcela cuyo dueño lo explicó. La comercialización se documentó a través de entrevistas a comerciantes y compradores en el mercado municipal durante los días de selecplaza. Las formas de consumo se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas abiertas a las amas de casa que preparan platillos con el yepataxtle. El sistema milpa, cuando incluye yepataxtle, dura 240 días; cuando es solo, 120. Se explican las técnicas campesinas desde la cosmovisión de los informantes. El yepataxtle se comercializa directamente en el mercado, de febrero a mayo como ejote fresco, y en abril, como frijol seco. La información culinaria tradicional del yepataxtle se organizó en un recetario mediante un uso ceremonial para las fiestas patronales del pueblo.

  12. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

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    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  13. Avances en la selección de fuentes de resistencia a las principales enfermedades del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en Costa Rica

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    Carlos M. Araya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluaron diversos genotipos de frijol en la búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum y a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola. Se evaluó germoplasma del programa nacional de hibridaciones y de tres viveros internacionales distribuidos por el CIAT: VIFURE, VIPADOGEN y CORE COLLECTION. Los ensayos se establecieron en Puriscal (1017 msnm, Alajuela (814 msnm y Fraijanes (1650 msnm, durante los ciclos agrícolas 97-98 y 98-99. Los materiales se sembraron en parcelas de un surco de dos a seis metros de largo con una o dos repeticiones y manejo con mínimos insumos. Se evaluó la reacción a la infección natural por antracnosis y mancha angular a las seis y ocho semanas después de la siembra, con base en la escala de severidad de uno a nueve. Se seleccionaron materiales con reacción de uno hasta grado tres para antracnosis y de uno hasta grado cuatro para mancha angular. Del grupo de materiales provenientes del programa de hibridaciones se seleccionaron nueve líneas por su resistencia a ambos patógenos. Posteriormente, sólo cinco mostraron resistencia específica a antracnosis y dos a mancha angular. De los viveros distribuidos por el CIAT, el VIPADOGEN aportó dos líneas que mostraron resistencia combinada a las dos enfermedades, mientras que 25 fueron resistentes exclusivamente a antracnosis, además de mostrar tolerancia a baja fertilidad o a sequía. Del vivero CORE COLLECTION, sólo 26 líneas mostraron resistencia combinada; 82 líneas fueron resistentes a antracnosis y 12 a mancha angular. Las mejores fuentes de resistencia a antracnosis y mancha angular estarán disponibles en un vivero internacional

  14. Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol ( phaseolus vulgaris l. en el valle de san juan

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    Juan Cedano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el valle de San Juan. Se realizó un estudio para determinar el efecto del fraccionamiento de la fertilización nitrogenada y el momento adecuado para la aplicación de nitrógeno en el cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en cinco localidades del Valle de San Juan, R. D. Los experimentos fueron establecidos del 5 al 14 de noviembre (1997 , se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar y nueve tratamientos en cada localidad, encontrándose que en los terrenos con altos niveles de nitrógeno no hubo respuesta a la aplicación de nitrógeno ni al fraccionamiento de este nutrimento; mientras que en los suelos con deficiencia en nitrógeno si hubo respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada encontrándose diferencia estadística significativa a la aplicación y al momento de aplicación del fertilizante. Entre las localidades hubo diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05, mientras que no se encontró interacción entre los tratamientos y las localidades

  15. Eficiencia y productividad del cultivo de frijol en un sistema de riego por bombeo en Zacatecas, México

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    José Luis Ríos Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua es un factor limitante para la agricultura. Conforme la competencia por este recurso se intensifica, el sector agrícola debe hacer un uso más eficiente. Se estima la productividad del agua en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. producido en Calera y Villa de Cos, Zacatecas, con base en la metodología establecida por Ríos et al. (2015. La productividad física fue 0.118 kg m-3, es decir, 8 442 L kg-1 de frijol para el Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 189 Zacatecas. El precio del metro cúbico para riego fue $0.48 m-3 y utilidad bruta MN$1.88m-3. Se concluye que la productividad agrícola del agua en frijol fue baja, por lo que la producción de frijol en bombeo es insostenible.

  16. Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. en el estado de Chiapas, Mexico

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    Bernardo Villar S\\u00E1nchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el estado de Chiapas, México. Por su contribución en la dieta alimenticia y la generación de empleos, y por existir una ancestral cultura productiva y una superficie de siembra de más de 100 mil hectáreas, el cultivo de frijol es de fundamental importancia en el estado de Chiapas. Sin embargo, se ha determinado una brecha tecnológica de más de 700 kg/ha entre el potencial del cultivo y los rendimientos actuales. Esta es ocasionada por numerosos factores limitantes entre los que destaca la presencia de suelos de baja fertilidad y ácidos. La estrategia adoptada para el manejo de este problema incluye: 1.Aplicación de cal y fósforo; 2. Mejoramiento genético para resistencia; 3.Manejo de los ciclos de materia orgánica y nutrientes del suelo; y 4.Combinación de las tres alternativas. En este reporte se dan los avances obtenidos con relación a la primera alternativa considerada como el paso inicial para el logro de un manejo integral de suelos en Chiapas. Durante 1997 se estudiaron cinco dosis de cal y tres de fósforo en condiciones de invernadero y campo para suelos de diferentes localidades. Se utilizó un experimento factorial completo con cuatro repeticiones, los experimentos fueron evaluados en términos de la producción de grano y al efecto de la cal sobre las propiedades químicas del suelo. Hubo respuesta del frijol en rendimiento a la aplicación de cal y fósforo

  17. (Helianthus annuus L.-frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en función del nitrógeno y fósforo

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    Edgar J. Morales Rosales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2003 se realizó un estudio en Montecillo, Estado de México, para determinar el efecto de la aplicación de nitrógeno (0, 40 y 80 kg ha–1 y fósforo (0, 30 y 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 en la siembra combinada de girasol (cv. Victoria y frijol (cv. Michoacán. Con el suministro de 80 kg N ha–1 (80 – 00 – 00 se incrementó la producción de biomasa y rendimiento de semilla superando al testigo sin fertilizante en 32% y 35%. Cuando se adicionaron 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 (00 – 60 – 00 se obtuvo una producción de materia seca y rendimiento de semilla superior al testigo en 24 y 27%, respectivamente. Aunque la interacción nitrógeno x fósforo no fue significativa, existió una tendencia positiva a medida de que se incrementaron los niveles de nitrógeno y fósforo (80 – 60 – 00, alcanzando los máximos valores en la producción de biomasa (2667.9 g m–2 y rendimiento de semilla (644.6 g m–2, los cuales superaron en 49 y 50% al testigo sin fertilizante.

  18. Controles alternativos para el gorgojo del frijol (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say en granos almacenados a partir de materiales naturales y minerales

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    Carlos Ernesto Lopez-Monzon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de controlar el daño del gorgojo del frijol [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say], se evaluó la efectividad en polvo de raíces deshidratadas de chilca (Senecio salignus DC., frutos deshidratados de pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L., fragmentos de madera de pino (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, maíz pulverizado (Zea mays L., cascabillo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cal mezclada con ceniza, y arena de río. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos, con cuatro repeticiones cada uno, en arreglo totalmente al azar. Los materiales naturales y minerales fueron colectados en el municipio de Malacatancito, Huehuetenango y el ensayo se montó en el laboratorio del Centro Universitario de Nor Occidente (Cunoroc, empleando por réplica un frasco de vidrio con capacidad de 1 L y aplicando a cada uno 100 g de semilla de frijol, 10 parejas de gorgojos adultos y 1 g de polvo de los materiales evaluados, según su tratamiento. El análisis se realizó 60 días después de la infestación, donde se evaluó: el porcentaje de daño del gorgojo del frijol, número de gorgojos vivos, correlación del porcentaje de daño versus número de gorgojos vivos y porcentaje de germinación del frijol. El polvo de pimienta negra y la mezcla de cal con ceniza evidenciaron los mejores resultados con el menor porcentaje de daño (1.64% y 3.55%, respectivamente. Las variables porcentaje de daño y número de gorgojos vivos marcaron una fuerte correlación con valor de r = .892. Se estableció que ninguno de los materiales utilizados influyó en la viabilidad de la semilla, registrándose porcentajes de germinación por arriba del 97% en todos los tratamientos. Se recomienda implementar estos productos en el almacenamiento del frijol, para contrarrestar los daños ocasionados por la plaga, obteniendo así beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales.

  19. Determinación de la composición físico-química y de la digestibilidad in vitro de dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. estimación del contenido de pectina y celulosa en el residuo indigerible

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    Víquez Rodríguez, Floribeth; Bonilla Leiva, Ana Ruth

    2000-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue determinar, mediante un estudio de digestibilidad in vitro, la porción indigerible presente en dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. consumidas en Costa Rica y cuantificar en dicha porción, dos de los principales polisacáridos no almidonosos causantes de flatulencia: pectina y celulosa. Se determinaron además, las principales características físicas (tamaño y tasa de absorción de agua) y químicas (contenido de proteínas, grasa, cenizas y carbohi...

  20. EFECTIVIDAD DE UN BIOFERTILIZANTE FOLIAR SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL COMÚN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, BLUEFIELDS, R.A.A.S.

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    Yader Mejía Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como propósito evaluar la efectividad de las diferentes dosis de un biofertilizante foliar sobre el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris en época de postrera, en la comunidad El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, en el ciclo productivo 2008-2009. Se utilizó un diseño completo al azar, cuatro tratamientos con dos repeticiones, cada repetición constó de 63 plantas de frijol (n=126. Los tratamientos fueron: T1 (testigo; T2: 0.25 litros de biofertilizante; T3: 0.37 lt. y T4: 0.5 lt. En todos los tratamientos, incluyendo al testigo, se hizo deshierbe y en todos, excepto el testigo, se aplicó el biofertilizante disuelto en 10 litros de agua. Se realizaron tres mediciones (21, 36 y 51 días después de la siembra.Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos en la altura de las plantas, pero si en el porcentaje de afectación por herbívoros, así como en el número de vainas por planta y de granos por vaina. El tratamiento T4 registró el menor ataque por herbívoros, la mayor producción en función del número de vainas por planta, de granos por vaina y peso total de los granos de frijol, en cambio el testigo fue el que registró el menor rendimiento con respecto a todas estas variables. El uso del biofertilizante foliar aumentó el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol en todas las dosis.SummaryThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different doses of a foliar biofertilizer on crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris throughout season time in the community of El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, during the production cycle 2008-2009. A random design was used, four treatments with two replications, each replication consisted of 63 bean plants (n=126. The treatments were: T1 (baton, T2: 0.25 liters of biofertilizer, T3: 0.37 lt. and T4: 0.5 lt.  In all the treatments, including the baton, weeding was done, and in all except the baton

  1. Esfuerzo iberoamericano aporta la secuencia del genoma del frijol al conocimiento mundial.

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    Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

    2012-01-01

    El Proyecto Genoma del-CYTED se plantea como una actividad de cooperación multinacional donde la meta principal del mismo incrementar el conocimiento básico y las herramientas genéticas en este caso apoyar a la plantación de frijol, seleccionando y diseñando nuevas variedades de este grano.

  2. EFECTO DE LA ROTACIÓN DE CULTIVOS EN LA INCIDENCIA DEL AMACHAMIENTO (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie EN FRIJOL

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    Néstor Felipe Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la rotación de cultivos en la incidencia del amachamiento en frijol se evaluó en la región Brunca de Costa Rica durante 2009 y se complementó con una observación de campo en el 2010. La incidencia en 2009 se cuantificó en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo (V3 o V4, floración (R6 y llenado de vainas (R8 en planta - ciones comerciales de frijol provenientes de rota - ción con arroz, maíz, chile picante, ayote o frijol. En cada plantación se establecieron al azar 4 microparcelas de 10 m 2 , excepto en la secuencia frijol-frijol, donde fueron solo 2; los datos obte - nidos se transformaron angularmente y con un ANDEVA se separaron las medias entre rotacio - nes. La observación de campo del 2010 se llevó a cabo en una finca con 3 parcelas comerciales de frijol en etapa de floración y en suelos previa - mente sembrados con jengibre, tiquizque y maíz, respectivamente; en cada parcela, se establecie - ron sistemáticamente 10 puntos de muestreo para cuantificar la incidencia de amachamiento y se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para deter - minar diferencias entre rotaciones. En el 2009, durante la etapa R8 se presentó una incidencia mínima de amachamiento en la rotación chile picante-frijol (4%, niveles intermedios en las rotaciones ayote-frijol (15% y arroz-frijol (29% y altas incidencias en las rotaciones frijol-frijol (62% y maíz-frijol (64%. En la observación de campo del 2010, durante la etapa de floración se presentaron incidencias de 4% en la rotación jengibre-frijol y de 5% en la rotación tiquizque- frijol, que fueron entre 5 y 6 veces menores que la cuantificada en la rotación maíz-frijol (25%. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, el uso de cultivos como chile picante, jengibre, tiquizque y ayote en el ciclo previo a la siembra de frijol, podría contribuir a bajar la incidencia de amacha - miento y las pérdidas que ocasiona en ese cultivo.

  3. Efecto del encalado en la respuesta vegetal y fijación simbiótica del nitrógeno en frijol común

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    Aurelio Garc\\u00EDa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En casa de cristales se evaluó mediante el método de valor A, utilizando el isótopo estable 15N, el efecto del encalado de un suelo Rhodic ferralsol sobre la fijación simbiótica de nitrógeno (FSN de los genotipos de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BAT 58, BAT 477, DOR 364, CC 25-9 (N. La isolínea NN 125, genotipo de frijol no nodulante, fue utilizado como cultivo de referencia. El efecto del encalado incrementó la fracción de nitrógeno en planta derivado del aire, principalmente en CC 25-9 (N que posee muy poca capacidad de fijación de N atmosf érico cuando no se encala el suelo. Además, se encontró un efecto beneficioso del encalado sobre las reservas de N del suelo, visto que los incrementos de las extracciones totales de N por las plantas provienen del N del aire, e incluso, la cantidad de N en planta derivado del suelo disminuyó para todos los genotipos, principalmente en DOR 364 y CC 25-9(N. Por otra parte, la relación %Nddf/%Ndds, por ciento de N en planta derivado del fertilizante y por ciento de N en planta derivado del suelo respectivamente, varió debido a la aplicación de cal. Por consiguiente, es necesario utilizar dos tratamientos con el cultivo de referencia para evaluar acertadamente la FSN: cultivo de referencia con y sin suelo encalado. Se discute la interpretación del parámetro Eficiencia de Uso del N.

  4. DISTRIBUCIÓN ESPACIAL DEL AMACHAMIENTO DEL FRIJOL (Aphelenchoides besseyi CHRISTIE EN CAMPO

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    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la distribución espacial del amachamiento en campo. La investigación se realizó entre mayo y julio del 2009 en las comunidades de Veracruz de Pérez Zeledón, San José y Concepción de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Para ello se evaluó la incidencia de la enfermedad por punto de siembra en dos parcelas de frijol provenientes de distintas rotaciones (arroz/frijol y maíz/fri - jol, con lo cual, posteriormente se determinó la distribución espacial de la enfermedad en campo por medio de un análisis de corridas y los índices de varianza/media (V/M, Lloyd y Morisita. En el análisis de corridas se obtuvo un valor pro - medio de Z de -1,06 para la parcela sembrada previamente con arroz, y de -0,98 para la parcela sembrada previamente con maíz, lo que indica una tendencia a la agregación. Los índices de V/M, Lloyd y Morisita fueron mayores que 1 en ambas parcelas, por lo que se determinó que el amacha - miento presentó un patrón espacial agregado (en parches en condiciones de campo. El patrón espacial del amachamiento en campo tiende a enmascararse debido a la rotación con cultivos hospederos de Aphelenchoides besseyi , – su agente causal –, en especial la rotación maíz/frijol donde el produc - tor redistribuye el inóculo de la enfermedad cuando esparce las cañas de maíz sobre el terreno de cultivo

  5. Bayo Azteca, primera variedad mejorada de frijol con resistencia a Apion godmani Wagner Bayo Azteca, first improved bean variety with resistance to Apion godmani Wagner

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    Ramón Garza-García; Carmen Jacinto-Hernández; Dagoberto Garza-García

    2010-01-01

    Bayo Azteca, la primera variedad mejorada de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), con resistencia a una plaga insectil, ha sido obtenida por el programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Valle de México, del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias por cruzas múltiples, esto involucró un largo proceso de mejora genética. Bayo Azteca es la primera variedad mejorada resistente al picudo del ejote (Apion godmani Wagner), un curculiónido que ataca al frijol en las zonas t...

  6. Características morfo-fisiológicas de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. relacionadas con la adaptación a sequía

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    José A Polanía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de raíces de 21 líneas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarrollado por el CIAT. Las características evaluadas fueron profundización visual, longitud total de raíces y distribución de raíces a través del perfil del suelo. En campo, utilizando los mismos genotipos de frijol, se evaluaron características relacionadas con la eficiencia de uso de agua mediante la técnica de discriminación de isótopo de carbono y producción de grano. Los resultados en invernadero mostraron que la profundización visual y longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm tienen una correlación significativa (r = 0.56 y 0.50 respectivamente, P < 0.001 con la biomasa aérea de la planta en condiciones de estrés por sequía. En campo, la discriminación del isótopo de carbono en grano se correlacionó (r = 0.32, P < 0.01 con la producción de grano en condiciones igualmente de estrés por sequía. Las líneas de frijol NCB 226, SER 16, SEN 56 y SEA 15 presentaron una mayor longitud de raíces bajo estrés por sequía (28, 24, 29 y 27 m/planta respectivamente en comparación con las demás líneas evaluadas, lo que les permite mayor transpiración y movilización de fotoasimilados, que favorecen una alta producción de granos. Se estima que la profundización visual, la longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm y la discriminación de isótopo de carbono en grano, son características valiosas como criterios de selección en mejoramiento por tolerancia a estrés por sequía en frijol común.

  7. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress /

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    Polania Perdomo, José A.,

    2016-01-01

    Bibliografia El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de ...

  8. COMPARACIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES DEL RENDIMIENTO EN VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL EN CONDICIONES DE ACIDEZ Y HUMEDAD RESIDUAL DEL SUELO EN EL SUR DE VERACRUZ

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    Aurelio Morales Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se cultiva en suelos ácidos (pH<5 con humedad residual en el sur del estado de Veracruz, México. El cultivo se realiza en unas 6600 ha al final de la temporada de lluvias a mediados de septiembre o principios de octubre. La humedad residual, aunado a la acidez del suelo frecuentemente afectan el periodo de formación de la semilla, reduciendo el rendimiento. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar variedades de frijol de tipo III en cuanto a su rendimiento de semilla y sus componentes, cultivadas bajo restricciones de humedad residual y acidez del suelo, y altas temperaturas en el ciclo otoño-invierno 2012-2013, en el Municipio de Juan Rodríguez Clara, Veracruz. Se emplearon seis variedades de testa de color negro, seis del tipo ‘Flor de Mayo’ y una del tipo ‘Flor de Junio’. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La unidad experimental se constituyó de cinco surcos de 5 m de longitud y 0.8 m de separación. Se fertilizó con una dosis de 40-40-00. Las variedades “Negro Veracruz”, “San Andrés”, “Negro Cotaxtla” y “Flor de Junio Marcela”, exhibieron mayor rendimiento de semilla, vainas por m2 y peso de 200 semillas, altura de planta y menor biomasa aérea final que las demás. El mayor rango de variabilidad genética entre las variedades se observó para la biomasa aérea final y altura de planta. La respuesta en rendimiento y sus componentes sugiere que algunas variedades de testa negra han desarrollado mecanismos de tolerancia a la acidez, restricción de humedad residual del suelo y altas temperaturas durante la floración y formación de la semilla, que les permiten producir altos rendimientos a pesar de estar sometidas a estrés ambiental. La variedad de Valles Altos (“Flor de Junio Marcela”, también mostró que podría tener buena adaptación a estas condiciones.

  9. Análisis de la tecnología local de producción de frijol caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en la zona de vega del rio Arauca Local technology analysis of black bean production (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in area shore of the Arauca river

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    Valderrama N. Yhovana

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del fríjol negro o caraota constituye un importante renglón agrícola de impacto económico y social en el municipio de Arauquita (Arauca, donde cerca de 500 hectáreas se destinan para su siembra en los mesessecos de Octubre y Noviembre. En este municipio la caraota es un cultivo tradicional, en el cual se emplea poca tecnología y existe poca investigación. El producto se comercializa, principalmente, en Venezuela donde existe una alta demanda. Para analizar la Tecnología Local de Producción (TLP, se realizaron encuestas entre agricultores representativos en diferentes veredas del municipio de Arauquita, encontrándose que es un cultivo en donde la mano de obra es contratada con personal de la región y cuyas labores se resumen en: siembra"a chuzo" sobre terrenos previamente quemados, el control de malezas, y finalmente cosecha y beneficio.
    En la cadena de comercialización entre Colombia y Venezuela existen por lo menos 7 pasos entre el productor y el consumidor final.
    The black bean crop is an important economic and social activity in Arauquita (east of Colombia. In thal region, about 500 hectares are devoted to planting seeds in dry months (October-November. This is a traditional crop, wich used not much technology and there is little research. The product is marketed mainly in Venezuela, where it has high demando This study was carried out making surveys to representative farmers on the region. In the black bean crop the farms work are contracted with personal of the region and its agricultural practices in summary are: burn of the vegetation, sowing, wich is done to random hill ("chuzo", putting several seeds by hill. Except the control of weeds, no fitosanitary control is done, isn't fertilized and its harvest and thresh are manual. Marketing between Colombia and Venezuela has at least seven steps from the producer to final costumer.

  10. Efecto de la rotación de cultivos en la incidencia del Amachamiento (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie ) en frijol

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Néstor Felipe; Araya, Carlos Manuel

    2012-01-01

    El efecto de la rotación de cultivos en la incidencia del amachamiento en frijol se evaluó en la región Brunca de Costa Rica durante 2009 y se complementó con una observación de campo en el 2010. La incidencia en 2009 se cuantificó en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo (V3 o V4), floración (R6) y llenado de vainas (R8) en plantaciones comerciales de frijol provenientes de rotación con arroz, maíz, chile picante, ayote o frijol. En cada plantación se establecieron al azar 4 microparcelas de 1...

  11. EFECTO DE LA ROTACIÓN DE CULTIVOS EN LA INCIDENCIA DEL AMACHAMIENTO (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie ) EN FRIJOL

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Felipe Chaves; Carlos Manuel Araya

    2012-01-01

    El efecto de la rotación de cultivos en la incidencia del amachamiento en frijol se evaluó en la región Brunca de Costa Rica durante 2009 y se complementó con una observación de campo en el 2010. La incidencia en 2009 se cuantificó en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo (V3 o V4), floración (R6) y llenado de vainas (R8) en planta - ciones comerciales de frijol provenientes de rota - ción con arroz, maíz, chile picante, ayote o frijol. En cada plantación se establecieron al azar 4 microparcela...

  12. Growth dynamics of two bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. l. Growth analysis by fixed periods Dinámica de crecimiento de dos variedades de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris L. l. análisis de crecimiento por periodos fijos

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    Maldonado Gustavo

    1993-12-01

    frijol
    (P. vulgarís, L. comprende una serie de etapas sin las cuales no ocurrirla la formacion de frutos y en la cual el aumento de materia seca depende del comportamiento fisiológico y del hábito de crecimiento. El presente estudio evaluó el proceso de crecimiento conjuntamente con estos factores, con el propósito de establecer la diferencia en comportamiento y la
    relación entre el hábito y los índices de crecimiento en las variedades de frijol "ICA-Cerinza" de habito de crecimiento determinado e "ICA-Tundama" de habito de crecimiento indeterminado. Las variedades fueron sembradas en parcelas de 40,5 m2 y en hileras a 0,50 x 0,12 m. en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, en las
    cuales se tomaron muestras de tres plantas cada siete dias, a partir de los 15 y hasta los 78 dias después de emergencia. Se evaluó el peso total, el peso seco de los tallos, el peso seco de las hojas y el área foliar. A partir de éstos, se calcularon la tasa relativa de crecimiento (TRC, la tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, la relación de área foliar (RAF, la
    relación de peso foliar (RPF y el área foliar especifica
    (AFE. En las evaluaciones realizadas a los 15, 71 y 78 dias, el análisis de crecimiento por el método clásico, sólo, permitió determinar diferencias en materia seca total, de tallos, de hojas y en área foliar. Resultados similares se hallaron al analizarlos indices. La TRC fue ligeramente más alta en la variedad Cerinza que en la variedad Tundama, sin embargo,
    los valores por evaluación no fueron significativamente
    diferentes entre las dos variedades, a excepción de
    los obtenidos a los 78 D.D.E.. La TAN tuvo un comportamiento similar a la TRC y estas dos variables se correlacionaron positiva y significativamente. La RAF mostró una tendencia decreciente de tipo lineal en la variedad Cerinza, mientras que en la variedad Tundama fue de tipo cuadratico, con valores altos en las primeras y últimas

  13. Productividad y adaptación del frijol ejotero en el Valle de México

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    G. Esquivel-Esquivel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ejotes son hortalizas de alta calidad nutritiva y en México existe tendencia a incrementar el consumo de esta leguminosa, por lo cual, el objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar variedades de frijol ejotero de diferente hábito de crecimiento, adaptadas al Valle de México con base en la productividad y calidad del ejote en dos fechas de siembra. Se estableció un experimento con 36 variedades de frijol (31 fueron de hábito de crecimiento determinado y 5 de hábito indeterminado, el 21 de mayo y 15 de junio de 2001, en Texcoco, Estado de México. Se registraron los días a floración, días a inicio de corte, días a madurez fisiológica, peso fresco, producción total y longitud de los ejotes, así como el rendimiento de semilla. En la primera fecha de siembra (PFS se evaluó el contenido de proteína y de fibra cruda en los ejotes. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P≤0.01 para todas las variables cuantificadas. El descenso de la temperatura, el fotoperiodo y la disponibilidad hídrica redujo el número de cortes de ejote, de ocho en la PFS a cinco en la segunda. Las variedades de hábito indeterminado registraron, en promedio, mayor rendimiento total de ejotes y semilla. Ejotero 50, OR 900 y US No. 3 mostraron el mayor rendimiento de ejotes en la PFS y pueden usarse en siembras tempranas. US No. 3, E10-1, F2 y E10-2 sobresalieron en la segunda fecha y pueden utilizarse en siembras tardías. En las dos fechas de siembra, Bayo Alteño mostró resistencia a enfermedades y rendimiento de ejotes y de semilla alto, por lo que puede sembrarse para doble propósito (ejote y grano y como progenitor en el mejoramiento genético del frijol ejotero. El rendimiento y calidad obtenidos mostraron que es factible producir ejotes en el Valle de México

  14. FLUJO DE GENES ENTRE FRIJOL COMÚN Y SILVESTRE EN COSTA RICA

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    N\\u00E9stor Chaves-Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar el flujo de genes entre frijol común silvestre y cultivado, se determinó el porcentaje de alogamia en condiciones naturales de crecimie nto del frijol silvestre y en estación experimental. En el 2004 se evaluó el cruzamie nto natural entre frijol silvestre mexicano G23511A (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y la línea blanca PAN 68, en la Estación Experimental Fabio Baudrit de la Universidad de Costa Ri ca en Alajuela. Para ello se sembraron dos parcelas experimentales; cada una constó de dos bloques de PAN 68 de 10 surcos (15 m de largo y espacia dos 0,6 m. Entre los bloques y en el borde superior de los mismos, se sembraron tres surcos de frijol silvestre como donantes de polen. Se numeraron las hileras y las plantas de cada una en los bloques de frijol blanco. En Quircot de Ca rtago (área donde crece en forma natural P. vulgaris silvestre, en el 2005 y 2006, se sembraron plantas de frijol comercia l (Vainica de Palo a lo largo de seis sitios junto a las poblaciones de frijol silvestre. En ambas localidades la floración de silvestres y comerciales fue coincidente. Se cosechó toda la semilla de los ensayos y se germinó en bandejas, determinando el porcentaje de alogamia por medio del color morado del hip ocotilo, indicativo de aquellas plántulas cruzadas. En Alajuela el porcentaje de cruza varió entre 0,007 y 0,028 %; mie ntras que en Quircot, entre 0 y 0,199 %.

  15. Microflora en semillas de frijol

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    Jos\\u00E9 B. Membre\\u00F1o

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflora en semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se estudió la microflora bacteriana presente en semillas de frijol y su relación con Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp, en 118 genotipos procedentes de VIDAC-98, INTA- Nicaragua, TARS-USDA e Isabela-P.R. Se utilizaron cinco métodos de aislamiento: semilla desinfectada con hipoclorito de sodio, semilla en caldo nutritivo refrigerada por una hora, dispersión de 0,1 ml de suspensión de semillas en medio sólido, siembra líquida de 1 ml de suspensión y semilla en caldo nutritivo, agitado y refrigerado por 24 horas. Se aislaron 104 colonias amarillas de 41 genotipos. Treinta y seis colonias fueron KOH positivo (Gram negativo, 68 negativo (Gram positivo y 34 hidrolizaron almidón. Las colonias de pigmentación amarilla resultaron no patogénicas bajo condiciones de invernadero. Estas se identificaron con el sistema BIOLOG como: Pantoea agglomerans (25, Xanthomonas campestris (2, Enterobacter agglomerans (2, Sphingomonas paucimobilis (2, Pseudomonas fluorescens y Flavimonas oryzihabitans. En adición, los genotipos portaron colonias con pigmentación distinta a la amarilla. En las pruebas de antagonismo se identificaron colonias con actividad de deoxyribonucleasa y de antibiosis a Xcp. De éstas, 15 colonias inhibieron a Xcp significativamente. Se identificaron los hongos Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus nigricans y Macrophomina phaseolina en un 52,9 % del total de genotipos evaluados

  16. Evaluacion fisicoquimica, microbiologica y sensorial de una salsa y una bebida funcional a base de extracto de frijol rojo (Phaseolus vulgaris con pulpa de Guayaba en el municipio de Valledupar

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    Edwin J Fl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar de manera fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial una salsa y una bebida funcional a base de extracto de fríjol rojo (phaseolus vulgaris con pulpa de guayaba. Metodología: el trabajo se desarrolló en una planta piloto, donde se tuvieron en cuenta la pulpa de la fruta y granos de frijoles rojos comercializados en los diferentes supermercados de la ciudad de Valledupar donde se tomaron muestras representativas de 5 kilos de guayaba y 5 kilos de fríjol para la obtención de la bebida y, con base en la NTC 659, se aplicó un diseño factorial de 22. Resultados: La consistencia de la salsa de extracto de fríjol rojo con mayor contenido de proteína (11,3 % fue el atributo de mayor aceptación por parte de los evaluadores no entrenados con 67,3 %, y el color fue el de menor aceptación con 53,3 %. Sin embargo, en forma general, el producto tuvo una preferencia de 61 %. El sabor de la bebida tipo néctar con mayor contenido de proteína (11% a base de extracto de fríjol rojo y extracto de guayaba fue el atributo que tuvo el mayor porcentaje de aceptación por parte de los evaluadores no entrenados, con 70,6%, y la consistencia fue el atributo con menor porcentaje de aceptación con 61,3. Sin embargo, otra vez en forma general, considerados todos los atributos, la bebida tuvo una preferencia de 64,5%. Conclusiones: la composición mineral (Fe, Na, K, Ca y Mg tanto de la salsa de extracto de fríjol como de la bebida a base de extracto de fríjol rojo y extracto de guayaba fueron aportes valiosos, sobre todo en el contenido del potasio y del calcio, que contribuyen a mantener la estabilidad muscular y gástrica del ser humano.

  17. PRODUCTIVIDAD Y RENTABILIDAD DEL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL CON FERTIRRIEGO EN VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

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    Francisco Javier Ugalde-Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto del fertirriego en el cultivo de frijol en las zonas centro y sur del estado de Veracruz, México. Durante los ciclos invierno-primavera 2000 y 2001 se evaluaron tres tratamientos: 1 Riego rodado (por gravedad y fertilización sólida manual (testigo regional, con la dosis 40N-40P-0K (RR-40, 2 Riego por goteo y fertilización sólida manual, con la dosis 4N-40P-0K (RG-40; en ambos tratamientos se aplicó el fertilizante a los quince días de nacido el cultivo, y 3 riego por goteo y fertilización soluble, con la dosis 60N-60P-60K, aplicada en forma fraccionada durante el ciclo del cultivo (RG-60. De 2002 a 2005 se validó el mejor tratamiento y se realizó análisis económico para determinar su rentabilidad en comparación con el testigo regional. En la etapa de evaluación, con el tratamiento RG- 60 se redujo en 85% el gasto de agua y se obtuvo el mayor rendimiento promedio (2256 kg/ha, que superó en 145% al obtenido con RG-40 y en 186% al RR-40 (testigo regional. En la etapa de validación con riego por goteo y fertilización soluble fraccionada 60N-60-P-60K se obtuvo 110% más rendimiento que el testigo regional y mejor relación beneficio/ costo (1:1,80.

  18. RELACIONES HÍDRICAS Y TEMPERATURAS ALTAS EN FRIJOL DEL TIPO "FLOR DE MAYO"

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    Edwin Javier Barrios-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del déficit hídrico del suelo y temperatura alta del aire en las relaciones hídricas y temperatura del dosel del cultivo (Tc, rendimiento de semilla (RS y sus componentes en 8 variedades de frijol del tipo "Flor de Mayo" (FM y una variedad criolla. Se realizaron 3 experimentos de campo; Montecillo en riego (MR con la aplicación de agua de la siembra a la madurez, Montecillo en secano (MS con la lluvia como fuente única de humedad y Celaya en secano (CS con lluvia y 2 riegos suplementarios en floración. Se utilizó una dosis de fertilización de 80 kg.ha-1 de nitrógeno y 40 kg.ha-1 de fósforo. En MR el potencial hídrico foliar ( =-0,33 Mpa, osmótico ( =-1,26 Mpa y de turgencia y (P=0,93 Mpa fue más alto que en CS ( =-0,77, =-1,36 y P=0,59 Mpa y MS ( =-1,22, =-1,57 y P=0,35 Mpa; MS, con mayor deficiencia hídrica del suelo, tuvo mayor reducción en y , y mayor grado de ajuste osmótico (AO=0,70 Mpa. El AO estuvo positiva y significativamente asociado con RS y biomasa aérea final (BMAF en los 2 ambientes de secano. La Tc en MR (26,7°C fue más baja que en CS (30,8°C y MS (36,6°C; el estrés por calor se agudizó con el descenso en el contenido hídrico de las plantas en el ambiente más seco (MS; Tc se relacionó negativa y significativamente con y en MS. La alta Tc también tuvo efecto significativo en la producción de BMAF y RS y sus componentes; la alta Tc redujo el RS, BMAF, número de vainas normales.m-2 (VN.m-2 y peso de 100 semillas (P100S en 12,5, 10,7, 10,2 y 3,4% por cada ºC (-1 ºC de aumento en la Tc, respectivamente.

