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Sample records for del estroma gastrointestinal

  1. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

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    Jorge Felipe Montero León

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal, conocidos según sus siglas en inglés como GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors, son tumores mesenquimales que aparecen en cualquier lugar a lo largo del tracto intestinal. Este trabajo tiene el propósito de presentar una paciente de 60 años de edad que asiste a la consulta de ginecología del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, por presentar dolor en el epigastrio, que se irradia al flanco derecho, con un aumento de volumen en la fosa iliaca derecha, y por ultrasonografía se plantea un tumor de ovario derecho, que se proyecta hacia el epigastrio y a hipocondrio derecho. Se describe la intervención quirúrgica y los hallazgos encontrados en estudios macro y microscópicos, así como en estudios posteriores por inmunohistoquímica de la lesión. Se concluye con un diagnóstico de tumor del estroma gastrointestinal y los resultados de las intervenciones quirúrgicas y medicamentosas realizadas. Se recomienda valorar la importancia de una estrecha relación entre cirujanos generales y ginecólogos frente a enfermedades inesperadas, por su difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio, que conllevan a un tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado, y que por la complejidad que requieren, necesitan de la competencia de ambas especialidades quirúrgicas.The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Genecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovarium projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies

  2. Imatinib and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST: a selective targeted therapy Imatinib y tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST: un tratamiento selectivo frente a una diana molecular

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    A. Fernández

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by an anomalous receptor for a growth factor with tyrosine-kinase activity (c-kit. This anomaly causes a permanent activation of the receptor and uncontrolled cell growth. These tumors show a poor response to traditional chemotherapy drugs, and are thus associated with low survival in cases of advanced disease. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an example of selective targeted oncologic therapy that induces improved survival in these patients. We discuss two cases of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a good response to imatinib, and also review the pathophysiology and treatment-related outcome of this type of tumors. We include results from clinical phase-III studies.Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal son los tumores mesenquimales más frecuentes del tracto digestivo y se originan de las células intersticiales de Cajal. Se caracterizan por presentar un receptor para el factor de crecimiento con actividad tirosin kinasa (c-kit anómalo que condiciona su activación permanente y un crecimiento celular incontrolado. Tienen una baja supervivencia en casos de enfermedad avanzada, con escasa respuesta a los agentes quimioterápicos tradicionales. El imatinib es un fármaco inhibidor de la tirosín kinasa y un ejemplo de terapia oncológica selectiva que condiciona un importante aumento en la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Se presentan 2 casos de enfermedad metastásica con buena respuesta a imatinib, así como una revisión sobre la fisiopatología y evolución en el tratamiento de este tipo de tumores, incluyendo resultados de estudios en fase III.

  3. Análisis de una nueva variante fenotípica de distrofia del estroma corneal

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    Varela Conde, Yago

    2016-01-01

    Las distrofias corneales son un conjunto de enfermedades hereditarias de la córnea con base genética demostrable y sin afectación sistémica. Su nomenclatura y clasificación han sido revisadas recientemente, prescindiendo de ciertas patologías y agrupando las distrofias en nuevas categorías. Se ha hallado una variante fenotípica atípica con afectación del estroma corneal, por lo que sólo se han revisado las distrofias corneales localizadas a ese nivel (epiteliales-estromales y estromales). ...

  4. Sarcoma de estroma prostático gigante

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    Jose Luis González González

    Full Text Available Los tumores de próstata representan la neoplasia maligna más frecuente en el varón. Mientras que las lesiones epiteliales son frecuentes, las neoplasias de origen mesenquimal representan entre 1 y 2 % de las neoplasias malignas prostáticas. Son poco conocidas, sobre todo las de origen estromal. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 77 años de edad, con un sarcoma del estroma prostático al que se le realiza una exéresis parcial. El tumor ocupa prácticamente la totalidad de la cavidad pélvico-abdominal, con un diámetro de 35 cm y un peso de 3 800 g. Histológicamente se concluyó, como sarcoma prostático aunque en el transoperatorio no se encontró un nexo evidente con este órgano. El comportamiento clínico de estos tumores, basado en los escasos casos descritos en la literatura, es prácticamente desconocido y su diagnóstico preoperatorio difícil. Este paciente se presentó con pérdida de peso, sin dolor, hematuria, ni síntomas obstructivos.

  5. Normal development of fetal hepatic haematopoiesis during the second trimester of gestation is upregulated by fibronectin expression in the stromal cells of the portal triads El desarrollo normal de la hematopoyesis hepática fetal durante el segundo trimestre de embarazo está regulado al alza por la expresión de fibronectina en las células del estroma de las tríadas portales

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    D. Tamiolakis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in midtrimester fetuses the principal site of hematopoiesis is the liver. In hematopoietic organs, stromal cells such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and macrophage-like cells develop networks to maintain hematopoiesis, i.e. hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, and growth, by interaction with hematopoietic progenitor cells. ECM glycoproteins produced by the stromal cells are known to play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Numerous soluble and membrane-bound factors directly regulating haematopoiesis have been documented, but little is known about fetal hepatic stromal cell activity and stromal extracellular matrix protein-fibronectin, on fetal hepatic haematopoiesis. The binding of late stage erythroid cells to fibronectin has been well characterized and is believed to be critical for the terminal stages of erythroid differentiation. The intention of this article is to determine the role of fibronectin in fetal hepatic hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation in different stages of development. Material and method: we examined and compared the immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in the hepatic stromal portal fields in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester of gestation respectively, in relation to the appearance of CD34 progenitor hematopoietic, stromal progenitor and vascular endothelial positive cells. Results: our results demonstrated a quantitative difference in the second trimester of gestation concerning the expression of fibronectin in the connective tissue stroma of the hepatic portal fields over the equivalent expression of the protein in the first (p Objetivo: en el segundo trimestre de la gestación, el principal foco de hematopoyesis del feto es el hígado. En los órganos hematopoyéticos, las células del estroma, como fibroblastos, células epiteliales y células de tipo macrófago, desarrollan redes para mantener la hematopoyesis, es decir, la auto

  6. Gastric stromal tumor presenting as a right upper quadrant abdominal mass. Importance of a correct radiological differential diagnosis; Tumor del estroma gastrico presentado como una masa en el hemiabdomen superior derecho. Importancia de un correcto diagnostico diferencial radiologico

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    Tudela, X.; Garcia-Vila, J. H.; Jornet, J. [Hospital General de Castello. Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract encompass a group of neoplasms representing 1% to 3% of all digestive system tumors. When located in the stomach, their tendency to exhibit and exophytic growth pattern makes it necessary to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to other gastric tumors (lymphoma, exophytic adenocarcinoma) and nongastrointestinal masses. We present a case that illustrated the difficulties associated with the imaging diagnosis of these lesions and the importance of modern radiological techniques (helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance) and the correct interpretation on the part of radiologists to orient pathologists and clinicians toward the diagnosis and proper treatment. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Impacto del cigarrillo en el tracto gastrointestinal: Efecto diferencial en Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa

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    Loni Berkowitz Fiebich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El impacto del consumo de cigarrillo a nivel respiratorio y cardiovascular ha sido extensamente investigado, sin embargo, aún queda mucho por estudiar sobre su impacto en el tracto gastrointestinal. Está demostrado que el tabaquismo es un importante factor de riesgo para desórdenes gastrointestinales, incluyendo úlceras pépticas, Enfermedad de Crohn y distintos tipos de cáncer. Los mecanismos propuestos incluyen daños a nivel de la mucosa, alteraciones en la irrigación del tejido y cambios en la respuesta inmune. Paradojalmente, el consumo de cigarrillo constituye un factor protector para el desarrollo y la progresión de la Colitis Ulcerosa. Esta patología, junto a la Enfermedad de Crohn, conforman las dos entidades más importantes dentro de las Enfermedades Inflamatorias Intestinales y comparten diversas características. El impacto diferencial del consumo de cigarrillo entre ambas ha sido un tema de gran interés en los últimos treinta años, y aún no ha logrado ser esclarecido. En esta revisión describiremos los efectos conocidos del tabaquismo sobre el tracto gastrointestinal, y particularmente en la inflamación intestinal, profundizando en los estudios disponibles que intentan explicar el efecto opuesto del cigarrillo en la Enfermedad de Crohn y la Colitis Ulcerosa

  8. Punções do estroma anterior no tratamento da ceratopatia bolhosa

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    Gomes,José Alvaro Pereira; Haraguchi,Daniel Keizo de Medeiros; Zambrano,Delbis Uzcátegui; Villavicencio,Luis Izquierdo; Cunha,Marcelo C.; Freitas,Denise de

    2000-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito terapêutico das punções do estroma anterior corneal em pacientes com ceratopatia bolhosa (CB). Métodos:Vinte e cinco pacientes com CB sintomáticos, com baixa visão, com e sem indicação de transplante de córnea, foram avaliados antes, uma, 4 e 12 semanas após punções estromais anteriores realizadas com agulha #25 à lâmpada de fenda. Em cada visita, os pacientes foram questionados sobre intensidade da dor, fotofobia, sensação de corpo estranho, além de serem submetido...