  19. Estudio de las propiedades fisico químicas y calidad nutricional en distintas variedades de frijol consumidas en México

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    América Fernanda Fernández Valenciano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : El frijol común ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. es la leguminosa más importante para consumo humano en el mundo , es una fuente importante de proteína, calorías, vitamin as del complejo B y minerales . P o r lo que el objetivo del trabajo de investigación fue estudiar las propiedades f isico químicas y la calidad nutricional en las principales variedades de frijol consumidas y producidas en México, con el propósito de conocer sus beneficios nutricionales para el consumidor. Método : En este estudio se seleccionaron seis variedades de frijol más representativas y consumidas en México : Bayo, Negro, Peruano, Flor de Mayo, Alubia y Pinto, así como, una varieda d de frijol ejotero. A estas variedades se les determin aron las propiedades fisicoquímicas, C, H y N por medio del Analizador Orgánico Elemental Flash 2000. La determinación de Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Na, K, Ca y Mg se de terminó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y el P se terminó por espectrofotometría y metavandato - molibdato de amonio . Resultados : Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las propiedades f isico químicas, así como, en el contenido de macro y micronutrientes en las diferentes variedades de frijol estudiadas. En general, sobresali ó el frijol ejotero en las propiedades f isico químicas, contenido de micronutrientes y macronutrientes en relación a las variedades de frijol en grano. Discusión o Conclusión : La semilla del ejote presentó las máx imas concentraciones en proteína, N, P, K, Mg, Fe y Zn, mientras que las variedades de frijol de grano estudiadas sobresalieron en fibra (Alubia, proteínas (Pinto y Bayo, en Fe (Flor de Mayo. Por ú ltimo , resaltar que la variedad de frijol de grano estud iada que p resent ó un aporte bajo en proteína, contenido de N, Mg y Ca fue la variedad Frijol Peruano. Finalmente, se concluye que el frijol ejotero representa un gran beneficio para el consumidor por el aporte de prote

  20. Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del Estado de Veracruz, México

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    Francisco Javier Ugalde Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del estado de Veracruz, México. El objetivo del presentetrabajo, fue validar genotipos de frijol con el paquete tecnológico del INIFAP, en parcelas de productores. Durante los ciclosde humedad residual de 1998 a 2001 se establecieron nueveparcelas de validación. Los genotipos utilizados fueron: las lí-neas II-307 y DOR-500 y las variedades Negro Huasteco 81,Negro Cotaxtla 91 y Negro INIFAPy como testigo del productor la variedad Jamapa. En las parcelas se realizaron las laboresde manejo agronómico recomendadas por el INIFAPpara esazona de producción. Cada parcela ocupó una superficie total de3000 m2. Se realizaron análisis de varianza individuales por localidad, considerando como repetición los rendimientos obtenidos por cada genotipo (500 m2 por ciclo de evaluación; también se efectuaron análisis combinado con prueba deseparación de medias (DMS 5% y un análisis económico mediante la Tasa de Retorno Marginal. Los resultados indicaronque las variedades y líneas mejoradas fueron superiores en másdel 100% en rendimiento al testigo. El análisis económicomostró que el mayor beneficio económico se obtuvo al sembrarlas variedades Negro INIFAPy Negro Cotaxtla 91, con utilidades superiores a los US $ 286/ha y una relación beneficio/costo de 1,52 y 1,51, respectivamente.

  1. Uso de un vivero móvil para obtener patrones de virulencia de la roya del frijol común

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    James Steadman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de identificar nuevas fuentes de resistencia a la roya, causada por Uromyces appendiculatus, es necesario saber si las variedades con nuevos genes conservarán su resistencia cuando sean sembradas en diferentes regiones de producción. Para ello, se pueden utilizar viveros móviles con líneas/variedades de frijol con diferentes genes de resistencia para obtener los patrones de virulencia del patógeno de la roya. El vivero contiene plantas de frijol con seis días después de la germinación. El vivero se coloca por dos a tres horas en un campo de frijol infectado con la roya, y luego se exponen a las plantas bajo neblina por un periodo de 15 horas dentro de un ambiente controlado, para un un período de incubación de ocho a diez días en una casa de malla. En las hojas primarias, se efectúan las lecturas del tamaño de la uredinia (pústulas. Se utilizan las reacciones para evaluar los patrones de virulencia y para predecir estrategias de uso de genes de resistencia. El vivero móvil economiza tiempo y dinero (10-12 días comparado con dos a cuatro meses para identificar patotipos de roya con inoculaciones en el invernadero y permite el conocimiento de los resultados durante el ciclo del cultivo del frijol. El concepto del vivero móvil podría ser especialmente útili en paí- ses donde hay una escasez de invernaderos y puede ser utilizado con otros sistemas de cultivos-patógenos.

  2. Avances del mejoramiento genético participativo del frijol en Cuba

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    Rodobaldo Ortiz-P\\u00E9rez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades de Fitomejoramiento Participativo fueron conducidas con agricultores del municipio de San Antonio de los Baños de la provincia La Habana y campesinos de la comunidad la Palma de la provincia de Pinar del Río durante 2001 al 2004. En la fase de diagnóstico en las áreas de intervención del proyecto, más del 80 % de los agricultores no utilizaban la semilla del sistema formal; por lo tanto, las variedades obtenidas por los programas de mejoramiento no llegaban a la mayoría de los agricultores. Se buscó un mecanismo alternativo para introducir diversidad genética a las localidades mediante las ferias de diversidad, cuyo objetivo principal ha estado dirigido a facilitar el flujo de semilla de los institutos de investigaciones hacia el agricultor y viceversa. Posterior al desarrollo de las ferias de diversidad se continúa con la experimentación campesina en fincas y cooperativas, desarrollándose una amplia red experimental difícil de lograrse sin la participación de los productores. La experimentación campesina, el aumento de la eficiencia en la finca, incluyendo el aumento del rendimiento de sus parcelas, el aumento de la diversidad por el uso de mayor número de variedades, y una mayor proporción de área dedicada a estas variedades; todo lo cual redunda en un mejoramiento de la vida del campesino y su familia

  3. Influence of double cropping on growth and yield of dry beans with colored plastic mulches Influencia del doble cultivo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol con cubierta plástica de colores

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    Luis Ibarra-Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the use of plastic mulches in vegetable production, but there is little documentation of their use with dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in single and double cropping. The objective of this study was to grow dry beans over two consecutive growing seasons using the same plastic mulch of different colors and examine the influence of soil temperature on growth and yield. The experiment was conducted in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, in the spring and summer of 2008. The treatments included four colored plastic mulches: white-on-black, black, silver-on-black, aluminum-on-black, and bare soil as a control. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. The percentage of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflected from the plastic tended to be highest with the white-on-black mulch and lowest with the black mulch. Mean soil temperature under the plastic mulch decreased with the increasing percentage of reflected PAR. Mean soil temperature exhibited a relationship of 98% and 99% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. Photosynthetically active radiation had a relationship of 98% and 86% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. The effect of the colored plastic mulch on yield was significant (p Existen numerosos estudios sobre el uso de cubierta plástica en la producción de hortalizas, sin embargo está muy poco documentado el cultivo simple o doble de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El objetivo de este estudio fue cultivar frijol en dos estaciones de crecimiento consecutivas usando la misma cubierta plástica de diferentes colores y examinar la influencia de la temperatura del suelo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol. El estudio fue conducido en Saltillo, Coahuila, México, en la primavera y verano de 2008. Se usaron cuatro colores de acolchado plástico: blanco-sobre-negro, negro, plata-sobre-negro, aluminio-sobre-negro, y control de

  4. Efecto de diferentes distancias de siembra sobre la producción de biomasa del frijol terciopelo (Stizolobium deeringianum en el departamento de Masaya

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    Roberto Tapia Morales

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo, evaluar en términos biológicos el efecto de diferentes distancias de siembra entre plantas sobre la producción de biomasa en base verde y seca del frijol terciopelo (Stizolobium deeringianum. Los resultados evidencian que las diferentes distancias de siembra, tuvieron efecto estadísticamente significativo en la producción de biomasa de frijol terciopelo en base verde y seca. Los valores de producción de biomasa más altos en cuanto a producción de biomasa corresponden a aquellos tratamientos Cuya distancias entre planta son iguales a 0.25 m y 0.50 m, obteniéndose 15.3 ton/ha y 12.3 ton/ha en base verde respectivamente y 2.43 ton/ha y 2.025 ton/ha en base seca respectivamente. En lo que respecta a la capacidad de rebrote se demostró que a una altura de corte inferior a 10 cm el frijol terciopelo no es eficiente, ya que en ninguno de los diferentes tratamientos una vez realizado el primer corte se encontraron plantas en estado de rebrote.

  5. Efecto de la labranza mínima y la convencional en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. En la región Huetar norte de Costa Rica

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    Luis Antonio Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica en donde se establecieron dos lotes: uno de labranza mínima (1,85 ha y otro de labranza convencional (2 ha. La siembra en ambos sistemas de labranza se realizó con una sembradora abonadora hidraúlica. La variedad sembrada fue la Brunca. La población de plantas de frijol evaluada durante la etapa vegetativa fue de 9,37 plantas/m lineal en labranza mínima, y de 9,55 plantas/m lineal en labranza convencional. La densidad de malezas fue mayor en labranza convencional y las malezas de mayor dominancia fueron Ri- chardia scabra, Rottboellia cochinchinensis y Spermacoce sp. El peso seco de malezas fue de 37,6 g de malezas/ cuadrí- cula de 0,25 m2 en labranza mínima, mientras que en el sistema de labranza convencional fue de 46,4 g de malezas/ cuadr ícula. La incidencia y severidad de mustia hilachosa (Tanatheporus cucumeris en el sistema de labranza mínima fue de un 42,8% y de 0,83, respectivamente, mientras que en labranza convencional fue de un 52,2% y 1,22, respectivamente. En el sistema de labranza mínima el rendimiento fue de 930 kg/ha, y en labranza convencional de 676 kg/ha.

  6. RENDIMIENTO, CALIDAD NUTRIMENTAL Y RENTABILIDAD DEL FRIJOL EJOTERO DE TEMPORAL EN SAN PABLO IXAYOC, MÉXICO

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    Nicolás Salinas-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las estrategias para elevar el rendimiento y la calidad nutricional en las regiones agrícolas es la búsqueda de cultivares con mayor adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar cultivares de frijol ejotero con base en su fenología, crecimiento, rendimiento, calidad nutricional y rentabilidad, en clima templado y condiciones de secano. Tres variedades de hábito de crecimiento determinado, ‘Opus’, ‘Strike’ y ‘Black Valentine’, y una de crecimiento indeterminado, ‘Hav-14’, fueron sembradas el 7 de mayo de 2008 en San Pablo Ixayoc, Estado de México, con densidad de 6.25 plantas·m -2 . Se encontraron diferencias en el ciclo biológico desde 90 a 199 días al último corte, así como en rendimiento y número de ejotes. Estas diferencias se relacionaron en mayor grado con la precipitación acumulada (PP, r = 0.83**, la evapotranspiración total del cultivo (ETc, r = 0.71* y unidades térmicas acumu - ladas (UC, r = 0.65*. La variedad Opus mostró el mayor porcentaje de minerales, fósforo, FDA, lignina, FDN y proteína. El ingreso neto más alto se obtuvo con ‘Opus’ y ‘Black Valentine’. No obstante, en un periodo de cinco años (vida media de la espaldera ‘Hav-14’ ofrece mayor ventaja desde el punto de vista económico. Estos resultados sugieren que ‘Hav-14’, ‘Opus’ y ‘Black Valentine’ serían los cultivares más apropiados para lograr mayor producción bajo condiciones de lluvia estacional en el clima templado de San Pablo Ixayoc.

  7. Mejoramiento genético del frijol rojo y negro mesoamericano para Centroamérica y El Caribe

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    Juan C. Rosas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de frijol en Centroamérica es llevada a cabo mayormente en laderas de suelos marginales, limitada por diversos factores bióticos y abióticos. Más de 350,000 t de este grano se producen en cerca de 0,5 millones de hectáreas, con rendimientos promedios de 678 kg/ha. La mayoría de los productores de frijol utilizan bajos insumos y muy pocas fincas están mecanizadas. El autoconsumo es alto; sin embargo, una alta proporción de este grano es comprado por intermediarios. En Honduras, el frijol es el sétimo cultivo en valor económico y es el de mayor rentabilidad entre el maíz, arroz y sorgo. Las dos clases comerciales más importantes en Centroamérica son el frijol rojo y negro pequeños (raza Mesoamérica. El mejoramiento de estos tipos de frijol se ha enfocado en el desarrollo de resistencia a enfermedades (mosaico común, mosaico dorado, antracnosis, mancha angular, roya, mustia hilachosa y bacteriosis común e insectos (principalmente picudo de la vaina; y tolerancia a baja fertilidad, sequía y calor. Programas adecuados de hibridación, evaluación y selección son usados para el desarrollo de cultivares con resistencia múltiple, alto rendimiento, buena adaptación y aceptación comercial. La ampliación de la base genética se obtiene usando fuentes de germoplasma Andino y Mesoamericano en la etapa de hibridación. La selección simultánea por varios caracteres y pruebas multilocalidades son utilizadas. Los viveros y ensayos de adaptación y rendimiento de líneas avanzadas son distribuídos a países de Centroamérica, México, y El Caribe. Las pruebas y validaciones en fincas y la liberación de variedades, son efectuadas por los programas nacionales de frijol de los países miembros de PROFRIJOL, en colaboración con el Zamorano, CIAT y el Bean/Cowpea CRSP

  8. Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano

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    Lourdes Mart\\u00EDnez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano. En los últimos años, el sub-sector de frijol en Centro América ha sido testigo de varios cambios dinámicos. Si no se encuentran medidas para incrementar la competitividad regional de este sub-sector, los países centroamericanos experimentarán impactos negativos en las áreas sociales y económicas de considerable magnitud, especialmente ahora que Centro América necesita ajustar su economía a los nuevos requerimientos de mercados mas abiertos, como el Tratado Centroamericano de Libre Comercio con USA (TLC. Vendedores de frijoles a nivel intermediario y de consumo final, así como técnicos de oficinas gubernamentales dedicadas al mercadeo de frijoles en Centro América fueron entrevistados para documentar los cambios experimentados, identificar los obstáculos que frenan la viabilidad del sub-sector e identificar las oportunidades de incremento de mercados en el futuro para los productores y vendedores de frijol. Los resultados muestran que para que continúen siendo competitivos, los países centroamericanos deben incrementar la productividad a través del apoyo a las investigaciones para el mejoramiento de variedades de frijol, especialmente aquellas que los consumidores prefieren por características específicas (e.g. color. También es imprescindible el fortalecimiento de los programas de distribución de variedades mejoradas a los productores; las mejoras en la transmisión de información de mercado a los productores; el fortalecimiento de los contactos entre productores, comercializadores a nivel mayorista y supermercados; y una política más específica de apertura de mercados de exportación, especialmente con los Estados Unidos.

  9. Evaluación de la fijación de nitrógeno por cepas de Rhizobium que nodulan Frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    María Inés Ballesteros

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de fijar nitrógeno de ocho cepas de Rhizohium fue evaluada incdiante dos ensayos de invernadero, en solución nutritiva, con cinco variedades de fríjol: ICA CITARA, ICA PIJAO, DIACOL CATIO, ANDINO y PVA 916. Se determinó en floración el peso seco de la parle aérea, peso seco de nodulos y nitrógeno total en la planta por el método de microkjeldahi. Las cepas de mejor comportamiento en cuanto a nitrógeno fijado fueron en su orden : CIAT 144, CIAT 899, y CIAT 2; aunque en general la respuesta de las cepas fue diferente con la variedad de Iríjol se logró un porcentaje promedio de nitrógeno fijado del orden del 28% comparado con los controles que recibieron nitrógeno combinado (Ensayo 2. Las cepas CIAT 71 15 y CIAT 632 presentaron la menor efectividad con las variedades ensayadas. Se encontró correlación altamente significativa entre el rendimiento en peso seco y el nitrógeno fijado para todas las variedades de fríjol.

  10. EFECTO DEL MOMENTO DE LA SIEMBRA DEL FRIJOL TERCIOPELO (MUCUNA SP. COMO CULTIVO DE COBERTERA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DE MAÃ?Z

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    José Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura milpera se practica desde hace casi tres milenios en el área maya mesoamericana. Se basa en el manejo de la vegetación con barbecho prolongado; y, el cultivo breve del maíz y sus acompañantes. Actualmente, debido a una mayor presión sobre los recursos, el barbecho se ha reducido, en consecuencia también el rendimiento de grano de maíz, atribuido a la disminución de la fertilidad y aumento de las arvenses. Los cultivos de cobertera contribuyen a resolver algunos de los problemas asociados a la milpa. Sin embargo, se conoce poco del funcionamiento de estas, en condiciones de baja precipitación y suelos permeables. Así, la fecha de siembra del frijol terciopelo (FT estas plantas juega un papel fundamental en el manejo de la biomasa y en el cultivo principal. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los tratamientos siguientes: 1 control, maíz sin FT, 2 siembra simultánea de FT con el maíz (0 DDSM, 3 siembra del FT 20 días después del maíz (20 DDSM, 4 siembra del FT 40 días después del maíz (40 DDSM y 5 siembra del FT 60 días después del maíz (60 DDSM. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de cuadrado latino 5 x 5 x 5, se registraron las variables siguientes: rendimiento de grano de maíz y sus componentes de rendimiento, contenidos de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio del suelo en la fase masosa del grano de maíz; y, contenidos de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio en el grano de maíz, vaina y grano del FT. La siembra simultánea y 20 DDSM del FT redujeron el rendimiento de grano del maíz en 59 y 25 %, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz se ajustó a la ecuación y=-0.5525X2+48.54X+606.3 (R2=0.96, mientras que el rastrojo a y=-0.648X2+65.632X+3989.7 (R2=0.99. El nitrógeno del suelo se redujo en la siembra simultánea (P

  11. Gestión de nuevos cultivares de frijol común en las condiciones de la UBPC “Santa Maria 4”

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    Juan Miguel Avila Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se real izó en la UBPC Santa Maria 4 perteneciente a la UEB Antonio Guiteras del municipio Puerto padre, provincia Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 28 de noviembre de 2012 hasta el 16 de febrero de 2013, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de siete cultivares de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. , en un suelo Pardo sialítico mullido carbonatado con vista a incrementar la biodiversidad y elevar el rendimiento agrícola de este cultivo. Los cultivares evaluados fueron (Velazco Largo, Colorado E-120, frijol Rayado, Rojo E-114, Frijol Crema Japones, Rojo E-130, frijol Blanco Español, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas, la fitotecnia aplicada fue la tradicional establecida para este cultivo, los aspectos evaluados fueron los siguientes, altura de las plantas, número de hojas, grosor del tallo, altura de la primera vaina, granos por vainas, peso de 100 granos, rendimiento agrícola, incidencia de las principales plagas y valoración económica de la producción. El cultivar que obtuvo mayor rendimiento fue el Velazco Largo y los de menor el Rojo E-114 y el Rayado, los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar que desde el punto de vista económico es factible la realización de estas siembras, pues se pueden obtener incrementos en el ingreso por ventas de $ 6242.90 – 20108.85 pesos por hectárea. En el experimento las condiciones edafoclimáticas fueron favorables en todo el ciclo del cultivo, no se registraron altos niveles de infestación de plagas y enfermedades.

  12. Adaptación del frijol a suelos de baja fertilidad bajo presión de enfermedades foliares en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Araya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar germoplasma y líneas mejoradas de alta productividad, en suelos de baja fertilidad y bajo presión de antracnosis y mancha angular. Durante 1996 y 1997 se evaluaron fuentes de tolerancia a la baja fertilidad de diversa procedencia geográfica y con resistencia para otros factores bióticos y abióticos. Se caracterizaron 562 genotipos, 251 mejorados y 311 criollos, en dos localidades de Costa Rica: Fraijanes (1750 msnm; 15,3 °C; 3025 mm; 10º09’ Latitud norte y 84°12’ Longitud oeste y Alajuela (840 msnm, 23,1 °C; 1966 mm; 10°01’ Latitud norte y 84° 16’ Longitud oeste. La densidad de siembra fue de 15 semillas por metro lineal y el tamaño de parcela varió con base en la disponibilidad de semilla; a la siembra sólo se adicionó inoculante de Rhizobium tropici al surco de siembra (4 kg/ha. La línea A321, el testigo local UCR 55, A483, G11640; G19696, G10843 y BAC50 mostraron alto rendimiento en las dos localidades. Los genotipos de alto rendimiento en una localidad fueron: en Alajuela: Guanajuato 132, Negro INIFAP, VAX 2, MAR 3 y en Fraijanes G13860, G92, MOC112, Bayo Alteño, J 117; Negro 8025 y A 247. Se identificó germoplasma no mejorado de diferente acervo genético, procedente de México, Perú y Guatemala, con tolerancia a suelos de baja fertilidad. Esto indica la importancia de evaluar material criollo y del intercambio de germoplasma entre países. Los genotipos superiores serán utilizados en el mejoramiento del frijol común para agricultura de bajo uso de insumos

  13. ENCUESTA A PRODUCTORES PARA ORIENTAR EL FITOMEJORAMIENTO DE FRIJOL EN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmalea Garver Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de producción empleados, los problemas de producción del cultivo y las características que deberían mejorarse en las nuevas variedades. Los principales problemas de producción reportados fueron los daños causados por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y brúquidos (Acanthoscelides obtectus. Los agricultores han cambiado recientemente las clases comerciales de frijol que tradicionalmente cultivaban en respuesta a la demanda del mercado. En cuanto a las características que deberían poseer las nuevas variedades de frijol, indicaron alto rendimiento y semilla de tamaño grande con color y forma comercial. La costumbre de los agricultores de comprar semilla para cada siembra, y no de producir su propia semilla, fue identifi cada como un obstáculo potencial para el uso y mantenimiento de las nuevas variedades mejoradas de frijol en el área estudiada.

  14. El proyecto "campana educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto “Campaña educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles”. Se describen las diferentes etapas que se siguen en el desarrollo de un proyecto denominado “Campaña educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles”. La Campaña tuvo como objetivo “incrementar el consumo de frijoles en la población urbana de clase media de Costa Rica” y contribuir a contrarrestar la disminución en el consumo de este alimento, que se ha presentado en forma muy marcada en el área urbana. El artículo pretende ofrecer una visión global del mencionado proyecto, de manera que le permita al lector la ubicación dentro del proceso, al mismo tiempo que lo refiere a los artículos específicos que ofrecen el detalle de las diferentes etapas y resultados. La metodología describe las características generales del abordaje que se utiliza y la forma en que se desarrolla cada una de las etapas. Los resultados sumarizan los hallazgos de la evaluación y otros aspectos globales del proyecto. Además, ofrece pautas para un abordaje de la educación nutricional focalizada alrededor de un alimento y sustentada en la realidad social y cultural de la población.

  15. Fuentes fosfóricas de diferente solubilidad para frijol común evaluadas por método isotópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Garc\\u00EDa Altunaga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se condujeronexperimentos en casa de cristales de la Estación ExperimentalLa Renée ubicada en la provincia Habana en el año 2003. Elobjetivo fue evaluar fuentes fosfóricas de diferente solubilidadpara frijol común (Phaseolus vulgarisL. utilizando dos sue-los, Acrisol y Ferralsol ródico, y la técnica de dilución isotópica con 32P. Las fuentes fosfóricas evaluadas fueron roca fosfórica (RF Trinidad de Guedes, RF parcialmente solubilizadaal 50 % con H2SO4(producto denominado comercialmenteFPA50 y superfosfato simple (SS en el Acrisol y superfosfato triple (SFT en el Ferralsol ródico. Los genotipos de frijol empleados en el Acrisol fueron BAT477, DOR 364, DOR390 y Censa, mientras que en el Ferralsol fueron BAT58, BAT477, DOR 364 y CC-25-9(N. Se evaluó producción de mate-ria seca y extracción de Py se determinó la fracción (% y cantidad de Pen planta derivado de los portadores y % de eficiencia de uso del fertilizante. La RF en aplicación directa fuepoco efectiva mientras que los superfosfatos y el FPA50 resultaron efectivos en ambos suelos. Hubo diferencia varietalen la respuesta vegetal y en la utilización del Pde las fuentes,que también dependió de las características del suelo.

  16. Análisis proteómico de la resistencia inducida por micorrización al patógeno foliar Sclerotinia sclerotiorum en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Zamora, Edalhí

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos años se han reportado diversos estudios sobre la resistencia inducida por micorrización al ataque de patógenos, en éstos se han determinado los cambios de expresión de genes y proteínas que ocurren en las raíces de plantas colonizadas por hongos micorrízicos arbusculares. Recientemente, se han iniciado estudios para entender cómo afecta esta interacción a la parte aérea de la planta. En nuestro grupo de investigación se llevó a cabo el estudio del efecto de la micorrizaci...

  17. APORTE DEL SISTEMA FORMAL EN SEMILLAS MEJORADAS DE GRANOS BÁSICOS Y CEREALES A LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA DE LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Ferro; E. Chirino; M. Márquez; H. Ríos; Odile Rodríguez; R. J. Valdés; A. A. Sarmiento

    2009-01-01

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en el municipio La Palma, Pinar del Río, con el objetivo de valorar el papel que ha jugado el sistema formal de producción y distribución de semillas mejoradas de granos principales: frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.), maíz (Zea mays, L.) y arroz (Oryza sativus, L.), en apoyo a la seguridad alimentaria de este municipio. Para ello, se analizaron los registros históricos de la entrada de semillas de estos granos a través de la granja urbana durante los últimos si...

  18. Variabilidad genética en razas locales de frijol común de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Linarez, Narcizo; Rosas Sotomayor, Juan Carlos; Ortiz Marcide, Jesus Maria; Martin Clemente, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Las regiones agroecológicas Centro-Oriental (Francisco Morazón y El Paraíso) y Nor-Oriental (Olancho) aportan el 52% de la producción de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) en Honduras. En el presente estudio se ha analizado la variabilidad genética en 59 razas locales colectadas en los tres departamentos de las dos regiones agroecológicas mencionadas, mediante cuatro loci microsatélites previamente descritos en P. vulgaris. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la existencia de una gran variabilid...

  19. BIOMASA Y RENDIMIENTO DE FRIJOL CON POTENCIAL EJOTERO EN UNICULTIVO Y ASOCIADO CON GIRASOL

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    J. Garduño-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la producción de biomasa, rendimiento y algunos de sus componentes de dos cultivares de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con potencial ejotero ('Acerado' y 'Criollo', en unicultivo y asociado con dos cultivares de girasol (Helianthus annuus L. ('Sunbright' y 'Victoria'. El estudio se realizó durante el ciclo primavera verano 2006 bajo condiciones de temporal en Tenancingo, Méx. Las variables evaluadas fueron: índice de área foliar (IAF, tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, biomasa total (BT, diámetro de vaina (DV, longitud de vaina (LV, número de vainas·m-2 (NV y rendimiento de vaina·m-2 (RV; las cuales fueron analizadas en arreglo factorial, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Para estimar el grado de asociación, entre las variables estudiadas y el rendimiento de vainas, se realizó un análisis de correlación lineal simple. En el factor cultivares se detectaron diferencias estadísticas significativas para la TAN y DV; para el factor sistemas de siembra hubo diferencias significativas para BT, DV, NV y RV. La interacción cultivares * sistema de siembra fue significativa en todas las variables, excepto en la TAN. En ese sentido, las asociaciones 'Criollo' + 'Sunbright', 'Acerado' + 'Victoria' y 'Acerado' en unicultivo, presentaron el mayor RV. Las variables IAF, BT y NV se correlacionaron positiva y significativamente con el rendimiento de vaina. Los resultados indican que 'Criollo' y 'Acerado', asociados con 'Sunbright' y 'Victoria', respectivamente, responden positivamente a la asociación, constituyendo una buena opción para los productores de la región de Tenancingo, México.

  20. Respuesta de frijol al Endospor 33® a dosis 50% de fertilizante nitrogenado/fosfatado en agricultura protegida

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    Juan Manuel Sanchez-Yañez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El frijol requiere fertilización nitrogenada y fosfatada (FNP, cuya indiscriminada aplicación causa pérdida de productividad del suelo, una alternativa de solución para este problema es reducir y optimizar la dosis de FNP con un inoculante mixto con bacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (BPCV y hongos micorricicos vesículo arbusculares (HMA. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la respuesta del frijol al inoculante mixto Endospor 33® a dosis reducida al 50% del FNP. En un suelo ferralítico rojo pobre de Nitrógeno (N y materia orgánica. Con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 5 tratamientos y 6 repeticiones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de germinación del frijol con Endospor 33® a la dosis 20 mg/semilla fue de 100%. A plántula con 10 mg/planta, tuvo 6,13g de peso fresco total (PFT y de 0,66g de peso seco total (PST comparado con el frijol control relativo (CR con 0,28g de PST con el 100% del FNP. A floración con 30 mg/planta Endospore 33® tuvo 1,5g de PST comparado con 1,07g de PST del frijol CR. A madurez fisiológica con 30mg/planta registro 34,83g/100 semillas, en contraste a su homologo CR con 20,39g/100 semillas. Lo anterior indica que este inoculante mixto es una opción en la producción del frijol a dosis reducida del FNP, sin afectar negativamente su crecimiento y/o rendimiento.

  1. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  2. Variación patogénica y fuentes de resistencia a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc & magn Scrib., patógeno de la antracnosis del frijol, en Colombia Variación patogénica y fuentes de resistencia a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc & Magn Scrib., patógeno de la antracnosis del fríjol, en Colombia

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    Cobo S. Felipe

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic variation studies with colombian isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc & Magn Scrib., the anthracnose bean pathogen, were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions at CIAT, Colombia. In addition, bean germplam with cormercial grain color was evaluated with the objective of identifying resistant varieties and sources of resistance to the existing variation. To this purpose, 17 isolates of C. lindemuthianum collected at the principal Colombian bean zones, were inoculated on 21 American and European differential bean varieties.En los laboratorios e invernaderos del programa de fitopatología de fríjol del CIAT, se estudió la variación patogénica de aislamientos colombianos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc& Magn Scrib. También se evaluó germoplasma de frijol con grano de color comercial con el objetivo de identificar líneas resistentes y fuentes de resistencia a la variación existente. Para este fin, 17 aislamientos de C.lindemuthianum, colectados en las principales zonas frijoleras colombianas se inocularon sobre 21 variedades diferenciales.

  3. OLEORRESINA DE JÍCAMA Y CALIDAD DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL INFESTADA CON Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

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    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l. Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2; C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2; C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1 y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de Junio, Ma - yocoba y veinte gorgojos adultos. El ensayo sólo comprendió semillas de frijol tratadas con C2 por 48 horas para evaluar vigor y germinación estándar a los tres y sie te días después de la siembra, bajo normas de IS TA. El aumento de C2 fue gradual en el número de plántulas normales y germinación estándar en el primer recuento, en particular con las diluciones 3 x 10-2 a 6 x 10-2; en el segundo recuento se confirmó la germinación estándar total con estas mismas diluciones. El frijol Ma yocoba en presencia del extracto de semilla de jícama, mantuvo el vigor y valores porcentuales aceptables de germinación estándar de la semilla.

  4. Rendimiento de dos variedades mejoradas de frijol, sembrados al voleo y al espeque, en Moss Pam, Waspam, rio Coco

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    Sankara Narvaez Ismael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available           Este articulo presenta el comportamiento agronómico del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en dos variedades:(DOR-364 y H-46, establecidos a través del análisis de dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque,  para medir la variable rendimiento. El experimento se realizó en la finca académica SNAKY/URACCAN, ubicada en la comunidad Moss Pam, en el municipio de Waspam río Coco, Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte (RAAN. El cultivo de frijol es de gran relevancia en la vida de las comunidades indígenas, ya que constituye al igual que el arroz, el grano de mayor importancia en la dieta familiar. Es de mencionar que las comunidades indígenas de la RAAN utilizan básicamente dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque; no obstante, siempre los rendimientos son bajos, por lo que se hace necesario el estudio con las condiciones descritas.    Se utilizó un diseño bifactorial en bloques completos al azar, en donde el factor A: equivale a las dos variedades de frijol (DOR-364 y H-46, y el factor B: dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque. La evaluación se hizo sobre las características morfométricas presentadas en la fase vegetativa y reproductiva del cultivo. El procesamiento de la información se hizo con el programa estadístico InfoStat, indagando desde el análisis del ANAVA y la prueba Kruskal-Wallis. Los resultados mostraron una alta viabilidad germinativa (95%, con diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos en las variables altura y diámetro en la etapa vegetativa. En la etapa reproductiva las variables: número de vainas/plantas y granos/vainas/plantas, fueron las que presentaron diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos, contrario a las variables número de flores/plantas y longitud de vainas/plantas que no mostraron diferencias. Finalmente el ANAVA con un 95 por ciento de confiabilidad encontró diferencias de medias en la variable rendimiento.Se recomienda el establecimiento de la variedad H-46

  5. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Elongación del hipocótilo en plantas de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris por tratamiento de embriones con mutágenos químicos y físicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Navarro Álvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants of common bean were selected with an elongated hipocotyle from M3 population produced through embryos treatment with EMS and gamma rays from Cobalt-60 source. The mutants with elongated hipocotyle were reproduced to know the inheritance of this character.

  7. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Samira eMafi Moghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6x to 5.1x coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2,687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  8. Detección por PCR de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum en cultivos y semillas de frijol en Antioquia, Colombia

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    Leonardo Martínez Pacheco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, agente causal de la antracnosis del frijol, es uno de los patógenos más limitantes en la producción de este cultivo. La detección y correcta identificación de este hongo resulta fundamental para el manejo de la enfermedad, siendo las pruebas moleculares alternativas rápidas y sensibles para este fin. Mediante la técnica de PCR se evaluaron cuatro juegos de cebadores (CY1/CY2, CD1/CD2, ClF4/ITS4 y ClF432/ClR533 para la detección de C. lindemuthianum a partir de tejidos foliares, de vainas y de semillas procedentes de cultivos de frijol de Antioquia, Colombia. Los resultados indicaron que el par CD1/CD2, dirigido al pseudogen de permeasa de hierro Ftr1, fue el más efectivo para detectar el hongo en tejidos y semillas de frijol, así como para identificar aislamientos en cultivos microbiológicos. Para los cebadores CY1/CY2, dirigidos a los ITS del rDNA, se recomienda un esquema de PCR-RFLPs con MseI (=Tru1I para la diferenciación con las especies C. orbiculare y C. trifolii. Estos cebadores generaron resultados consistentes cuando se utilizaron en combinación con ITS1 (ITS1/CY2 e ITS4 (CY1/ITS4. Finalmente, los cebadores ClF4/ITS4 resultaron en amplificaciones inespecíficas y ClF432/ClR533 en fragmentos de difícil resolución en electroforesis de agarosa. Este estudio servirá de apoyo para los programas de certificación de semilla y mejoramiento genético de frijol.

  9. EFECTO DEL TAMAÑO DE PARTICULA SOBRE, CONSUMO, DIGESTIBILIDAD Y BALANCE DEL NITRÓGENO EN OVINOS PELIBUEY ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS BASADAS EN FRIJOL TERCIOPELO (Mucuna pruriens Y GRANO DE MAIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Juventino Chay Canul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evaluó el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre: el consumo, conducta ingestiva, digestibilidad aparente, cinética digestiva y el balance del N en ovinos Pelibuey. Los tratamientos fueron tres tamaños de partícula en la dieta: pequeño (P, mediano (M y grande (G, obtenidos del molido a través de cribas de 3, 13 y 25 mm de diámetro respectivamente. Se utilizaron 12 ovinos de pelo machos enteros (20±3.3 kg PV, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar. El consumo de MS de las dietas fue similar (P>0.05 entre tratamientos (101 g/kgPV0.75/d. El tiempo de masticación total (consumo + rumia no fue afectado por el tamaño de partícula (P>0.05, aunque hubo tendencia a incrementarse (P=0.0522 al aumentar el tamaño de partícula (408, 532 y 562 min/d para P, M y G respectivamente. La digestibilidad de la MS fue mayor (P

  10. Desempeño del Phaseolus vulgaris bajo riego parcial cultivado en un sistema de respuesta hidrogravitrópica

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    Emil Cristhian Vega Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental area of the UNALM (Lima - Perú was evaluated on partial root - zone drying irrigation treatments (RPR300 and RPR500, ml and full irrigation (RC300 a nd RC500, ml control, the impact of xylem potential ( x and stomatal conductance (gs in common bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in systems (pots of hydrogravitropic response. A randomized complete block design with 12 plants/pots per trea tments was used in three replicates. To control the irrigation application and manage to maintain the x nonlethal conditions (< - 15 bars, a water - soil retention curve was generated. The values of gs before irrigation (between 217.18 and 268.67 mm m - 2 s - 1 showed that only RPR500 plants were maintained under optimal water conditions, despite low levels of x (between - 9.92 and - 7.33 bar; situation that could be attributed to the ability of the roots to balance those moments when half of these structures we re inside soil with low humidity, while the opposite half was favorable soil water level.

  11. Rendimiento de semilla y sus componentes en frijol bajo condiciones de acidez y sequía terminal en el sur de Veracruz.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Rivera, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la variabilidad en rendimiento de semilla y sus componentes, y producción de biomasa aérea en un grupo de variedades de frijol de color negro, nativas del sur de Veracruz y un grupo del tipo “Flor de Mayo”, introducidas del Altiplano, y la región central de México, en condiciones de acidez edáfica y sequía terminal en el Municipio de Juan Rodríguez Clara, Veracruz, en el ciclo otoño-invierno 2012-13. Se incluyeron ocho variedades comerciales liberadas por el INIFAP, un criollo de M...

  12. Mejora genética participativa de la variedad criolla de frijol "Sacapobres"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Araya-Villalobos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultores experimentadores de la Región Brunca de Costa Rica solicitaron en el año 1999, al Programa de Investigación y Transferencia de Tecnología Agropecuaria en frijol (PITTA Frijol, la mejora genética de la variedad criolla Sacapobres, una de las principales variedades criollas de la Región Brunca, que posee precocidad (60 días a cosecha, superando en más de diez días a la variedad mejorada más precoz y alto potencial de rendimiento en grano (no había podido ser sustituida por las variedades mejoradas en sus campos de producción, pero de alta emisión de guías y acame. En el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT y la Escuela Agrícola Panamericana Zamorano, se efectuaron hibridaciones con esta variedad criolla. La selección de los materiales segregantes se inició en los años 2000 y 2001, en Costa Rica y se basó en la metodología de fitomejoramiento participativo (FP. Los sitios de selección fueron fincas de agricultores y una estación experimental. El principal criterio empleado por los agricultores fue la arquitectura erecta (ausencia o poca emisión de guías y sin acame para facilitar el tránsito por el terreno en las labores de deshierba y fumigación, seguido del tipo, tamaño y color de grano e incidencia de patógenos. Se seleccionaron, en el año 2005, dos líneas promisorias, que pasarán a la etapa de validación. Se describe la estrategia de selección en FP, la genealogía de los progenitores empleados y se concluye sobre el futuro mejoramiento de Sacapobres

  13. Interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol

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    Marieta Marín Bruzos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron, mediante análisis de los parámetros fenológicos de las plantas, la interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol. Se emplearon cuatro tratamientos: plantas sin inocular (control, inoculadas con T. paurometabola C-924, inoculadas con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH e inoculadas con ambas cepas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.01 en los porcentajes de germinación de las plantas tratadas con microorganismos de forma independiente o conjunta con respecto al control sin inocular. Se determinó que la inoculación de T. paurometabola C-924 afectó el proceso de nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH. Sin embargo, esto no incidió de manera significativa en la altura de las plantas ni en el diámetro del tallo, ya que no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos para estos parámetros. Para el número de hojas, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924. Se concluyó que la interacción de T. paurometabola C-924 con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el frijol estimuló significativamente la germinación de las semillas y el número de hojas de las plantas con respecto al control sin inocular. Aunque la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924 no favoreció la nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH, esto no afectó las características fenológicas del cultivo.

  14. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... genetic base of this crop, especially for adaptation to extreme environments. The runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) in particular, has been shown to contribute to disease ...... Emerging disease problems: The case of.

  15. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... habit) and agronomic attributes (plant vigour, days to physiological maturity; DPM and days to 50% flowering; ... Days to flowering and to DPM ranged from 31-39 and 81-86, ...... evolution, and classification in Phaseolus. pp.

  16. MÓDULO DE ELASTICIDAD COMO CRITERIO DE REGULACIÓN HÍDRICA DEL FREJOL COMÚN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. BAJO REDUCCIONES CONTROLADAS DE RIEGO

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    Cristhian Vega Ponce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación consistió en estudiar el efecto de reducciones controladas de riego sobre el módulo de elasticidad (Ev en plantas de frejol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivadas en maceteros de respuesta hidrogravitrópica. Las plantas fueron sometidas a riego completo de raíces (RCR y riego parcial de raíces (RPR, donde el agua asignada de acuerdo a la curva de retención agua-suelo permitió controlar y configurar cuatro tratamientos (RPR300, RPR500, RCR300 y RCR500 o control. Se monitoreó el potencial hídrico xilemático (Mx de las hojas, para luego construir la curva presión-volumen (P-V y determinar Ev. Los resultados mostraron que los diferentes volúmenes de agua aplicados generaron importantes variaciones en los niveles de Ev; sin embargo, en los tratamientos configurados para llevar el suelo a capacidad de campo (RPR500 y RCR500 fue donde se obtuvieron los mejores desempeños de Ev, efecto esperado principalmente antes de aplicar el riego a las plantas (15,63 y 15,34 MPA, respectivamente. Finalmente, aunque ambos tratamientos obtuvieron el mismo nivel de significancia de Ev, RPR500 se destacó sobre el tratamiento control, porque los volúmenes de agua reducidos, combinados con el mantenimiento de diferentes valores de humedad en el suelo explorado por las raíces, pudieron ser claves en el favorecimiento de un ajuste elástico.

  17. REACCIÓN DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL A LA INOCULACIÓN ARTIFICIAL DE Aphelenchoides besseyi, AGENTE CAUSAL DE LA FALSA MANCHA ANGULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Barrantes-Santamar\\u00EDa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Especímenes adultos y juveniles de A. besseyi provenientes de cultivo in vitro se inocularon sobre el follaje de plantas de frijol de las variedades Bribri, Huetar, Telire y Chirripó Rojo. Las edades de las plantas inoculadas en el invernadero fueron de diez, 20 y 30 días después de siembra (dds. Los bioensayos se realizaron en los invernaderos de la Escuela de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia-Costa Rica en el 2006. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la reacción de variedades de frijol al nematodo A. besseyi. Las variedades estudiadas mostraron similar nivel de resistencia al ataque del nematodo, de acuerdo a la escala de severidad utilizada; sin embargo, las variedades Huetar y Bribri mostraron menor severidad de infección y población de nematodos que las otras dos variedades. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad se desarrollaron en las hojas primarias. El período de incubación fue más corto a medida que las inoculaciones se realizaron en plantas de mayor edad. Igualmente, las hojas maduras fueron más susceptibles que las jóvenes a la infección del nematodo. El desarrollo de la enfermedad difi rió entre hojas primarias y trifoliadas y dependió de la disponibilidad de tejido foliar, la madurez del follaje y la producción de inóculo secundario.

  18. RESISTENCIA A SEQUÍA DE LINEAS Y VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL NEGRO TROPICAL

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    Ernesto Lopez Salinas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: clasificar genotipos de frijol negro por su tolerancia a sequía e identificar los de mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en condiciones de riego y sequía. Para ello, en invierno-primavera 2008 se condujeron dos experimentos en Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz; uno con riego todo el ciclo y el otro sin riego, a partir del inicio de floración. Se evaluaron nueve líneas, seis variedades y Criollo Arbolito (testigo local en diseño bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se cuantificó días a madurez fisiológica, producción de materia seca sin grano, vainas por planta, peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento de grano. Se hicieron análisis de varianza por condición de humedad y uno combinado. Como estimadores de eficiencia se utilizaron el índice de susceptibilidad a sequía (ISS y el índice de eficiencia relativa del rendimiento (IER. Con riego, Negro INIFAP, 82L-17-80, Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz, fueron los genotipos más productivos con más de 1,0 t ha-1. Con sequía sobresalieron los dos últimos genotipos, más la línea DOR 448, con rendimientos superiores a 400 kg ha-1. El rendimiento bajo sequía en promedio representó el 37,7% con respecto al de riego. Con ISS de 0,71, 0,85 y 0,87, las líneas DOR-448, NGO 17-99 e Icta Ju-97-1, respectivamente, fueron clasificadas como resistentes a sequía. Las variedades Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz con valores de IER de 1,67 y 1,47, mostraron la mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en ambas condiciones de humedad.

  19. Estadísticos vitales de Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en frijol e interacción con el parasitoide Amitus fuscipennis: Life history parameters and absence of hostparasitoid interaction with Amitus fuscipennis Bemisia tabaci biotype B in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Manzano Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los estadísticos vitales de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en condiciones de laboratorio (26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de HR en fríjol cultivar ICA-Pijao. Los valores promedios fueron: longevidad 34 ± 1.64 días, fecundidad de 211.4 ± 15.1 huevos/hembra y tasa de oviposición de 6.1 ± 0.28 huevos/día. La tasa neta reproductiva fue de 137.8. El tiempo generacional de 43.8 días y la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m de 0.125. Estos valores son coincidentes con los reportados en la literatura e indicaron la utilidad del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L ICA-Pijao para la multiplicación de B. tabaci. No se logró la reproducción de Amitus fuscipennis en B. tabaci. Estudios de comportamiento mostraron que el parasitoide permaneció solo 617.3 seg en promedio en foliolos infestados con la mosca blanca, la mayor parte del tiempo lo invirtió en caminar (46.4%, limpiarse el cuerpo (35.6% y permanecer quieta (16.7%. A. fuscipennis solo tocó una vez accidentalmente una ninfa de B. tabaci, pero no la examinó con las antenas ni la ovipositó. Los resultados indican que A. fuscipennis no es un enemigo natural potencial de B. tabaci biotipo B.Life-history parameters of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotipo B were determined at laboratory conditions at 26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de RH on bean ICA-Pijao. Mean longevity of the whitefly was 34 ± 1,64 days, mean total fecundity was 211,4 ± 15,1 eggs per female with a daily oviposition rate of 6,1 ± 0,28 eggs per day. Net reproduction rate was 137,8. Generation Time was 43,8 days and the intrinsic rate of population increase r m was 0,125. These values are according to previous ones reported and support usefulness of ICA-Pijao bean for B. tabaci rearing. It was not possible to rear Amitus fuscipennis from B. tabaci. Behaviour studies showed that the parasitoid stayed only average 617,3 s on whitefly infested leaflets. It invested most of the time walking (46

  20. Eficiencia de la fertilización convencional frente a la fertilización completa en habichuela, Phaseolus vulgaris L., en un suelo de Pradera, Valle del Cauca

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    Cantillo Stella H. de

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Performance of the snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with traditional fertilizations vs. technical fertilization. The experiment was made in the farm called "El Ancon" - Pradera, (Cauca, Valle, with 1100 mm of precipitation, 940 m.a.s.l. 73.5% R.H. and a temperature of 24°C. In order to get basic information, a completely randomized block design was installed with three replications and eight treatments (control, T-traditional, T-10B-Urea, T-10B-S ammonium, T-05B-Urea, T-05B-S.Anunonium, T-10B-U.SA, T-05B-U.SA. Variables measured were dry matter weight (DNV (at 15-30-45 leaf area (L.A (at 15-30-45 and production (50-70d. Treatments with best productions mean values were: T-I0B-Urea, T-IOB-U.SA, T10B-S. Anunonium, T-05B-S.Anunonium with 8067.0, 6928.4 and 6194.4/ha respe., all of them above the average of the trial. High investment T-traditional do not have a similar answer in relation to their productions, but the T-I0B-Urea treatment has a lower cost and rentability of 84.46%.

    En el ensayo se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y ocho tratamientos (dos dosis de Boro, dos fuentes y tres dosis de Nitrógenos y las combinaciones de estas, los cuales se basaron en una encuesta que se preparó para los agricultores de la zona y en los análisis del suelo, que en términos generales mostraron deficiencias de Boro y Nitrógeno. Las variables de respuesta fueron peso de materia seca, área foliar medidas a los 15-30-45 días y producción de la planta. Para peso de materia seca y área foliar en las diferentes épocas, el ANDEVA mostró diferencias significativas. Los tratamientos de mejor producción fueron T-10B-Urea, T-10B U. Samonio, T-10B-S. Amonio con promedios de 8067.0, 7139.8, 6928. 4 y 6194.4 g/ha respectivamente, siendo ellos superiores al promedio general del experimento (5604.5. A pesar de la alta inversión del T- convencional el cultivo no respondió a ella. El caso contrario sucedió con

  1. Efecto de la temperatura, el estrés hídrico y luminoso sobre la heterogeneidad del fotosistema II en cuatro variedades de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of temperature, water and light stress on PSII heterogeneity in four bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIERA GONZÁLEZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas superiores, requieren de mecanismos que permitan proteger a los centros fotosintéticos de daño oxidativo, particularmente en condiciones ambientales que determinen una absorción luminosa en exceso de su capacidad de utilización fotoquímica, como son las altas intensidades de luz, propiamente tal, restricción de agua y aumentos de temperatura. En el mediano y largo plazo los centros PSII tendrían la capacidad de modificar su localización y estructura, formando los centros PSII del tipo ß y los estados de transición, cuya variación no depende, exclusivamente, de la intensidad luminosa. En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de distintos estreses ambientales sobre la heterogeneidad del PSII, en cuatro cultivares de poroto: Arroz Tuscola (AT, Orfeo INIA (OI, Bayos Titán (BT y Hallado Dorado (HD. En plantas desarrolladas en cámaras de crecimiento, la proporción de centros PSIIß aumentó hasta en un 100 % en la medida que se incrementó la temperatura. Dicho efecto fue magnificado por el estrés hídrico, en estas plantas. En condiciones de campo, el estrés lumínico impuesto por la fijación de folíolos a la posición horizontal, aumentó aun más el efecto del estrés hídrico sobre la proporción de tales centros, desde un 27 %, en plantas regadas y hoja en posición normal, hasta un 63 % en plantas estresadas y hojas forzadas a la horizontalidad. En cuanto a los estados de transición, se observó, en plantas desarrolladas a 20 ºC en cámaras de crecimiento, un aumento de estos al someter sus hojas a 15 ºC. Así mismo, temperaturas de 25 a 35 ºC indujeron aumentos en los estados de transición. El estrés hídrico, en los cultivares AT y OI, aminoró la magnitud del efecto de la temperatura, al contrario de lo observado en BT. En el cultivar HD, no se distingue un efecto claro del estrés hídrico, sobre la formación de los estados de transición inducidos por cambios en la temperatura. Aún cuando existen

  2. Respuesta fotosintética de algunas variedades de maíz, frijol y café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anundo Polanía

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de caracterizar fotosintéticamente algunas variedades de maíz, frijol y café, se estudió el comportamiento de la rata de fotosíntesis neta, de la transpiración y de los diferentes tipos de resistencia foliar a ia difusión y fijación de CO2 en la hoja, frente a las variables temperatura, intensidad de luz y concentración de CO2 en el aire. La variedad de maíz ICA H 507 presentó un comportamiento típico de plantas C 4 con altas ratas de fotosíntesis neta, insaturación de luz y baja fotorespiración. El fríjol Dlacol Andino presentó bajas ratas de fotosíntesis, alta fotorespiración y saturación de luz a bajas Intensidades, características propias de plantas C3. Las dos varíedades de café, Típica y Caturra, presentaron bajas ratas de fotosíntesis, valores de fotorespiración cercanos a los del fríjol, comportamiento típico de plantas C3; no lo es su respuesta a la intensidad de luz, ya que se saturaron a intensidades más altas que las presentadas por plantas C3 reconocidas. Estas varíedades presentaron ratas de fotosíntesis mayores que las observadas por otros autores en plantas de café de más edad. Los resultados obtenidos brindan información útil acerca del comportamiento ecoflslológico de

  3. Variabilidad espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo y de la productividad del cultivo de fréjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigado bajo un sistema de siembra directa Spatial variability of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in re­lation to the productivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigated under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mestas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial del sue-lo con una producción de fréjol irrigado ba­jo un sistema de siembra directa, el objetivo fue evaluar la dependencia espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo relacio­nándolos con la variabilidad espacial de la producción del fréjol. Fue sembrada una parcela y demarcados 60 puntos muéstrales en una malla de 3 x 3 m. Fueron colectadas muestras sin disturbar para determinación de la densidad del suelo, en el campo se de­terminaron la resistencia del suelo a la pe­netración y la conductividad hidráulica satu­rada. La dependencia espacial fue evaluada por el método geoestatístico del krigeado puntual. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que las regresiones obtenidas entre mapas fueron significativas, siendo que la densidad del suelo y la resistencia del suelo a la pene­tración se correlacionaron negativamente con la producción y la conductividad hidráulica saturada se correlacionó positi­vamente.The spatial variability of a soil used for bean production under an irrigated no-tillage system was studied. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in relation to the spatial variability of the irri­gated bean yield. For that reason, 60 sam­pling points were planted and demarcated in a 3 x 3 m grid. Disturbed samples were col­lected for determining soil density. In the field, soil resistance to penetration and satu­rated hydraulic conductivity were deter­mined. The spatial dependence was ana­lyzed by geostatistics using punctual kriging. According to the results, it is possi­ble to observe that the obtained regressions among maps were significant; soil density and resistance to penetration were nega­tively related to the yield, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity was related positively.

  4. Compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés en respuesta a las dosis tóxicas y deficientes de Nitrógeno en frijol ejotero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un amplio rango de estreses ambientales, tales como baja temperatura, sequía, alcalinidad, salinidad, deficiencia y toxicidad de nutrientes son potencialmente dañinos para las plantas. El papel del nitrógeno como nutriente esencial y componente estructural de aminoácidos, proteínas, ácidos nucleicos y otros constituyentes esenciales para el desarrollo ha sido ampliamente documentado en varias especies debido a la importancia en los procesos de crecimiento y producción agrícola. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, existe escasa literatura del efecto de la deficiencia y toxicidad de nitrógeno sobre los compuestos osmoreguladores como indicadores de estrés en plantas. Por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés (prolina, glicinabetaina y colina en respuesta a las dosis tóxicas y deficientes de N en frijol ejotero desarrollado en cámara de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas y sistema hidropónico. Método: El nitrógeno fue aplicado a la solución nutritiva en la forma de NH4NO3 y en dosis crecientes: N1 = 1.5 mM, N2 = 3.0 mM, N3 = 6.0 mM, N4 = 12.0 mM, N5 = 18.0 mM y N6 = 24.0 mM de N. Los parámetros analizados fueron la acumulación de biomasa, la concentración de prolina, glicinabetaina y colina en hojas, raíces, semillas y vainas de frijol ejotero cv. Strike. Resultados: La aplicación de dosis deficientes y tóxicas de N afectó la producción de biomasa en frijol, siendo las dosis tóxicas las que afectaron más este parámetro. Por otro lado, resaltar que los osmoreguladores prolina, glicinabetaina y colina solamente se acumularon bajo condiciones de toxicidad de N (N6, sin embargo, en condiciones de estrés provocado por la deficiencia de N (N1 no se produce la acumulación de estos compuestos. Discusión o Conclusión: Los compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés solamente se acumulan bajo condiciones de toxicidad de N (N6, sin embargo en

  5. Diversidad de razas de colletotrichum lindemuthianum en Antioquía y evaluación de germoplasma de frijol crema-rojo por resistencia a antracnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E. Santana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar si la composición de razas en el Oriente de Antioquía se caracterizaron 15 aislamientos de C. lindemuthianum, usando 12 variedades diferenciales de frijol aceptadas internacionalmente. Se identificaron 11 razas, seis de las cuales (9, 131, 135, 139, 643, y 645 fueron caracterizadas por primera vez. Además, se evaluaron 49 genotipos procedentes de los bancos de germoplasma del CIAT y CORPOICA y cultivares de agricultor de municipios productores. Los genotipos fueron evaluados en campo y en invernadero con las razas más virulentas del patógeno (651 y 653 encontradas en Antioquía. Sólo cuatro genotipos (AND1084, SUG130, LAS106 y DiacolCatio mostraron resistencia a ambas razas. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como parentales para un plan de cruzas, con el fin de introducir genes de resistencia a variedades de importancia comercial que presenten susceptibilidad a la antracnosis.

  6. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande

  7. Prácticas de conservación de suelos en sistemas de cultivo maíz-frijol en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Claro A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos ensayos en segmentos de microcuencas en condiciones de producción de la Provincia de Pinar del Río: uno en Campo Hermoso y el otro en La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. En ambas localidades se rotó el frijol variedad Bat 304 y Tomeguin 93, seguidos de maíz asociado con Mucuna deeringianum y se establecieron bordes de desagüe protegidos con barreras vivas de Leucaena leucocephala y Gliricidia sepium. Las pérdidas de suelos se estimaron en piscinas de sedimentación y limnígrafos Valday en Campo Hermoso y en el caso de La Leña sólo se determinaron las variaciones de la pendiente y el espesor máximo de sedimentos (EMS al final de cada ciclo. El suelo fue un Ferralítico Cuarcítico (Ultisol, la fertilización se realizó de acuerdo a sus reservas, la preparación y labores culturales con tracción animal. Los resultados al cabo de cinco años mostraron una reducción en las pérdidas de suelos por debajo del umbral permisible (5 t/ha, aumento de la altura de las terrazas debido a los sedimentos acumulados, mayor disponibilidad de agua en la sección receptora, mayor cobertura en el período lluvioso, disminución del efecto erosivo de la lluvia, reciclaje de nutrimentos a través de los abonos verdes e incremento de los rendimientos respecto a las áreas donde no se realizaron prácticas de manejo. Se concluyó que el manejo integrado de los diferentes factores en laderas con pendientes mayores de 5%, es necesario para la conservación de suelos y agua

  8. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  9. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  10. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barrantes

    2008-09-01

    : 1023-1041. Epub 2008 September 30.Las poblaciones de plantas pueden experimentar extinción local, y al mismo tiempo, pueden surgir a sus alrededores nuevas poblaciones. Algunas especies pueden colonizar el mismo sitio en múltiples ocasiones. Aquí examinamos el impacto de la extinción local y recolonización en la estructura genética de poblaciones silvestres del frijol lima (Phaseolus lunatus en el valle Central de Costa Rica. Comparamos la diversidad genética de muestras tomadas en poblaciones, antes y después de la extinción, en 13 sitios, usando marcadores de microsatélite. Según los episodios de extinción durante los cinco años previos, clasificamos los sitios así: 1 poblaciones que han experimentado extinción por más de un año, y después han recolonizado (recolonizado, 2 poblaciones que no han experimentado extinción local (control, y 3 poblaciones que no han experimentado extinción local durante el estudio, pero fueron cortadas experimentalmente, simulando una extinción (experimental. Nuestros datos no mostraron una clara tendencia en la variación de las frecuencias alélicas, heterozigosidad, o número efectivo de alelos en y entre grupos de poblaciones. Los niveles de diferenciación genética entre muestras recolectadas en diferentes momentos en el mismo sitio fueron diferentes en los tres grupos de poblaciones. Los sitios recolonizados mostraron el mayor nivel de diferenciación genética (Fst = 0.2769, seguidos de los sitios control (Fst= 0.0576 y sitios experimentales (Fst= 0.0189. Obtuvimos resultados similares en la distancia genética Neis entre muestras (d i,j = 0.1786, 0.0400, y 0.0037, respectivamente. Los cambios genéticos en los frijoles lima dependen de la duración y frecuencia de los episodios de extinción local. Las poblaciones "control" no están en equilibrio. Las implicaciones de estos resultados para el establecimiento de estrategias de conservación de los recursos genéticos de habas se encuentran en discusión.

  11. Construcción de una genoteca de cDNA de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. para mapeo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca William M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A small cDNA library from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of about 1500 clones was constructed, to further saturate the bean RFLP linkage map. The primarily synthesized cDNAs were amplified by PCR using the adaptors as primers for amplification (Jepson et al., 1991. Inserts in the range of 500 bp were obtained. 93 clones were singled for further analysis. They showed a degree of repeatibility of around 61 %. Around 80% of the unique clones were single copy, and 20% were low copy sequences as expected from a cDNA library. Three pairs of parental bean lines were chosen for their agronomical traits, and evaluated for polymorphism, which was highest as revealed by digestion with EcoRV (77%, followed by DraI (73%, EcoRI (63% and HindIIl (60%. The highest polymorphism was observed between the pair DOR60 and APNI8, 71% for EcoRV and 57% for EcoRI, respectively. Two clones of the two groups with the most repeated clones were analyzed by slot blot hybridization against the other clones and ribosomal DNA, to understand the origin of the repetitions. Only one clone seemed to be of ribosomal origin, as confirmed by the patterns obtained by hybridization to bean genomic DNA digested with HaelIl, implying that the whole group to which it belonged was of ribosomal origin.  It can be explained by the combined utilization of the PCR amplification methodology and the multipleprimers for the synthesis of the first cDNA strand.

    Se construyó una pequeña librería de cDNA de fríjol (phaseolus vulgaris L. de alrededor de 1500 clones, con el fin de incrementar la saturación del mapa de ligamiento de fríjol con marcadores de RFLPs. Para la generación de la librería se utilizó la técnica de amplificación por PCR (Jepson et al., 1991. En ella se utilizan como iniciadores para la reacción los mismos adaptadores empleados para generar los terminales cohesivos del cDNA. Se obtuvieron insertos con un promedio de 500 pares de bases. Se aislaron 93 clones, los

  12. Adaptación y rendimiento de la variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en el sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto L\\u00F3pez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo de 1994 a 1997 con el objetivo de evaluar la adaptación y rendimiento de la nueva variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en la región del Trópico Húmedo del sureste de México. Se condujeron diez ensayos de rendimiento, cinco en el estado de Veracruz, cuatro en Chiapas y uno en Guerrero. Los ensayos incluyeron 16 genotipos y se realizaron, de acuerdo a las facilidades disponibles en los sitios de prueba, bajo condiciones de humedad residual o de temporal. En las evaluaciones se utilizó un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con tres repeticiones. La variedad Negro Medellín resultó sobresaliente por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación, con respuesta superior en ambientes favorables y consistente (1226 kg/ha, bi >1,0, S2di = 0. Durante las evaluaciones, la variedad Negro Medellín resultó tolerante a las enfermedades: virus del mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaoisariopsis griseola y roya (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus, enfermedades de amplia distribución en la región tropical. Sin embargo, en una localidad de Veracruz Negro Medellín resultó susceptible a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Además, la variedad Negro Medellín se validó en parcelas comerciales en campos de agricultores en diez localidades del sureste de México, localidades con clima tropical. En éstas parcelas comerciales, Negro Medellín resultó superior en rendimiento a diversos testigos, variedades criollas y mejoradas, de un 10 a 25%, obteniendo un rendimiento promedio de 1300 kg/ha. La variedad Negro Medellín está en trámite para su registro como nueva variedad para las regiones productoras del sureste de México

  13. Resistencia a sequía terminal en frijol negro tropical Comportamiento de variedades de maíz normal y con alta calidad de proteína para la región Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Frahm

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de identificar cultivares de frijol negro tropical con resistencia a sequía y adaptación a la región Centroamericana, se diseñó un proyecto piloto colaborativo entre los programas de frijol de Zamorano, Honduras; Veracruz, México y la Universidad Estatal de Michigan (MSU; EE.UU, en el año 2002. Se desarrollaron dos poblaciones de líneas endog ámicas recombinantes (RILs derivadas de cruces entre la lí- nea resistente a sequía B98311 de MSU con TLP 19 y VAX 5, dos líneas mejoradas del CIAT con resistencia a enfermedades y adaptadas a las condiciones de América Central y México. Ambas poblaciones se evaluaron bajo riego y sequía terminal en Zamorano, Honduras y Veracruz, México. Los rendimientos se vieron reducidos por la sequía y por Macrophomina phaseolina, hongo causal de la pudrición carbonosa. El estrés por sequía, la presión de la enfermedad y los bajos rendimientos, contribuyeron a la obtención de altos coeficientes de variación, lo que hizo difícil la identificación y selecci ón de líneas superiores. La selección se basó en la posici ón de la media geométrica del rendimiento (MG calculada para cada línea con los datos de ambos tratamientos, riego y sequía. La línea L88-63 ocupó el primer lugar en la MG del rendimiento en ambas localidades. Evaluaciones posteriores conducidas en Honduras y Michigan, confirmaron el alto potencial de rendimiento y amplia adaptación de la línea L88- 63. El mejoramiento de la resistencia a la sequía en ambientes del trópico bajo, requiere la incorporación adicional de resistencia a M. phaseolina en las nuevas líneas consideradas para liberarse como nuevas variedades en esta región.

  14. Les hybridations interspecifiques dans le genre Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La réussite de l'introgression de caractères utiles chez le haricot commun P. vulgaris à partir des deux espèces P. coccineus et P. polyanthus dépend en partie des génotypes utilisés. Ce travail vise à identifier des génotypes de Phaseolus compatibles lors des hybridations interspécifiques et à identifier les hybrides issus ...

  15. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention was given to the

  16. The effects of wildfire on the peak streamflow magnitude and frequency, Frijoles and Capulin Canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In June of 1977, the La Mesa fire burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon, Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome fire occurred in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument, burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both canyons are characterized by extensive archeological artifacts, which could be threatened by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion after a wildfire. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the fires' effects on streamflow in both canyons. Copyright 2004 ASCE.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN PRELIMINAR CON MICROSATÉLITES DE LA COLECCIÓN GUATEMALTECA DE FRIJOL COMÚN TREPADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Melina Ponciano-Samayoa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar con microsatélites una colección de 558 accesiones de frijol voluble guatemalteco. En el Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas (ICTA, en el periodo enero 2008 a junio 2009, con base en seis marcadores microsatélites, se analizaron agrupamientos y diversidad genética dentro de los grupos de frijol. Todos los loci analizados fueron polimórficos, se detectaron 25 alelos con un promedio de 4,12 alelos por marcador. El análisis de similaridad detectó genotipos duplicados que al ser eliminados dio lugar a una colección reducida de 261 muestras diferentes (46,8 % de la original. Los análisis de similaridad y correspondencia identificaron 12 grupos, incluyendo un control andino. La diversidad genética de Nei para la colección reducida fue 0,4310, y la diferenciación genética (Gst de 0,5747. La diversidad genética entre los grupos (57,5 % fue mayor que la detectada dentro de los grupos (42,5 %. Las distancias genéticas entre grupos se calcularon en un rango de 0.1566 a 1,6205. Un alto nivel de heterocigosidad fue observado.

  18. Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo durante los ciclos agrícolas de 1999-2000 y 2000-2001; se evaluó la adaptación y rendimiento de 15 líneas avanzadas de frijol negro, así como un testigo local. Dichos genotipos forman parte al Ensayo Centroamericano de Adaptación y Rendimiento (ECAR. La evaluación se realizó en 11 localidades, cinco en el estado de Chiapas y seis en Veracruz, los experimentos se establecieron bajo condiciones de riego, temporal y humedad residual. Las líneas ICTA-Ju 97-1, ICTA-Ju II- 307, DOR-678 y Cut-45, resultaron sobresalientes por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación y estabilidad. En el ciclo agrícola de otoño-invierno 1999-2000, se evaluó la respuesta de las líneas a las siguientes enfermedades: mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaseoisariopsis griseola, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Las líneas que resultaron tolerantes fueron ICTA Ju 97-1 y Cut-45. Ambas serán validadas en campos de agricultores para su posible liberación como nuevas variedades para algunas regiones productoras de Veracruz y Chiapas, México

  19. Evaluación agronómica de líneas avanzadas de fríjol voluble Phaseolus vulgaris L. en Paipa, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Katherine Ríos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En Boyacá la oferta de germoplasma de frijol mejorado es baja. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de 18 líneas avanzadas volubles de frijol, procedentes del CIAT. Se utilizó el diseño bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones, incluyendo Bola Roja, Bolívar y Cargamanto como testigos. Se evaluó días a floración, vigor de crecimiento, días a madurez, incidencia de enfermedades, número de vainas/planta, número de granos/vaina, peso de 100 granos y rendimiento. Los genotipos MAC27, MAC13, MBC26, MBC28 y MBC37 no se diferenciaron del Cargamanto pero sí mostraron ser más precoces que Bola Roja y Bolívar. En días a madurez MAC27 y MBC39 fueron más tempranos que los testigos. Todos los genotipos se comportaron como resistentes a enfermedades, excepto MBC30 que resultó susceptible a Uromyces phaseoli y MBC33 a Phoma exigua. En número de vainas por planta, número de granos por vaina, peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento se destacaron MAC27 y LAS399, sin diferencia significativa frente a Cargamanto pero si superando a Bola Roja y Bolívar. Pese al efecto de las heladas en la fase final del ciclo, LAS399, MAC27 y Cargamanto produjeron rendimientos de 1300, 1038 y 950 kg/ha, respectivamente, mostrando las ventajas de su precocidad, en comparación a Bola Roja y Bolívar que son tardíos. Se concluye que LAS399 y MAC27, por su alta precocidad y resistencia a patógenos, son las líneas más promisorias para continuar la evaluación respecto a la posibilidad de ampliar la oferta de germoplasma de frijol voluble en Boyacá.

  20. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  1. Galactooligosaccharides of seeds during growth of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative changes of raffinose and stachyose in seeds of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. during their growth and maturation in a two year experiment were investigated. Trace amounts of raffinose were found in Ph. vulgaris seeds during their vegeta tive growth in 1990. Time of raffinose accumulation in seeds in 1991 began not earlier than on 33rd day since inflorescence. Stachyose started to accumulate in seeds between 33rd and 47th day after inflorescence of all tested cultivars. It was noticed that stachyose and raffinose contents in seeds of most tested cultivars after ten years of storage did not differ significantly when compared to not stored ones.

  2. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Key words: Genetic diversity, ISSR, Phaseolus vulgaris. INTRODUCTION ..... effective germplasm conservation and for setting germ- plasm collection ... conservation and research programs of the species. Furthermore, the ...

  3. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  4. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  5. Control biológico del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli en fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante la acción combinada de Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp. Y Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avendaño Camila

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" /> Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens y una combinación de estos antagonistas fueron evaluados como biocontroladores de Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. Phaseoli en plantas de fríjol de la variedad ‘ICA Tundama’. El ensayo se estableció en una casa de malla del Programa nacional de manejo integrado de plagas (MIP de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica, en el Centro de Investigación Tibaitat

  6. Flatulence-causing galactooligosaccharides of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phaseolus coccineus beans were assayed for the presence of raffinose and stachyose in whole seeds and in the morphological parts of the seed: cotyledon, hypocotyl and hull. The quantitative composition of the galactooligosaccharides of Ph. coccineus was compared with Ph. vulgaris seeds. The major galactooligosaccharide of Ph. coccineus seeds is stachyose. Another galactooligosaccharide, verbascose, was present in Ph. coccineus seeds in very low amounts (0.04%. The highest concentrations of raffinose and stachyose were found in the hypocotyl, 1.11% and 7.48%, respectively. The hull contained the lowest quantities of stachyose and only traces of raffinose.

  7. Radiation induced mutations in Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rubeai, M.A.F.

    1982-01-01

    A selection of various macro- and micro-mutations was undertaken in the M2 generation of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars after seed exposure to acute gamma radiation doses of 2.5, 5, 7, 10 and 15 Kr. The chlorophyll mutation was positively correlated with dose. Nevertheless, the highest frequency was at 7 Kr. Several interesting morphological mutants were observed. There were dwarf, stiff stem, shiny small leaf, narrow leaf and green giant mutants. Two selected micromutants were superior in seed yield capacity to their parents. The high yields were related to the high number of pods per plant. In 'The Prince' (seed color: red with beige marbling) several mutants with seeds of black color marbled with beige were selected. These seeds gave M3 segregants exhibiting a range of seed colors including white. Many of these M3 plants were short, early flowering and highly sterile. The work demonstrated that the pigmentation character can readily be changed, and confirmed that the variability induced by radiation can be exploited to obtain desirable mutations. (Author) [pt

  8. AKTIVITAS ENZIM FITASE PADA PERKEMBANGAN KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study on the phytase enzyme activities on germination of Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L. The activities and stability of phytase enzyme were observed under influence of various incubation temperature (27°C, 37°C and 55"C, and incubation time (1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of the Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L in germinating for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that activities of phytase enzyme at the same temperature and incubation time are the same in Mung Beans seed germinating for 1 to 5 days. Phytase enzyme is one of the termostabile enzymes with optimal activities at high temperature.

  9. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  10. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  11. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  12. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  13. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  14. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... ... important processes in the root system will be discussed. Key words: Genetic transformation, Phaseolus vulgaris, Agrobacterium rhizogenes. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are important agricultural crops, especially for developing countries, where they provide proteins in vegetarian or meat-poor diets.

  15. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes ...

  16. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  17. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  18. Propuesta metodológica interdisciplinaria para el análisis de las relaciones comerciales presentes en el sector agrícola costarricense: el caso del subsector frijolero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Ávalos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El complejo entramado de relaciones de poder genera influencia directa en la construcción de políticas públicas agrícolas y en los procesos de intercambio comercial. En un sector tan sensible como el agrícola, cobra mayor relevancia el reconocimiento, identificación y análisis de las relaciones que se estructuran tanto a nivel sectorial como sub-sectorial. Esta disección es la que podría permitir el planteamiento de renovadas políticas públicas y de estrategias asertivas para el sector agrícola. El presente artículo es producto de una investigación científica denominada ?Dinámica de poder en la agrocadena costarricense de frijol: un estudio a partir del Sello de Apoyo al productor nacional de frijol?, la cual describe las relaciones existentes entre grupos económicos, comerciales y sociales dentro de la agrocadena del frijol. Particularmente este artículo realiza una propuesta metodológica para analizar las relaciones de poder en el sector agrícola, tomando como referencia la experiencia adquirida analizando el subsector frijolero costarricense.

  19. Inhibición de los contaminantes del tempeh de soya

    OpenAIRE

    Mejías, E.; Delgado, R.; Silveira, I.; Lafargue, D.; Cárdenas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes especias o condimentos sobre la calidad microbiológica del tempeh y la posible acción inhibidora de sus contaminantes. El tempeh se obtuvo a partir de frijol de soya el cual se sometió a los procesos de cocción, escurrimiento y fermentación. A continuación se procedió a incorporar los condimentos ensayados en dos proporciones por separado a la soya fresca antes de su inoculación con la cepa R. oligosporus, se mezclaron bien y se someti...