  9. Linfomas plasmoblásticos del tracto gastrointestinal en pacientes con sida

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    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV tienen 200 veces más riesgo de desarrollar un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH con respecto a la población general. El linfoma plasmoblástico (LP representa menos del 3% de todos los LNH asociados con el HIV. El objetivo de este estudio es informar las características clínico-patológicas de 5 pacientes con enfermedad HIV/sida y LP del tracto gastrointestinal. Se revisaron de forma retrospectiva los casos de LP del tracto gastrointestinal diagnosticados en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México en el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 al 2009. Se analizaron las características clínico-patológicas y se realizaron cortes de bloques de tejidos embebidos en parafina para reacciones de inmunohistoquímica. La presencia del virus de Epstein Barr (VEB se examinó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR in situ. De los cinco pacientes, cuatro fueron hombres y una mujer, con una mediana de edad de 29 años. Tres tumores se localizaron en la región anorrectal, uno en colon ascendente y el restante en el estómago. Histológicamente, todos los tumores se caracterizaron por una proliferación difusa de células grandes de aspecto plasmoblástico. Las células neoplásicas fueron CD 138/MUM-1 positivas y CD 20 / PAX-5 negativas. En cuatro pacientes se detectó el genoma del VEB en las células neoplásicas mediante PCR in situ. La mediana de seguimiento fue 18 meses; tres pacientes estaban vivos con enfermedad y dos sobreviven sin evidencias de la neoplasia. El diagnóstico precoz de LP como una entidad clínico-patológica es importante para establecer el tratamiento correcto y mejorar el pronóstico de estos pacientes.

  10. Linfomas plasmoblásticos del tracto gastrointestinal en pacientes con sida Plasmablastic lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in AIDS patients

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    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV tienen 200 veces más riesgo de desarrollar un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH con respecto a la población general. El linfoma plasmoblástico (LP representa menos del 3% de todos los LNH asociados con el HIV. El objetivo de este estudio es informar las características clínico-patológicas de 5 pacientes con enfermedad HIV/sida y LP del tracto gastrointestinal. Se revisaron de forma retrospectiva los casos de LP del tracto gastrointestinal diagnosticados en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México en el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 al 2009. Se analizaron las características clínico-patológicas y se realizaron cortes de bloques de tejidos embebidos en parafina para reacciones de inmunohistoquímica. La presencia del virus de Epstein Barr (VEB se examinó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR in situ. De los cinco pacientes, cuatro fueron hombres y una mujer, con una mediana de edad de 29 años. Tres tumores se localizaron en la región anorrectal, uno en colon ascendente y el restante en el estómago. Histológicamente, todos los tumores se caracterizaron por una proliferación difusa de células grandes de aspecto plasmoblástico. Las células neoplásicas fueron CD 138/MUM-1 positivas y CD 20 / PAX-5 negativas. En cuatro pacientes se detectó el genoma del VEB en las células neoplásicas mediante PCR in situ. La mediana de seguimiento fue 18 meses; tres pacientes estaban vivos con enfermedad y dos sobreviven sin evidencias de la neoplasia. El diagnóstico precoz de LP como una entidad clínico-patológica es importante para establecer el tratamiento correcto y mejorar el pronóstico de estos pacientes.The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is 200 times higher in HIV-positive patients than otherwise healthy persons. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL represents < 3% of all NHL associated with HIV infection. The aim of this study

  11. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis.

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    Galloway, D J; Scott, R N

    1986-10-01

    In the developed countries gastrointestinal tuberculosis is no longer common in clinical practice. In this setting the importance of the condition lies in the vagaries of its presentation and the fact that it is eminently treatable, usually by a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. The clinical features and complications of gastrointestinal tuberculosis are highlighted by the seven cases which we report. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition is discussed and attention is drawn to the importance of case notification. Clinicians should bear in mind the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis when dealing with any patient with non-specific abdominal symptoms.

  12. Gastrointestinal bleeding

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    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ...

  13. Evaluación económica del tratamiento con ácido acetilsalicílico más esomeprazol comparado con clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal Economic evaluation of the treatment of aspirin plus esomeprazole compared to clopidogrel in gastrointestinal bleeding prevention

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    Carme Piñol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia del ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS más esomeprazol frente a clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal. Métodos: Análisis coste-efectividad (árbol de decisión de 2 ramas: AAS más esomeprazol y clopidogrel respecto a la evitación de casos de hemorragia gastrointestinal en 2 años, y análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados: El coste total del tratamiento con AAS más esomeprazol (2.865 S por paciente libre de hemorragia fue inferior al clopidogrel (2.965 S. El tratamiento con AAS resultó dominante. En todos los análisis de sensibilidad la combinación siguió siendo dominante. Al sustituir esomeprazol 40 mg por omeprazol 40 mg, el coste del tratamiento combinado descendió hasta 1.934S/por episodio evitado. Conclusiones: La asociación de esomeprazol y AAS es más coste-efectiva que clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal. La combinación con omeprazol resulta aún más coste-efectiva.Objective: To evaluate the use of aspirin plus esomeprazole vs. clopidogrel in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (two-branch decision tree: aspirin plus esomeprazole or clopidogrel of prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period, as well as sensitivity analyses. Results: The total cost of aspirin plus esomeprazole treatment (2,865S/patient free of hemorrhage was lower than that of clopidogrel (2,965S. Aspirin treatment was dominant. The combination continued to be dominant in all sensitivity analyses. When esomeprazole 40 mg was substituted by omeprazole 40 mg, the cost of combination therapy decreased to 1,934 S/prevented hemorrhage. Conclusions: The association of esomeprazole and aspirin is more cost-effective than clopidogrel in preventing gastrointestinal bleeding. Aspirin plus omeprazole was even more cost-effective.

  14. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  15. Tumor misto de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino: relato de caso Mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumor of the uterus: case report

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    Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores mistos de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino, caracterizados pela presença de componentes de ambas as linhagens, coexistindo em proporções quase equivalentes, são neoplasmas raros. Possuem potencial biológico incerto e se comportam de acordo com o componente estromal. A imuno-histoquímica é uma grande aliada no diagnóstico microscópico, pois a clínica e os exames de imagem não ajudam a diferenciá-los de outras doenças uterinas. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente cuja hipótese diagnóstica era de leiomioma uterino e que, após cirurgia, foi diagnosticada pelo estudo anatomopatológico como tumor misto de células musculares lisas e do estroma endometrial uterino.Mixed tumors of uterine smooth muscle and endometrial stromal cells, which are characterized by the presence of components from both cell lineages with similar proportions, are rare neoplasms. Their biological potential is uncertain, and they behave according to the stromal component. Immunohistochemistry is an important ally in microscopic diagnosis, because symptoms and imaging exams do not help in the differentiation from other uterine diseases. We describe a case of a patient who had been previously diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma, and after surgery, the anatomopathological study revealed a mixed tumor of uterine smooth muscle and endometrial stromal cells.

  16. Reliability of the Spanish version of a brief questionnaire on patient satisfaction with gastrointestinal endoscopy Validación de un cuestionario breve sobre satisfacción del paciente en endoscopia digestiva

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    A. Sánchez del Río

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: there has not been a validated questionnaire available in Spanish to evaluate patient satisfaction with gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our aim was to evaluate the external validity and internal consistency of the Spanish version of a questionnaire on patient satisfaction with gastrointestinal endoscopy elaborated by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Design: prospective questionnaire validation study. Patients and methods: a total of 485 consecutive patients referred to two different hospitals for endoscopy were interviewed by telephone. Internal consistency was studied using Cronbach's alfa test and corrected item-total correlations (CITC. External validity was determined using a mailed questionnaire completed by 185 patients -correlations between telephone and postal responses were calculated, as well as the correlation with the total score obtained. Results: Cronbach´s alfa was 0.82 and mean CITC was 0.59. Weighted kappa values for the same questionnaire items performed by telephone or mail varied between 0.51 and 0.81. Total score correlation was 0.78. Internal consistency and external validity were not affected by differences in the administration of the questionnaire (mail or by telephone, different interviewers, type of endoscopy, or source of patients. Conclusions: the Spanish version of the ASGE questionnaire on satisfaction with endoscopy is valid, reliable, and reproducible.Objetivos: no se dispone en castellano de un cuestionario validado para la valoración de la satisfacción del paciente en endoscopia digestiva. Evaluar la validez externa y la consistencia interna de la versión en castellano del cuestionario recomendado por la American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy sobre satisfacción en endoscopia. Diseño experimental: estudio de validación de un cuestionario, recogida de datos prospectiva. Pacientes y métodos: cuatrocientos ochenta y cinco pacientes consecutivos remitidos para endoscopia

  17. gastrointestinal tract

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    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  18. Gastrointestinal Traumatic Injuries: Gastrointestinal Perforation.

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    Revell, Maria A; Pugh, Marcia A; McGhee, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  20. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  1. Fraccionando la microbiota gastrointestinal humana

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    Peris Bondia, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La microbiota gastrointestinal humana es una de las comunidades microbianas más diversa y compleja que se puede encontrar en la naturaleza. Las nuevas tecnologías de secuenciación permiten obtener una amplia visión de la diversidad microbiana, lo que ha revelado una gran cantidad de bacterias no cultivables. A pesar del potencial de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento la metagenómica no muestra la imagen completa. La citometría de flujo es una metodología que permite describir y/o separa...

  2. Caracterização de colágenos tipos I e III no estroma do carcinoma de células escamosas cutâneo em cães

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    S.A.O. Bedoya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE é uma neoplasia epitelial maligna que acomete cães e diversas outras espécies, incluindo a humana. O CCE afeta vários sítios anatômicos e pode desenvolver metástase. O objetivo deste estudo foi a caracterização das fibras de colágenos tipos I e III no estroma do CCE cutâneo de cães. Para este trabalho, utilizaram-se 44 amostras de pele incluídas em parafina e que tiveram prévio diagnóstico de CCE. As amostras foram processadas histologicamente e coradas com hematoxilina/eosina para confirmação do diagnóstico e classificação do grau de diferenciação tumoral e com a coloração histoquímica de picrosirius para observação dos colágenos tipos I e III. O colágeno tipo III mostrou maior expressão nos CCEs cutâneos bem diferenciados. O papel do colágeno do tipo III nas neoplasias não está bem esclarecido, e outros fatores além do grau de diferenciação celular podem estar envolvidos em sua expressão e determinar sua importância na biologia tumoral.

  3. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  4. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  5. Gastrointestinal nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains paper grouped under the headings of: salivary scintigraphy, abscess detection with radionuclides; pediatric gastroenterology; liver spleen, and miscellaneous GI studies: gastrointestinal

  6. RBE of some Sodium, Water and Bioelectric Parameters of Gastro-Intestinal Absorption; L'EBR pour le Transport du Sodium et de l'Eau et pour Certains Parametre Bioelectriques dans l'Absorption Gastro-Intestinale; Obeh v otnoshenii nekotorykh natrievykh, vodnykh i bioehlektricheskikh parametrov vsasyvaniya v zheludochno-kishechnom trakte; La EBR Para el Transporte del Sodio y del Agua y Para Ciertos Parametros Bioelectricos en la Absorcion Gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B. E.; Davis, A. K.; Cummins, J. T.; Alpen, E. L. [US Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1964-05-15

    que aplicaron para efectuar determinaciones bioelectricas y de flujos unidireccionales. Expusieron ratas y perros a neutrones rapidos y a rayos X de 250 kVp (ratas)y de 1000 kVp (perros). Los animales fueron sometidos a una exposicion bilateral de cuerpo entero y en cada caso se determino la dosis profunda. En la rata, a los siete dias a contar de la irradiacion, la actividad bioelectrica en el estomago se reduce notablemente con respecto a la normal, pero no ocurre lo mismo en los tramos inferiores del conducto gastrointestinal. Puede asignarse un valor comprendido entre 2 y 3 a la EBR correspondiente a la reduccion diferida de la actividad bioelectrica gastrica y este efecto se comprueba facilmente con dosis neutronicas de 160 rad (primer choque). En el perro, tres dias despues de la irradiacion, las velocidades de transporte unidireccional del plasma al lumen se reducen, tanto para el sodio como para el agua. Este efecto se observa despues de aplicar 1200 r de rayos X (dosis en el aire) y de dosis neutronicas de 300 rad o bien de 600 rad (primer choque). En cambio, con dosis de 600 r de rayos X (en el aire), dichas velocidades de transporte no disminuyen y se manifiesta la tendencia opuesta. De la reduccion diferida de los transportes del plasma al lumen puede deducirse que el valor de la EBR esta comprendido entre 2 y 6. El mecanismo electrogenico en el estomago del raton, segun estos estudios, posee especificidad con respecto al ion sodio, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en la rana. Los potenciales in vitro coinciden con los determinados in vivo y solo son afectados por el envenenamiento metabolico o la sustitucion del sodio. Comparadas con las mediciones de los parametros bioelectricos, las determinaciones de flujos son mas especificas; sin embargo, su acentuada variabilidad biologica limita su utilidad. En los flujos unidireccionales, del plasma al lumen, se observa una modalidad de alteracion constante en funcion de la irradiacion, que indica que la

  7. Gastrointestinal polyposis in Cowden disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullnig, P.; Steiner, H.; Porsch, G.; Smolle, J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of Cowden disease (multiple hamartoma syndrome) with marked gastrointestinal polyposis is presented. The differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes is discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Aislamiento de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga durante un brote de gastroenteritis en un Jardín Maternal de la Ciudad de Mar del Plata Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains during a gastrointestinal outbreak at a day care center in Mar del Plata City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gomez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre el 15 de octubre y el 8 de noviembre de 2003 ocurrió un brote de gastroenteritis en un Jardín Maternal de un Hospital de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. Catorce de un total de 80 niños (17,5%, edad promedio 23,6 ± 13,9 meses, presentaron diarrea, y un caso evolucionó a síndrome urémico hemolítico. La madre de uno de los afectados presentó diarrea simultáneamente. No se pudo establecer el origen del brote, pero probablemente la transmisión haya sido fundamentalmente persona a persona. Las prácticas habituales en el lactario del jardín maternal, y las condiciones inadecuadas de infraestructura y hábitos de higiene de la cocina del Hospital fueron señalados como factores de riesgo. En un caso se detectó Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC O103:H2, y STEC O26:H11 en otro. En el niño infectado por STEC O26:H11, la excreción se extendió por un período de 37 días. La no detección de STEC en aquellos casos en los cuales el intervalo entre el inicio de los síntomas y la toma de muestra fue mayor a 6 días, enfatiza la necesidad de la recolección temprana de especímenes. Las principales conclusiones de este estudio fueron la necesidad de establecer normas óptimas de higiene, informar rápidamente la ocurrencia de casos de gastroenteritis y confirmar la negativización de la excreción del patógeno.From October 15 to November 8, 2003, a gastrointestinal outbreak occurred at a day care center in a Hospital in Mar del Plata City. Fourteen out of 80 (17.5% children, mean age 23.6 ± 13.9 months, and the mother of one of them had diarrhea. One case developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. No conclusive evidence of the origin of the outbreak was found, but the epidemic curve suggested person-to-person spread. The usual practices at the place where infant milk formula was prepared at the day care center, together with the inadequate infrastructure conditions and hygiene practices at the kitchen of the hospital, were

  9. Angiography and the gastrointestinal bleeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.

    1982-01-01

    The role of angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed. Three categories of gastrointestinal bleeding are considered: upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, upper gastrointestinal bleeding of arterial or capillary origin, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The advantages and disadvantages of angiography are compared with those of radionuclide scanning and endoscopy or colonoscopy. It is anticipated that, as radionuclide scans are more widely employed, angiography will eventually be performed only in those patients with positive scans