  20. Beans (Phaseolus ssp.) as a Model for Understanding Crop Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Bellucci, Elisa; Rodriguez, Monica; Murgia, Maria L.; Gioia, Tania; Santo, Debora; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most significant outcomes in the literature regarding the origin of Phaseolus genus, the geographical distribution of the wild species, the domestication process, and the wide spread out of the centers of origin. Phaseolus can be considered as a unique model for the study of crop evolution, and in particular, for an understanding of the convergent phenotypic evolution that occurred under domestication. The almost unique situation that characterizes the Phaseolus genus is that five of its ∼70 species have been domesticated (i.e., Phaseolus vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. dumosus, P. acutifolius, and P. lunatus), and in addition, for P. vulgaris and P. lunatus, the wild forms are distributed in both Mesoamerica and South America, where at least two independent and isolated episodes of domestication occurred. Thus, at least seven independent domestication events occurred, which provides the possibility to unravel the genetic basis of the domestication process not only among species of the same genus, but also between gene pools within the same species. Along with this, other interesting features makes Phaseolus crops very useful in the study of evolution, including: (i) their recent divergence, and the high level of collinearity and synteny among their genomes; (ii) their different breeding systems and life history traits, from annual and autogamous, to perennial and allogamous; and (iii) their adaptation to different environments, not only in their centers of origin, but also out of the Americas, following their introduction and wide spread through different countries. In particular for P. vulgaris this resulted in the breaking of the spatial isolation of the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, which allowed spontaneous hybridization, thus increasing of the possibility of novel genotypes and phenotypes. This knowledge that is associated to the genetic resources that have been conserved ex situ and in

  1. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  2. Channel and hillslope processes revisited in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Emmett, William W.; Leopold, Luna Bergere

    2005-01-01

    Detailed documentation of geomorphic changes in the landscape of more than a few years is rarely possible. Channel cross sections, channel profiles, sediment deposition behind dams, and hillslope-erosion plots, originally benchmarked within several watersheds outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, for a 1966 report that documented processes and rates of arid-region sediment production and deposition, were resurveyed in the mid-1990’s. Many of the original study sites were relocated and surveyed in the mid-1990’s to determine subsequent channel and hillslope changes and to determine whether trends of channel and hillslope aggradation and degradation that were evident in the 1950’s and 1960’s have continued. In general, the net change in channel geometry has been small over the last 30–40 years. The average change in cross-sectional area of 32 resurveyed cross sections was erosion of 0.27 square meter, which equates to a 4-percent increase in cross-sectional area. The average net change in thalweg elevation for 51 resurveyed cross sections was degradation of 0.04 meter. Unpublished data (1964–68) from the scour chains showed that 371 chains had an average scour of 0.14 ± 0.14 meter and that 372 chains showed an average fill of 0.13 + 0.11 meter. Scour, found in the original study (1958–64) to be proportional to the square root of discharge, was confirmed with the addition of unpublished data (1964–68). The observed channel changes have no consistent trend, compared either to results observed in the original 1966 study or to distance from the watershed divide. The conclusion drawn in the original study was that most channels were aggrading; the resurvey showed that aggradation did not continue.An increase in housing and population in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed since the 1950’s has led to more roads. Channel degradation is most noticeable at road crossings. The greatest degradation of the main channel Arroyo de los

  3. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  4. Growth and Physiological Responses of Phaseolus Species to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the changes on growth, photosynthesis, water relations, soluble carbohydrate, and ion accumulation, for two salt-tolerant and two salt-sensitive Phaseolus species grown under increasing salinity (0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl. After 20 days exposure to salt, biomass was reduced in all species to a similar extent (about 56%, with the effect of salinity on relative growth rate (RGR confined largely to the first week. RGR of salt-tolerant species was reduced by salinity due to leaf area ratio (LAR reduction rather than a decline in photosynthetic capacity, whereas unit leaf rate and LAR were the key factors in determining RGR on salt-sensitive species. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased gradually with salinity, showing significant reductions only in salt-sensitive species at the highest salt level. There was little difference between species in the effect of salinity on water relations, as indicated by their positive turgor. Osmotic adjustment occurred in all species and depended on higher K+, Na+, and Cl− accumulation. Despite some changes in soluble carbohydrate accumulation induced by salt stress, no consistent contributions in osmotic adjustment could be found in this study. Therefore, we suggest that tolerance to salt stress is largely unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation in Phaseolus species.

  5. Investigación de la biotransformación de Se en tejidos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X Investigación de la biotransformación de Se en tejidos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available   In this investigation, selenate toxicity was evaluated in three varieties of Phaseoulus vulgaris L.: Negro, Peruano, and Flor de Mayo, where this last was identified as the most resistant to selenate. In the Flor de Mayo variety, Se in plant tissues was quantified and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS analysis performed in order to determine the potential selenate biotransformation. Root and stem tissues accumulated up to 1 218 mg Se kg-1 and 101 mg Se kg-1, respectively. XAS results indicated that part of the selenate was biotransformed, as in plant tissues selenate as well as selanide forms were identified. According to these results, Flor de Mayo variety can be classified as a Se secondary accumulator. Also, selenate biotransformation was identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time selenate biotransformation using XAS in this plant species is reported.En este trabajo se evaluó la toxicidad del selenato en tres variedades de frijol (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.: Negro, Peruano y Flor de Mayo. La variedad Flor de Mayo se identificó como la más resistente por lo que en ella se cuantificó el selenio y se determinó la biotransformación del selenato mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X (EAX. La raíz y tallo de esta variedad acumularon hasta 1 218 mg Se kg-1 y 101 mg Se kg-1, respectivamente. Los resultados de EAX indicaron que parte del selenato se biotransformó en los tejidos de la planta, en donde se identificaron las formas selenato y selenuro. De acuerdo a estos resultados, esta variedad de P. vulgaris puede ser clasificada como una acumuladora secundaria de selenio; por otro lado se comprobó la biotransformación del selenato usando EAX lo cual, hasta donde sabemos, no ha sido previamente reportada en la literatura.

  6. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed

  7. Nutritional analyses for proteins and amino acids in beans (Phaseolus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical index is a good estimator of seed protein quality of Phaseolus beans. In order to estimate this value, a protein hydrolysis and amino acid quantification are realised. The problems inherent to these techniques are presented.

  8. Plant growth and laboratory atmosphere. [Phaseolus multiflorus Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, O

    1903-01-01

    The author observed that Phaseolus seedlings grown under glass bell jars which were closed off by water were two or three times as long as those seedlings which were grown under jars without the water closure. It was suspected that coal gas or other impurities were causing these results. Thus, experiments were performed to determine if indeed coal gas was affecting plant growth. Results indicated that coal gas has an inhibiting effect on the growth and length of the seedlings, but it also promotes the growth in thickness. Shortening and thickening was proportional to the concentration of the coal gas and the time of exposure. Mercury vapors were found to produce similar differences in height and thickness of seedlings as coal gas, but they are at the same time lethal to the plants.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  11. Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

    2001-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. trap id, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation. (author)

  12. Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro A. Alfonso

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas. En un suelo Ultisol de textura arenosa, fuertemente erosionado, de baja fertilidad en fósforo, materia orgánica y ácido, ubicado en la localidad de La Leña en la provincia de Pinar del Río, en la República de Cuba, se realizó durante el año 1996 un ensayo en dos segmentos de microcuencas, en las que se implementaron medidas de conservación de suelos consistentes en barreras vivas de Gliricidia sepium L. (primer segmento y Vetiveria zizanoide L. (segundo segmento complementadas con coberturas de maíz asociado con Mucuna d. y Canavalia e., como precedentes del frijol. Los resultados mostraron ligeros cambios de la pendiente intrabarreras con respecto al valor inicial (10 y 9%. Los valores de la biomasa seca total de las asociaciones fueron de 17 y 15 t/ha, la velocidad de cubrimiento a los 30 días fue mayor al 70%, la colonización radical profusa presentada por las asociaciones indican una mejora de la red poral del suelo, reflejándose en la tendencia positiva del estado interno de la estructura que evoluciona hacia un estado (G poroso. Los rendimientos de maíz fueron de 2900 y 2500 kg/ha y los de frijol de 1800 y 1630 kg/ha. Valores considerados elevados, si se tiene en cuenta el grado de deterioro de este suelo

  13. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  14. Purification and partial characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris seed aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminopeptidase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was measured using L-Leu-p-nitroanilide and the L-aminoacyl-ß-naphthylamides of Leu, Ala, Arg and Met. A single peak of aminopeptidase activity on Leu-ß-naphthylamide was eluted at 750 µS after gradient elution chromatography on DEAE-cellulose of the supernatant of a crude seed extract. The effluent containing enzyme activity was applied to a Superdex 200 column and only one peak of aminopeptidase activity was obtained. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10% presented only one protein band with molecular mass of 31 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions. The aminopeptidase has an optimum pH of 7.0 for activity on all substrates tested and the highest Vmax/KM ratio for L-Leu-ß-naphthylamide. The enzyme activity was increased 40% by 0.15 M NaCl, inhibited 94% by 2.0 mM Zn2+, inhibited 91% by sodium p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and inhibited 45% by 0.7 mM o-phenanthroline and 30 µM EDTA. Mercaptoethanol (3.3 mM, dithioerythritol (1.7 mM, Ala, Arg, Leu and Met (70 µM, p-nitroaniline (0.25 mM and ß-naphthylamine (0.53 mM had no effect on enzyme activity when assayed with 0.56 mM of substrate. Bestatin (20 µM inhibited 18% the enzyme activity. The aminopeptidase activity in the seeds decayed 50% after two months when stored at 4oC and room temperature. The enzyme is leucyl aminopeptidase metal- and thiol group-dependent.

  15. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  16. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  17. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  18. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  19. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  20. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  1. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grain...

  2. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  3. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  4. Cortical projection patterns of magnocellular basal nucleus subdivisions as revealed by anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Gaykema, R.P.A.; Traber, J.; Spencer Jr., D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper deals with a detailed analysis of cortical projections from the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN) and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the rat. The MBN and HDB were injected iontophoretically with the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

  5. Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunohistochemistry. A comparison between autoradiographic and lectin tracing of neuronal efferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The autoradiographic pattern of anterograde labeling as a result from injections with tritiated amino acids is compared to the labeling of efferents with Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin after lectin injections in the same nucleus visualized by immunohistochemical methods. This comparison is made

  6. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117

  7. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  8. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  9. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  10. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS INDUCED BY UV TREATMENT ON 5 ROMANIAN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. CULTIVARS, GROWN IN FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on the influence of the UV-B irradiation, at the level of hidric balance, methabolic activity, and in the content of minerals, polyphenols, pigments, nucleic acids, proteins, of five romanian cultivars: Diva, Star, Vera, Ami, Avans of Phaseolus vulgaris, sawn after germination in enreached UV-B environment in natural field condition.

  11. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  12. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  13. Comportamiento de variedades cubanas y venezolanas de frijol común, cultivados en condiciones de sequía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Suárez, Amalia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of common- bean productive zones, the potential yields are never reached. This is because common bean is cultivated under non favorable climatic conditions. The identification of varieties with good yields, under conditions of drought, is all a challenge. For that purpose, the aim of the present work was to evaluate productive cultivar's indicators of common bean, in conditions of drought, at the "Empresa Socialista Mixta Leguminosas del ALBA" at Urachiche's zone, Yaracuy's state, Venezuela. All used seeds were previously evaluated in conditions of experimental drought, and the more tolerant candidates were detected. An in-bloc at random design with three repetitions was used, and planting was made in three rows of 7 m in length x 0.80 m in width, with a density of 357 seeds per variety, for repetition. The average weight per plot of land, average number of pods per plants, average number of seeds per pod, and the weight of one hundred seeds were determined upon harvest. The statistical analysis was carried out using InfoStat version 2011. Among the Venezuelan evaluated genotypes, Gen 13, Gen 15 and Tacarigua stand out for their yields. Among the Cuban selected cultivars, Bolita 42 and BAT 304 showed the best results.

  14. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

  15. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  16. Collection, Characterization and Use of Genetic Bariation in Chilean Bean Germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bascur B., Gabriel; Tay U., Juan

    2005-01-01

    Recently performed studies on the type of seed protein present from several origins and their morphological traits have shown that the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is native to America, being a species without a specific center of origin and with two areas of domestication: Central America and South America. In this last center, three strains were determined, one of them is called "the Chilean strain", which as noted is a sub-center of genetic diversity for this species. With the purpo...

  17. Evaluation of gamma radiation (60-Co) induced mutation in two Phaseolus vulgaris varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (Jutiapan and San Martin) were irradiated at 0, 8, 15, 20 and 30 kR doses in a 60-cobalt gamma source, to identify mutants and 20% lethality. M 2 plants showing morphogical mutations were selected. Differences in sensitivity to irradiation of the two varieties were noted, using data and physiological effects of M 1 . Selection and analysis for protein content were in M 3 as well as hereditary changes. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Strategies for improving the nutritional quality of Phaseolus beans through gene engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Phaseolus species are still difficult to transform, progress in this field now opens the way to engineering beans with a higher nutritional value. The opportunities for gene engineering in nutritional quality improvement, the strategies which canbe adopted and the constraints we are still facing are briefly outlined, using the enhancement of the seed methionine content and the reduction in antinutritional factors as examples.

  19. Failure of survival strategies in adaption of heavy metal environment in lens culinaris and phaseolus mungo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.; Azmat, R.

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb)-treated Lens culinaris and Phaseolus mungo seedlings leaves showed considerable reduction in the size with enhance proline and phenol contents while peroxidase and lignin activity was Pb/sup 2+/ dose dependent. The reduced leaves sizes of both seedlings were correlated with an increase in Pb/sup 2+/levels, and activities of peroxidase and lignin deposition in it. The intensification of activities of peroxidase and phenol in the Pb/sup 2+/ treated plants were accompanied by an increase in the biosynthesis of the lignin contents as their function is of scavenging ROS radical. A strong correlation (r/sup 2/=0.8570) was observed between Pb/sup 2+/ and lignin deposition in the Lens culinaris whereas it was non-significant in Phaseolus mungo (r/sup 2/=0.466). Increased in the lignin contents in the Lens culinaris as a chemical adaptation of the cell walls of various leaves tissues for endurance while decrease in the lignin contents in Phaseolus mungo at high dose of Pb/sup 2+/ may be attributed with the decline in the peroxidase activity. Investigations revealed that although plants adopt several biochemical strategies for their survival but toxicity of Pb/sup 2+/was significant due to which plant fails to continue in stay alive. (author)

  20. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  1. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  2. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Phaseolus trilobus, Ait on bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursule, R A; Patil, S D

    2010-06-16

    Phaseolus trilobus Ait (Fabaceae) is extensively used by tribal people of Nandurbar district (Maharashtra, India) in the treatment of Jaundice and other liver disorders. of the present study was to assess the medicinal claim of Phaseolus trilobus as hepatoprotective and antioxidant. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Phaseolus trilobus was evaluated by bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis and antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo antioxidant models viz anti-lipid peroxidation assay, super oxide radical scavenging assay and glutathione estimation in liver. Liver function tests were carried out to detect hepatoprotective activity, which was further supported by histopathological examination. Methanol and aqueous extracts of Phaseolus trilobus reduced elevated level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and hydroxyproline significantly (pWistar rats, proving hepatoprotective activity comparable with Silymarin. Both the extracts were found to reduce the elevated levels of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and elevate superoxide scavenging radical activity proving antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid. The reduced level of glutathione was found to be elevated in liver proving antioxidant activity comparable with Silymarin. Phaseolus trilobus posses hepatoprotective property and is effective in oxidative stress induced cholestatic hepatic injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manejo y aprovechamiento de la agrobiodiversidad en el sistema milpa del sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Mateos-Maces

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se describió y clasificó la agrobiodiversidad del sistema milpa en la región tropical de San Felipe Usila, Oaxaca, México, a partir de la percepción de agricultores sobre la diversidad fenotípica y usos de la variabilidad intraespecífica y biodiversidad recolectada a nivel de parcela. Bajo un enfoque de agroecosistemas, se obtuvo información de tres sistemas de producción, denominados: laderas pedregosas (> 18° de pendiente, lomeríos irregulares y pedregosos con pendientes entre 6 y 18°, y terrenos planos (< 6° de zonas ribereñas. Así, con el objetivo de registrar la percepción de diversidad y usos de la agrobiodiversidad, se aplicaron entrevistas a 200 agricultores de once comunidades indígenas Chinantecas de San Felipe Usila, mediante un cuestionario semiestructurado. En el análisis de ji-cuadrada, se determinaron relaciones significativas (P < 0.05 entre agroecosistemas y variantes fenotípicas de frijol y maíz, cultivos intercalados, regímenes de humedad para la siembra, superficie sembrada y fechas de siembra, de floración y cosecha de maíz. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple, se distinguen patrones de diversidad, uso y manejo en relación a regiones geográfico-culturales de localización de los agroecosistemas y parcelas. En las parcelas de producción se siembran, cultivan y recolectan hasta 26 especies, las principales son: maíz (cinco variantes fenotípicas, frijol (21 variedades y poblaciones nativas, calabaza (cuatro variantes y yuca (tres variantes. También fue notorio el alto uso de pesticidas y fertilizantes químicos, hasta 22 productos diferentes.

  4. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Álvarez-Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1 frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens, 2 frijol arroz (Vigna umbellata, 3 frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y 4 testigo sin leguminosa. Se midió la producción de biomasa y el contenido de N, en las leguminosas y el maíz. Se hizo un balance parcial de N, que consideró el suministro de N de la biomasa de leguminosas y la extracción de N en la cosecha del maíz. La producción de biomasa seca de las leguminosas en la cosecha fue significativamente (p≤0,05 mayor en asociación con los frijoles arroz y nescafé (1290 y 1139 kg.ha-1 que en frijol común (470 kg.ha-1, con un contenido total de 35,4; 25,7 y 8,9 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz fue 2390,5 kg.ha-1; se identificó que la extracción de N fue mayor en el grano, seguido de rastrojo, raíz, bráctea y olote, con 20,9; 9,4; 7,2; 2,0 y 1,5 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El balance parcial de N mostró valores positivos con los frijoles arroz y nescafé, lo que indica su importancia para compensar la extracción de N del grano o de la mazorca del maíz.

  5. Utilisation de la PCR-RFLP sur de l'ADN chloro-plastique pour l'étude des relations phylogénétiques au sein du genre Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among 74 accessions belonging to six species of Phaseolus are investigated using variation in chloroplast DNA assessed according to a PCR-RFLP protocol. Three fragments of chloroplast DNA are amplified using universal primers, and then digested with 10 restriction enzymes. Thirty-six haplotypes are identified on the basis of the polymorphism in fragment number and size. Three main phylogenetic groups, strongly supported through bootstrap analysis, are identified: (1 accessions from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus xolocotzii; (2 accessions from Phaseolus glabellus; (3 accessions from Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus polyanthus and Phaseolus coccineus. Within the third group, accessions of Phaseolus coccineus are scattered along the phylogenetic tree, which provides some evidence that coccineus accessions are paraphyletic with respect to Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus polyanthus. An analysis of molecular variance applied on four species show that they are significantly differentiated with 79% of molecular variance among species and 21% within species. The results agree with previous investigations on chloroplast DNA variation in the genus Phaseolus, and suggest that PCRRFLP methods, which are technically less labour-intensive than previous methods, are of great value for phylogenetic investigations at the generic level.

  6. Physiological traits of endornavirus-infected and endornavirus-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv Black Turtle Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, S; Valverde, R A

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content. However, the endornavirus-infected lines had faster seed germination, longer radicle, lower chlorophyll content, higher carotene content, longer pods, and higher weight of 100 seeds, all of which were statistically significant. The endornaviruses were not associated with visible pathogenic effects.

  7. Efecto de las condiciones de secado sobre el endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris pretratados con vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Mujica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris generado por el almacenamiento en condiciones de alta temperatura y humedad relativa representa una limitante importante para su consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de un tratamiento con vapor y luego secado a los granos de P. vulgaris recién cosechados en la prevención de su endurecimiento. Inicialmente, se construyeron las curvas de secado a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC. Seguidamente, los granos se trataron con vapor por 8 min 20 s y se sometieron a un proceso de secado, bajo un diseño central compuesto cuyos factores fueron la temperatura del aire (40 y 55 ºC y el tiempo de secado (4 y 8 h. La muestra secada de cada tratamiento se dividió en 3 lotes, el primero se analizó de inmediato y los otros se almacenaron por 5 semanas bajo 2 condiciones distintas 5 ºC/34 % HR y 37 ºC/75 % HR. Las determinaciones realizadas fueron humedad, capacidad de imbibición, tiempo de cocción y actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. El tiempo de secado fue de 6,5; 5 y 2,5 h a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente, para alcanzar una humedad de 13 % (b.s.. El coeficiente de difusión resultó igual a 3,40x10-9; 3,52x10-9 y 3,87x10-9 m2/s, a 40, 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente. El valor de la energía de activación fue de 7,33 kJ/mol. La aplicación de vapor y posterior secado de los granos no previno su endurecimiento, y este no dependió de la actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. Por lo que se puede inferir que los compuestos fenólicos y la enzima peroxidasa no son los únicos implicados en el mecanismo de endurecimiento de los granos de P. vulgaris.

  8. Influence of 60Co gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and beams Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes Rego, A.F. de; Rodrigues, Z.A.; Oliveira, M.L. de; Santana, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh, 1833) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) and the beans Phaseolus vulgaris (L.). The effects of 60 CO gamma radiation, 50 Gy, on both Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) seedbeans and adults of Zabrotes subfasciatus were studied using the no free choise method. Radiation decreased insect fertility hence insect population and it damage loss of weight and germination of seedbeans. However, radiation resulted in abnamal seedlings, showing various degrees of morphological malformation, although there was no effect on germination rates or seedling vigor. (Author) [pt

  9. Enzymatic changes in intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris following ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, H C; Weaver, G M

    1972-01-01

    Enzymatic changes in the intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seaway 65 were studied following ozone fumigation. It was found that peroxidase enzyme increased significantly with the ozone treatment in the first 48 h. Similarly, cellulase enzyme showed significant increase 48 h. following ozone treatment. Lactic dehydrogenase activity was not markedly affected by ozone treatment. Disc electrophoretic studies of peroxidase isoenzymes showed that ozone treatment induced a new band of peroxidase. The role of peroxidase, cellulase and lactic dehydrogenase enzymes is discussed in relation to ozone damage and the bronzing disorder in white beans. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. LMTR 3, a diazotrophic symbiont of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradyrhizobium sp. LMTR 3 is a representative strain of one of the geno(species of diazotrophic symbionts associated with Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru. Its 7.83 Mb genome was sequenced using the Illumina technology and found to encode a complete set of genes required for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and additional genes putatively involved in root colonization. Its draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXC00000000.

  11. Restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro Análise de restrição do DNA cloroplástico de Phaseolus vulgaris vr. Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Echeverrigaray

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro was isola ted from chloroplasts obtained by descontiuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. The restriction analysis with the enzymes HindIII, EcoRI and BamHI and their combination, allowed to identified more than 20 fragments of 18 to 0.65kb. The size of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cp DNA was estimated in 140kb with the presence of a repeat sequence of about 22kb.O DNA cloroplástico do cultivar Rio Negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi isolado a partir de cloroplastos obtidos por gradiente descontínuo de sacarose. A análise de restrição com as enzimas HindIII, EcoRI e BamHI e a combinação destas, permitiu a identificação de mais de 20 fragmentos na faixa de 18 a 0.65kb. O tamanho do cp DNA de Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi estimado em 140kb com a existência de sequências repetidas de aproximadamente 22kb.

  12. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  13. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  14. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Leeuwen, P. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets

  15. The interaction between endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme and PGIP from Phaseolus Vulgaris studied by surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, B; Cervone, F; Roepstorff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris. PG hydrolyses the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall and is considered an important pathogenicity factor of many fungi. PGIP is a specific inhibitor of fungal PGs and is thought to be involved in plant defence against phytopathogenic fungi. SPR was used either to study the effect...

  16. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...

  17. Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris Enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em cultura celular de Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto de Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the activity of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in extracts of cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Invertase pathway was identified in the three studied species. Sucrose synthase pathway was also responsible for sucrose metabolism in Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris cells. Activity values higher than 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein were found for acid and neutral invertases, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase in the cell extract of the three plant species. Sucrose synthase showed low activity in Bauhinia forficata cells. As sucrose concentration in the culture medium decreased, sucrose synthase activity increased in C. zedoaria and P. vulgaris cells. The glycolytic enzymes activity gradually reduced at the end of the culture period, when carbohydrate was limited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em culturas de célula em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. A via da invertase foi identificada nas três espécies estudadas. A via da sacarose sintase também foi responsável pelo metabolismo da sacarose em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Foram encontradas atividades maiores que 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 de proteína das enzimas invertase ácida e alcalina, UDPglicose pirofosforilase e fosfoglicomutase no extrato celular das três espécies de plantas. A sacarose sintase mostrou atividade baixa nas células de Bauhinia forficata. À medida que a concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura diminuiu, a atividade da sacarose sintase aumentou em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Ao final do período de cultura, quando os carboidratos se tornaram limitantes, as atividades das enzimas glicolíticas reduziram-se gradualmente.

  18. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  19. Chemical and biological studies on sweet biscuits produced from irradiated phaseolus beans flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of beans such as minerals, amino acids, total carbohydrates and fiber to produce high quality sweet biscuits for treating some special diseases. In this study, the Phaseolus beans flour was used as a new source of very important composition. Beans flour was irradiated at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 KGy) for preservation. Sweet biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10, 15% beans flour. All samples of sweet biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Biological assay was carried out in rats maintained on 15% either irradiated or non-irradiated beans flour sweet biscuits through determining the weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and investigating the internal organs. The results obtained showed that sweet biscuits containing 15% Phaseolus beans flour had highest content of protein, minerals and fiber and scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiated beans flour on the internal organs

  20. Phaseolus vulgaris Leuco-Agglutinin Tracing of Intrahypothalamic Connections of the Lateral, Ventromedial, Dorsomedial and Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nuclei in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Intrahypothalamic connections of the lateral (LHA), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei were studied with anterograde transport of iontophoretically injected Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and the immunocytochemical detection of labeled

  1. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections

  2. Sauvetage d'embryons chez les légumineuses alimentaires en général et dans le genre Phaseolus en particulier (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikissou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of embryos rescue in food legumes in general and in the genus Phaseolus in particular. Genetic improvement of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by interspecific hybridization with Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm., used as female parents, often gives rise to embryo abortion at globular developmental stage. In vitro culture of embryos at cotyledonary and torpedo shaped stages, leads to hybrid plants, but with very low percentages of success. Several investigations of in vitro culture in selfed genotypes of Phaseolus and from embryos at globular or young heart shaped stages have allowed to regenerate some young plantlets. However, problems of rooting and stopping of growth restrict the number of developing plantlets. Analysis of the results achieved from interspecific embryo rescue in others food legumes of the genus Lupinus, Cajanus, Cicer, Lens and Trifolium, helped to identify some solutions to resolve incompatibility problems in Phaseolus.

  3. del estado de Yucatán, México

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    G. Uribe-Valle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2006 en Yucatán se establecieron aproximadamente, 167,000 hectáreas con agricultura migratoria, en asociaciones de maíz con frijol, calabaza y hortalizas, en tierras con diferentes periodos de barbecho que son aprovechados por tres años. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento químico del suelo al evaluar tres coberturas y dos periodos de barbecho, así como también la fase de cultivo. Los tipos de cobertura vegetal: Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit. subespecie leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens y vegetación secundaria, con dos y cuatro años de barbecho, establecidos en un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinaron los contenidos nutrimentales en tres tiempos: 1998 después de dos años de establecidos los barbechos de cuatro años, 2001 al cumplirse los barbechos de dos y cuatro años e iniciar la fase de cultivo y 2004 a tres años de uso continuo del terreno. Al final de los periodos de barbecho Leucaena mejoró en mayor medida el contenido de K, Ca y Mg, mientras que Mucuna el NO3 y la vegetación secundaria la materia orgánica. El barbecho de dos años registró valores superiores en el contenido de materia orgánica, NO3 y K, al compararlo con el de cuatro años, que superó al de dos años en el contenido de Mg.

  4. BOOKLET TO INSTITUTO PEDAGOGICO NACIONAL TEACHERS ABOUT SYMBIOSIS AND PROCESSES ON BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE BIOFERTILIZER Rhizobium sp IN Phaseolus vulgaris WITH ALTERNATIVE TO SYMBIOSIS FOR Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Quevedo Rubiano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the thesis carried out in the research group of Biotechnology Teaching in Colombia, with the aim of providing teachers of Biology of Instituto Pedagogico Nacional a booklet that can strengthen the teaching of biotechnology processes using Rhizobium sp reduction of chemical fertilizers and symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris.   The booklet contains a proposal of practical activities that enable teachers of this institution to use spaces like the farm, enabling to teach biotechnology related to agronomy. Therefore, for this project was considered two Biological and Pedagogical approaches, the first is within the analytical empirical paradigm in the process of microbiological characterization of Rhizobium and their Biofertilizing ability in beans; and the teaching approach within the design of a booklet that includes the findings of this study as a contribution to the reduction of chemical fertilizers school farm. In order to have a complete analysis of the work it was subjected to quantitative and qualitative methods.   This biotech practice is included in the booklet showing in bioassays that bacteria has biofertilizer without inhibiting potential symbiosis, and that research and teaching biological concepts from scientific expertise can be promoted in Biology class for students to understand its context in a significant way, to be used in different levels of education; also it is a teaching strategy.

  5. Sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F' plants to Glufosinate ammonium herbicide in greenhouse

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    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding in Phaseolus by genetic transformation requires an efficient selection system. The present investigation was aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration of glufosinate-ammonium (Finale ® in beans plants cv. `CIAP 7247F' grown in greenhouse. Different concentrations of the herbicide were applied to the foliage of plants in acclimatization phase (20, 30 y 40 mg l-1 and the control. Results showed that the minimum lethal concentration in plants in acclimatization phase was 30 mg l-1. Results also demonstrated that is possible the use of the herbicide as a selective agent of beans transformants cv. `CIAP 7247F' carrying the bar gene. Keywords: genetic transformation, herbicide, selective agent, tissue culture

  6. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  7. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2010-01-01

    and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding...... the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron...... to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean...

  8. Development of 12 Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae and Amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Lei Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  9. Fractionation of gamma-emitting fission products absorbed by red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce that accumulated in the edible pods of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in nutrient culture were subjected to chemical fractionation. The results indicated that the largest fraction of 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 144 Ce was associated with ionic forms including salts of organic acids, phosphates, carbonates and some protein-bound forms extracted with dilute mineral acids (acid fraction). The association of these radionuclides with lipids including lipophyllic pigments, free amino acids and amino sugars (ethanol fraction) was next in significance. The association of 137 Cs was, however, greater with the ethanol fraction than with the acid fraction. Considerably reduced amounts of the fission products were present in the pectates, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. (U.K.)

  10. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

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    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  11. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

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    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  13. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  14. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

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    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  15. Novel vitamin E forms in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Phaseolus coccineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jerzy; Pisarski, Adam; Szymańska, Renata

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, we isolated novel tocochromanols from green leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and primary leaves of etiolated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus that were identified as β-, γ-, and δ-tocomonoenols with unsaturation at the terminal isoprene unit of the side chain. The content of γ-tocomonoenol in leaves of etiolated bean increased gradually with the age of seedlings, reaching 50% of the γ-tocopherol level in 40-day-old plants. The content of this compound in leaves was increased by short illumination of etiolated plants and by addition of homogentisic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of tocopherols. These data indicated that γ-tocomonoenol is synthesized de novo from homogentisic acid and tetrahydro-geranylgeraniol diphosphate, a phytol precursor. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway of tocomonoenols is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in flowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Marchezoni, S.A.; Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the 60 Co source in the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Sao Paulo University, for gamma-irradiation of plants in flower was shown by an experiment with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pots with two bean plants in flower, variety Carioca, line 6E 1 , were put individually in the center of the source. Doses used were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kR. The development of these plants after irradiation till harvest and seedling emergence of their progeny were observed. The effects of gamma-rays and the advantages of irradiation of plants in flower were discussed, and recommendable procedures for research workers who need to use the 60 Co source of the CENA are suggested. (Author) [pt

  18. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  19. Aplicação de óleo no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus e na germinação de Phaseolus vulgaris Oil aplication in the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus and in the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiene de F. C. de Queiroga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, estudar a qualidade de sementes de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tratadas com óleos vegetais de mamona, soja e oiticica, durante cinco meses de armazenamento. Mediante os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os óleos vegetais utilizados no tratamento das sementes de feijão Phaseolus foram eficientes na manutenção da viabilidade e no controle da infestação pelo inseto-praga de armazenamento Zabrotes subfasciatus, nos cinco meses de armazenamento, sendo o óleo de oiticica o que apresentou melhor média de germinação, frente às tratadas com óleo de mamona e soja. O óleo de oiticica também foi o mais eficiente no controle de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se, ainda, redução da eficiência dos óleos nas suas menores doses, sendo a dose de 4,5 mL para 500 g de sementes, a mais eficaz para todas as variáveis estudadas.The purpose of this work was to study the quality of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. treated with vegetable oils of castor, soybean and 'oiticica' during five months of storage. From the obtained results it was concluded that vegetable oils used in the treatment of seeds of Phaseolus beans were effective in maintaining the viability and control of storage insect pest infestation Zabrotes subfasciatus during the five months of storage, and the 'oiticica' oil presented the best mean germination, compared to those treated with castor oil and soybeans. 'Oiticica' oil was also the most efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Reduced efficiency of the oils was observed in the small doses and the dose of 4.5 mL for 500 g of seeds was the most effective for all variables.

  20. Inclusion bodies induced by bean rugose mosaic virus seen under light microscopy

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    Carmen Rivera

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of inclusion bodies were consistently observed under light microscopy in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris leaf tissue infected with bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV, a species of the genus Comovirus, family Comoviridae. One type consisted of vacuolated inclusions found mainly in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells. The other type consisted of abundant crystalloid inclusions of different sizes and shapes found consistently in glandular hairs, guard cells, phloem tissue, xylem elements and occasionally in epidermal and mesophyll tissues. The two types of inclusion bodies stained with Azure A and Luxol Brilliant Green Bl-Calcomine Orange 2RS (O-G, and were similar to those seen to be caused by other species of comoviruses.Se observaron dos tipos de inclusiones virales, mediante microscopia de luz, en hojas de plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris previamente infectadas con el virus del mosaico rugoso del frijol ("bean rugose mosaic comovirus", BRMV, especie del género Comovirus, familia Comoviridae. Se hallaron inclusiones vesiculadas, principalmente en el citoplasma de células de la epidermis, y abundantes inclusiones cristalinas de diferentes formas y tamaños siempre en células guarda, tricomas glandulares, floema, elementos del xilema y ocasionalmente en células epidérmicas y del mesófilo. Ambos tipos de inclusiones tiñeron con Azure A y con la tinción, verde naranja (Luxol Brilliant Green BL-Calcomine Orange 2 RS conocida como OG, y son similares a las inclusiones inducidas por otras especies del género Comovirus.

  1. Effects of Fertilization on Uptake of 85Sr, 60Co and 54Mn by Tomato and Phaseolus Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.; Ezz El-Din, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of N-, P-, and K- fertilizers on availability of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn added to the soil were measured in an open field experiment. The uptake of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn by tomato and phaseolus was lower in fertilized treatments than in unfertilized ones. The radionuclide availability under fertilized condition depends on soil and element properties. Solubilization of Ca-ions following nitrification of nitrogen in ammonium salts and the presence of stable Strontium, Cobalt and Manganese in the acidifying fertilizers are the main factors giving rise to the reduced radioisotopes uptake by plants. The relative order of uptake of the investigated radionuclides by plants appeared to be as follow 54 Mn> 60 Co> 85 Sr. The distribution pattern of the total absorbed radionuclides in the two plants shows that the shoots contained the highest percent of these radionuclides. Transfer factors for phaseolus plants were higher than those of tomato plants

  2. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  3. Temperatura óptima y etapa fenológica para determinar la termoestabilidad de la membrana celular en maíz y frijol

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Nava, S

    2013-01-01

    La necesidad de encontrar plantas tolerantes al calor obliga a buscar nuevas estrategias de medición de esta respuesta. La termoestabilidad de la membrana celular mediante la medición de la pérdida de electrolitos por daños ocasionados a la membrana es un criterio fisiológico de selección indirecto. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar adaptaciones al método original dependiendo de la especie. El objetivo del estudio fue probar tres niveles de temperatura en el método de termoestabilidad de la ...

  4. Local (gut) and systemic metabolism of rats is altered by consumption of raw bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L var athropurpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián, Santiago; de Moya, Carmen Cavallé; Grant, George; Frühbeck, Gema; Urdaneta, Elena; García, María; Marzo, Florencio

    2003-03-01

    The composition of the raw legume Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. athropurpurea (PhVa) and its effects on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated. The levels of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, fibre and bioactive factors present in PhVa were comparable with those in other Phaseolus vulgaris varieties. However, the lectins of PhVa were predominantly of the leucoagglutinating type, and concentrated in the albumin protein fraction. Rats fed a diet (110 g total protein, 16.0 MJ/kg) in which PhVa meal provided about half of the protein excreted high levels of N in faeces and urine, and grew more slowly, than rats fed a high-quality control diet (ad libitum or pair-fed). Small intestine, large intestine and pancreas weights were increased (by almost 100 %, PPhVa, which were concentrated in the albumin protein fraction, whereas in many other Phaseolus vulgaris lines they are distributed across the globulin and albumin fractions.

  5. Distribución e identificación de especies hospedantes de Heterodera glycines Ichinohe raza 3 en el Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varón de Agudelo Francia

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Se dividió la parte plana del Valle del Cauca en tres zonas (norte, centro y sur, habiéndose visitado 33 fincas. En la zona norte las malezas con mayor porcentaje de frecuencia y distribución en los cultivos de soya fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum y Leptochloa filiformis; en la zona centro Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius y Echinochloa colonum y en la zona sur predominaron Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus. Los análisis de muestras de suelo y raíces indicaron que H. glycines se encuentra distribuido en todo el Valle del Cauca, presentando la zona sur (Candelaria, Palmira y Puerto Tejada las mayores poblaciones. Entre las especies evaluadas (malezas, cultivos, leguminosas forrajeras y silvestres, solamente Glycine max y Phaseolus vulgaris se consideraron como susceptibles a H. glycines raza 3. y P. angularis y P. multiflora permitieron muy poca infección y multiplicación del nemátodo.A nematode recognition of Heterodera glycines was focused on crops of soybean. Valle del Cauca was divided in three zones (northen, central and southern and 33 farms were visited. The results of the analysis on samples of soils and roots showe that Heterodera glycines is scattered throughout Valle del Cauca, being the southern zone (Palmira, Candelaria and Puerto Tejada the one having the highest standards in nematode population. Weeds showing a greater frequency percentage were : Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum and Leptochloa filiformis, in the northen zone; Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius and Echinochloa colonum, in the central zone, and Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus, in the southern zone , From among the whole species evaluated (weeds, crops, leguminous a n d fodder plants, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were considered to be susceptible to H. Glycines race 3. Phaseolus angularis y P. multiflora let low population levels.

  6. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  7. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  8. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  9. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

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    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  10. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  11. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  12. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de

    1980-01-01

    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  13. CINÉTICA DE FEIJÃO PRETO (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L. EM SECADOR DE BANDEJA

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    Deyzi Santos Gouveia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propôs estudar a cinética de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, l. em secador de bandeja a diferentes temperaturas do ar e posterior ajuste dos dados experimentais, obtidos com os diferentes modelos matemáticos ( Fick, Page e Cavalcante Mata. O teor de umidade inicial das sementes foi determinado pelo método padrão da estufa, 105 ± 3 °C, durante 72 h, com três repetições, de acordo com as regras do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Os tratamentos de secagem foram realizados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (40, 50, 60 ,70 e 80 ºC. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 60 g de feijão por repetição. Para este fim utilizou-se um desidratador de frutas, Polidryer PD-25. O ar foi aquecido por meio de gás de cozinha, enquanto a temperatura foi controlada com o auxílio de um termopar, conectado ao secador. Os resultados mostraram que as equações propostas por Cavalcanti Mata e Page foram as que melhor representaram os dados experimentais, quando comparada com a equação de Fick utilizando um termo da série.

  14. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  15. Pathogenic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Ecuadorian Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm resistance

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    Diego Rodríguez-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most economically important diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation in Ecuador. The best control alternative is the use of resistant varieties. C. lindemuthianum presents great pathogenic variability, which hinders the development of varieties with a lasting resistance, therefore, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of the physiological races of the pathogen and the identification of resistance genes are key to developing varieties with broad and lasting resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum and to evaluate the resistance of Ecuadorian bean germplasm. The research was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen isolates of C. lindemuthianum from northern central Ecuador were characterized by the inoculation of a group of twelve standard differential bean varieties. Among the analyzed samples, thirteen races were identified; five of those races had not been previously reported in the country. The differential G2333 (Co-42, Co-52 and Co-7 presented resistance to every characterized races in Ecuador. In addition, twenty - one improved varieties and elite bean lines were evaluated with sixteen of the seventeen isolates, three genotypes were identified (TB2, TB3 and INIAP 485 Urcuquí with resistance to the mentioned isolates, which can be used as sources of resistance to Anthracnose. The identified sources of resistance in this study will allow to plan the development of bean varieties with broad and durable resistance to C. lindemuthianum.

  16. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Dinh; Pham Le Ha; Nguyen Van Toan; Le Xuan Tham [Nuclear Research Institute, Radiobiology Department, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M{sub 1} generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M{sub 2} generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  17. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Ramana, D K; Seshaiah, K; Wang, M C; Chien, S W Chang

    2009-07-30

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g(-1) for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g(-1) for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  18. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M. Madhava; Ramana, D.K.; Seshaiah, K.; Wang, M.C.; Chien, S.W. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g -1 for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g -1 for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g -1 for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g -1 for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  19. Nitrogen cycling in a 15N-fertilized bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, R.L.; Libardi, P.L.; Reichardt, K.; Cervellini, A.

    1982-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the fate of applied nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris crops grown under tropical conditions, 15 N-labelled urea was applied to bean crops and followed for three consecutive cropping periods. Each crop received 100 kg urea-N ha - 1 and 41 kg KCl-K ha - 1 . At the end of each period we estimated each crop's recovery of the added nitrogen, the residual effects of nitrogen from the previous cropping period, the distribution of nitrogen in the soil profile, and leaching losses of nitrogen. In addition, to evaluate potential effects of added phosphorus on nitrogen cycling in this crop, beans were treated at planting with either 35 kg rock-phosphate-P, 35 kg superphosphate-P, or 0 kg P ha - 1 . Results showed that 31.2% of the nitrogen in the first crop was derived from the applied urea, which represents a nitrogen utilization efficiency of 38.5%, 6.2% of the nitrogen in the second crop was derived from fertilizer applied to the first crop, and 1.4% of the nitrogen in the third crop. (orig./AJ)

  20. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer 14 C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds

  2. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  3. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  4. Growth Response of Two Phaseolus mungo L. Cultivars Induced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnita Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to quantify the difference in response of two Phaseolus mungo L. cultivars (i.e., UH-1 and IPU-94-1 to Glomus mosseae (G, that is, Funneliformis mosseae, Acaulospora laevis (A, and Trichoderma viride (T, in different combinations or alone. All the treatments were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum to ensure nodulation as soil used in the experiment was sterilized. After 120 days of inoculation, plants were analyzed for chlorophyll content, nodulation, mycorrhization, leaf area, and protein content. Results indicate variation in growth response of two cultivars with different treatments. Triple inoculation of plants with G + A + T proved to be the best treatment for growth followed by G + T in both cultivars. Our work allowed the selection of P. mungo L. cultivar UH-1 as highly mycorrhizal responsive as compared to IPU-94-1 and G. mosseae to be an efficient bioinoculant as compared to A. laevis for growth enhancement of P. mungo. Further characterization of P. mungo genotypes will enhance our knowledge of physiological and genetic mechanism behind increase in plant growth and yield due to AM symbiosis.

  5. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M A; Souza, E M; Baura, V; Wassem, R; Yates, M G; Pedrosa, F O; Monteiro, R A

    2011-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8) CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4) cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6) CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  6. Nutritional and water effect on fluoride uptake and respiration of bean seedlings. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applegate, H G; Adams, D F

    1960-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were grown in an atmosphere containing 2.0 +/- 0.21 g F /mT (1.6 ppb). The effect of N, P, K, Fe, and Ca deficiencies and the effect of osmotic pressures of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 pounds on fluoride uptake and fluoride-mediated respiration were studied. The data showed that P deficient plants took up more fluoride than plants deficient in any of the other elements studied. Fluoride-mediated respiration was phosphorous dependent, however. Plants low in Fe or K showed increased uptake of fluoride. Nitrogen had no effect on fluoride uptake under the conditions of this experiment. Plants low in Fe showed inhibition of oxygen uptake. This inhibition was accentuated by fluoride. The interactions of N, K and Ca with fluoride on respiration were complex. Neither fluoride uptake nor fluoride-mediated respiration appeared to be linked directly to the water economy of the plants. 14 references, 6 tables.

  7. Manganese toxicity effects on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ), in acid soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebereiner, J

    1966-02-01

    Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to study manganese toxicity effects on the nitrogen fixing symbiosis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Addition of 40 ppm of manganese to two acid soils affected nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Dependent on the Rhizobion strain either nodule numbers or efficiency in nitrogen fixation were reduced; the efficiency of one Rhizobium-host combination was more affected than another. Under less severe conditions of manganese toxicity, reduction of nodule numbers or of efficiency in nitrogen fixation could be compensated by an increase of nodule size. In the absence of manganese toxicity nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans were abundant in a soil with pH 4.4. Naturally occurring manganese toxicity in a gray hydromorphic soil was eliminated by liming. The total nitrogen content of bean plants which were dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation decreased linearly with the logarithm of the manganese concentration in the plants. This did not happen when the plants were grown with mineral nitrogen. The role of manganese toxicity in the well known sensitivity to acid soil conditions of certain legumes and the importance of selection of manganese tolerant Rhizobium strains for the inoculation of beans in acid tropical soils, are discussed. 25 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. The fate of urea applied to tropical bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.; Libardi, P.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Reichardt, K.

    The fate of nitrogen is studied when it is applied to three bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops variety 'carioca' grown on a site of 'Terra Roxa Estruturada' (Paleudalf) soil. Urea labeled with three different 15 N enrichment percentages was used in order to estimate crop recovery of N (and its utilization efficiency), residual effects of N from one crop to another, distribution of N in the soil profile after cropping and leaching losses of N. The superphosphate and the rockphosphate 'Araxa' were also used. Grain yield was not significantly different between the phosphorus treatments, indicating that both P sources behaved similarly. Differences in fertilizer 15 N enrichment did not affect calculated amounts of nitrogen derived from fertilizer and N utilization efficiency (NUE), as expected. The first crop recovered on the average 31,2% of the N from the applied urea. The second crop recovered 6,2% N from the fertilizer applied to the first crop. The third crop recovered only 1,4%. Taking in account the NUE for the three crops, they recovered 44,1% of the N applied to the first crop. The partition of nitrogen applied to the first crop in four components (crop N removal; soil mineral N (NO 3 + NH 4 ); soil organic N and leaching N) is analysed. Due to the low N utilization efficiency of the crop, much of N remains in the soil profile, being potentially available for leaching and so contributing for fertilizer pollution of ground water. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  10. Mise au point d'une technique de culture in vitro d'embryons immatures de Phaseolus

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    Véronique Schmit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vitro culture technique for immature Phaseolus embryos. In the interspecific crosses Phaseolus polyanthus (or P. coccineus (i? x P. vulgaris, the hybrid embryos abort very early. Therefore, it is essentiel to develop an in vitro culture technique that allows the rescue of beau embryos at globular or early heart-shaped stages. After several trials conceming the salts composition, the sugar rate and the amino acid concentration of différent in vitro culture media, a technique has been developed for heart-shaped Phaseolus embryos. This technique consists of two stages. In a first step, embryos are cultivated under darkness until their germination on a medium containing the salts of Gamborg et al. (1968, 400 mg . 1` (5mM - 1 -' NHNO,, 1 mg . 1-' thiamine HCI, 5 mg . l` nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg - l` pyridoxine, 1,000 mg . l` -glutamine, 1,000 mg . l` casein hydrolysate, 100 mg . l` myo-inositol, 0.028 mg . P N6-benzyladenine, 30 g . l` sucrase, and 8 g -1-' DIFCO agar. After germination, the embryos are cultivated under light on a second medium that does not contain any NHNO, complément and is poorer in amino acids (100 mg • 1-' L-glutamine. Developed with six deys old heart-shaped embryos of the P. vulgaris Bico de Ouro (NI 637 variety, this technique has proved its efficiency with other P. vulgaris and P. polyanthus génotypes. It allows an average régénération rate of 30% from the total number of cultivated embryos.

  11. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

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    Noora Nordenstedt

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa. Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool, and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina. Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively. Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini Filho, J.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  13. Improvement of protein and amino acid contents in seeds of food legumes. A case study in Phaseolus

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    Baudoin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes are considered as the major source of dietary proteins among the plant species. Protein and amino acid contents were evaluated in a wide sample of both wild and cultivated genotypes of Phaseolus species, with a view to investigate possibilities of genetic improvement in seed nutritional quality. Results indicate a variation in relation with taxa, biological status within species (such as in P. lunatus, ecological conditions, seed parts (testa, cotyledons and embryonic axis, and major protein groups. However, the sulphur containing amino acids remain a limiting factor, which could be better overcome by mixing food legumes with other plant species such as cereals.

  14. Correlation of protein content to flatulent galactooligosaccharides and exogenous amino acids in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the possible correlations among constituents of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds, the contents of protein, exogenous amino acids and flatulent galactooligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose were analyzed in 16 Polish bean cultivars for dry seeds. A negative correlation coefficient (r =-0.9490 was found between protein and methionine contents. High positive correlations among exogenous amino acids, such as lysine and isoleucine, valine and isoleucine, lysine and tyrosine, were observed indicating a chance of selecting far more than one at a time. The small-seeded bean cultivars contained higher contents of protein and galactooligosaccharides than the large-seeded ones.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

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    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  16. Adaptação do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à seca Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. adaptation to drought

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    Cleber M. Guimarães

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho tendo em vista o propósito de se estudar a adaptação de genótipos de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à seca, como suporte a programas de melhoramento que visem à criação de cultivares para regiões sujeitas a deficiência hídrica, mediante a avaliação do potencial da água nas folhas e da resistência difusiva estomática. Adicionalmente avaliou-se a técnica de medição da temperatura do dossel pela termometria de infravermelho para inferir o estado hídrico da planta. Os genótipos Carioca e RAB 96 foram submetidos, dos 20 dias após a emergência até a colheita, a dois tratamentos hídricos: irrigação adequada e com deficiência hídrica. Em geral, a cultivar Carioca manteve potenciais de água na folha mais altos e também melhor capacidade de recuperação hídrica, além de apresentar resistência difusiva estomática e temperatura do dossel mais baixas que a linhagem RAB 96 sendo, portanto, melhor adaptada à seca. A temperatura do dossel correlacionou-se significativamente com o potencial da água nas folhas e, devido a sua medição ser rápida e não-destrutiva, mostrou tratar-se de uma técnica útil no processo de seleção de genótipos para regiões sujeitas a deficiência hídrica.The objective of this study was to investigate the common bean adaptation to drought, as support to breeding programs directed to regions with water deficiency, through the evaluation of leaf water potential and stomatal diffusive resistance. Furthermore, the canopy temperature was evaluated with the infrared thermometer technique to infer the plant water content. From twenty days after emergence until harvest, the genotypes Carioca and RAB 96 were submitted to two water treatments: adequate irrigation and water deficit. The 'Carioca' showed higher leaf water potentials and better water recovery capacity compared with 'RAB 96'. This cultivar also showed lower stomatal diffusive resistance and canopy

  17. KARAKTERISASI ENAM VARIETAS BUNCIS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BERDASARKAN PANDUAN PENGUJIAN INDIVIDUAL

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    Vina Eka Aristya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a plant that has the potential for mainstream consumers, have a large enough market opportunity and a source of vegetable protein. “Perancis” varieties are local Central Java bean varieties are widely grown in the Bandungan area. “Perancis” varieties not currently provide enough characters clear and complete. Test objectives were (1 to characterize the “Perancis” varieties in order to have a complete character information varieties and (2 to determine distinctness, uniformity and stability of the “Perancis” varieties compared with varieties Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 using guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability reference beans. Implemented on the Garden Seed Testing Bandungan Horticulture, Central Java with an altitude of 560-800 meters above sea level the place. Materials testing consists of six varieties of beans are “Perancis” varieties and the varieties used for comparison Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072. This research used a randomized block design six varieties of beans are planted side by side on three experimental plots as replications. Parameters observed include 49 characters corresponding guidelines bean plants are divided into the plant character, leaves character, flower character, pods character and seed character. Test results based guidelines, “Perancis” varieties showed eight unique characters compared to varieties of Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 ie. plant height, leaf color, leaf rugosity, long (including beak pods, the degree of the pods curvature, the shape of distal part (excluding beak pods, length of beak pods and curvature of beak pods and “Perancis” varieties have uniformity and stability.

  18. Effects of putrescine, kinetin and IAA on protein synthesis in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocomo, O J; Lee, T S.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of etiolated 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles shows a converse flux between soluble protein and reducing sugar. The rate of incorporation of radioactive arginine into protein was higher than that of radioactive leucine. Radioactive arginine incorporation into protein was linear up to 120 min and then started to decline. The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine was increased by preincubation of the tissue in the incubation medium. Roots were found to contain more soluble protein and much less reducing sugar than the coleoptile. The optimum pH value for protein synthesis in coleoptile sections was found to be 6 for control tissues and 4 for those treated with 10-/sup 3/M IAA. This high concentration of IAA was also found to inhibit soluble protein synthesis, the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein fraction, the secretion of hydrogen ion into the incubation medium and elongation of the bean segment. Kinetin at 2x10/sup -4/M and putrescine at 5mM both decreased the rate of /sup 14/C-arginine incorporation into soluble protein, but for /sup 14/C-leucine, this rate of incorporation was found to be increased after 90 min incubation with a preincubation of 30 min. In general, the change pattern of the soluble protein content, the reducing sugar level and the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein in the kinetin and putrescine treated tissues were about the same although tissues that incubated with kinetin always contain more soluble protein and less reducing sugar than that of incubated with putrescine.

  19. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Yan-Ping.

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m -2 day -1 biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 μm paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40μm) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m -2 day -1 UV-B BE with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation

  20. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

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    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Paraburkholderia phymatum under Nitrogen Starvation and during Symbiosis with Phaseolus Vulgaris

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    Martina Lardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraburkholderia phymatum belongs to the β-subclass of proteobacteria. It has recently been shown to be able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with several mimosoid and papilionoid legumes. In contrast to the symbiosis of legumes with α-proteobacteria, very little is known about the molecular determinants underlying the successful establishment of this mutualistic relationship with β-proteobacteria. In this study, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of free-living P. phymatum growing under nitrogen-replete and -limited conditions, the latter partially mimicking the situation in nitrogen-deprived soils. Among the genes upregulated under nitrogen limitation, we found genes involved in exopolysaccharides production and in motility, two traits relevant for plant root infection. Next, RNA-seq data of P. phymatum grown under free-living conditions and from symbiotic root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean were generated and compared. Among the genes highly upregulated during symbiosis, we identified—besides the nif gene cluster—an operon encoding a potential cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase (Bphy_3646-49. Bean root nodules induced by a cyoB mutant strain showed reduced nitrogenase and nitrogen fixation abilities, suggesting an important role of the cytochrome for respiration inside the nodule. The analysis of mutant strains for the RNA polymerase transcription factor RpoN (σ54 and its activator NifA indicated that—similar to the situation in α-rhizobia—P. phymatum RpoN and NifA are key regulators during symbiosis with P. vulgaris.

  2. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

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    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  3. Anatomical alterations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. mature leaves irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Arena, C; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of higher plants in Space involves not only the development of new agro-technologies for the design of ecologically closed Space greenhouses, but also understanding of the effects of Space factors on biological systems. Among Space factors, ionising radiation is one of the main constraints to the growth of organisms. In this paper, we analyse the effect of low-LET radiation on leaf histology and cytology in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants subjected to increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy). Leaves irradiated at tissue maturity were compared with not-irradiated controls. Semi-thin sections of leaves were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis was applied to quantify anatomical parameters, with a specific focus on the occurrence of signs of structural damage as well as alterations at subcellular level, such as the accumulation of phenolic compounds and chloroplast size. Results showed that even at high levels of radiation, general anatomical structure was not severely perturbed. Slight changes in mesophyll density and cell enlargement were detected at the highest level of radiation. However, at 100 Gy, higher levels of phenolic compounds accumulated along chloroplast membranes: this accompanied an increase in number of chloroplasts. The reduced content of chlorophylls at high levels of radiation was associated with reduced size of the chloroplasts. All data are discussed in terms of the possible role of cellular modifications in the maintenance of high radioresistance and photosynthetic efficiency. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  5. Mechanistic insight into softening of Canadian wonder common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigwedere, Claire Maria; Olaoye, Taye Foyeke; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    The relative contributions of cotyledons and seed coats towards hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated and the rate-limiting process which controls bean softening during cooking was determined. Fresh or aged whole beans and cotyledons were soaked and cooked in demineralised water or 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution, and texture evolution, microstructure changes and thermal properties were studied. Fresh and aged whole beans cooked in demineralised water had significantly different softening rate constants and so did fresh and aged cotyledons. The comparable softening rate constants of aged whole beans and cotyledons indicated an insignificant role of the seed coat in hardening during storage. All samples cooked faster in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution. Disintegration of cooked tissues followed by microscopic examination revealed a transition from cell breakage through a phase of cell breakage and separation to complete cell separation with increased cooking time wherefore texture decayed. Therefore, progressive solubilization of pectin in the middle lamella greatly promoted texture decay. While residual birefringence even after substantial cooking time suggested some molecular order of the starch, calorimetric analyses revealed complete starch gelatinisation before complete cell separation occurred. This implies an insignificant role of starch in texture decay during cooking but its hindered uncoiling into a viscous gel after gelatinisation due to the restricting cell wall could promote its retrogradation. Therefore, we suggest that the rate-determining process in bean softening relates to cell wall/middle lamella changes influencing pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  7. Response of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars to Foliar Applications of Magnesium

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    Michele Pisante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiencies have been shown to be particularly dangerous to short cycled crops, both on sandy and clay soils. Such deficiencies may be corrected by foliar fertilisations, but in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no experimental data may be found to support this hypothesis. Therefore this paper was aimed at studying the effect of foliar Mg-applications (56, 112 and 224 g ha-1 in single application at flowering or splitted half dose at 4-leaf stage and half at flowering alone and with Zn (200 g ha-1 on yield and quality of two French bean genotypes (Bronco, Cadillac. Foliar Mg-applications significantly increased pod yield and, considering the highest rate with respect to the untreated, such an increase was 78% and 32% for Bronco and Cadillac, respectively. Split applications were also more effective, with yield increases of 109% and 50% for the two genotypes. Concerning quality, foliar Mg applications showed a significant effect particularly on sugars, calcium, phosphate, sulphate and Mg contents in pods. On the other hand, a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrates was noted, especially with split applications (144% increase vs. unfertilised and, in some cases, an antagonistic effect on K content (10-20% decrease on average. Foliar Mg fertilisation of French bean seemed to be a promising practice with reference to human health and nutrition, tough some care is needed to avoid the accumulation of nitrates in pods. Split applications seemed to be more effective, while the addition of Zn to the fertiliser mix did not give any relevant effect.

  8. Improving adaptation to drought stress in white pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L): genotypic effects on grain yield, yield components and pod harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume crop in Africa and Latin America where rainfall pattern is unpredictable. The objectives were to identify better yielding common bean lines with good canning quality under drought, and to identify traits that could be used as sele...

  9. Molecular characterization of the U.S. Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray collection using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Targeted Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), a truly Native American crop, is a short life-cycle annual desert legume indigenous to northwestern Mexico and the southwestern USA and is considered drought and heat tolerant. The Western Regional Plant Introduction Station currently maintains 211 acce...

  10. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez y Huaman, C.A.; Cerri, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14 C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  12. Improovement of statistical counting conditions for the determination of chloride in Beams leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    1975-04-01

    The use of two radiation peaks from the same gamma-emitting source in the calculation of the corresponding liquid counting rate in multi-element gamma spectrometry is discussed. It is shown that, in the determination of chlorine in Phaseolus vulgaris L. using neutronic activation analysis will result in an increase in accuracy of measurement of approximately 40%

  13. La collection de base des espèces sauvages de Phaseolus et Vigna : historique, gestion et conservation

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    Thierry Vanderborght

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The base collection of wild species of Phaseolus and Vigna: history, management and conservation.The National Botanic Garden of Belgium ensures the management of a base collection of botanical and wild forms in the tribe Phaseoleae and the sub-tribe Phaseolinae. The main objective is to conserve on a long terni basic the largest possible genetic diversity through seed semples stored at - 20°C. The collection provided the basic material for the investigations conducted at the University Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of Gembloux in fields as diverse as taxonomy, genome analysis, definition of genetic réservoirs, agronomie and chemical evaluations, interspecific hybridization and plant breeding. The results have allowed to becter understand the organization of genetic diversity in the studied plant material and to highlight the wealthy genetic potentiel of the collection. The latter should be preserved and valorized for the genetic improvement of food legumes, in particular within the two genera Phaseolus and Vigna.

  14. Análisis de la producción agrícola y gestión del agua en módulos de riego del distrito 063 de Sinaloa, México

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    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis estadístico respecto a la gestión hídrica y la productividad agrícola desarrolladas en los módulos que comprende el Distrito de Riego 063 (DR 063 en los ciclos 2007-2012. Se calculó el beneficio neto por hectárea en los principales productos sembrados. Se encontró que los cultivos de maíz, garbanzo y frijol ofrecieron mejores márgenes de ganancias, pero con diferencias significativas en cuanto al consumo de agua. Respecto a la gestión del agua por módulo, los resultados muestra que no existen diferencias significativas en el suministro pero si en su productividad. Basado en lo anterior, se propone replantear la programación hidroagrícola con apoyo a los análisis estadísticos y en épocas de escasez tener propuestas alternas que representen una opción viable para el agricultor.

  15. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  16. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, Azalea; Suárez-Atilano, Marco; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Piñero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1) provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2) examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3) identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs) from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20) and P. dumosus (35). Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication

  17. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalea Guerra-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1 provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2 examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3 identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20 and P. dumosus (35. Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated

  18. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  19. Does methyl jasmonate modify the oxidative stress response in Phaseolus coccineus treated with Cu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaka, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Mroczek-Zdyrska, Magdalena; Maksymiec, Waldemar

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of methyl jasmonate (MJ) as a signal molecule able to take part in the defense mechanism against copper (Cu)-imposed oxidative stress was studied in the leaves and roots of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) plants. Roots of plants cultivated hydroponically were preincubated in MJ (10µM) for 1h or 24h and subsequently exposed to Cu (50µM) for 5h (short-term experiment) or 5 days (long-term experiment). Enzymatic (activity of superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; guaiacol peroxidase, POX) and non-enzymatic (accumulation of malondialdehyde, MDA; homoglutathione, hGSH; proline; anthocyanins; low molecular weight organic acids, LMWOAs) responses were determined in the leaves and roots. The antioxidative defense mechanism was significantly activated after Cu supplementation. In most cases, activities of ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging enzymes like SOD, CAT, APX, POX, as well as MDA, hGSH and proline concentrations increased following Cu exposure. MJ showed a time-dependent effect on antioxidative enzymes activity. In the short-term experiment, MJ elevated CAT, APX and POX activities in the roots, and POX activity in the leaves of non-Cu-treated plants. In the long-term experiment, MJ not only decreased POX and partially CAT activity in the roots, but also increased the MDA level and partially CAT activity in the leaves of the control plants. In Cu-treated plants, MJ reduced APX, but elevated POX activity in the leaves after 5-h exposure. After 5-day-Cu treatment, MJ inhibited POX activity in the leaves and mainly reduced SOD and CAT activities in the roots. Moreover, in the long-term experiment, MJ reduced tartrate and pyruvate in the leaves of Cu-stressed plants, but mostly elevated tartrate and malate in the roots comparing with Cu alone treatment. MJ alone and under Cu excess did not alter accumulation of MDA, hGSH and proline comparing with Cu alone, but partially elevated anthocyanin concentration. The

  20. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

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    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  1. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  2. Efecto de la cobertura de rastrojos en la germinación del arroz (Oryza sativa L. y principales malezas asociadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemel M. Ortega

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de la cobertura de rastrojos en la germinacióndel arroz (Oryza sativaL. y principales malezas asociadas. Para determinar el grado de interferencia causado por distintas cantidades de rastrojos de arroz (Oryza sativaL. sobrela emergencia de arroz y malezas asociadas al cultivo, en el2003 se realizaron tres experimentos simultáneos en la hacienda el Pelón de la Bajura, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Se aplicaron nueve tratamientos (0 a 9 t/ha de coberturas con rastrojosde la variedad de arroz CR 1113 para medir los efectos en laemergencia del arroz y malezas. Las malezas asociadas incluyen las más frecuentes en agroecosistemas arroceros inundados: Oryza sativa, Echinochloa colona, Cyperusspp., Fim-bristylisspp., Ludwigiaspp. y Heteranthera limosa. En losprimeros dos experimentos se determinaron relaciones inversas entre el grado de cobertura y la densidad de plántulas demalezas emergidas (R2>0,89, y entre el grado de cobertura yel porcentaje de germinación del arroz (R2=0,86, respectivamente. Usando coberturas con rastrojos de frijol (Phaseolusvulgaris en el tercer experimento, no se observó efecto supresor en la germinación del arroz, probablemente debido a supronta descomposición. Aunque la germinación del arroz nose afectó aún a las intensidades más altas de rastrojos evaluadas, conviene realizar pruebas similares a largo plazo para determinar posibles efectos debidos a la descomposición de residuos, alelopatía y acarreo de herbicidas después de variosciclos consecutivos del cultivo de arroz.

  3. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  4. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  5. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  6. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  8. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg 2+ .

  9. Studies on the distribution of 14C-malformin A in major fractions of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarlante, D.; Curtis, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution pattern of 14 C-malformin in major fractions of Phaseolus vulgaris L, seedlings shifted during water treatment in the absence of malformin. From these shifts, and by comparison of the 14 C distribution patterns at the base and top of the seedlings, it was concluded that some 14 C-malformin enters the cell and proceeds to the cell wall via intermediate compounds. As a working hypothesis it was suggested that in roots 14 C-malformin first appears in a soluble ''small molecules'' fraction, binds to a soluble protein fraction, and proceeds via the wall lipid fraction to the wall itself. Direct binding of some 14 C-malformin to the wall fraction was not precluded. In leaves, the pathway of 14 C-malformin to the cell wall was similar in some respects to that in roots. (auth.)

  10. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  11. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, Inmaculada; Trenas, Almudena T; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2016-08-01

    Purines are essential molecules formed in a highly regulated pathway in all organisms. In tropical legumes, the nitrogen fixed in the nodules is used to generate ureides through the oxidation of de novo synthesized purines. Glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRAT) catalyses the first committed step of de novo purine synthesis. In Phaseolus vulgaris there are three genes coding for PRAT. The three full-length sequences, which are intron-less genes, were cloned, and their expression levels were determined under conditions that affect the synthesis of purines. One of the three genes, PvPRAT3, is highly expressed in nodules and protein amount and enzymatic activity in these tissues correlate with nitrogen fixation activity. Inhibition of PvPRAT3 gene expression by RNAi-silencing and subsequent metabolomic analysis of the transformed roots shows that PvPRAT3 is essential for the synthesis of ureides in P. vulgaris nodules. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Developmental Expression of the Nodule-Specific Uricase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Federico; Campos, Francisco; Padilla, Jaime; Bonneville, Jean-Marc; Enríquez, Consuelo; Caput, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Nodule-specific uricase (uricase II) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods. Purification data indicated that uricase II is approximately 2% of the total soluble protein from mature nodules. Specific antiserum was raised and used to determine the developmental expression and for immunoselection of polysomes. Uricase II was antigenically detected early in nodule development, 2 to 3 days before nitrogen fixation. Uricase-encoding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridizing a nodule-specific pUC9 cDNA library with labeled mRNA from immunoselected polysomes and a 35,000 molecular weight uricase II-encoding cDNA from soybean. An homologous clone (pNF-UR07) was used to assess the expression pattern of the specific transcript during development. Northern-blot analysis indicated that uricase II mRNA is exclusively expressed in nodule tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665575

  13. Potencial del Agua del suelo

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    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  14. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en habichuela Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante descriptores morfológicos y bioquímicos

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    Gutierrez J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó la variabilidad genética de una muestra de 116 accesiones de habichuela P. vulgaris, cultivadas en centros primarios y secundarios de domesticación. Se evaluaron 18 descriptores morfo-agronómicos asociados con características de la planta, vaina y semilla. Mediante el análisis de las faseolinas utilizando SDS-PAGE se encontraron patrones de bandas de origen andino (T, C y H1 y mesoamericano [S, Sb, CH y H(S+I]. También se evaluaron ocho sistemas isoenzimáticos polimórficos. En el germoplasma de habichuela hay importante contribución del acervo mesoamericano y las accesiones en algunos centros secundarios de domesticación tuvieron origen y procesos de dispersión diferentes de los del fríjol común en tales zonas. La mayor variabilidad morfológica y el mayor número de accesiones con características deseables para el mercado fresco se encontró en el grupo mesoamericano. Se detectó mayor número de genotipos híbridos entre acervos cuando se utilizaron simultáneamente los tres descriptores, lo cual indica una estructura genética compleja que podría deberse al efecto de los factores ambientales propios de la zona templada sobre sus patrones reproductivos. La diversidad total medida con los tres descriptores fue similar a la registrada en fríjol común. Sin embargo, la estructura poblacional encontrada por otros autores en el fríjol común es diferente de la observada en este estudio. Palabras claves: Variabilidad, descriptores morfológicos, isoenzimas, proteínas de semilla, acervos genéticos. ABSTRACT Genetic variability of 116 accesions of Phaseolus vulgaris showing snap beans characteristics coming from primary and secondary centers of domestication, were studied using eighteen morphological descriptors to characterize pods and seeds, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed phaseolins and eight isozyme systems. Higher morphological diversity and best pod marketing characteristics were found at Andean accessions

  15. Effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. extract and acarbose on postprandial glucose level after cooked rice intake in healthy volunteers

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    Robby Zulkarnain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was aimed to measure the effects of combination Phaseolus vulgaris extract and acarbose compared to acarbose alone on postprandial glucose concentration in healthy volunteers after cooked rice intake.Methods Blood sample were obtained at several time points up to three hours after cooked rice intake. The parameter for postprandial glucose concentration is the area under the curve (AUC of glucose concentration vs.time for three hours after cooked rice intake.Results After taking this combination, postprandial glucose concentration was reduced by 21.6%, while the reduction by acarbose alone was 22.9%.Conclusions The reduction of postprandial glucose concentration after administration of this combination was not significantly different compared to that after administration of acarbose alone. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 25-30Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris extract, acarbose, postprandial glucose concentration

  16. Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of Ammonium glufosinate in organogenic calli of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F'

    OpenAIRE

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso; Raúl Collado; Lourdes R. García; Novisel Veitía; Amanda Martirena; Damaris Torres; Carlos Romero; Gert Angenon

    2012-01-01

    An efficient selection system is necessary for distinguishing transformed cells of the untransformed tissue. This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of the herbicide Ammonium glufosinate in organogenic calli of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. CIAP 7247F, to use it as a selective agent in the process of genetic transformation. Fragments (4-5 mm) of proliferated calli after second subculture were used as explant. Callus proliferation medium with different concentrations of Amm...