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted endoscopic resection of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Resección endoscópica asistida por ecoendoscopia de tumores carcinoides del aparato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: usually found in the gastrointestinal tract, carcinoids are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors. Most of these lesions are located in areas that are difficult to access using conventional endoscopy (small intestine and appendix; carcinoid tumors found in the gastroduodenal tract and in the large intestine can be studied endoscopically; in these cases, if localized disease is confirmed, local treatment by endoscopic resection may be the treatment of choice. Since endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be the technique of choice for the study of tumors exhibiting submucosal growth, the selection of patients who are candidates for a safe and effective local resection should be based on this technique. Patients and method: we selected patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors who were endoscopically treated between 1997 and 2002. Those patients with tumors measuring less than 10 mm, which had not penetrated the muscularis propria, and those with localized disease were considered candidates for endoscopic resection. The endpoints of this study were to assess the effectiveness (complete resection and safety (complications of the technique. Follow-up consisted of eschar biopsies performed one month and twelve months after the resection. Results: during the aforementioned period, we resected endoscopically 24 tumors in 21 patients (mean age: 51.7 years; 71.5% males. Most lesions were incidental discoveries made during examinations indicated for other reasons. Resection was indicated in most cases as a result of the suspected presence of a carcinoid tumor after endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasonography also enabled us to clearly identify the layer where the lesion had originated, as well as the size of the lesion. The carcinoid tumor was removed in 13 cases (54.2% by using the conventional snare polypectomy technique, in 9 cases (37.5% assisted by a submucosal injection of saline solution and/or adrenaline, and

  11. Determinación inmunohistoquímica y utilidad pronóstica del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico en los tumores estromales gastrointestinales Immnunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor and its prognostic value for gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Padilla

    2008-12-01

    ímicos: CD117+, 85,7%. PDGFRA+, 85,7%. CD34+, 77,1%. EGFR+, 62,9%. S100+, 34,3%. Actina+, 20%. Vimentina+, 100%. p53+, 40%. ki67+, 10,71 ± 10,82. La expresión de EGFR no se relacionó con la recidiva y/o mortalidad del enfermo, p = 0,156, y p = 0,332, respectivamente. El índice mitótico se relacionó con la mortalidad del enfermo, p = 0,02, y recidiva neoplásica, p = 0,013. Conclusión: en nuestra muestra no existió relación entre la inmunotinción de EGFR y el pronóstico del tumor estromal gastrointestinal.Introduction: the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR (HER-1, is a tyrosine kinase receptor. EGFR activation plays an important role in increased cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and decreased apoptosis. Our objective was to study EGFR immunoexpression in GIST, as well as its prognostic value. Patients and method: a retrospective study that included all patients operated on with a histologic diagnosis of GIST at Department of Surgery, Hospital General, Ciudad Real, between 1995 and 2007. Clinical features: age, sex, manifestations, mortality, recurrence. Pathological features: origin, size, tumoral necrosis, mitotic index, cell type. Immunohistochemical features: vimentin, (V9, Dako A/s; smooth muscle actin (HHF-35, Biogenex; CD34 (QBEND/10; S100 (Policlonal Dako A/S, CD117, (c-kit Rabbit, antihuman polyclonal antibody, 1:600; PDGFR-alfa (Rabbit polyclonal antibody, 1:50, Sta. Cruz Biotechnology. Prognostic molecular features: P-53, PAb240 (DakoCytomation 1:75; Ki-67, clona MIB1 (Dako, 1:120 y (EGFR pharmDx™ Dako Autostainer (Dako, Denmark. Malignancy critera: Fletcher's critera. Results: from 1995 to 2007, 35 GISTs were resected in our Department. Mean age: 61.11 ± 11.02, with a female predominance of 62.9%. Initial clinical manifestation included digestive hemorrhage in 40%. Median follow-up was 28 months (3-133. Mortality was 54.3%, and recurrence rate was 40%. The most frequent origin was the stomach, 51.4%, (18. There was tumor necrosis in 57.1% (20

  12. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time.

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  14. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  17. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kun

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.

  20. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Marcelo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.

  1. Orexins and gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, M C

    2010-03-01

    Orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) are recently discovered neuropeptides that appear to play a role in various distinct functions such as arousal and the sleep-wake cycle as well as on appetite and regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Orexins were first described as neuropeptides expressed by a specific population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in feeding behaviour. Orexin neurons project to numerous brain regions, where orexin receptors have been shown to be widely distributed: both OXA and OXB act through two subtypes of receptors (OX1R and OX2R) that belong to the G protein-coupled superfamily of receptors. Growing evidence indicates that orexins act in the central nervous system also to regulate gastrointestinal functions: animal studies have indeed demonstrated that centrally-injected orexins or endogenously released orexins in the brain stimulates gastric secretion and influence gastrointestinal motility. The subsequent identification of orexins and their receptors in the enteric nervous system (including the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses) as well as in mucosa and smooth muscles has suggested that these neuropeptides may also play a local action. In this view, emerging studies indicate that orexins also exert region-specific contractile or relaxant effects on isolated gut preparations. The aim of the proposed review is to summarize both centrally- and peripherally-mediated actions of orexins on gastrointestinal functions and to discuss the related physiological role on the basis of the most recent findings.

  2. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J.; Siech, M.

    2000-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  3. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  4. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  5. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Majid T Noghani; Hossein Rezaeizadeh; Sayed Mohammad Baqer Fazljoo; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Mansoor Keshavarz

    2016-01-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which or...

  6. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  8. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  9. Gastrointestinal Eosinofilic Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maria, Roberto; Bohorquez, Maria Amalia; Gonzalez, Irene; Torregroza, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal eosinofilic disorders are little frequent diseases, of etiopatogenia little clear, that are characterized by the presence of an infiltrated eosinofilo that can affect the different layers of the wall of the alimentary canal in absence of known causes of eosinofilia. The clinical manifestations are variable and the symptoms are conditioned by the degree of eosinofilia of the wall, the number of layers affected and the segment of the gastrointestinal tract implied. The presentations symptoms vary from diarrhea, vomits, abdominal pain and loss of weigh until the acute intestinal obstruction. They are characterized to present peripherical eosinofilia, although it is not a forced criterion. Its definite diagnosis is anatomopatologic. The steroid use is considered as the angular stone of the treatment. We present two cases, with different clinical presentation forms, with initial answer to steroids and later relapse after the suspension of these, remaining without symptoms actually with dependency of low doses of steroids. Next we will do the revision of the available literature emphasizing the pathophysiologic data, the clinical evaluation and the therapeutic aspects

  10. Gastrointestinal medications and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, T M

    1998-09-01

    Medications used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms are increasingly being used as more have been gained nonprescription status. Most of the gastrointestinal medications, such as laxatives, antacids, and antidiarrheal agents, are used short term. Women who breastfeed should be aware of the risks of taking any medications, whether prescription or nonprescription. There is little information describing transfer into breast milk for many of these products. Cimetidine, atropine, cascara, cisapride, loperamide, magnesium sulfate, and senna are the only products identified by the AAP as compatible with breast feeding. Metoclopramide is listed by the AAP as a drug whose effect on nursing infants is unknown but may be of potential concern, although studies published to date have not reported any adverse effects. The safest laxatives and antidiarrheals are those that are not absorbed and should be considered first-line therapy for conditions of constipation or loose stools. Famotidine and nizatidine are excreted into breast milk to a lesser extent than cimetidine or ranitidine and may be the preferred histamine antagonists. Despite the limited data on the use of cisapride in nursing women, it is considered safe by the AAP and may be preferred over metoclopramide for first-line prescription treatment of heartburn. Although most of these agents appear safe in the nursing infant, caretakers should be aware of the potential adverse reactions that may occur in infants whose mothers require these products.