  17. El chile poblano criollo en la cultura alimentaria del Alto Atoyac

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    Luis Joaquín Pérez Carrasco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El chile poblano criollo producido en la re-gión Alto Atoyac en Puebla, forma parte de la cultura alimenticia de la población, junto con el maíz y el frijol. Ya sea en fresco o en seco es un componente fundamental en muy diver-sos platillos como: el mole poblano, los chiles en nogada, las rajas con huevo, por mencio-nar algunos. El objetivo del trabajo fue el en-tender las razones sociales y culturales de lo planteado e identificar la problemática del cultivo de chile poblano criollo y los factores que favorecen que los productores persistan en su cultivo en la región. Metodología. Se realizaron entrevistas estructuradas, siguien-do el método de muestreo por “bola de nieve” (Snowball, empleado frecuentemente en es-tudios con poblaciones marginales. Resulta-dos. El sistema de producción predominante en el Alto Atoyac, es el chile poblano criollo intercalado en árboles frutales, con superficies de siembra igual o menor a 100 m2, estrategia usada por los productores para diversificar el riesgo de las enfermedades del cultivo y con ello asegurar la sobrevivencia de sus tradicio-nes culinarias y la permanencia de su semilla con sus propias características. Limitaciones. El trabajo de investigación no pudo abarcar el rendimiento de chile poblano en la región y del perfil del productor. Conclusiones. El chi-le poblano criollo en el Alto Atoyac, se siem-bra en superficies pequeñas y condiciones de temporal, intercalado en árboles frutales y es afectado por la enfermedad pudrición radical o secadera. El productor continúa sembrando su semilla de chile poblano criollo, como estra-tegia para conservar sus tradiciones en la elabo-ración de los alimentos y mitigar en lo posible los daños ocasionados por las enfermedades.

  18. EVALUATING THE ACCUMULATION TREND OF L-DOPA IN DARK-GERMINATED SEEDS AND SUSPENSION CULTURES OF Phaseolus vulgaris L. BY AN EFFICIENT UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

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    Samira Rahmani-Nezhad

    Full Text Available Seed germination and plant cell cultures provide an alternative mean for producing secondary metabolites. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of seed dark germination and some elicitors and precursors on the production of L-DOPA in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Callus cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators. L-DOPA produced was quantified by UV-spectrophotometric method. In this study, a user-friendly, quick, and economical UV-spectrophotometric method was described to determine L-DOPA content in extracts from 33 biotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The method is based on the nitrosation of L-DOPA to form a yellow solution and then formation of a red solution by adding base which is measurable at 470 nm. According to our statistical studies, this method showed high efficiency and selectivity for quantitative determination of L-DOPA in herbal extracts from dried plant seeds, dark-germinated seeds and callus cultures. L-DOPA content in dark-germinated seeds and suspension cultures increased significantly to approximately several-fold compared to the control. The implication from this study is that elicitor treatment and precursor feeding of Phaseolus vulgaris L. can significantly improve the parkinson’s relevant L-DOPA content.

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Tan, Ollie; Molina, Jhanna

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  20. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Udani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects, and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001, and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02. This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  1. del alcoholismo

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    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  2. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Borba Tereza CO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11% showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%, Vigna (25.9%, Glycine (19.8%, Medicago (10.2%, Dipterix (6% and Arachis (1.8% genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558 population, 24% (76 were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5% were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity

  3. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

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    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  4. Determinação do coeficiente cultural (Kc do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of the crop coefficient (Kc for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    José C. Mendonça

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A evapotranspiração de uma cultura é uma das principais informações exigidas para o manejo de irrigação e para fins de planejamento do uso da água. Dentre as abordagens disponíveis para a estimativa do consumo de água pelas plantas, destaca-se o uso de coeficientes de cultura (Kc associados a estimativas da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Buscou-se determinar, aqui, os valores de Kc para as diferentes fases fenológicas do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar em lançamento UENF-47, através da utilização de um lisímetro de pesagem e compará-los com os valores propostos pela FAO 56. Concluiu-se que as equações de ajustamento propostas por Allen et al. (1998 se mostraram eficientes para a correção e ajustamento dos coeficientes culturais obtidos neste experimento e que os coeficientes culturais das fases 3 (Kc méd e 4 (Kc fim sugeridos também por Allen et al. (1998 se ajustaram bem ��s condições de cultivo do feijoeiro cultivado no período de outono/inverno, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.The evapotranspiration of a crop is one of the main information required for proper irrigation management and to develop an efficient water usage plan. Among the methods to estimate the amount of water that is consumed by plants, the use of crop coefficients (Kc, associated with estimates of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, stands as one of the most promising. This work aimed to deterime the values of Kc for different phenological phases of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of the cultivar UENF-47. Determination of Kc values was performed using a weighing lisimeter and results were compared with values obtained through the FAO 56 standard. Results showed that the adjustment equations proposed by Allen et al. (1998 were adequate for fitting the values of Kc obtained in this experiment. It has been shown that the crop coefficients for phenological phases 3 and 4 proposed by Allen et al. (1998 are adequate

  5. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

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    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  6. Liberación de CO2 a la atmósfera por actividad rizosférica de diferentes cultivos en zona cafetera del departamento del Cauca

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    Carlos Quintín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La cuantificación del CO2 generado por los cultivos agrícolas permite obtener una mirada real del aporte de la agricultura a dichas emisiones. En esta investigación se buscó establecer la cantidad de CO2 liberada y el comportamiento de la biomasa microbiana en función del manejo de cultivos de café Coffea arabica L. yuca Manihot esculenta Crantz, fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L. y lechuga Lactuca sativa L. determinar cuál de ellos causó el mayor aporte dependiendo del tipo de manejo, tanto tecnificado o tradicional. Para cuantificar el CO2 producido en campo, se utilizó el método propuesto para determinar la cantidad de biomasa se utilizó el método de estimación (biomasa microbiana, en función del carbono microbiano y el método fumigación–extracción. El cultivo que presentó mayor liberación de CO2 fue el café. La modalidad de manejo del cultivo no tuvo influencia en la liberación de CO2. Por su parte las condiciones climáticas influyeron sobre las tasas de respiración entre cultivos, indicando que el café en época de poca lluvia respiró más que los otros cultivos.

  7. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  8. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Four hundred newly cultivated seeds were randomly divided into two groups of 200 plants each. In this experiment, two seeds were cultivated in each dish (100 dishes for irradiation group and 100 for sham-irradiation group). Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the ' soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. Results: The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5{+-}13.57 and 223.96{+-}15.02 mm respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.05{+-}0.18 and 6.74{+-}0.19 respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.52{+-}0.12 and 3.35{+-}0.09 mm respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.00 1). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can

  9. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  10. Ozone impact on vegetation: phenolic metabolism modification and oxidative alteration of Rubisco in Phaseolus vulgaris L; Impact de l'ozone sur le vegetal: modification du metabolisme phenolique et alteration de la Rubisco chez Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, M.

    2002-04-15

    In order to characterize and quantify, in semi-natural situation, the incidence of atmospheric pollution on some physiological and metabolic functions in plants, the aim of our work was to identify sub-cellular impact markers, in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), able to characterize a chronic and realistic ozone pollution climate. Two criteria were chosen: the foliar phenolic metabolism and the Rubisco, the key enzyme of photosynthesis. Using Open Top Chambers system, we demonstrated that, according to concentration, exposure kinetic and leaf type, ozone could induce amount variations of some constitutive soluble phenolic and the synthesis of new phenolic (iso-flavonoids). In some cases, these disturbances were observed jointly with foliar injuries and/or biomass reduction. Concurrently, this chronic and moderate ozone exposure could also induce carbonyl formation in amino acid residues constitutive of Rubisco small subunit (Rubisco-SSU) and a reduction in the amount of the native Rubisco. The amount of a constitutive kaempferol glucuronide and the ozone-induced oxidative alteration of Rubisco-SSU were selected and tested for the construction of dose-response relationships. Whatever the marker, the linear model was able to describe the relation. For the phenolic response, several exposure indexes were tested. According to their mode of calculation, these exposure forms emphasize more or less the contribution of high ozone concentrations. If, for Rubisco oxidation, the use of the exposure index AOT40 seems relevant, in the case of the phenolic marker, the choice of the right index is leaf type dependant. (author)

  11. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  12. Biologia e tabela de vida de Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae sobre folhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris Biology and life table of Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae on leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rivero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects and life table of the red spider mite, Tetranychus desertorum Banks, 1900, were studied on leaf discs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus cultivar "Tacarigua" under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12h. Our results showed that total developmental time was 6.8 days for females, with partial duration of immature stages corresponding to 3.8, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 for egg, larva, protonymph and deutonymph, respectively. Preoviposition, oviposition and postoviposition periods were 1.1, 8.4 and 1.3 days, respectively; and the higher mean fecundity (6.93 eggs/female/day was observed on day 4. Female mean longevity was 10 days. The life table parameters recorded were: net reproduction rate (Ro = 41.10 individuals; generation time (T = 11.15 days; intrinsic natural growth (r m = 0.144 individuals/female/day, and finite natural increase rate (λ = 1.155 individuals/female. Our findings could be a basis for further studies devoted to determine damage and control strategies for T. desertorum on kidney bean crops.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao; Chen; Jing; Wu; Yunfeng; Lu; Yuannan; Cao; Hui; Zeng; Zhaoyuan; Zhang; Lanfen; Wang; Shumin; Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter(Pro T) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a c DNA sequence for Pro T from common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene Pv Pro T. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pv Pro T showed high similarity to Bet/Pro T proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean(Vigna aconitifolia L.) Vu Pro T.Relative quantification of the m RNA level of Pv Pro T using real-time PCR analysis showed that the Pv Pro T transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20%(w/w) PEG-6000 treatment,drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of Pv Pro T transcripts than droughtsensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of Pv Pro T in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that Pv Pro T exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that Pv Pro T plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  14. Efficiency of Trichome-Based Plant Defense in Phaseolus vulgaris Depends on Insect Behavior, Plant Ontogeny, and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit. Of the three main body parts normally affected, mouthparts was found to be the body part most susceptible to the trichomes. Entrapments were most often caused by landing, followed by puncturing or feeding, and occasionally by walking or fighting. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy, we determined the susceptible positions of each body part and found that the flies were all trapped by hooked trichomes. This study revealed the process by which leafminer flies are entrapped by surface trichomes of the host plant and evaluated the capture efficiency. The results will contribute to our understanding of physical defenses against herbivores.

  15. Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Kopplin, Philippe-Schmitt; Bosco, Federica; Vignola, Lisiana; Uhl, Jenny; Lucio, Marianna; Milella, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (i.e., Protected Geographical Indication), and cultivated in Basilicata (southern Italy). For this purpose, α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays were assessed; among all bean ecotypes, the tight green seed colour of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC 50 =1.1±0.1μg/ml and IC 50 =19.3±1.1μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical compound screening of all Fagioli di Sarconi beans performed by flow injection-electrospray ionization-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (uHRMS) and based on the calculation of elemental formulas from accurate m/z values, was helpful to annotate specific compounds, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are most likely responsible for their biological activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, Edward J; Harte, Janice B; Strasburg, Gale M; Cho, Sungeun

    2017-09-01

    Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  18. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  19. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al–drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (–0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  20. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  1. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  2. Biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of {sup 57}Fe-enriched Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppler, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zurich (Switzerland); Meile, Leo [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Zurich (Switzerland); Walczyk, Thomas [National University of Singapore, Department of Chemistry and Department of Biochemistry, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Ferritin is the major iron storage protein in the biosphere. Iron stores of an organism are commonly assessed by measuring the concentration of the protein shell of the molecule in fluids and tissues. The amount of ferritin-bound iron, the more desirable information, still remains inaccessible owing to the lack of suitable techniques. Iron saturation of ferritin is highly variable, with a maximum capacity of 4,500 iron atoms per molecule. This study describes the direct isotopic labeling of a complex metalloprotein in vivo by biosynthesis, in order to measure ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin was produced by cloning and overexpressing the Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin gene pfe in Escherichia coli in the presence of {sup 57}FeCl{sub 2}. Recombinant ferritin was purified in a fully assembled form and contained approximately 1,000 iron atoms per molecule at an isotopic enrichment of more than 95% {sup 57}Fe. We did not find any evidence of species conversion of the isotopic label for at least 5 months of storage at -20 C. Transfer efficiency of enriched iron into [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin of 20% was sufficient to be economically feasible. Negligible amounts of non-ferritin-bound iron in the purified [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin solution allows for use of this spike for quantification of ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  3. Resistance or tolerance to the golden mosaic virus of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), obtained by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were carried out with the objective of selecting, evaluation and using induced mutants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic - a virus disease of beans. Seeds from three bean cultivars were treated with gamma-ray or the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). After golden mosaic inoculation of 50,000 M 2 seedlings, in a insectary, screening was made and a tolerant mutant (TMD-1) was selected. Evaluation of TMD-1 was carried out by comparing it with the parent cultivar Carioca, indicating that, although showing lower productivity than the original material, (what prevented it from being used directly on a commercial basis), it maintained the same reaction to rust, bacterial blight, and common mosaic. Studies on the genetic basis of the mutation were also done. The possibility of using this mutant in a plant breeding programme aimed at obtaining resistance to golden mosaic was demonstrated in crosses between TMD-1 and two cultivars, to which transference of tolerance was possible. (Author) [pt

  4. Steady-state room temperature fluorescence and CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates in intact leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, T D

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state room temperature variable fluorescence from leaves was measured as a function of CO/sub 2/ pressure in Xanthium strumarium L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Measurements were made in a range of light intensities, at normal and low O/sub 2/ partial pressure and over a range of temperatures. At low CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence increased with increasing CO/sub 2/. At higher CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence usually decreased with increasing CO/sub 2/ but occasionally increased slightly. The transition CO/sub 2/ pressure between the responses could be changed by changing light, O/sub 2/ pressure, or temperature. This breakpoint in the fluorescence-CO/sub 2/ curve was a reliable indicator of the transition between ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) saturated assimilation and RuBP regeneration limited assimilation. The fluorescence signal was not a reliable indicator of O/sub 2/-insensitive assimilation in these C/sub 3/ species. 21 references, 8 figures.

  5. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  6. The characteristics of pyrophosphate: D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferases from Sansevieria trifasciata leaves and Phaseolus coccineus stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, S

    1987-01-01

    Three different molecular forms of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase have been isolated: one from Sansevieria trifasciata leaves and two from Phaseolus coccineus stems. The form isolated from S. trifasciata has the molecular weight of about 115,000. The apparent molecular weights for the two forms from mung bean were approximately 220,000 and 450,000. All three forms have the same pH optima, an absolute requirement for Mg2+ ions both in the forward and reverse reaction, but differ in their sensitivity toward fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Kinetic properties of the partially purified enzymes have been investigated in the presence and absence of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase from S. trifasciata exhibited hyperbolic kinetics with all substrates tested. The saturation curves of the enzyme (form A) from mung bean for pyrophosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate were sigmoidal in the absence of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. In the presence of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate these kinetics became hyperbolic.

  7. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabeled D-[1- 3 H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3 H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3 H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1- 3 H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3 H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3 H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  10. IMPACT OF LIQUID NITROGEN EXPOSURE ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF HYDRATED Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Inaudis; Rivas, Maribel; Nápoles, Lelurlys; Marrero, Pedro; Yabor, Lourdes; Aragón, Carlos; Pérez, Aurora; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cryopreserving seeds with high water content is detrimental to survival, but biochemical and structural parameters of cryostored hydrated common bean seeds have not been published. The objective of this work was to study the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on selected biochemical and structural parameters of hydrated Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. We cryopreserved seeds at various moisture contents and evaluated: germination; electrolyte leakage; fresh seed weight; levels of chlorophyll pigments, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics and proteins; thickness of cotyledon epidermis, parenchyma, and starch storage parenchyma; and radicle and plumule lengths. Germination was totally inhibited when seeds were immersed in water for 50 min (moisture content of 38%, FW basis) before cryopreservation. The combined effects of seed water imbibition and cryostorage decreased phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total), chlorophyll a and protein content. By contrast, electrolyte leakage and levels of chlorophyll b and other aldehydes increased as a result of the combination of these two experimental factors. These were the most significant effects observed during exposure of humid seed to liquid nitrogen. Further studies are still required to clarify the molecular events taking place in plant cells during cryostorage.

  11. Bioremediation model for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils using phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a locally adapted microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga-Navarrete, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca Rosa; Villagómez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Perry, Gregory; Islas-Pelcastre, Margarita

    2017-06-03

    The objective of the present study was to examine a biological model under greenhouse conditions for the bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soils. The model consisted in a combination of phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and rhizopheric bio-augmentation using native Trichoderma sp., and Rhizobium sp. microorganisms that showed no inhibitory growth at 10,000 mg L -1 of herbicide concentration. 33.3 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil of initial concentration was used and an initial inoculation of 1 × 10 9 UFC mL -1 of Rhizobium sp. and 1 × 10 5 conidia mL -1 of Trichoderma sp. were set. Four treatments were arranged: Bean + Trichoderma sp. (B+T); Bean + Rhizobium sp. (BR); Bean + Rhizobium sp. + Trichoderma sp. (B+R+T) and Bean (B). 25.51 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil (76.63%) was removed by the B+T treatment in 40 days (a = 0.050, Tukey). This last indicate that the proposed biological model and methodology developed is useful for atrazine contaminated bioremediation agricultural soils, which can contribute to reduce the effects of agrochemical abuse.

  12. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  13. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L..

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    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants. Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

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    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  15. Sonchus oleraceus Residue Improves Nutritive and Health-Promoting Value of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.): A Metabolic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud O; Saleh, Ahmed M; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2018-03-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of the phenolic-rich Sonchus oleraceus residue as an environmentally safe approach to induce the nutritive and health-promoting values of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco). S. oleraceus shoot residue, at rates of 150 and 300 g m -2 , has improved soil fertility via accumulation of soil macronutrients, organic matter, organic carbon, and total phenolics. The growth and yield of bean were significantly increased. Moreover, chemical composition of the treated seeds was significantly altered, whereas higher levels of total antioxidant capacity, proteins, carbohydrates, and most of the individual phenolic acids, flavonoids, vitamins, essential amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were recorded. Interestingly, a concentration dependent effect was also observed, for instance, a lower saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio was only observed in the case of the lower residue rate. These findings recommend the use of S. oleraceus in organic farming of bean to enhance the health benefits of the produced seeds.

  16. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

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    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  17. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  18. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

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    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  19. Cellulosimicrobium funkei-like enhances the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris by modulating oxidative damage under Chromium(VI toxicity

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    Chinnannan Karthik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of agriculture land by heavy metals is a worldwide risk that has sped up noticeably since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, there arise the demands of heavy metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial strains for specific metal contaminated agricultural sites restoration. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were screened out from the rhizospheric soil of Phaseolus vulgaris. Among these, two bacterial strains AR6 and AR8 were selected based on their higher Cr(VI tolerance (1200 and 1100 μg/mL, respectively and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. In the molecular characterization study, both the bacterial strains showed 99% homology with Cellulosimicrobium funkei KM032184. In greenhouse experiments, the exposure of Cr(VI to P.vulgaris inhibited the growth and photosynthetic pigments and increased the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant expressions. However, rhizosphere bacterial inoculations alleviated the negative effect of Cr(VI and enhanced the seed germination rate (89.54%, shoot (74.50%,root length (60%, total biomass (52.53%, chlorophyll a (15.91%, chlorophyll b (17.97%, total chlorophyll (16.58% and carotenoid content (3.59%. Moreover, bacterial inoculations stabilized and modulated the antioxidant system of P. vulgaris by reducing the accumulation of Cr in plant tissues. The present finding shows the Cr(VI tolerance and plant growth promoting properties of the rhizosphere bacterial strains which might make them eligible as biofertilizer of metal-contaminated soils.

  20. Evaluation of some residual bioactivities of microencapsulated Phaseolus lunatus protein fraction with carboxymethylated flamboyant (Delonix regia gum/sodium alginate

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    Mukthar Sandovai-Peraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of peptides, an unexploited source could be Phaseolus lunatus being an important raw material for those functional products in order to improve their utilization. In addition to improve the beneficial effect of bioactive peptides the microencapsulation could be a way to protect the peptides against the environment to which they are exposed. P. lunatus protein fraction (<10 kDa of weight was encapsulated using a blend of carboxymethylated flamboyant gum (CFG and sodium alginate (SA at different concentrations of CaCl2 and hardening times. After in vitro digestion of microcapsules the residual activity, in the intestinal system, both inhibition of agiotensin-converting enzyme (I-ACE and antioxidant activity obtained were in a range of 0.019-0.136 mg/mL and 570.64-813.54 mM of TEAC respectively. The microencapsulation employed CFG/SA blends could be used controlled delivery of peptide fractions with potential use as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agents.

  1. Functional and conformational properties of phaseolin (Phaseolus vulgris L.) and kidney bean protein isolate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-03-15

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgris L.) seed is an underutilised plant protein source with good potential to be applied in the food industry. Phaseolin (also named G1 globulin) represents about 50 g kg(-1) of total storage protein in the seed. The aim of the present study was to characterise physicochemical, functional and conformational properties of phaseolin, and to compare these properties with those of kidney bean protein isolate (KPI). Compared with kidney bean protein isolate (KPI), the acid-extracted phaseolin-rich protein product (PRP) had much lower protein recovery of 320 g kg(-1) (dry weight basis) but higher phaseolin purity (over 950 g kg(-1)). PRP contained much lower sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond contents than KPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed that the phaseolin in PRP was less denatured than in KPI. Thermal analyses in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol, in combination with SH and SS content analyses showed the contributions of SS to the thermal stability of KPI. The analyses of near-UV circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectra indicated more compacted tertiary conformation of the proteins in PRP than in KPI. PRP exhibited much better protein solubility, emulsifying activity index, and gel-forming ability than KPI. The relatively poor functional properties of KPI may be associated with protein denaturation/unfolding, with subsequent protein aggregation. The results presented here suggest the potential for acid-extracted PRP to be applied in food formulations, in view of its functional properties.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  3. Utilization of soil and fertilizer zinc by maize (Zea mays) and moong (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) from some Indian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, B.R.V.; Deb, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of soil and fertilizer zinc by maize (Zea mays) and moong (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was studied under greenhouse conditions in ten soils belonging to three important soil groups of India viz. alluvial, red and laterite using two levels of labelled zinc sulphate. The efficiency of utilization of fertilizer zinc was found to be higher at 10 ppm level of application in both the crops as compared with 20 ppm level of applied zinc. The total utilization of fertilizer zinc by both the crops in different soils ranged from 0.47 to 1.34 percent and 0.41 to 0.95 percent at 10 and 20 ppm level of applied zinc, respectively. Application of fertilizer zinc resulted in a decrease in the uptake of soil zinc. The utilization of fertilizer zinc was found to be negatively correlated with soil pH but the interaction of different soil characters seemed to have determined the efficiency of fertilizer use by both the crops. The efficiency of fertilizer zinc utilization was found to be low in moong as compared with maize. (author)

  4. Biología floral y sistema reproductivo dePhaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Fabaceae

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    Patricia S. Hoc

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las observaciones realizadas sobre la biología floral y los experimentos realizados para conocer el sistema reproductivo permiten concluir que: 1. la antesis dura de 9-13 horas y pueden reconocerse dos fases florales, en la segunda el estigma no está receptivo; 2. el estigma se encuentra receptivo en los capullos, cuando las anteras no están dehiscentes, por lo tanto las flores son protóginas; 3. el néctar es secretado durante la fase 1; 4. la composición del néctar reúne las características de las plantas melitófilas; 5. ni la lluvia ni la llovizna afectan la composición del néctar o la viabilidad polínica debido a que se encuentran protegidos, pero afectan el trabajo de los polinizadores; 6. las flores son papilionadas, están adaptadas a himenópteros medianos y la transferencia polínica es nototriba; ell polen es presentado en los tricomas estilares, 7. los valores obtenidos del ISI y del RRS muestran que la variedad es parcialmente autocompatible, por lo tanto su éxito reperoductivo aumenta si trabajan los polinizadores; 8. individuos de Centris sp. y una casta de Bombus atratus son los visitantes legítimos más importantes, porque trabajan en todas las plantas conespecíficas y liban néctar en pocas flores (en fase 1 por planta durante cada visita, mientras que individuos de Bombus opifex, otra casta de Bombus atratus y Megachile spp., aunque son visitantes legítimos, trabajan con menor frecuencia y constancia; 9. algunos lepidópteros son ladrones de néctar porque liban pero no desencadenan el mecanismo de transferencia polínica.Observations made in Salta, northern Argentina, for a complete flowering season of five plants from several patches, allowed the authors to conclude: 1. anthesis lasts 9-13 hours and consists of two floral phases, in the last of which the stigma is not receptive; 2. stigma is receptive in the bud when anthers are not dehiscent, hence the flowers are protogynous; 3. nectar is secreted during

  5. PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS SOSTENIBLES QUE INCREMENTAN LOS RENDIMIENTOS DE DIFERENTES CULTIVOS EN SANCTI SPÍRITUS, CUBA

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    Kolima Peña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como escenario 4 agroecosistemas de la Provincia de Sancti Spí - ritus, Cuba. Se estudió la respuesta productiva de diferentes cultivos de hortalizas y granos a la cobertura muerta dispuesta sobre el suelo y al empleo de biofertilizantes en condiciones experi - mentales de campo y en diferentes tipos de suelo. Dentro de las hortalizas se evaluó la cebolla ( Allium cepa L. y el tomate ( Solanum lycopersi - cum L.; para ambas se utilizó diferentes tipos de cobertura muerta sobre el suelo. Con los granos, se empleó Fitomas-E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol ( y microrganismos eficientes en maíz ( Zea mays L.. El diseño experimental para los 4 experimentos fue de bloques al azar. En todos el rendimiento de los cultivos fue superior en las variantes tratadas en relación con el control. Cuando se usó cobertura muerta en cebolla y tomate, el mayor rendimiento se obtuvo con el tratamiento con restos de cosecha de arroz: 14,08 y 31,25 t.ha -1 , respectivamente. En el cultivo del frijol ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. la mejor combina - ción fue la aplicación conjunta de Fitomas E y Biobras 16, con un rendimiento de 2,23 t.ha -1 . La producción de maíz fue superior en más del 50% cuando se usó microorganismos eficientes en correspondencia con la variante control. Las prácticas agrícolas evaluadas contribuyeron a mejorar la respuesta productiva en todos los cultivos donde fueron aplicadas.

  6. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  7. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

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    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  8. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  9. Qualidade da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris em dois sistemas de preparo do solo Quality of the mechanical harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris under two tillage systems

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    Rouverson Pereira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as etapas de produção do feijoeiro a colheita é uma das mais importantes, porque pode interferir de maneira decisiva na qualidade e no custo de produção. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da operação da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, cultivado sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. As variáveis analisadas foram: o nível de ruído emitido, calculado através de um medidor de pressão sonora; o desempenho operacional, sendo monitorado o consumo de combustível, a patinagem dos rodados e a velocidade de deslocamento do conjunto coletados em uma central digital (datalogger; e a operação de colheita quanto à matéria seca e densidade de palhada, e as perdas na colheita. A velocidade e os consumos horário e operacional apresentaram distribuição normal dos dados, enquanto que o nível de ruído apresentou distribuição assimétrica. As perdas na colheita mecanizada de feijão e a densidade de palhada apresentaram baixa variabilidade e distribuição normal. Assim, apenas o consumo horário e a produção de matéria seca de palhada apresentaram comportamento instável em relação ao controle estatístico de processo, enquanto os demais indicadores mostraram condições de manter a qualidade da operação de colheita tanto no preparo convencional de solo quanto no plantio direto.Among the production stages of the bean plant, harvesting is one of the most important, because it can decisively affect both quality and production costs. Thus, the objective was to assess quality in the mechanized harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, grown under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. The variables analysed were: the noise level emitted, calculated using a sound-pressure meter; the operational performance, by monitoring fuel consumption, wheel-slippage, and displacement velocity of the machine, all collected digitally (datalogger; and the harvesting operation with regard to the dry matter and

  10. Cambio tecnológico en los agroecosistemas por migración familiar: el caso del municipio de Jamapa, Veracruz / Technological change in agroecosystems due to family migrations: The case of the Jamapa municipality, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosales-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración es una estrategia de supervivencia aplicada en contextos de pobreza, para aliviar la problemática de salarios bajos y necesidades familiares atendidas ineficientemente. El objetivo fue realizar una comparación del manejo tecnológico de las actividades agropecuarias que realizaron las familias antes y después de migrar en el municipio de Jamapa, Veracruz, desde el año 1979 hasta 2008. Se realizó una encuesta a 45 familias con migrantes, utilizando un cuestionario con 115 preguntas cerradas, durante el año 2009. Se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos (McNemar, Chi2 = 18.91 y p < 0.001 con connotación negativa en el total de la tecnología usada para las actividades de maíz, frijol y ganadería bovina. La definición de cambio negativo se fundamentó en que los elementos tecnológicos que utilizaban los productores antes de migrar y que después de migrar no utilizaron, fueron 265; el grupo de elementos tecnológicos con cambio positivo que antes no usaban y después sí utilizaron fue de 173 elementos. Puede concluirse que el flujo migratorio ha influido negativamente en los cultivos de maíz (Chi2= 122.49, p < 0.001 y frijol (Chi2 = 98.09, p < 0.001, pero positivamente en la actividad de ganadería (Chi2 = 116.48, p < 0.001. De esa manera, la economía de las familias con migrantes en los agroecosistemas de Jamapa mejoró, pero se redujo la diversidad de actividades agropecuarias. Palabras clave: Migrantes, tecnología, maíz, frijol, ganadería. ABSTRACT Migration is a survival strategy that is applied in situations of poverty, to lighten the problem of low salaries and inefficiently managed family needs. The purpose of this study was to compare the technological management of farming activities, applied by families before and after migrating, from 1979 to 2008 in the municipality of Jamapa, Veracruz. A survey was applied to 45 families with migrants, with a questionnaire of 115 closed questions, during the

  11. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  13. Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs

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    Francisco Castillo Rangel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (control; 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25; and 0.40 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40. Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate, MRT (mean retention time, and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN. Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM, which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg−1/h and MRT (h were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg−1 of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.

  14. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  15. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphate (PO4 (3-)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), ferrous (Fe(2+)), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), in both seasons. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The agronomic performance of P. vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution.

  16. Specificity of induced defenses, growth, and reproduction in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in response to multispecies herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Cuny, Maximilien A C; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2015-08-01

    • Following herbivore attack, plants can either reduce damage by inducing defenses or mitigate herbivory effects through compensatory growth and reproduction. It is increasingly recognized that such induced defenses in plants are herbivore-specific, but less is known about the specificity of compensatory responses. Damage by multiple herbivores may also lead to synergistic effects on induction and plant fitness that differ from those caused by a single herbivore species. Although largely unstudied, the order of arrival and damage by different herbivore species might also play an important role in the impacts of herbivory on plants.• We investigated the specificity of defense induction (phenolics) and effects on growth (number of stems and leaves) and reproduction (number of seeds, seed mass, and germination rate) from feeding by two generalist leaf-chewing herbivores (Spodoptera eridania and Diabrotica balteata) on Phaseolus lunatus plants and evaluated whether simultaneous attack by both herbivores and their order of arrival influenced such dynamics.• Herbivory increased levels of leaf phenolics, but such effects were not herbivore-specific. In contrast, herbivory enhanced seed germination in an herbivore-specific manner. For all variables measured, the combined effects of both herbivore species did not differ from their individual effects. Finally, the order of herbivore arrival did not influence defense induction, plant growth, or seed number but did influence seed mass and germination.• Overall, this study highlights novel aspects of the specificity of plant responses induced by damage from multiple species of herbivores and uniquely associates such effects with plant lifetime fitness. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Annotation, Phylogeny and Expression Analysis of the Nuclear Factor Y Gene Families in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Carolina eRípodas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plant nuclear factor Y (NF-Y genes have gained major interest due to their roles in many biological processes in plant development or adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly in the root nodule symbiosis established between legume plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria. NF-Ys are heterotrimeric transcriptional complexes composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC, which bind with high affinity and specificity to the CCAAT box, a cis element present in many eukaryotic promoters. In plants, NF-Y subunits consist of gene families with about ten members each. In this study, we have identified and characterized the NF-Y gene families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain legume of worldwide economical importance and the main source of dietary protein of developing countries. Expression analysis showed that some members of each family are up-regulated at early or late stages of the nitrogen fixing symbiotic interaction with its partner Rhizobium etli. We also showed that some genes are differentially accumulated in response to inoculation with high or less efficient R. etli strains, constituting excellent candidates to participate in the strain-specific response during symbiosis. Genes of the NF-YA family exhibit a highly structured intron-exon organization. Moreover, this family is characterized by the presence of upstream ORFs when introns in the 5' UTR are retained and miRNA target sites in their 3' UTR, suggesting that these genes might be subjected to a complex post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple protein alignments indicated the presence of highly conserved domains in each of the NF-Y families, presumably involved in subunit interactions and DNA binding. The analysis presented here constitutes a starting point to understand the regulation and biological function of individual members of the NF-Y families in different developmental processes in this grain legume.

  18. Localization of the Bacillus subtilis beta-propeller phytase transcripts in nodulated roots of Phaseolus vulgaris supplied with phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maougal, Rim Tinhinen; Bargaz, Adnane; Sahel, Charaf; Amenc, Laurie; Djekoun, Abdelhamid; Plassard, Claude; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Soil organic phosphorus (Po) such as phytate, which comprises up to 80 % of total Po, must be hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called phytases to be used by plants. In contrast to plants, bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, have the ability to use phytate as the sole source of P due to the excretion of a beta-propeller phytase (BPP). In order to assess whether the B. subtilis BPP could make P available from phytate for the benefit of a nodulated legume, the P-sensitive recombinant inbred line RIL147 of Phaseolus vulgaris was grown under hydroaeroponic conditions with either 12.5 μM phytate (C₆H₁₈O₂₄P₆) or 75 μmol Pi (K₂HPO₄), and inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 alone, or co-inoculated with both B. subtilis DSM 10 and CIAT899. The in situ RT-PCR of BPP genes displayed the most intense fluorescent BPP signal on root tips. Some BPP signal was found inside the root cortex and the endorhizosphere of the root tip, suggesting endophytic bacteria expressing BPP. However, the co-inoculation with B. subtilis was associated with a decrease in plant P content, nodulation and the subsequent plant growth. Such a competitive effect of B. subtilis on P acquisition from phytate in symbiotic nitrogen fixation might be circumvented if the rate of inoculation were reasoned in order to avoid the inhibition of nodulation by excess B. subtilis proliferation. It is concluded that B. subtilis BPP gene is expressed in P. vulgaris rhizosphere.

  19. beta. -1,4-glucan occurring in homogenate of Phaseolus aureus seedlings. Possible nascent stage of cellulose biosynthesis in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, S; Matsuda, K; Tamari, K

    1976-12-01

    A small amount of cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan, which might be involved in the synthesis of cellulose in the cell wall, was found in the homogenate prepared from the hypocotyls of seedlings of Phaseolus aureus. Upon hydrolysis by cellulase of the 20,000xg pellet from the cytoplasmic fraction of segments incubated in a (/sup 14/C)-glucose solution, (/sup 14/C)-cellobiose was produced, with specific radioactivities 3 to 10 times greater than those of the cellobiose from cellulose in the cell wall at various incubation periods. The incoporation of radioactivity from (/sup 14/C)-glucose into this cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan was therefore faster than that into cellulose constituting the cell wall. Hence, it seemed that the former ..beta..-1,4-glucan could be turned over. To examine whether the cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan is carried by some subcellular components, cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan in the cell was fractionated by differential centrifugation, two enzyme activities being measured as the markers of subcellular components. The distribution of ..beta..-1,4-glucan was similar to that of UDPG-glucosyl-transferase activity but not to that of IDP-ase activity. The result suggests that the cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan has some relation to plasma membranes. Coumarin, known as a specific inhibitor for the biosynthesis of cellulose in plant cells, was shown to inhibit the incorporation of radio-carbon from (/sup 14/C)-glucose into cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan to the same extent as that into cellulose in the cell wall of the hypocotyls.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will

  1. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Mingli Chen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY. The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  2. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  3. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from North-western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Bawa, Vanya; Paliwal, Rajneesh; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Mohd Ashraf; Mir, Javid Iqbal; Gupta, Moni; Sofi, Parvaze A; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf

    2018-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in the world. The beans grown in north-western Himalayas possess huge diversity for seed color, shape and size but are mostly susceptible to Anthracnose disease caused by seed born fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Dozens of QTLs/genes have been already identified for this disease in common bean world-wide. However, this is the first report of gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose using bean germplasm from north-western Himalayas of state Jammu & Kashmir, India. A core set of 96 bean lines comprising 54 indigenous local landraces from 11 hot-spots and 42 exotic lines from 10 different countries were phenotyped at two locations (SKUAST-Jammu and Bhaderwah, Jammu) for Anthracnose resistance. The core set was also genotyped with genome-wide (91) random and trait linked SSR markers. The study of marker-trait associations (MTAs) led to the identification of 10 QTLs/genes for Anthracnose resistance. Among the 10 QTLs/genes identified, two MTAs are stable (BM45 & BM211), two MTAs (PVctt1 & BM211) are major explaining more than 20% phenotypic variation for Anthracnose and one MTA (BM211) is both stable and major. Six (06) genomic regions are reported for the first time, while as four (04) genomic regions validated the already known QTL/gene regions/clusters for Anthracnose. The major, stable and validated markers reported during the present study associated with Anthracnose resistance will prove useful in common bean molecular breeding programs aimed at enhancing Anthracnose resistance of local bean landraces grown in north-western Himalayas of state Jammu and Kashmir.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  5. REACTION OF INTRODUCED BEAN (PHASEOLUS ACCESSIONS TO THE INFESTATION BY THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA (BERKELEY & BROOME UNDER NATURAL EPIPHYTOTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A periodic phytopathology field monitoring was conducted on 35 introduced common bean (Phaseolus accessions at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute in 2014. The epiphytotic disease black root rot on the bean crops (over 75 % reduction of the stand was recorded for the first time for the area of Bulgaria. The causal agent isolated from the plant tissue was identified as the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola (Berkeley Ferraris. A strong relationship between disease severity variation and environmental and soil conditions was established. Black root rot was most severe when cool and wet weather occurred from seedling time to about three weeks after planting, combined with increased soil compaction. Field resistance was recorded in Bulgarian var. “Plovdivski zult”, var. “Starozagorski tzer” and line № 564 (3,66%, 5.33% and 6,50 % dumping-off of bean seedlings, respectively. Bean accession introduced from dry climate areas were highly susceptible to black root rot pathogen (over 76.0 % dumping-off of bean seedlings. Indirect relationship was found between bean tolerance to Th. basicola and presence of the anthocyanin in the hypocotyl and seed coat color. Install the average negative correlation between seed color signs (and hypocotyl and the resistance of plants to Th. basicola. Samples with resistance to black root rot belong to the group with beige, red, brown or black color of seeds. The presence of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins in the seed coat and hypocotyls beans can serve as an indirect indication of the selection of resistant to black rot breeding materials.