  11. Linfócitos CD4, CD8 e células NK no estroma da cérvice uterina de mulheres infectadas pelo papilomavírus humano CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells in the stroma of the uterine cervix of women infected with human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Borges Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A resposta imune pode ser um elemento chave para a progressão ou remissão da infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV no estroma da cérvice uterina. Este estudo objetivou quantificar no estroma cervical a presença de linfócitos T CD4, CD8 e células NK, por imunohistoquímica, em lesões de alto e baixo grau em pacientes infectadas por HPV MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 56 amostras de biópsia da estroma cervical, sendo 43 amostras positivas para DNA de HPV de alto risco oncogênico e com diagnóstico histopatológico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC de alto e baixo grau, ou negativa para lesão intraepitelial e malignidade (NILM, e 13 amostras de pacientes negativas para DNA de HPV com diagnóstico histopatológico NILM RESULTADOS: Maior quantidade de linfócitos T CD4 foi observada em amostras NIC II/III, carcinoma e NILM (p=0,04 e naquelas cuja carga viral esteve entre 10 e 1,000 RLU/PCB. O predomínio de linfócitos T CD8 ocorreu em maior proporção nas amostras NIC II/III (p=0,02 e em amostras com carga viral entre 100 e 1.000 RLU/PCB. As células NK prevaleceram nas amostras com lesões de baixo grau e com baixa carga viral CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo comprovou que nas fases iniciais da infecção, onde não há ainda alterações celulares de alto grau, não temos a presença de células que possam desencadear a fase efetora da resposta imune.INTRODUCTION: Immune response might be a key element regarding the progression or regression of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the stroma of the uterine cervix. This study aimed to quantify the presence of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells in the cervical stroma, by means of immunohistochemistry, in high and low grade lesions in patients infected by HPV METHODS: Fifty-six biopsy samples from the uterine cervix were used. Forty-three samples were positive for oncogenic high-risk HPV DNA and had a histopathological diagnosis of high and low-grade cervical intraepithelial

  12. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid T Noghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD, constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS, inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD, celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna and Râzi (Rhazes believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  13. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    intestinal and colonic transit. This article reviews current imaging techniques, methods for data processing and principles for evaluating results when scintigraphy is used to assess gastrointestinal motility. Furthermore, clinical indications for performing scintigraphy are reviewed.......Gastrointestinal transit reflects overall gastrointestinal motor activity and is regulated by a complex interplay between neural and hormonal stimuli. Thus, transit measurements provide a measure of the combined effects of gastrointestinal muscular activity and feedback from the gut and brain....... Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  14. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT......-related GIT damage and dysfunction. New and novel aspects of drug delivery and drug-dietary supplement interactions are discusses and much needed areas of focus in terms of drug GIT testing are identified....... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  15. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  16. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  17. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  18. Stromal gastrointestinal tumors (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Boykova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: GIST are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with varying tumor grade and frequency of 1: 100 000 per year. Mazur and Clark introduced the term for the first time in 1983. GIST constitute approximately 2% of the tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. The average age is 60 years. The most common locations are the stomach (60%), small intestine (30%), esophagus (1%), and rectum (5%). Learning objective: to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of the disease according to the current ESMO guidelines and to present the diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalitiesnbased on review of literature and on own observations. GIST originate from interstitial cells (of Cajal) in the GIT wall, belonging to the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for motility. 90% of GIST show overexpression of the KIT receptor, also known as CD117 or stem cell factor receptor. those that do not express c-KIT mutations, activate mutations in PDGFRA gene. Tumor’s macromorphology determines the imaging features on different modalities. Most of these tumors are exophytic, subepithelial, reach large size and enhance inhomogeneous due to necrosis. They usually do not cause obstruction. Ultrasound as the initiation method shows low sensitivity and specificity in GIST detection, CT with intravenous contrast is the gold standard. MRI contributes with assessing the vascularisation, cellularity and pH. FDG-PET/CT registers the metabolism of intratumoral acidosis. CT is the method of choice in the early diagnosis and determination of resectability of GIST. MRI is an additional method. PET FDG-CT is useful for the monitoring of patients treated with Imatinib

  19. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  20. Videoendoscopia digestiva superior en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico de Alta Tecnología "Las Heroínas de Mérida" del estado venezolano de Mérida Upper gastrointestinal video endoscopy at the Diagnostic Medical Center of High Technology "Las heroínas de Mérida" of Mérida state in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalis García Paneque

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de los 1 742 pacientes mayores de 18 años en los que se realizó de forma satisfactoria la videoendoscopia del tracto digestivo superior en el Centro Médico de Diagnóstico de Alta Tecnología "Las Heroínas de Mérida" del Estado Mérida (Venezuela, desde el 2008 hasta el 2011, con vistas a describir los hallazgos a través de dicho procedimiento. En la casuística predominaron el sexo femenino (63,3 % y el grupo etario de 46-61 años, con una edad promedio de 55,8 años; además, 30,6 % de las pruebas resultaron normales. El dolor epigástrico (48,6 %, la dispepsia (43,5 % y el reflujo gastroesofágico (8,6 % fueron las principales causas de remisión, en tanto la gastritis (32,4 % constituyó el diagnóstico endoscópico más frecuente, específicamente sus variedades eritematosa y eritemato-erosiva, con 66,0 y 13,0 %, respectivamente. Del total, 10 pacientes presentaron cáncer gástrico y 9, cáncer esofágico. Se pudo concluir que el procedimiento permitió el diagnóstico preciso de las enfermedades del tracto digestivo superior, así como una atención terapéutica adecuada.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 742 patients over 15 years, in whom the video endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract was successfully performed at the Diagnostic Medical Center of High Technology "Las Heroínas de Mérida" of Mérida state (Venezuela, from 2008 to 2011, with the purpose of describing the findings through this procedure. Female sex (63.3% and age group of 46-61 years with a mean age of 55.8 years predominated in the case material, and 30.6% of the tests were normal. Epigastric pain (48.6%, dyspepsia (43.5% and gastroesophageal reflux (8.6% were the main reasons for referrals, while gastritis (32.4% constituted the most frequent endoscopic diagnosis, specifically its erythematous and erythematous-erosive varieties, with 66.0 and 13.0%, respectively. Of the total, 10

  1. Gastrointestinal nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    General localization of gastrointestinal bleeding through the use of labeled red blood cells may be performed in children, or (99m)Tc-pertechnetate may be used if a Meckel's diverticulum is suspected. As in adults, cholecystitis and biliary leak may be assessed in children via (99m)Tc-IDA derivatives. Gastroesophageal reflux can be evaluated by oral consumption of the child's usual diet labeled with (99m)Tc sulfur colloid. For the scintigraphic determination of pulmonary aspiration, a relatively high concentration of tracer within a drop of liquid is placed beneath the child's tongue followed by dynamic imaging of the respiratory tract. Colonic transit scintigraphy can aid in the identification and therapeutic decision-making in patients with functional fecal retention, the most common cause of chronic constipation in children. (18)F-DOPA positron emission tomography is useful for classifying pancreatic involvement in infantile hyperinsulinism as focal or diffuse, thereby differentiating between patients who should receive curative focal pancreatic resection versus those who should receive medical management. Assessment of protein-losing enteropathy can be conducted scintigraphically and, compared with fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin collection, the scintigraphic method can detect esophageal and gastric protein loss. Also, scintigraphic quantification of protein loss can be performed without the requirement for fecal collection. Intestinal inflammation in children with inflammatory bowel disease can be evaluated using (99m)Tc white blood cells. The scintigraphic method is safe, accurate, well-tolerated by children and complementary to endoscopy in most patients

  2. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Choon Keun; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1988-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major diagnostic problem. Although advances have been made in the medical and surgical methods of managing gastrointestinal bleeding, the commonly employed techniques of barium radiography, endoscopy, and angiography may not successfully localize the site and define the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Two widely available technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, sulfur colloid and red blood cells are currently used in the evaluation of patients who are bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. Surgically confirmed 19 patients with use of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid (7 cases) and 99m Tc-RBC (12 cases) were retrospectively evaluated. The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy in detection of bleeding and localization of bleeding site was 68% and 84%, respectively. The authors conclude that bleeding scintigraphy is a safe, sensitive, and non-invasive method as an effective screening test before performing angiography or surgery.

  4. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Radiological Atlas of Gastrointestinal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a reference to gastrointestinal disease and radiographic methods. It provides complete information for diagnosis and management and includes coverage of plain radiography, barium studies, water-soluble contrast studies, and more

  6. GASTROINTESTINAL INJURIES FROM BLUNT ABDOMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-04-04

    Apr 4, 2004 ... Subjects: Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma ... ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. .... predictive value with CT scan, (9) the positive predictive.

  7. CT of acute gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computerized tomography in gastrointestinal tract diseases are presented, including advantages in surgical belly that are: anatomic clarity, wide survey and rapid performance. (C.G.C.)

  8. Drug therapy for gastrointestinal and liver diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballinger, Anne; Farthing, M. J. G. (Michael J. G.)

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Gastrointestinal bleeding Matthew R Banks, Peter D Fairclough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Inflammatory bowel...

  9. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  10. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  11. Cambios en la etiología, resultados y características de los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva aguda grave a lo largo del periodo 1999-2005 Changes in the etiology, outcome, and characteristics of patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding between 1999 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analizar la evolución, a lo largo del periodo 1999-2005, de las siguientes variables de los pacientes ingresados por hemorragia digestiva (HD en una Unidad de Sangrantes: etiología, patología de base, consumo de AINE/anticoagulación y mortalidad. Material y métodos: durante el periodo 1999-2005 se ha estudiado la evolución de las siguientes causas de HD que requirieron ingreso en la Unidad de Sangrantes: ulcus duodenal (UD, ulcus gástrico (UG, hipertensión portal (HPT y otros. De igual forma se ha analizado la evolución en el porcentaje de enfermos ingresados con patología de base, consumo de fármacos AINE/anticoagulantes y mortalidad. Resultados: se han incluido 1.611 pacientes en el estudio con una edad media de 60,45 años (59,7-61,2, 76,41% hombres (74,3-78,5. La UD fue responsable del 22,20% de episodios (20,2-24,3, la UG del 18,40% (16,6-20,4 y la HPT del 33,60% (31,3-36,0. De forma global realizaban tratamiento con AINE el 34,5% (32,6-37,3, anticoagulación el 7,1% (6,0-8,6, presentaban patología de base el 72,6% (70,4-74,8 y la mortalidad global fue del 6,27% (5,16-7,59. A lo largo del periodo estudiado se constató un aumento de los pacientes con patología de base (p Objectives: to analyze the evolution of the following variables in patients admitted to a Blood Unit for gastrointestinal bleeding throughout 1999-2005: etiology, comorbid diseases, use of NSAIDs/anticoagulants, and mortality. Material and methods: we analyzed the evolution of the following causes of GIB that required admission to the Blood Unit from 1999 to 2005: duodenal ulcer (DU, gastric ulcer (GU, portal hypertension (PHT, and others. We also analyzed changes in the percentage of patients admitted with comorbid disease, use of NSAIDs/anticoagulants, and mortality. Results: 1,611 patients with a mean age of 60.45 years (59.7-61.2 were included in this study; 76.41% were males (74.3-78.5. DU was the cause of bleeding in 22.20% of cases (20

  12. Perioperative fasting time among cancer patients submitted to gastrointestinal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nayara de Castro; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2017-05-25

    To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000) and after the surgery (p=0.007), the length of hospital stay (p=0.000), blood transfusion (p=0.013), nasogastric tube (p=0.001) and nasojejunal tube (p=0,003), postoperative admission at ICU (p=0.002), postoperative death (p=0.000) and length of preoperative fasting (p=0.000). The length of fasting is associated with complications that affect the quality of the patients' postoperative recovery and nurses' work. The nursing team should be alert to this aspect and being responsible for overseeing the patients' interest, should not permit the unnecessary extension of fasting. Identificar la duración del ayuno perioperatorio entre los pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, por consulta de los registros médicos de 128 pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. La media de la duración total del ayuno fue de 107,6 horas. La duración total del ayuno se asoció significativamente con el número de síntomas presentados antes (p=0,000) y después de la cirugía (p=0,007), la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (p=0,000), transfusión de sangre (p=0,013),tubo nasogástrico (P=0,003), ingreso postoperatorio en la UCI (p=0,002), muerte postoperatoria (p=0,000) y duración del ayuno preoperatorio (p=0,000). La duración del ayuno se asocia con complicaciones que afectan la calidad de la recuperación postoperatoria de los pacientes y el trabajo de enfermería. El equipo de enfermería debe estar alerta en relación a este aspecto y ser responsable de supervisar el interés de los pacientes, no

  13. Efecto in vitro del extracto acuoso de Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight & Arn. en el desarrollo de las fases exógenas de estrongílidos gastrointestinales de ovinos In vitro effect of the aqueous extract of Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight &Arn. on the development of exogenous stages of gastrointestinal strongyles in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Arece

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto in vitro de extractos acuosos de hojas de marabú (Dichrostachys cinerea en la eclosión de huevecillos, el desarrollo larvario y la migración de las larvas del tercer estadio de estrongílidos gastrointestinales. Los tratamientos fueron tres concentraciones de extractos acuosos de hojas de marabú (500, 250 y 125 mg/mL, soluciones de albendazol y levamisol, así como el Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS y el dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO como controles; el diseño fue completamente aleatorizado. Los porcentajes de eclosión presentaron diferencias significativas entre postratamientos. El PBS ocasionó la mayor tasa de eclosión (96,68%; el 30,51% eclosionó con el albendazol y los extractos de hojas de marabú mostraron tasas de eclosión moderadas (entre 49,75 y 66,54%, al parecer dependientes de la dosis. El desarrollo de las larvas L1/L2 a las L3 tratadas con extracto acuoso de marabú también presentó efectos dosis-dependientes y diferencias significativas con respecto a los grupos controles positivos y negativos. La dosis de 500 mg/mL inhibió el desarrollo larvario en porcentajes similares a los del albendazol (8,89 y 1,28%, respectivamente. El medio PBS no interfirió en la capacidad de migración de las larvas, mientras que con el levamisol los valores se redujeron de 86,45 a 93,92%; los extractos acuosos también redujeron significativamente dicha migración, con valores entre 77,67 y 48,97%. Los extractos acuosos de D. cinerea presentaron actividad antihelmíntica in vitro en los tres estadios de desarrollo del ciclo exógeno de los estrongílidos gastrointestinales de ovinos; esta actividad resultó más evidente en el desarrollo y la migración de las larvas de estos nemátodos.The in vitro effect of aqueous extract of leaves from Dichrostachys cinerea on egg hatching, larval development and migration of third-stage larvae of gastrointestinal strongyles, was evaluated. The treatments were three concentrations of aqueous

  14. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax Gastrointestinal human myiasis for Eristalis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kun

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.Foram caracterizadas as miasis registradas em Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina e estabelecidas as prováveis condições sob as quais são produzidas as infestações. As larvas obtidas a partir das fezes de dois pacientes foram identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphdae. Esses dois casos de miasis gastrointestinal humana foram os primeiros registrados em Bariloche, Argentina, e suas características respondem às registradas para esta espécie de Diptera em outras partes do mundo. A falta de controle específico no sistema domiciliário de abastecimento de água tem sido a causa mais provável de infestação. Este registro amplia a distribuição de E. tenax e das miasis gastrointestinais humanas em América do Sul até os 41º 03's.The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae according to Hartley (1961 and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962. These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the

  15. Gastrointestinal modelling and optimization of protein and phosphorus bioaccessibility by phytase in fish diets

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Gabriel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Acuicultura [ES] La investigación descrita en esta tesis trata sobre la optimización de un modelo gastrointestinal (GIM) diseñado para evaluar la biodisponibilidad de proteínas y el fósforo (P) dietario simulando las condiciones del ambiente digestivo del pez. Los resultados demostraron la importancia de incluir una fase ácida durante la simulación del proceso de digestión proetica y del P en el sistema digestivo de los peces. La inclusión de un módulo de diálisis pa...

  16. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  17. Importancia de la microbiota gastrointestinal en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Zamudio-Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades del tubo gastrointestinal forman parte importante de la morbilidad y de la mortalidad mundiales; incluyen desde las enfermedades infecciosas, alérgicas, inflamatorias crónicas (como la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerativa hasta padecimientos considerados como funcionales, como el síndrome de intestino irritable. En algunas de ellas el tratamiento puede ser difícil, ya que en ocasiones pueden existir diferentes teorías en relación a las mismas y en las que se han encontrado múltiples factores tanto psicosociales como genéticos. En los últimos años ha cobrado gran importancia el papel que desempeña la microbiota intestinal en la génesis de algunas de ellas.   Desde el siglo XV se describió la presencia de microorganismos en el tubo gastrointestinal, pero fue hasta que se originó la biología molecular cuando se logró un mejor conocimiento de la función y la composición del ecosistema gastrointestinal, el cual contribuye de manera importante para los procesos de digestión y absorción de sustratos de la dieta, así como para las funciones inmunológicas y protectoras de la microbiota gastrointestinal en cada organismo, lo que resulta esencial para comprender su participación en el tratamiento y en la prevención de múltiples enfermedades.