  6. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  7. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Guillermo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabaceae (legumes is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean 1. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome.

  8. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signalling via reactive oxygen species (ROS

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    Dalia eDuran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN as a jasmonic acid (JA–dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the 'damaged self' from the damaged 'non-self'. The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason.

  9. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

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    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  10. Conformational study of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) by tryptophan fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wen, Qi-Biao

    2011-01-12

    Fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study changes in the conformation of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) under various environmental conditions. The possible relationship between fluorescence data and DSC characteristics was also discussed. Tryptophan fluorescence and fluorescence quenching analyses indicated that the tryptophan residues in KPI, exhibiting multiple fluorophores with different accessibilities to acrylamide, are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains close to at least some of the tryptophan residues. GdnHCl was more effective than urea and SDS in denaturing KPI. SDS and urea caused variable red shifts, 2-5 nm, in the emission λ(max), suggesting the conformational compactness of KPI. The result was further supported by DSC characteristics that a discernible endothermic peak was still detected up to 8 M urea or 30 mM SDS, also evidenced by the absence of any shift in emission maximum (λ(max)) at different pH conditions. Marked decreases in T(d) and enthalpy (ΔH) were observed at extreme alkaline and/or acidic pH, whereas the presence of NaCl resulted in higher T(d) and ΔH, along with greater cooperativity of the transition. Decreases in T(d) and ΔH were observed in the presence of protein perturbants, for example, SDS and urea, indicating partial denaturation and decrease in thermal stability. Dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide have a slight effect on the thermal properties of KPI. Interestingly, a close linear relationship between the T(d) (or ΔH) and the λ(max) was observed for KPI in the presence of 0-6 M urea.

  11. Daya Simpan Susu Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L. dengan Persentase Penambahan Sari Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilla Dwi Andrestian

    2015-06-01

    Mung bean milk is one of the diversification of processed mung beans. The process of making mung bean milk using Ultra High Temperature (UHT is abundantly sold in the market. As another alternative to have a high shelf life, it needs the addition of natural preservatives such as red ginger. In general, this research aim was to determine the effect of addition of the percentage of red ginger extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum on storability of green beans milk (Phaseolus radiatus L.. This research consisted of two phases, preliminary research and main research. The former stage was conducted to determine the best acceptability of nine treatment variations of red ginger extract addition. After preliminary research was made and it obtained the best results preferred by panelist, it was then followed by main research to determine the storability of green beans milk. From preliminary research, theres were three treatment preferred by panelists, namely P3 (0.75%, P5 (1.25% and P6 (1.5%. After that, those  treatments were tested for their storability in main research. From main research it showed that Q0 (control treatment can last for 0 day, Q1 treatment with the addition of red ginger extract 0,75% and Q2 (1.25% having storability for 1 day and Q3 (1.5% having the best treatment that had the longest storability (for 2 days. The more addition of red ginger extract, the longer storability of green beans milk. The best favored and longest storability of green beans milk was one added with red ginger extract of 1.5%. Keywords: Green Bean Milk, Storability, Red ginger

  12. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  13. Relationship between seed coat colors and patterns with phenolic content and antioxidant activity in a collection of 120 heirloom accessions of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) from the National Plant Germplasm System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide. They are the most important legume for direct human consumption with more than 23 million metric tons produced in 2013; more than twice that of the next most important legume, chickpea (Cicer...

  14. Projection from the prefrontal cortex to histaminergic cell groups in the posterior hypothalamic region of the rat. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemistry of histidine decarboxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bol, J.G.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the projection from the infralimbic division of the prefrontal cortex (area 25) to histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic area. Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Frozen brain sections were subjected to combined

  15. Fabenol® Max, a standardised aqueous extract from Phaseolus vulgaris L., and ‘reduces the absorption of carbohydrates’: evaluation of a health claim pursuant toArticle 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Fabenol® Max and ‘reduces the absorption of carbohydrates’. The Panel considers that Fabenol® Max, which is an aqueous extract from Phaseolus vulgaris L. standardised by its content of α-amylase inhibitor, is sufficiently characterised. According...

  16. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  17. Fitorremediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados

    OpenAIRE

    Maqueda Gálvez, Alma Patricia

    2003-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se cultivaron plántulas de Beta vulgaris (acelga) , Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol) y Petroselinum crispum (perejil) a nivel de laboratorio. Se aplicaron cuatro tratamientos: T1 (50 mg Pb/kg de vermiculita y 2 mg Cd/kg de vermiculita), T2 (75 mg Pb/ kg de vermiculita y 2 mg Cd/kg de vermiculita), T3 (150 mg Pb/kg de vermiculita y 2 mg Cd/kg de vermiculita) y suelo contaminado, SC (208.19 mg Pb/kg y 10.04 mg Cd/kg. Las plántulas de acelga y de frijol se ...

  18. Abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence as a unique solution to control the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A S A; Massoud, M A; Abdel-Megeed, A A M; Hamid, N A; Mourad, A K K; Barakat, A S T

    2007-01-01

    Field trails were conducted to determine the performance of three different sequences as a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the two successive seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, during the evaluation period, the side effect against the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was put into consideration. Meanwhile, the comparative evaluation of the pesticides alone showed that abamectin and azadirachtin were highly effective against Liriomyza trifolii, while carbosulfan, pymetrozine and thiamethoxam provided to be of a moderate effect. Moreover, carbosulfan showed harmful effect to the larvae of the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker), while abamectin and azadirachtin gave a moderate effect. Thiamethoxam and the the detergent (Masrol 410) had slight effect in this respect. The highly effective sequence among the sequences was abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin, against Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), with slight harmful effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). However the sequence of azadirachtin, pymetrozine and abamectin had a moderate effect on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and exhibited a slight toxic effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). In contrast, the sequence of carbosulfan, thiamethoxam and pymetrozine was the least effective and represented a slight effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). From this study, it was concluded that abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence has proved to be a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus.

  20. Evaluación por rendimiento de 12 genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tipo Bola roja y Reventón para las zonas frías de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jesús Edgardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es un alimento básico en la región Andina por ser una fuente rica en proteína y de bajo costo. La investigación para incrementar rendimientos en esta leguminosa es una opción para mejorar la competitividad en el mercado mundial. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar por rendimiento los genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble, tipos Bola roja y Reventón, para las zonas frías de Colombia mediante el análisis de sendero. Se realizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres réplicas para evaluar 10 genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble. El análisis de sendero para el rendimiento por planta y las correlaciones entre el rendimiento y sus componentes mostraron que el carácter número de vainas por planta es el de mayor importancia sobre la determinación del rendimiento, en comparación con los caracteres peso de 100 semillas y número de semillas por vaina, tanto en los genotipos de fríjol voluble tipo Bola roja como tipo Reventón. 

  1. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  2. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  3. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M.; Arthur, Valter

    2011-01-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  4. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  5. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  6. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  7. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  8. Pencegahan hipertensi dan penebalan dinding aorta dengan pemberian kecambah kacang hijau (Phaseolus radiatus (L pada tikus putih Sprague Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Swasono Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes with high-fat food consumption is one of the factors the risks of cardiovascular diseases like of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. A healthy diet and a balanced diet and consume foods that contain lots of antioxidants is one of the effective ways to prevent hyperlipidemia. Mung bean sprouts have properties that neutralize free radicals cause Hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases because it is an antioxidant compound. Objective: The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of mung bean sprouts (Phaseolus radiatus (L to blood pressure and histopathology aorta of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Method: The type of study was experimental research using pre-post test controlled group design for blood pressure variable and post test only controlled group design histopathology aorta. The thirty-five of Sprague-Dawley male rats was eight weeks divided into 5 groups. The first group was given standard diet, group 2 was given a hight fat diet, the third group was given a high-fat diet and mung bean sprout 0,67 gram, group 4 was given a high-fat diet and mung bean 1,34 gram, and group 5 was given a high-fat diet and vitamin E doses of 23 IU. Results: Result of this study showed that after 4 weeks of treatment, increased in blood pressure systole in the given of  high fat diet higher than group who were given a high fat diet and mung bean sprout and also on group who were given high fat diet and vitamin E, but there is no difference effect a decrease in blood pressure between the provision of mung bean sprouts and vitamin E (p>0,05. Statistical analysis to thick the wall the aorta show the similarity meaningful in all the treatment group, it can be said that overall thick the wall the aorta in this research is not different. Conclusion: A dose of mung bean sprout 0,67 g is optimal doses in preventing a rise in blood pressure and prevent alterations histopathology Sprague-Dawley male rats.

  9. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  10. Control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation and glutathione by the incident light red/far red ratio in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Tambussi, Eduardo A; Diego, Fanello; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-01-05

    The effects of red/far red (R/FR) ratios on leaf ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) accumulation were examined in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Growth under low R/FR ratios resulted in a "shade" phenotype and much lower leaf AA and GSH contents than high (R/FR) ratios. Photosynthesis rates were unaffected by changes in the R/FR ratio but leaf respiration rates, pyridine nucleotide pools and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased under the low R/FR regime. The GSH pool changed slowly in response to altered R/FR ratios but leaf ascorbate acclimated over a single photoperiod. We conclude that light quality signals, particularly R/FR ratios, are important regulators of antioxidant synthesis and accumulation. These acclimatory changes are an early response to changing light environment.

  11. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Mantequilla to inoculation of Rhizobium native strains of the Ecuador in greenhouse native races of the Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.

  12. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteleto, Patricia B.; Lomonaco, Cecilia; Kerr, Warwick E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  13. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  14. A Comparison of the Molecular Organization of Genomic Regions Associated with Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Two Phaseolus vulgaris Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E. Perry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to common bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in Phaseolus vulgaris is conditioned by several loci on different chromosomes. Previous studies with OAC-Rex, a CBB-resistant, white bean variety of Mesoamerican origin, identified two resistance loci associated with the molecular markers Pv-CTT001 and SU91, on chromosome 4 and 8, respectively. Resistance to CBB is assumed to be derived from an interspecific cross with Phaseolus acutifolius in the pedigree of OAC-Rex. Our current whole genome sequencing effort with OAC-Rex provided the opportunity to compare its genome in the regions associated with CBB resistance with the v1.0 release of the P. vulgaris line G19833, which is a large seeded bean of Andean origin, and (assumed to be CBB susceptible.. In addition, the genomic regions containing SAP6, a marker associated with P. vulgaris-derived CBB-resistance on chromosome 10, were compared. These analyses indicated that gene content was highly conserved between G19833 and OAC-Rex across the regions examined (>80%. However, fifty-nine genes unique to OAC Rex were identified, with resistance gene homologues making up the largest category (10 genes identified. Two unique genes in OAC-Rex located within the SU91 resistance QTL have homology to P. acutifolius ESTs and may be potential sources of CBB resistance. As the genomic sequence assembly of OAC-Rex is completed, we expect that further comparisons between it and the G19833 genome will lead to a greater understanding of CBB resistance in bean.

  15. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  16. Infestation of Phaseolus Vulgaris (L) by the beanfly Ophiomyia Spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Management by Cultural Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayitare, Joseph Sibomana

    1993-04-01

    Cultural practices as management strategy for bean fly control were examined over four cropping seasons in 1991 and 1992 under farmer’s developed field conditions at Oyugis, in Homa Bay District of Western Kenya. In many parts of East and Central Africa, the bean fly is a major constraint to the production of the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris), its incidence causes yield losses averaging 47-87%, Control methods used against the pest are mostly insecticides based. Cultural control as a pest management strategy is a less considered area of research which needs to be studied, since it is the first line of defence against pest populations and results in little or no added cost. For this reason studies on five cultural practices (soil fertility, inter cropping, weeding regimes, plant spacing and planting time) on bean fly infestation were undertaken as possible control methods, Increase in nitrogen levels increased bean fly infestation by 12-66%. Phosphorus served as catalyst for nitrogen assimilation. The fertilized plants were more succulent, tender and had more nutrients and therefore offered better conditions for bean fly penetration into bean stems, fecundity and development. However, the infested plants in fertilized soils were able to compensate for the damage caused to them and grew quickly to pass the critical stages. Thus the bean fly infestation had little effect on grain yield. The effect of bean fly infestation on yield when no nitrogen and phosphorus were applied, was a 48% reduction in yield, Therefore, the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers reduced the effect of bean fly damage and increased grain yield. Inter cropping increased bean fly infestation compared to pure stands of beans. The micro climatic conditions (light intensity, temperature and relative humidity) created by inter cropping of beans with maize increased bean fly infestation compared to that in the bean mono crop. Weeding regimes had no effect on bean fly infestation, however

  17. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  18. Del bit al qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Font, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aquest document pretén donar una visió del desenvolupament dels computadors electrònics i dels components que els han fet possibles. Dintre de les opcions de futur en computació, també intenta donar una visió de les bases en que es fonamenta la computació quàntica.

  19. phaseolus vulgaris l.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... After sown seed containers were incubated at temperature of 25 ºC, first and final .... and subsequent contact of seeds with ambient room air) [27]. ... pot which keep lower seed moisture content relative to the original were ...

  20. (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accumulate biomass, remobilization of stored biomass to reproductive organs and ... In several plant species subjected to drought stress, leaf starch and .... Among the yield attributes, the number of pods per plant destined for final harvest to.

  1. PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and other legumes is long cooking time. Ready-to-use ... Basic qualitative screening for common beans has shown that alkaloids, anthraquinone, .... consumption of red meat, refined grains, sweets, French fries, and high fat desserts had.

  2. PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    significant macronutrient in common beans and though the seed is limited in methionine (a sulphur ... The objective in this paper is to review the major biological activities of common beans .... against the development of obesity [32]. Research ...

  3. MANEJO INTEGRADO VS. MANEJO TRADICIONAL DE ANTRACNOSIS EN CULTIVOS DE FRÍJOL EN TIMBIO CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R.

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum en el cultivo de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris en el Municipio de Timbío, Departamento del Cauca - Colombia, se realizó un ensayo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con dos tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Se evaluaron dos variedades de frijol (Diacol Calima y AFR 612 en dos sistemas de manejo: Manejo Tradicional, empleado por agricultores de la zona con aplicaciones frecuentes de fungicidas para controlar la enfermedad. Se evaluaron las variables incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad en hojas, flores y vainas en las etapas V2, V4, R6 del cultivo (primera hoja trifoliada, tercera hoja trifoliada y prefloración y en las etapas R7 (formación de vainas y R8 (llenado de vainas, vainas/planta, producción vainas/parcela, rendimiento grano/parcela (g, peso de 100 semillas (g y porcentaje de germinación. Los resultados mostraron que la variedad Diacol Calima bajo Manejo Tradicional presentó los porcentajes más altos de incidencia de antracnosis en las etapas V2, V4 y R6 para hojas y R8 en vainas. La variedad AFR 612 en Manejo Integrado presentó los porcentajes de incidencia de antracnosis más bajos y los mayores rendimientos.

  4. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  5. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  6. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  7. Tolerância à salinidade em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L Salt tolerance in bean (Paseolus vulgaris cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Broetto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações das técnicas da cultura de tecidos no melhoramento é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentam tolerância à salinidade. Vários autores obtiveram linhas de células tolerantes ao estresse salino; e estudo de mecanismos bioquímicos da tolerância a sais em plantas tem demonstrado altas correlações entre estes e o acúmulo de macromoléculas em tecido de plantas superiores. Para verificar essas correlações em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cv IAC carioca, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários foram cultivados em meio sólido, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0 a 60 mM. Após 13 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto ao crescimento relativo, teor de proteínas, teor de prolina e atividade da peroxidase. Os parâmetros analisados mostraram decréscimo no crescimento relativo e no de proteínas em resposta ao NaCl. Paralelamente, observou-se aumento significativo no conteúdo de prolina e atividade da enzima peroxidase.One of the applications of the tissue culture technique in plant improvement is the identification of cell lines which show salinity tolerance. Several authors were able to obtain saline stress-tolerant cell lines and show that mechanisms of tolerance to salts have a strong correlation between this phenomenon and a high macromolecule concentration in plant tissues. Callus obtained from embrionic axis of Phaseolus vulgarís cv. IAC carioca in solid medium, supplemented with 0 to 60 mM NaCl, as the salt treatment, were used. Callus harvesting was done on the 13th day, when they were processed for relative growth, protein, proline content and peroxidase acivity. The results show both, a decrease of the relative growth and of protein content in response to the NaCl treatment, as compared to controls. However, there was a significant increase on the proline content and on the peroxidase activity.

  8. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  9. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  10. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  11. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  12. Vigencia del Darwinismo

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Enrique P

    2009-01-01

    En este ensayo se presenta una revisión histórica del signifcado y legado del darwinismo, con énfasis en el último siglo. La principal conclusión es que la visión darwiniana de la evolución, con las modifcaciones requeridas para dar cuenta de los grandes desarrollos de la disciplina, se ha impuesto y mantiene vigencia en nuestros días. En particular, el papel del azar, la evolución como proceso de “descendencia con modifcación” a lo largo de diversas ramas del árbol de la vida, el pensamiento...

  13. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Khanra, Partha; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g −1 at a current density of 1.3 A g −1 . • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g −1 at a current density of 1.3 A g −1 . The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials

  14. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovation Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Khanra, Partha [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Srivastava, Suneel Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials.

  15. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of 210 Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and 210 Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the 210 Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the 210 Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg -1 fresh wt. The results suggest that the 210 Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the 210 Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  17. Soil to plant 137Cs transfer factors in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem from a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Palacios, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs in soil, maize plants, (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones with different soil contamination characteristics. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural practices without fertilizers, pesticides or artificial irrigation.The 137 Cs determinations were performed using a low background gamma spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137 Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For the edible parts of the plants the amount of 137 Cs in the maize grains was one order of magnitude lower than for the beans. The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. (author)

  18. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C

    2003-09-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg{sup -1} dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk.

  19. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  1. Symptomless endophytic fungi suppress endogenous levels of salicylic acid and interact with the jasmonate-dependent indirect defense traits of their host, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meléndez, Ariana L; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Symptomless ‘type II’ fungal endophytes colonize their plant host horizontally and exert diverse effects on its resistance phenotype. Here, we used wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants that were experimentally colonized with one of three strains of natural endophytes (Bartalinia pondoensis, Fusarium sp., or Cochliobolus lunatus) to investigate the effects of fungal colonization on the endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and on two JA-dependent indirect defense traits. Colonization with Fusarium sp. enhanced JA levels in intact leaves, whereas B. pondoensis suppressed the induction of endogenous JA in mechanically damaged leaves. Endogenous SA levels in intact leaves were significantly decreased by all strains and B. pondoensis and Fusarium sp. decreased SA levels after mechanical damage. Colonization with Fusarium sp. or C. lunatus enhanced the number of detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from intact leaves, and all three strains enhanced the relative amount of several VOCs emitted from intact leaves as well as the number of detectable VOCs emitted from slightly damaged leaves. All three strains completely suppressed the induced secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) after the exogenous application of JA. Symptomless endophytes interact in complex and strain-specific ways with the endogenous levels of SA and JA and with the defense traits that are controlled by these hormones. These interactions can occur both upstream and downstream of the defense hormones.

  2. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  3. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp on the ALL cell line (Jurkat. The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL.

  4. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  5. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  6. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  7. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  8. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds by PEG 600–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was established. According to a Box–Behnken design (BBD, involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH42SO4 (w/w, 18% PEG 600 (w/w, 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  10. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  11. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate: Effect of high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Li, Lin

    2008-10-15

    The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment at 200-600MPa, prior to freeze-drying, on some functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of vicilin-rich red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond (SS) contents were also evaluated. HP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure, as evidenced by gradual increases in fluorescence strength and SS formation from SH groups, and decrease in denaturation enthalpy change. The protein solubility of KPI was significantly improved at pressures of 400MPa or higher, possibly due to formation of soluble aggregate from insoluble precipitate. HP treatment at 200 and 400MPa significantly increased emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI); however, EAI was significantly decreased at 600MPa (relative to untreated KPI). The thermal stability of the vicilin component was not affected by HP treatment. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility of KPI was decreased only at a pressure above 200MPa and for long incubation time (e.g., 120min). The data suggest that some physiochemical and functional properties of vicilin-rich kidney proteins can be improved by means of high-pressure treatment. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. La luz del origen del universo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in 1965. The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary. At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored.En 1965 se descubrió el fondo de radiación de microondas, un eco luminoso de la Gran Explosión (Big Bang. La cantidad de información contenida en esta reliquia del universo primitivo es verdaderamente extraordinaria. En la actualidad los datos más precisos sobre el origen y estructura del universo provienen del estudio de esta luz primigenia, que aún no ha sido explorada en todo su potencial.

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus...... vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight....

  14. Archivo del Duelo

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Photos taken from the Archive of Mourning following the March 11 terrorist attacks El Archivo del Duelo. Creación de un archivo etnográfico de los Atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia HUM2005-03490.

  15. Displasias del seno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrade Valderrama

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available En general, las Displasias no se presentan antes de la iniciación del estímulo Gonadal y tienden a desaparecer con el climaterio. Se definen entonces como las afecciones benignas del Seno, de origen endocrino.

  16. Analysis, method and techniques for the studying of Cesium-137 transfer from soil to plants (maize and beans) (continuation of the technical report GSR-91-20); Analisis, metodo y tecnicas para estudio de transferencia de Cesio-137 de suelo a plantas (maiz y frijol) (continuacion del informe tecnico GSR-91-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes N, M L

    1992-12-15

    In this report the complete results of transfer of corn and bean whose objective is to determine the transfer of Cs-137 via: soil {yields} root {yields} plant, which is determined by the transfer factors or concentration factors (FC), which indicates the incorporation from Cs-137 to soil and plant starting from two models of compartments which were already described in the technical report GSR-91-20-1 that precedes to this are presented. These results correspond to that carried out during the agricultural cycle of 1991, as well as the first results corresponding to 1992 in the radioactive wastes storage center (CADER) in Mexico. (Author)

  17. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gallego G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333. Aquellos que mostraron un buen comportamiento en componentes de rendimiento fueron: 3164, 3159, 3176 y Radical. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como posibles candidatos parentales ó sobresalientes en el programa de mejoramiento de fríjol. También se realizó análisis de dos marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR ligados a los genes Co-4 y Co-5 que confieren resistencia a C. lindemuthianum, ninguno de los materiales de evaluación a excepción del testigo resistente G-2333, amplificó los marcadores SCAR, asociados a los genes de resistencia de interés.Under Bogotá plateau (Colombia conditions, 32 cultivars of climbing bean were evaluated by components of yield and by reaction with a mixture of isolations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum coming from Boyacá and Cundinamarca. The cultivars that presented a good behavior in yield and resistance reaction to the disease were: D. Moreno and 3198. Those that expressed a resistant reaction to the anthracnose were: 3180, 3182, 3177 and G-2333. Finally those that showed a good behavior in yield components were 3164, 3159, 3176 and Radical. These genotypes could be used as excellent candidates in the breeding program of common bean. It was also carried out a test for each cultivar, by means of two markers molecular type SCAR tried to resistance genes to anthracnose Co-4 and Co-5. Any of the evaluation materials amplified for the couple of genes, except for the resistant control G-2333.

  18. La crisi del diritto del lavoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto - L’Autore ripercorre in chiave critica l’evoluzione delle politiche legislative in materia di lavoro, alla luce dell’attuale fase di crisi economico finanziaria. Nell’esaminare i principali interventi normativi attuati da inizio secolo, l’Autore mette in evidenza le scelte di metodo e gli elementi di continuità che accomunano i vari provvedimenti, individuandoli nell’affannosa ricerca del punto di equilibrio tra flessibilità e garantismo. La riflessione si chiude con alcuni interrogativi sulle ultime linee di riforma del mercato del lavoro e con l’auspicio che, anche al cospetto delle imprescindibili ragioni dell’economia, il diritto del lavoro possa continuare a svolgere il proprio tradizionale ruolo di disciplina di tutela della persona.   Abstract - The author analyzes, with a critically oriented approach, the development of the employment law, in the light of the current economic and financial crisis. In examining the main regulatory measures implemented since the beginning of the century, the author highlights the methodological choices and the elements of continuity that unite the various measures, focusing them in a hard research of a point of balance between flexibility and security. The discussion concludes with some questions about the last lines of the reform of the labor market and with the hope that, even in the face of compelling reasons of economy, labor law can continue to play its traditional role of governing the protection of person.

  19. OBJETIVO DEL DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M. Pérez O.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, también conocidos como los Objetivos del Milenio, constituyeron las metas finales que aprobaron los dirigentes mundiales, 189 jefes de estado y de gobierno en la Cumbre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas celebrada en Nueva York en el año 2000, en la cual los Estados miembros de la organización reafirmaron su compromiso de luchar por un mundo en el que el desarrollo sostenible y la eliminación de la pobreza tuvieran máxima prioridad1 . En la cumbre se definió la Declaración del Milenio, la cual detalla los objetivos, principios, valores, metas y acciones para erradicar la pobreza Mundial hacia el año 2015, todos ellos ratificados con alto interés y acción estratégica de carácter global, como marco para la medición de los progresos en materia de desarrollo.

  20. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  1. Castillo del Real. Olocau

    OpenAIRE

    AUÑÓN VALLEJO, JONATAN

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo que se quiere alcanzar con este proyecto es el de realizar un estudio lo más cercano posible del Catillo del Real, de manera que se pueda conocer su origen, su evolución a lo largo de la historia, así como las diferentes técnicas y sistemas constructivos utilizados en su construcción. Auñón Vallejo, J. (2011). Castillo del Real. Olocau. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14244. Archivo delegado

  2. La Representabilidad del Genocidio

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona González, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta hacer una aproximación histórica y analítica al fenómeno del Genocidio, sus implicaciones sociales y culturales que dieron como resultado la reformulación analítica y conceptual de hechos que hasta entonces superaban el conocimiento y la moral humana. De este modo, se hace un trayecto histórico de la paulatina aparición del asesinato masivo como practica de Estado, enmarcado en las experiencias del genocidio armenio y el alemán. A su vez, se hace una mirada sobre ...

  3. Significado presente del CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Gallardo, Miguel Angel

    2000-01-01

    Not available

    Este artículo, elaborado en 1999, ofrece una panorámica de la realidad del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en la actualidad. Repasa su organización, su volumen de publicaciones, sus indicadores de productividad, su capacidad de obtener recursos y, en suma, su lugar en el conjunto del sistema español de Ciencia y Tecnología, considerado en sí mismo y en relación con la Universidad. Como conclusión del repaso de datos, se afirma que, aunque la fó...

  4. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  5. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  6. Erodabilidad y erosión hídrica potencial en un sector de la cuenca del rio Otún - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madero Morales Edgar Enrique

    1996-12-01

    textura, aceptación de lluvia, efecto torsional, pérdida de suelo real y con pendiente del 9%, surcamiento tienen relación con las pérdidas de suelo en lo referente a Material Erodable y a Volumen de Flujo Superficial; no pretenden cuantificar las pérdidas actuales o potenciales de un lugar, pero pueden servir como estimativos de la variabilidad del factor K en función de la labranza, del contenido de grava superficial, del estado de humedad del suelo y del tiempo. Para predecir el avance de la erosión laminaren porciones de suelo desnudo, Bergsma (1989 propuso un sistema semicuantitativo, cuyo principio consiste en determinar la frecuencia de aparición de seis rasgos micro topográficos superficiales después de cada lluvia y a partir de la última labor de preparación: peds resistentes, superficies erodadas, superficies de flujo, presurcos y surcos, depresiones y vegetación o piedras; la extensión de cada rasgo no pasa de 25 cm. La densidad mínima de observaciones demostró el valor práctico de las pruebas de erodabilidad requiriéndose no más de tres repeticiones por unidad de manejo. Hubo mayor proporción de suelos (8 de 12 con baja erodabilidad. La evolución de los rasgos micro topográficos superficiales reveló que en maíz, frijol y pasto de corte aumentaron paulatinamente las superficies de flujo y los presurcos; la tendencia en cebolla fue similar pero con incremento relativo de los surcos. Los sistemas de cultivo de frijol y pasto de corte fueron los de menor riesgo de erosión hídrica dado que permitieron poca pérdida de suelo en los terrenos más inestables; los de maíz y cebolla permitieron el mayor avance de la erosión en los suelos más estables.

  7. Preferencias del Turista

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    Jose Luis Leiva Olivencia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen aplicaciones orientadas al turismo basadas en realidad aumentada, pero no integran técnicas de recomendación. Este articulo describe RAMCAT (Realidad Aumentada Móvil Contextual Aplicada al Turismo un modelo de guía turística, que recomienda puntos de interés, teniendo en cuenta factores como preferencias personales y atributos contextuales. Se presentan los componentes teóricos de la arquitectura propuesta, así como sus características, destacando la integración de diferentes sistemas de recomendación, que permiten añadir nuevos motores en el futuro. El articulo se centra en describir sus funcionalidades y el modulo correspondiente al sistema de recomendación basado en el perfil del turista. Otra característica importante del sistema propuesto es la retroalimentación del mismo mediante calificaciones del turista y su trazabilidad.

  8. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La millonaria contratación del futbolista David Beckham, un fenómeno del mercado, ha provocado cuestionamientos a los que se busca respuesta. Es tema de análisis el por qué el betseller "Harry Potter" ha causado tanta conmoción en la opinión pública. Respecto al periodista cibernético, se señalan los contornos del presente y atisban las posibilidades del futuro de esta nueva profesión. El tratamiento de los mitos de la prensa, los temores de la Ley mordaza venezolana y la brutalidad de los video juegos e Internet son temas de enorme interés. Se comenta las pocas veces que la prensa reflexiona sobre la comunicación corporal y la anorexia.

  9. Los muertos del Floreanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del crimen político un “vicio de nacimiento”. El asesinato del general Antonio José de Sucre, la muerte de los miembros de la sociedad El Quiteño Libre, el homicidio de Juan Otamendi, entre otros, hicieron patente esta característica.

  10. Niveles del aprendizaje organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Castrillón, Manuel Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    En la propuesta de modelo de aprendizaje organizacional (AO), la segunda variable se denomina niveles del aprendizaje organizacional ; los niveles de aprendizaje que contemplamos para nuestra investigación son: individual, de equipo, organizacional e interorganizacional.

  11. La escritura del Yo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Landaeta Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Si la creación de una imagen fidedigna del mundo fue la condición de la conquista cognitiva y económica de la tierra, las imágenes mediáticas circulan hoy en día a la manera de un montaje que organiza los sujetos como elementos de un territorio. En esta presentación abordaremos el cruce entre estos dos hechos, entre la escritura del mundo y la de los sujetos, a partir de la idea de Fabulación para mostrar otra escritura del mundo y del yo, leyendo textos e imágenes de la Primera buena Corónica y Buen Gobierno de Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala.

  12. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F; Ferreira, W P M

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO 2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO 2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  13. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  14. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  15. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  16. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  17. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  18. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  19. Location of Heitz's Zerstaeubungsstadium (Dispersion phase) in the mitotic cycle of Phaseolus coccineus and the concept of angiosperm endomitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, A.; Cionini, P.G.; D' Amato, F. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Inst. di Genetica)

    1981-01-01

    DNA microdensitometry and autoradiography after treatment with /sup 3/H-thymidine were used to study the phase of dispersion of chromocenters (Z phase) in parallel with chromocentric nuclei in Phaseolus coccineus. In all materials studied, two types of chromocentric nuclei were present. In radicle apices of dry seeds, two classes of nuclear DNA contents were measured, 2 C (G/sub 1/) and 4 C (G/sub 2/). The 2 C DNA class comprised all chromocentric type I nuclei, the 4 C class included Z phases and chromocentric type II nuclei. The 4 C (G/sub 2/) condition of Z phases implies that Z phases maintain their nuclear structure for some time after the end of DNA replication. Shoot apices also contain 2 C (G/sub 1/) and 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei but 4 C nuclei (Z phases and chromocentric type II nuclei) are rare. In seedling root apices, Z phases are from 1.02 to 4.08 times as frequent as prophases. This excludes that Z phase as a very early prophase. DNA microdensitometry shows that the chromocentric type I includes 2 C (G/sub 1/) nuclei in the first part of the S phase, Z phases include 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei and nuclei in the last stage of the S phase and chromocentric type II includes mainly 4 C (G/sub 2/) nuclei and nuclei in the second part of S. After 90 minutes of treatment with /sup 3/H-thymidine all Z phase nuclei are labeled. This result and the microdensitometric data demonstrate unequivocally that Z phase is located at the end of S. The present results and those of previous authors on Z phase are discussed in relation to Geitler's concept of Angiosperm endomitosis. It is concluded that the term 'Angiosperm endomitosis' must be abandoned and substituted by the term 'chromosome endoreduplication'.

  20. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  1. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla eReinprecht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  2. Cytokinin oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris callus tissues. Enhanced in vitro activity of the enzyme in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatfield, J.M.; Armstrong, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of metal ions on cytokinin oxidase activity extracted from callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern have been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N 6 -(Δ 2 -isopentenyl)-adenine-2,8- 3 H (i 6 Ade) to adenine (Ade). The addition of cupric ions to reaction mixtures containing imidazole buffer markedly enhanced cytokinin oxidase activity. In the presence of optimal concentrations of copper and imidazole, cytokinin oxidase activity was stimulated more than 20-fold. The effect was enzyme dependent, specific for copper, and observed only in the presence of imidazole. The substrate specificity of the copper-imidazole enhanced reaction, as judged by substrate competition tests, was the same as that observed in the absence of copper and imidazole. Similarly, in tests involving DEAE-cellulose chromatography, elution profiles of cytokinin oxidase activity determined using a copper-imidazole enhanced assay were identical to those obtained using an assay without copper and imidazole. On the basis of these results, the addition of copper and imidazole to reaction mixtures used to assay for cytokinin oxidase activity is judged to provide a reliable and specific assay of greatly enhanced sensitivity for the enzyme. The mechanism by which copper and imidazole enhance cytokinin oxidase activity is not certain, but the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme was not inhibited by anaerobic conditions when these reagents were present. This observation suggests that copper-imidazole complexes are substituting for oxygen in the reaction mechanism by which cytokinin oxidase effects cleavage of the N 6 -side chain of i 6 Ade

  3. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  4. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  5. Consideraciones alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartaLucía Tamayo Fernandez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La doctora MarthaLucía Tamayo comparte muchas inquietudes alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar; de dónde salió ese nombre; de juntar en medicina y en genética a tres escritores como lo son Jorge Luis Borges, Macedonio Fernández y Julio Cortázar. Su conferencia dice así:

    El término almismo fue ideado por Macedonio Fernández porque defendía mucho el ensimismamiento y el pensamiento hacia el interior, mirar hacia adentro; cada uno somos un “sí mismo” que nos hace diferentes aunque al mismo tiempo podemos ser iguales. Todos tenemos esa parte interior que la medicina debe trabajar y que no puede olvidar.