  18. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  19. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol

    2001-01-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy

  20. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing tumors that originate in the neuroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Find evidence-based information on gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors treatment and research.

  1. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  2. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... Body cavity of fish were dissected using a pair of scissors and different portion of the gut (Oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum) were isolated and kept in .... Arme, C. and Wakey, M. (1970): The physiology of fishes.

  3. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evidence connecting food and gastrointestinal cancers from epidemiological studies, case-control studies, and prospective observational studies, indicates that determining the independent effects of specific nutrients is extremely diffi cult, given the many potential environmental factors to consider. The nutritional ...

  4. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  5. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  6. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sashidharan, Palankezhe; Matele, Apoorva; Matele, Usha; Al Felahi, Nowfel; Kassem, Khalid F.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report present...

  7. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  8. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals and the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frier, M. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom); Perkins, A.C. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    A review is presented of the design of radiolabelled test meals for the evaluation of gastrointestinal function, including oesophageal transit, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, enterogastric reflux and transit through the whole bowel. Descriptions of different systems are presented, together with validations of the procedures used. Published methods for assessment of oesophageal transit show a marked degree of consistency, whereas gastric emptying studies employ a wide range of both liquid and solid test meals. Recommendations are made concerning the optimal system for investigation of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, but whichever system is adopted, it is important to employ some validation procedures, and to establish normal ranges in the population under study. (orig.)

  10. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  11. Precision Medicine in Gastrointestinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Park, Jason Y

    2016-05-01

    -Precision medicine is the promise of individualized therapy and management of patients based on their personal biology. There are now multiple global initiatives to perform whole-genome sequencing on millions of individuals. In the United States, an early program was the Million Veteran Program, and a more recent proposal in 2015 by the president of the United States is the Precision Medicine Initiative. To implement precision medicine in routine oncology care, genetic variants present in tumors need to be matched with effective clinical therapeutics. When we focus on the current state of precision medicine for gastrointestinal malignancies, it becomes apparent that there is a mixed history of success and failure. -To present the current state of precision medicine using gastrointestinal oncology as a model. We will present currently available targeted therapeutics, promising new findings in clinical genomic oncology, remaining quality issues in genomic testing, and emerging oncology clinical trial designs. -Review of the literature including clinical genomic studies on gastrointestinal malignancies, clinical oncology trials on therapeutics targeted to molecular alterations, and emerging clinical oncology study designs. -Translating our ability to sequence thousands of genes into meaningful improvements in patient survival will be the challenge for the next decade.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  14. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum.

  15. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  16. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  17. Radiological diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Gross-Fengels, W.; Lorenz, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopy holds the first place today. Radiological investigations are indispensable whenever endoscopy cannot precisely localise the bleeding site, whenever a tumour is present or suspected, in all cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and in haemobilia. A tailored radiological approach is recommended. The radiological basis programme should be at least a complete abdominal ultrasound study and plain abdominal radiograms. CT and ERCP scans may become necessary in selected cases. As a rule, angiographical localisation of the bleeding site will be successful only in the acute stage; selective visceral arteriograms have to be obtained, which may be executed in the digital subtraction technique in patients who are cooperating and clinically stable. Angiodysplasias and aneurysms, however, may be demonstrated angiographically in the interval as well. Upper and/or lower G.I. tract studies with barium or water-soluble contrast media may be indicated in the interval in order to demonstrate tumours, metastatic lesions, diverticula and gut malformations. (orig.) [de

  18. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  19. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Jones, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters and five case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: CT of the Stomach; CT and Other Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Evaluation of Crohn's Disease; Periotoneal Metastasis; CT and MRI Correlation of the Gastrointestinal Tract; CT of Acute Gastrointestinal Abnormlities; and CT of Colorectal Cancer

  20. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one.

  1. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  2. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  3. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  4. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 ...

  5. Antidepressants and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general

  6. HIV-Associated Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Björn E-O; Oette, Mark; Haes, Johannes; Häussinger, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    People living nowadays with HIV and AIDS may be treated effectively regarding virus replication and immunology. However, non-AIDS-defining cancer is of growing relevance due to high incidence and unfavorable outcome. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoma. Although literature on GI cancer is rare, an increased incidence of esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma has been demonstrated. However, there are only few reports on therapy strategies and outcome, so that, despite increased occurrence of many GI carcinomas, only little is known about individualized treatment options and outcome in HIV-positive patients. More efforts have to be undertaken to close this gap. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  8. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  9. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  10. Phytotherapy in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Olaf; Bauer, Rudolf; Kubelka, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an important therapeutic option in functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID). It has a large tradition, with different approaches in different regions of the world, some of which have made their way into modern evidence-based medicine (EBM). Taking into account the number of herbs in use, and also the cumulated scientific evidence on them, FGID are possibly the most important indication in phytotherapy. This does not only apply for European phytotherapy, but also for other regions, such as Asia. Within European phytotherapy, herbs active in FGID are usually classified according to their main active constituents and their activities. Typically, the herbs used in FGID are grouped into amara, aromatica, amara aromatica combining both properties, herbs stimulating gastric secretion, herbs containing spasmolytic and carminative essential oils or spasmolytic alkaloids, mucilaginosa soothing the mucosa, and flavonoid containing drugs with anti-inflammatory properties. In phytotherapy, different plants are frequently combined to maximize effectiveness and specificity of action. Very potent combination products can be developed when the mechanisms of action of the combination partners are complementary. This approach can be demonstrated by the example of STW 5. For this herbal combination product, therapeutic efficacy in FGID has been clinically proven according to the highest standards of EBM. This example also underlines that modern rational phytotherapy is definitely part of modern EBM. Key Messages: FGID is one of the most important indications in phytotherapy and rationally combined herbal preparations are established evidence-based therapeutic options. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Microrobotics for future gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciassi, Arianna; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The impulse given by robotic technologies and imaging techniques to the development of a new way to conceive and perform surgery is clearly visible. Nowadays, minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures are often performed with the assistance of robots, such as the Da Vinci master-slave system, the AESOP robot with voice control, etc. In addition, mechatronic technologies are becoming the elective technologies for designing advanced hand-held surgical tools. The introduction of robotic technologies in endoscopy has been slower than in MIS, since the development of miniaturized robotic components for entering the small orifices of the human body is difficult. On the other hand, the large contribution that robotic technologies could bring to endoluminal techniques has been evident since the first development of instrumented catheters. In the 1990s, there was an increasing activity in the application of robotic technologies to improve endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of robotic colonoscopy and gastroscopy was to obtain more effective diagnoses in terms of reduced pain for the patients, and to make uniform the diagnostic procedures, which too often depended on the manual abilities of the endoscopist. Currently, the availability of more reliable robotic technologies for miniaturization of size and integration of functions has allowed to conceive and develop robotic pills for the early screening of the digestive tract, with dramatic potential advantages for patients, endoscopists, and healthcare system.

  12. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  13. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  14. Immunoscintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, B.; Peshev, N.