    “El Libro del Almismo, el libro del pensar” nos lleva a replantear y a repensar un poco la medicina que queremos, una medicina vuelta a pensar.

    Quiero contarles la historia de cómo se llegó a este libro y por qué y para qué se sigue trabajando en estos temas: Después de mi internado y de un trabajo un poco triste de rural, volví al Instituto de Genética y a la Universidad Javeriana en donde encontré al doctor Bernal y un espacio que estaba buscando para esa medicina diferente que quería, con un grupo de personas que me permitía no sólo ver la medicina sino ver muchas otras cosas más; había espacio para la literatura, para Mafalda, para hablar de niños, de locos, había incluso tiempo para hablar de medicina dentro del golf, de carros antiguos y de todo eso fui aprendiendo.

    Eso era lo que estaba buscando. Una medicina que diera espacios diferentes, que fuera más humanizada. Rápidamente me ubiqué y me quedé! No me arrepiento en lo absoluto de haberme quedado porque fue, ha sido y sigue siendo, una experiencia enriquecedora, de muchas vivencias importantes. Sabía exactamente dónde estaba y sabía que había que seguir rápido y había que trabajar muchos aspectos de esa medicina que estábamos buscando y de esa genética especial.

    Rápidamente empezamos a trabajar

  6. Actualidad del relativismo cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Durá, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo tiene tres propósitos. En primer lugar, propone examinar las relaciones entre etnocentrismo y relativismo. El etnocentrismo puede tomar tres formas distintas: a saber, la de una universalidad impostada, la del exotismo y la de un particularismo narcisista exacerbado. El relativismo cultural es una postura que asume la inconmensurabilidad de los conceptos y valores que deben ser considerados como válidos dentro de las imágenes del mundo definidas. En segundo lugar, se argumenta que...

  7. Growth of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell suspension cultures with carbon sources Crescimento de cultura de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. em fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were used to test plant ability to utilize an alternative to sucrose as carbon source and energy for growth. Glycerol, sorbitol and galactose were the alternative carbon sources tested. Cell suspension cultures established on liquid medium containing sucrose were transferred to culture medium supplemented with sucrose or glycerol, or sorbitol, or galactose as the sole carbon source. Fresh and dry weight increasing and protein content showed marked differences among the different carbon sources used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for all the three plant species tested. Galactose and glycerol promoted slow or no growth of the three studied species. Sucrose in liquid medium promoted initiation of meristemoid formation. Sorbitol, which was ineffective on promoting significant growth, was the only alternative carbon source tested that also promoted this effect.Culturas de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram usadas para avaliar a eficiência de fontes alternativas de carbono e energia. Glicerol, sorbitol e galactose foram as fontes alternativas estudadas. As culturas de células estabelecidas em meio líquido contendo sacarose foram transferidas para meios de cultura suplementados com sacarose ou glicerol ou sorbitol ou galactose. A fonte de carbono afetou distintamente os ganhos de matéria fresca, matéria seca e o acúmulo de proteína. A sacarose foi a melhor fonte de carbono para as três espécies estudadas. Galactose e glicerol promoveram pequeno crescimento das três espécies estudadas. A sacarose utilizada como fonte de carbono no meio líquido, promoveu o início de organização celular conhecido como a formação de meristemóides. Sorbitol, que não promoveu crescimento significativo, foi a única fonte alternativa de carbono testada que também promoveu este

  8. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  9. el Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enfoca en la identi- ficación de aquellos factores estructurales que explican la pérdida de dinamismo económico de largo plazo en Colombia y, en particular, en el Valle del Cauca. Se examina la competitividad del Valle en relación con Colombia y con el resto del mundo. Se cuestiona la insistencia en una estrategia exportadora como dinamizadora del desarrollo económico. Se identifica que una gran parte de la población está excluida de los beneficios del desarrollo económico. Para construir un modelo de desarrollo que incluya a esta población se recomienda recuperar la senda de la industrialización, invertir en el capital humano (educación de alta calidad, salud, salubridad y nutrición, e invertir en infraestructura. La participación del Estado en estas inversiones sociales es necesaria para disminuir la desigualdad y aumentar el crecimiento económico.

  10. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  11. Inventario nacional del uso actual del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Oficina Nacional de Evaluación de Recursos Naturales

    1984-01-01

    Establece como se emplea el agua en el Perú, teniendo en cuenta el tipo de uso, consuntivo y no consuntivo, discriminando según sea el destino: agrícola, pecuario, poblacional,industrial, minero, energético y pesquero, así como su localización geográfica; ello con la finalidad de que sirva de información básica para la planificación del desarrollo.

  12. Gerencia del cuidado-gerencia del servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Palmet Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La gerencia de este siglo debe estar plenamente identificada con la administración para planear, organizar, decidir y obtener resultados definidos, evaluados y alcanzados a través de las personas. Para poder gerenciar el cuidado se debe saber administrar. El objetivo de enfermería es cuidar; el objetivo de la gerencia es la conducción de la producción de bienes o servicios en las organizaciones. La gerencia del cuidado implica: motivación, creatividad, responsabilidad y ética por parte del cuidador y de quien cuida, claridad de actitud frente al ser y al qué hacer por parte del cuidador. Se puede concluir que la gerencia (administración, el cuidado (producto de calidad, el servicio (valor intangible, querer servir son un trinomio que deben ir de la mano de manera integrada para el logro de los objetivos propuestos por la organización de salud y de enfermería.

  13. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Etude comparative de la diversité et de la structure génétique de populations sauvages de Phaseolus lunatus L. à l’aide des marqueurs enzymatiques et microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of genetic diversity and structure of wild Phaseolus lunatus L. populations using enzymatic and microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity within and among Phaseolus lunatus L. var. silvester populations from the central valley of Costa Rica was studied using enzymes and microsatellite markers. As expected, microsatellite markers showed more genetic diversity than enzymes markers. However, the relatively moderate genetic diversity displayed can be explained by restricted origin of samples to the central valley of Costa Rica or by the source of the primer. Total genetic diversity (HT and within population genetic diversity (HS were underestimated with enzyme markers. The contribution of among population genetic diversity (DST to total genetic diversity was similar for both markers. Enzymes and microsatellite markers pointed out a high inbreeding level for whole population (FIT and within population (FIS. Within population genetic diversity represents 70% for both genetic markers. So, Lima bean wild populations at the central valley of Costa Rica may constitute valid in situ conservation unit. Wild populations natural sites are submitted to an accelerate change of land use because of demographic pressure and agriculture intensification. It is necessary to conduct an ex situ conservation associated with an in situ conservation. Seeds from the most threatened populations should be collected for an ex situ conservation.

  15. Determinantes del ingreso y del gasto corriente de los hogares

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz C., Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Este ensayo de investigación empírica analiza los determinantes del ingreso y del gasto en los hogares colombianos. Utilizando un modelo del ciclo de vida con datos de la encuesta de hogares de 1994 y 1995, muestra que el comportamiento del ingreso está afectado principalmente por las características demográficas del hogar y los rasgos socio ocupacionales de sus miembros. El comportamiento del gasto está determinado ante todo por el ingreso y, en menor medida, por las características sociales...

  16. Las fluctuaciones del nivel del mar durante el Cuaternario

    OpenAIRE

    Pousa, Jorge Lorenzo; Isla, Federico Ignacio; Schnack, Enrique Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Los cambios del nivel del mar han ejercido una fuerte influencia en la evolución del planeta y en la historia de la humanidad. En una escala de tiempo geológico, las variaciones de los niveles oceánicos han dejado un registro ampliamente distribuido en la forma de depósitos sedimentarios. El descenso del nivel del mar durante la Ultima Glaciación, que alcanzó unos 120 metros hace 18.000 años, permitió la emergencia del estrecho de Bering y la migración humana desde Eurasia hacia América. Se e...

  17. La imagen del pase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Bernal.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un texto del poeta Octavio Paz llamado «La imagen», se busca proseguir la equivalencia entre las imágenes de la poesía y la función que ellas tienen para el poeta, y el fantasma fundamental y su función para el analizante que está en el momento del pase. Se parte de la idea de que la poesía busca entrar en el ser así como el psicoanálisis tiene como finalidad apuntar al corazón del ser del sujeto. Se hace entonces una distinción del concepto de «ser» para el psicoanálisis, haciendo alusión también al discurso de la filosofía. Esclarecido el sentido de lo que es el «ser» para el psicoanálisis, se aborda de lleno – entre otras cosas, relacionadas con la experiencia del pase específicamente- la equivalencia entre la definición que hace Octavio Paz de «La Imagen» y el momento del pase en el análisis de un sujeto, imagen que, al igual que el mito para la filosofía, las leyes para la ciencia y el matema para el psicoanálisis, se constituyen en los instrumentos con los que cada una de estas disciplinas horadan en lo real.

  18. del Estado Aragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselys Cintia Zerpa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostica la situación actual de los bienes que conforman al patrimonio histórico-cultural del Municipio Zamora, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. La Investigación es descriptiva y de campo, comprendió la elaboración de un inventario de los bienes inmuebles, festividades religiosas y manifestaciones artesanales del municipio. Se estudiaron la condición física y uso actual de estos bienes y los planes y proyectos existentes. Analizó el marco normativo que los rige. Se obtuvo la opinión de los representantes de organismos públicos relacionados con la actividad turística del Municipio, de los visitantes, cronistas e historiadores. Aportes: La mayoría de los bienes se encuentran en buen estado de conservación, Las manifestaciones culturales, festividades y la artesanía se desarrollan periódicamente pero no son aprovechadas turísticamente, Se determinó que existe un marco normativo para tales bienes y No existen propuestas actuales referentes a estos bienes. Se reflejó el interés de los sectores institucional y privado para la incorporación de estos bienes a la oferta turística del Municipio y del Estado

  19. APOSTILLAS ACERCA DEL POSTRABAJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torrecilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El más reciente debate en torno al postrabajo transforma la herencia de los dos ciclos que le precedieron desde los años setenta. El primero se correspondía con la crítica de la división social y técnica de labores informada por una filosofía de la alienación o bien por una rectificación de la arquitectónica marxista pero salvaguardando la promesa laborista del buen trabajo. El segundo ciclo hacía eco del rechazo a las cadenas de montaje fordistas y se abría al horizonte de la abolición del trabajo salarial, manteniendo sin embargo el abolengo del sujeto unitario de la historia. La presente escena asume una densidad mayor, producto del encuentro entre las nuevas tecnologías informacionales, las discusiones en el ámbito de la sociología y la antropología, de la tecnología y la ciencia, junto al dueto que inaugura el posmodernismo.

  20. Apostillas acerca del postrabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torrecilla

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available El más reciente debate en torno al postrabajo transforma la herencia de los dos ciclos que le precedieron desde los años setenta. El primero se correspondía con la crítica de la división social y técnica de labores informada por una filosofía de la alienación o bien por una rectificación de la arquitectónica marxista pero salvaguardando la promesa laborista del buen trabajo. El segundo ciclo hacía eco del rechazo a las cadenas de montaje fordistas y se abría al horizonte de la abolición del trabajo salarial, manteniendo sin embargo el abolengo del sujeto unitario de la historia. La presente escena asume una densidad mayor, producto del encuentro entre las nuevas tecnologías informacionales, las discusiones en el ámbito de la sociología y la antropología, de la tecnología y la ciencia, junto al dueto que inaugura el posmodernismo.

  1. La universidad del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO SANCÉN CONTRERAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo señala la necesidad de reconstruir la Universidad, dado el dinamismo que muestra la ciencia y la sociedad, pues trae consigo cambios sustanciales en la visión del mundo y en el aumento del poder del hombre sobre la naturaleza. Se analizan los supuestos epistemológicos de la universidad tradicional y se propone una nueva explicación del conocimiento humano, enfatizando el conocimiento científico. Postula una docencia fundada en las propiedades de la ciencia, cuyo método inductivo basado en los paradigmas vigentes: analítico, crítico, pragmático, ofrece una herramienta para la docencia, la investigación y la difusión de la cultura. Se propone una educación centrada en el sujeto que se hace a sí mismo (etopoiética y que insiste en el proceso de auto-creación del individuo y de la sociedad.

  2. Significado presente del CSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Gallardo, Miguel Angel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Este artículo, elaborado en 1999, ofrece una panorámica de la realidad del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en la actualidad. Repasa su organización, su volumen de publicaciones, sus indicadores de productividad, su capacidad de obtener recursos y, en suma, su lugar en el conjunto del sistema español de Ciencia y Tecnología, considerado en sí mismo y en relación con la Universidad. Como conclusión del repaso de datos, se afirma que, aunque la fórmula del CSIC, como organismo nacional e interdisciplinario, no es la única posible, la organización del Estado de las Autonomías, así como la evaluación de los datos con que se cuenta, la hacen vivamente recomendable. No hay, pues, sino que seguir con su desarrollo.

  3. Dalt del tren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Subirana

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Ens consta que la saviesa popular hi toca més del que a aquest temps d’enquestes, telèfons mòbils i targetes de crèdit li ve de gust admetre, per això em fa gràcia, en veure la pausada però continuada intrusió de la cultura catalana a Internet, recordar les cançons de quan era petit: “Dalt del tren, tots anem-hi dalt del tren, hi ha lloc per tota la gent”, dèiem, i “El tren pinxo de Banyoles és el més bonic que hi ha, ple de llaunes i cassoles i barrets de capellà”. I resulta que per una vegada a la vida hem pujat, efectivament, dalt del tren que passava per l’estació de Catalunya i en cinc anys hem passat de gairebé res a prou pàgines amb un contingut, a més, apreciable i, sobretot, a un petit teixit de persones i institucions que han entès la importància de la revolució comunicativa que Internet representa i que hi teixeixen i projecten webs amb el convenciment dels conversos.

  4. Las carreras del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Piscoya Hermoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La primera década del siglo XXI ha estado signada por un énfasis en los estudiosde prospectiva, los mismos que, a partir de procesos de complejizacióny articulación de la sociedad planetaria como son la digitalización, el progresivodeterioro del medio ambiente, la necesidad del cambio de la matriz energéticay la globalización del mercado, han ensayado hipótesis para identificar lastendencias que se fortalecerán y profundizarán durante las próximas décadas.Desde el punto de vista metodológico, existen muchas maneras de clasificarlaspara conceptualizarlas y entenderlas mejor. Sin embargo, considerando lanaturaleza de esta edición nos proponemos enfocar directamente aquellas queestán estrechamente ligadas a la formación universitaria.Naturalmente, no pensamos que estamos ante tendencias inevitables en lamedida que epistemológicamente la creencia en leyes históricas deterministases insostenible y la práctica social nos muestra que la construcción del futuroes nuestra responsabilidad y siempre rebasa las mejores previsiones.

  5. Componente Cultura del Agua del PMGRH: plan de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Autoridad Nacional del Agua; Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos

    2012-01-01

    Describe el plan de trabajo del Componente Cultura del Agua del Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos (PMGRH) en relacion a dos aspectos estructurales del proyecto: 1. Mejora de la capacidad de la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH) a nivel nacional y 2. Fortalecimiento de las capacidades de GIRH en las cuencas.

  6. En busca del concepto de gerencia del cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Teresa Mora-Delgado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo, presenta los conceptos de gerencia del cuidado de enfermería, desarrollado por las enfermeras profesionales que laboran en le Empresa social del estado Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz de las Ciudad de Cúcuta, desde su desempeño en la asistencia, administración y docencia. Se pretende además precisar los elementos gerenciales, sociales, humanísticos y éticos que deben hacer parte del concepto de gerencia del cuidado.

  7. LA PERSISTENCIA DEL SUBALTERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Beverley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el texto literal de una ponencia presentada en un panel sobre los estudios culturales latinoamericanos en el congreso de LASA en 2001 en Washington DC. Representa la posición desarrollada en el trabajo colectivo del llamado Grupo de Estudios Subalternos Latinoamericano, desde nuestra fundación en 1992 hasta la disolución del grupo en 2001, que sirve como pretexto introductorio para la ponencia. Los otros participantes en el panel eran Walter Mignolo, representando los estudios poscoloniales, Néstor García Canclini y John Kraniauskas, representando los estudios culturales, y Nelly Richard representando la llamada crítica cultural. El trabajo dialoga y debate con cada una de estas posiciones respectivamente desde el punto de vista específico de los estudios subalternos. Concluye con un llamado a una crítica del saber académico en sí.

  8. Acalasia. Controversias del tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo P, Antonio J; Rey T, Mario H; Garzón O, Martín A; Farfán Q, Yesid A; Molano V, Juan C; Marulanda, Juan C; Lizarazo, Jorge I

    2007-01-01

    La acalasia es un desorden motor del esófago caracterizado por pérdida de la peristalsis esofágica con falta en la relajación o relajación incompleta del esfínter esofágico inferior (EEI) (1). La causa exacta de este trastorno es desconocida. Los síntomas más comunes son disfagia, regurgitación, pérdida de peso y dolor torácico (2). La manometría esofágica es el principal método diagnóstico, mostrando aperistalsis del cuerpo esofágico con aumento de la presión, falta de relajación o relajació...

  9. Procedimiento Del Triple Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar L. Bellido Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un procedimiento novedoso basado en un método dialéctico - sistémico - integrador, que facilita la precisión de los fines u objetivos más generales de un proceso de desarrollo comunitario o de otros procesos de cambio deseados (un proyecto sociocultural, una investigación social, un proceso de mejoramiento organizacional, etc.. Su importancia radica en que los fines, según Marx, son una guía que rige como una ley la actuación del hombre y determinarlos es parte esencial del planeamiento del cambio. Se trata de un asunto aparentemente simple, sin embargo, en la práctica es mucho más problemático de lo que comúnmente se cree.

  10. Efecto del silicio y plaguicidas en la fertilidad del suelo y rendimiento del arroz

    OpenAIRE

    Furcal-Beriguete, Parménides; Herrera-Barrantes, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Efecto del silicio y plaguicidas en la fertilidad del suelo y rendimiento del arroz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del silicio en la fertilidad del suelo, la incidencia de enfermedades y plagas insectiles, el rendimiento y la calidad de granos del cultivo de arroz. El estudio se realizó en La Vega, Florencia, San Carlos, Costa Rica entre mayo y octubre en los años 2010 y 2011, en el mismo lote con la variedad CR 4477. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos: silicio al suelo, ...

  11. La variabilidad de la lluvia al sur del paralelo 20º norte en el estado de Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Sierra Morales

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad primordial del estudio fué elegir las fórmulas mas adecuadas para determinar de una manera efectiva la variabilidad de la lluvia en nuestro país, a fin de preparar la programación primero, de la variabilidad de la lluvia en el estado de Veracruz y posteriormente en toda la República. Esta variación que se define como la diferencia con la media calculada en un período considerable de años de observación, es significativa debido a que tiene una relación directa, con las explotaciones agrícolas, con la vegetación y suelos, así como con la distribución de ios núcleos de población y la localización de zonas industriales y de almacenamiento de agua para diversos usos. En este trabajo se tomaron como base 19 estaciones meteorológicas distribuidas en la parte meridional del Estado de Veracruz, evitando que quedaran muy aglomeradas, ya que por tratarse de un trabajo experimental no era necesario emplearlas todas. Una vez reunidos los datos de precipitación anual de un período mayor de 12 años se procedió a calcular la variación interanual de la lluvia cuantificando y calculando la desviación que acusan los valores individuales respecto al promedio aritmético. Con el propósito de tener una idea de cómo la variabilidad afecta el desarrollo de la agricultura, se hizo un análisis de este tipo de actividad tomando como base datos estadísticos de producción de los siguientes cultivos: maíz, frijol, caña de azúcar y café, por tratarse de productos con un rendimiento y consumo muy elevados. Se concluyó que, en general, el rendimiento de los cultivos ofrece una tendencia a disminuir a medida que el coeficiente de variación aumenta; sin embargo hay algunas estaciones en que esto no sucede, lo cual pone de manifiesto que las características agrícolas de un lugar no sólo dependen de la variabilidad, sino de otros factores como son la topografía del terreno, el tipo de clima, las prácticas agrícolas empleadas

  12. Storia del pensiero matematico

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1999-01-01

    Costruita con l'intento di presentare le idee oltre ai protagonisti della matematica, questa storia ha il duplice pregio dell'esaustività e della chiarezza. Essa prevede infatti vari livelli di lettura: lo specialista vi trova una messe di dati, fonti e spunti di ricerca, mentre lo studente ha a disposizione un formidabile strumento di consultazione e sintesi. L'arco temporale coperto è vasto: dalla Mesopotamia a Euclide, da Fibonacci all'invenzione del calcolo infinitesimale, da Gauss a Poincare, con un'appendice dedicata agli sviluppi piu recenti scritta appositamente per la prima edizione italiana del 1991, nei «Manuali» Einaudi.

  13. La escritura del quechua

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, Martine du

    2015-01-01

    La mayor fantasía ha acompañado siempre la transcripción del quechua. El primer intento de sistematización fue el sistema de la Paz, en 1953. Sin embargo, no existe en el comercio un diccionario satisfactorio en lo que se refiere al quechua del Cusco y, prácticamente, nada se edita en quechua, fuera de algunos trabajos antropológicos bilingües. Bajo la égida de la UNESCO, la Academia Peruana de la Lengua Quechua, que tiene su sede en el Cusco, ha colaborado en un diccionario de doce de los tr...

  14. El lenguaje del cerebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibáñez Molina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de nuevas técnicas de análisis de ritmos EEG en estudio de la comprensión del lenguaje permite explorar esta habilidad humana desde una perspectiva de integración de grupos de redes neuronales. Los ritmos de disparo neuronal que generan estos grupos pueden conectarse por sincronía formando unidades funcionales transitorias distribuidas en diversas áreas del cerebro. En esta revisión comentamos algunos de estos ritmos y su relación con el lenguaje.

  15. Plasticidad del sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Garcia-Segura

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan los conocimientos más recientes sobre el fenómeno de la plasticidad del sistéma nervioso, tanto a nivel morfológico como a nivel fisiológico y molecular. Se estudian los cambios morfólogicos y fisiológicos de las neuronas frente a la experiencia. Tambien se considera la adaptación molecular del sistéma nervioso a la información que recibe como la base de todo tipo de plasticidad.

  16. Las causas del desempleo

    OpenAIRE

    García Balbás, Salomé

    2014-01-01

    En este documento vamos a tratar de dar respuesta a la siguiente pregunta: ¿cuáles son las causas del desempleo? Para ello realizaremos un repaso de las principales teorías económicas del desempleo llegando a la conclusión de que existe una causa fundamental que lo genera: la rigidez de los salarios a la baja. Consideramos el desempleo como la existencia de un exceso de oferta en el mercado de trabajo y haremos alusión, únicamente, a la existencia de desempleo involuntario. La exposición de l...

  17. Inventario del Archivo del conde de Bornos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Porras Arboledas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Mi primer contacto con esta Casa se remonta a algunos años atrás, cuando me Mamó la atención un documento muy interesante, publicado a comienzos del presente siglo por el ilustre erudito ubetense don Alfredo Cazaban, por el que los Reyes Católicos hacían merced a su secretario y jefe de la artillería real durante la Guerra contra Granada, Francisco Ramírez de Madrid, personaje madrileño de origen cántabro, de una heredad en término de Jaén —el cortijo de Bornos— por sus grandes esfuerzos en la conquista de las plazas, hasta el momento inexpugnables, de Cambil y Alhabar. Posteriormente, al realizar un estudio sobre el régimen señorial en el Reino de Jaén, intenté localizar los archivos de las diferentes casas nobiliarias asentadas en esta provincia, gracias a lo cual pude saber que la documentación del Condado de Bornos se hallaba en Madrid, bien en la Biblioteca Nacional o en el Archivo Histórico, ya que el actual Conde, el Excmo. Sr. Don Ignacio Ramírez de Haro, así me lo comunicó en marzo de 1983.

  18. Proanthocyanidin accumulation and transcriptional responses in the seed coat of cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different susceptibility to postharvest darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Coutin, José A; Munholland, Seth; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Lukens, Lewis; Crosby, William L; Pauls, K Peter; Bozzo, Gale G

    2017-05-25

    Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown. Seed coat proanthocyanidin levels increased with plant maturation in a darkening-susceptible cranberry bean recombinant inbred line (RIL), whereas these metabolites were absent in seeds of the non-darkening RIL plants. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to monitor changes in the seed coat transcriptome as a function of bean development, where transcript levels were measured as fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped. A total of 1336 genes were differentially expressed between darkening and non-darkening cranberry bean RILs. Structural and regulatory genes of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in seed coats of the darkening RIL. A principal component analysis determined that changes in transcript levels for two genes of unknown function and three proanthocyanidin biosynthesis genes, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE 1, DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE 1 and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE 1 (PvANR1) were highly correlated with proanthocyanidin accumulation in seed coats of the darkening-susceptible cranberry bean RIL. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that in vitro activity of a recombinant PvANR1 was NADPH-dependent and assays containing cyanidin yielded epicatechin and catechin; high cyanidin substrate levels inhibited the formation of both of these products. Proanthocyanidin oxidation is a pre-requisite for postharvest-related seed coat darkening in dicotyledonous seeds. In model plant species, the accumulation of

  19. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    : Microfiltration, membrane, Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP, fermented red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

  20. Determination of soyasaponins in Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by LC-ESI-FTICR-MS and evaluation of their hypoglycemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Pascale, Raffaella; Carbone, Cecilia F; Acquavia, Maria A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Russo, Daniela; Milella, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Soyasaponins are oleanene-type triterpenoid saponins, naturally occurring in many edible plants that have attracted a great deal of attention for their role in preventing chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and the content of soyasaponins in 21 ecotypes of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Leguminosae). High-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS) in conjunction with infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) was applied for the unambiguous identification of soyasaponins Ba (m/z 959.5213, [C 48 H 79 O 19 ] + ), Bb (m/z 943.5273, [C 48 H 79 O 18 ] + ), Bd (m/z 957.5122, [C 48 H 77 O 19 ] + ), and Be (m/z 941.5166, [C 48 H 77 O 18 ] + ), which are the only commercially available reference standards. In addition, the several diagnostic product ions generated by IRMPD in the ICR-MS cell allowed us the putative identification of soyasaponins Bb' (m/z 797.4680, [C 42 H 69 O 14 ] + ), αg (m/z 1085.5544, [C 54 H 85 O 22 ] + ), βg (m/z 1069.5600, [C 54 H 85 O 21 ] + ), and γg (m/z 923.5009, [C 48 H 75 O 17 ] + ), establishing thus their membership in the soyasaponin group. Quantitative and semiquantitative analysis of identified soyasaponins were also performed by RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS; the total concentration levels were found ranging from 83.6 ± 9.3 to 767 ± 37 mg/kg. In vitro hypoglycemic outcomes of four soyasaponin standards were evaluated; significant inhibitory activities were obtained with IC 50 values ranging from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 2.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL and 12.0 ± 1.1 to 29.4 ± 1.4 μg/mL for α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively. This study represents the first detailed investigation on the antidiabetic activity of bioactive constituents found in Fagioli di Sarconi beans. Graphical abstract The first detailed RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS investigation of

  1. Morphological, proteomic and metabolomic insight into the effect of cerium dioxide nanoparticles to Phaseolus vulgaris L. under soil or foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hajar; Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Lucini, Luigi; Majd, Ahmad; Gholami, Mansour

    2018-03-01

    Chemically synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in industry and concern over their impact on the environment is rising. In this study, greenhouse grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were treated with CeO 2 NPs suspensions at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000mgL -1 either aerially by spraying or via soil application. At 15days after treatment, plants were analyzed for Ce uptake, morphological and biochemical assays, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics and proteomics. The results from ICP-MS assays showed a dose dependent absorption, uptake and translocation of Ce through both roots and leaves; Ce content increased from 0.68 up to 1894mgkg -1 following spray application, while concentrations were three orders lower following soil application (0.59 to 2.19mgkg -1 ). Electrolyte leakage increased with NPs rate, from 25.2% to 70.3% and from 24.8% to 32.9% following spray and soil application, respectively. Spraying lowered stomatal density (from 337 to 113 per mm 2 ) and increased stomatal length (from 12.8 to 19.4μm), and altered photosynthesis and electron transport chain biochemical machinery. The increase in Ce content induced accumulation of osmolites (proline increased from 0.54 to 0.65mg/g under spray application), phytosiderophores (muconate and mugineate compounds showed increase fold-changes >16) and proteins involved in folding or turnover. NPs application induced membrane damage, as evidenced by the increase in membrane lipids degradates and by the increase in electrolyte leakage, and caused oxidative stress. Most of the responses were not linear but dose-dependent, whereas metabolic disruption is expected at the highest NPs dosage. Both proteomics and metabolomics highlighted a stronger effect of CeO 2 NPs spraying, as compared to soil application. High concentrations of NPs in the environment have been confirmed to pose toxicity concern towards plants, although important differences could be highlighted between

  2. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  3. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  4. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Knewtson, Sharon Jb; Astudillo, Carolina; Li, Chee-Ming; Fernandez, Andrea C; Grusak, Michael A

    2010-10-05

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 x G19833), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III)-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient) were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe) on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe) on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO) homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity under iron limited conditions may be useful in

  5. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  6. Farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. P. Azevedo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A procura por fontes proteicas alternativas em dietas para peixes é necessária, pois alguns ingredientes proteicos tradicionais apresentam grande variação no preço e disponibilidade. Um experimento de 45 dias foi conduzido em um sistema de recirculação de água com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (peso inicial de 16,2 ± 0,1 g para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris sobre os índices produtivos e composição corporal. Três dietas isonitrogenadas (35% de proteína bruta e isocalóricas (3.100 kcal/kg de energia digestível foram preparadas para incluir 0%; 6,2% e 12,4% de farinha do subproduto de feijão substituindo 0%; 10% e 20% da proteína bruta do farelo de soja, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (n=4. O peso final, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, índice de consumo alimentar, taxa de eficiência proteica e sobrevivência foram similares (P>0,05 entre os peixes alimentados com as dietas experimentais. Nenhuma diferença (P>0,05 foi registrada no teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e extrato etéreo corporais dos peixes. O valor produtivo da proteína bruta e a matéria seca corporal diminuíram (P<0,05 nos peixes alimentados com 12,4% da farinha do subproduto de feijão. A inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão até 6,2% como substituto do farelo de soja não diminui o desempenho produtivo e a composição corporal dos peixes.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J

    2015-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana s-nitrosoglutathione reductase. Further study is required

  8. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  9. Competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Eric; Miceli, Francisco; Tiburcio, Georgina; Gómez, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    1. ¿Qué significa la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 2. ¿Por qué es relevante que adquiera la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo en mi formación? 3. ¿Cómo aprendo la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 4. ¿Cómo aplico la competencia Desarrollo del Pensamiento Creativo? 5. ¿Cómo puedo autoevaluar mi competencia (con miras a un constante crecimiento)?

  10. Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions

    OpenAIRE

    Farnós Amorós, Esther

    2010-01-01

    La tesi doctoral "Ruptura del projecte parental i disposició dels preembrions" analitza els efectes del consentiment a les tècniques de reproducció assistida prestat en el marc d'un projecte parental. La tesi ofereix una resposta als conflictes que enfronten exesposos o exconvivents en relació al destí dels preembrions sobrants d'un cicle de fecundació "in vitro" iniciat durant la relació. Aquests conflictes constitueixen un grup de casos al voltant del qual no hi ha solucions legislatives qu...

  11. La equinoterapia en las distintas alteraciones del desarrollo del menor.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro González, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    La equinoterapia consiste en la utilización del caballo como un método terapéutico para rehabilitar a personas con discapacidad. Esta terapia es considerada una gran alternativa para aumentar el autoestima de los que sufren algún tipo de discapacidad, también a través de esta terapia se mejora y fortalece el estado emocional, así del mismo modo ayuda a mejorar la manera de desenvolverse en su entorno social. Esta terapia se realiza a través de la trasmisión del calor corporal del caballo, del...

  12. Gestión del riesgo del cambio (segunda parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla Salgador, Juan Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición del riesgo base.Segunda parte del artículo acerca del uso de futuros sobre el tipo de cambio. Esta continuación abarca estrategias, definiciones, metodología y explicaciones sobre todo lo relacionado con el Ratio de cobertura de los futuros y la aparición d...

  13. del's Proof

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Gödel's Proof - Incompleteness Theorems. S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 71-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/05/0071-0084. Keywords.

  14. Marketing Mix del Software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith del Carmen Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Por ello, en este trabajo se define el concepto de producto software, se caracteriza al mismo y se exponen sus atributos de calidad. Además, se aborda la mezcla de marketing del software necesaria y diferente a la de otros productos para que este triunfe en el mercado.

  15. Gerencia del servicio

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Peña Acosta

    1992-01-01

    Estamos en la era de la pirámide invertida donde el cliente es primero por lo que es fundamental incentivar la calidad desde abajo; hacer que el trabajador defina su misión, sienta que es parte de la compañía para que la satisfacción del negocio realizado sea de todos.

  16. El Juego del Juego

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Nazaré Cristina

    2012-01-01

    DUVIGNAUD, Jean. El Juego del Juego. Santafé de Bogotá, Colômbia: Fondo de Cultura Econômica, 1997.The game gameDUVIGNAUD, Jean. The Game Game. Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia: Fondo de Cultura Econômica, 1997

  17. El helor del cuerpo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1992-01-01

    Ensayo sobre las formas clásicas y modernas de la metamorfosis. En esta figura mitológica se advierte de manera privilegiada la entrada del imaginario científico, biológico y genético en el dominio de las construcciones literarias y cinematográficas.

  18. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La publicación se centra en temas como: Procesos electorales en México e Italia, se analizan los procesos comunicacionales y sus efectos; las infiltraciones de las agencias de seguridad en la actividad periodística en Europa; la radio y la televisión pública en los EE.UU. Para conocer cómo la prensa enfrenta los problemas críticos entre países, esta el caso de Uruguay y Argentina (discrepancia por la planta de procesamiento de papel y la contaminación del Río de La Plata. Otro artículo refiere la difícil relación entre los medios de comunicación y el gobierno de Chávez en Venezuela. Se aborda el caso brasileño para entender el crecimiento de los Observatorios de Medios; otro sobre el crecimiento del "periodismo confidencial" en la web y la prensa gratuita. Se estudia el impacto de la telenovela "pasión de gavilanes". Para quienes interese la penetración del Internet está: "Usos y competencias del weblog en las corporaciones" más otro sobre la lucha sorda que mantienen los gigantes de la autopista de la información Google y Yahoo.

  19. Punctualizaciones del CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Viene de la pagina anterior. Puntualizaciones del CERN. La valoracion que me merece la aprobacion en el Consejo de Ministros el 24 de mayo de un acuerdo de colaboracion entre el MCYT y el CERN para el proyecto de neutrinos al Gran Sasso es positiva" (1 page).

  20. Software del sistema osteomioarticular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianelys León Medina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aplicación en la enseñanza de las Tecnologías de la Informática y las Comunicaciones, es una de las líneas que ha trazado el sistema de salud cubano en estudiantes de las ciencias médicas. La anatomía es una de las ciencias que integra la disciplina de Morfofisiología y para facilitar su comprensión resulta necesario el empleo de recursos y estrategias, entre los que puede figurar un software educativo. Objetivo: diseñar un software sobre la anatomía del sistema osteomioarticular de cabeza y cuello para los estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Estomatología de Pinar del Río. Material y método: se realizó un estudio cualitativo. Para obtener los resultados se utilizó el método materialista dialéctico. Para la dialéctica del desarrollo del proceso estudiado se utilizaron los métodos teóricos, empíricos, el estudio profundo del tema, tipo de plataforma a utilizar y criterios de los especialistas. Para su procesamiento se utilizaron técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales no paramétricas. Resultados: debido a la necesidad de fortalecer en los estudiantes las habilidades en la utilización de las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones, se elaboró el software de la anatomía del sistema osteomioarticular de cabeza y cuello "Aprendiendo anatomía" mediante imágenes, videos y textos. Conclusiones: el software constituye un aporte al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje, el cual facilita el trabajo independiente y autopreparación mediante la interactividad con el contenido, retroalimentación y evaluación utilizando medios de enseñanza modernos, lo cual tributa al modo de actuación del futuro egresado.