    1995-01-01

    The results of labelled monoclonal antibodies (MoA) immunoscintigraphy in malignant tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The obtained data have an essential practical bearing on the early diagnosis and radical treatment undertaken. Immunoscintigraphy is performed with Imacis-I ( 131 I, monoclonal antibody, 19-9 F(ab') 2 anti-CEA F(ab') 2 ) obtained from the CIS company, and Jodomab-R-2( 131 I, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody F(ab') 2 ) of the Sorin Biomedica Company, inserted at activity ranging from 11 to 185 MBq. Scanning by a planar gamma-camera is performed at 72 hours. A total of twenty-four patients are examined: 14 preoperatively (with gastric cancer - 2, pancreatic cancer - 1 and location of the neoplasm in different segments of the colon - 11), and ten postoperatively. Positive results are obtained in twenty-two (92 per cent) of the total number of patients under study. In twelve (86 per cent) of those examined preoperatively intensive accumulation of labelled autoantibodies in the cancer area is documented with a negative result recorded in two cases only. Metastases are found in two patients operated on, while in the remainder the results are negative and consistent with those of the other methods of examination. 13 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  15. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastrointestinal disturbances in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddoch, C; Trinick, T

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of running-induced gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances in marathon runners. A questionnaire was completed by 471 of the estimated 1,750 competitors in the 1986 Belfast City Marathon. Eighty-three per cent of respondents indicated that they occasionally or frequently suffered one or more GI disturbances during or immediately after running. The urge to have a bowel movement (53%) and diarrhoea (38%) were the most common symptoms, especially among female runners (74% and 68% respectively). Upper GI tract symptoms were experienced more by women than men (p less than 0.05) and more by younger runners than older runners (p less than 0.01). Women also suffered more lower GI tract symptoms than men (p less than 0.05) with younger runners showing a similar trend. Both upper and lower tract symptoms were more common during a "hard" run than an "easy" run (p less than 0.01) and were equally as common both during and after running. Of those runners who suffered GI disturbances, 72% thought that running was the cause and 29% believed their performance to be adversely affected. There was no consensus among sufferers as to the causes of symptoms and a wide variety of "remedies" were suggested. GI disturbances are common amongst long-distance runners and their aetiology is unknown. Medical practitioners should be aware of this when dealing with patients who run.

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin [Henan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology (China); Shin, Ji Hoon, E-mail: jhshin@amc.seoul.kr; Han, Kichang; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong-Soo [Kyunghee University, College of Medicine, Kangdong Kyunghee University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by GI lymphoma.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 11 patients who underwent TAE for GI bleeding caused by GI lymphoma between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsA total of 20 TAE procedures were performed. On angiography, contrast extravasation, and both contrast extravasation and tumor staining were seen in 95 % (19/20) and 5 % (1/20) of the procedures, respectively. The most frequently embolized arteries were jejunal (n = 13) and ileal (n = 5) branches. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 % (20/20) and 27 % (3/11), respectively. The causes of clinical failure in eight patients were rebleeding at new sites. In four patients who underwent repeat angiography, the bleeding focus was new each time. Three patients underwent small bowel resection due to rebleeding after one (n = 2) or four (n = 1) times of TAEs. Another two patients underwent small bowel resection due to small bowel ischemia/perforation after three or four times of TAEs. The 30-day mortality rate was 18 % due to hypovolemic shock (n = 1) and multiorgan failure (n = 1).ConclusionAngiogram with TAE shows limited therapeutic efficacy to manage GI lymphoma-related bleeding due to high rebleeding at new sites. Although TAE can be an initial hemostatic measure, surgery should be considered for rebleeding due to possible bowel ischemic complication after repeated TAE procedures.

  18. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  20. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  1. Gastro-intestinal phytobezoars in Zimbabwean Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C M; Gelfand, M

    1985-01-01

    The clinical features of 10 African patients with gastro-intestinal phytobezoars are described. These were similar to those described with persimmon bezoars and we postulate that the fruit of locally found trees, also of the genus Diospyros, are responsible.

  2. International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Corner News Medical and Treatment News Events Press Releases Commentary For Media ... IFFGD is your resource for reliable digestive health knowledge, support, and assistance about functional gastrointestinal (GI) and ...

  3. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman

    2017-08-17

    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  4. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  5. Comparative Molecular Analysis of Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Sethi, Nilay S; Hinoue, Toshinori; Schneider, Barbara G; Cherniack, Andrew D; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Seoane, Jose A; Farshidfar, Farshad; Bowlby, Reanne; Islam, Mirazul; Kim, Jaegil; Chatila, Walid; Akbani, Rehan; Kanchi, Rupa S; Rabkin, Charles S; Willis, Joseph E; Wang, Kenneth K; McCall, Shannon J; Mishra, Lopa; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Bullman, Susan; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Lazar, Alexander J; Sakai, Ryo; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bass, Adam J; Laird, Peter W; de Krijger, RR

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed 921 adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum to examine shared and distinguishing molecular characteristics of gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas (GIACs). Hypermutated tumors were distinct regardless of cancer type and comprised those enriched for

  6. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  7. New techniques in gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Luengas Tello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery has been making great progress since the seventies in the management paradigms of conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, polyp resection and diagnostic and therapeutic management of the biliary tract. The current challenge is the development of techniques that allow endoscopic treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, morbid obesity, gastro-esophageal reflux and achalasia. This article reports on new techniques and expectations for the future in the endoscopic management of these diseases.

  8. Rare upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of cetuximab

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Peng-Liang; Gong, Bao-Cheng; Huang, Han-Wei; Luo, Lei; Wang, Xin; Xing, Ya-Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Liu, Fu-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a targeted therapeutic regimen of colorectal cancers. Several common adverse effects have been found, such as cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. However, according to the articles had been published, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is considered to be rare and its mechanism remains unclear. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 42-year-old male patient with advanced recto-sigmoid cancer. Af...

  9. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Amornyotin, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopic (GIE) procedures vary widely in different countries depending on health system regulations and local circumstances. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety, as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy, once occurred, can lead to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in patients. The risk fa...

  10. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Esophagus: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Erol

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare neoplasms to be thought to arise from mesenchymal cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) of the esophagus are well documented but are very much rarer than gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and small bowel. We describe a case of GIST of the esophagus that was resected with wide surgical resection.

  11. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  12. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  13. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  14. Tumores del músculo liso del tracto digestivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada, Antonio; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Suelves, C.; Linares, E.; Rivera Hueto, F.; Fernández, F.; Méndez, J.; Jiménez-García, Antonio; Ortega, J.; Cantillana, J.

    2000-01-01

    Propósito: Los tumores de estirpe muscular son raros en el tracto esofágico y gastrointestinal. En este trabajo presentamos nuestra experiencia reciente en su manejo. Material y métodos: Hemos incluido en estudio los pacientes tratados de estas neoplasias en el Servicio de Cirugía General y Digestiva del Hospital Virgen Macarena de Sevilla (Prof. Cantillana Martínez) desde 1991 a 1996, analizando la clínica, los métodos diagnósticos empleados y la terapéutica utilizada. Resul...

  15. Patient health communication mediating effects between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. ...

  16. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Establishing the key unanswered research questions within gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Colin J; Ngu, Wee Sing; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) plays a key role in shaping opinion and endoscopy activity throughout Europe and further afield. Establishing key unanswered questions within the fi...

  17. Monitoring and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjani, Basri; Zeka, Sadik; Krasniqi, Salih; Bunjaku, Ilaz; Jakupi, Arianit; Elshani, Besni; Xhafa, Agim

    2012-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding-massive acute bleeding from gastrointestinal section is one of the most frequent forms of acute abdomen. The mortality degree in emergency surgery is about 10%. It's very difficult to identify the place of bleeding and etiology. The important purpose of this research is to present the cases of acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the patients which were monitored and treated at The University Clinical Center of Kosova-Emergency Center in Pristina. These inquests included 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who were treated in emergency center of The University Clinical Center in Pristina for the period from January 2005 until December 2006. From 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding 41% or 29% was female and 96% or 70.1% male. Following the sex we gained a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01). The gastrointestinal bleeding was two times more frequent in male than in female. Also in the age-group we had a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01) 63.5% of patients were over 55 years old. The mean age of patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 58.4 years SD 15.8 age. The mean age for female patients was 56.4 age SD 18.5 age. The patients with arterial systolic pressure under 100 mmHg have been classified as patients with hypovolemic shock. They participate with 17.5% in all prevalence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. From the number of prevalence 2 {1.5%} patients have been diagnosed with peptic ulcer, 1 {0.7%} as gastric perforation and 1 {0.7%} with intestine ischemia. Abdominal Surgery and Intensive Care 2 or 1.5% died, 1 at intensive care unit and 1 at nephrology. As we know the severe condition of the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and etiology it is very difficult to establish, we need to improve for the better conditions in our emergency center for treatment and initiation base of clinic criteria.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  19. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  20. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  1. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  2. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  3. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  4. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastrointestinal symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siroka, M.; Bilicky, J.; Hernesniemi, B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of 6-week-old baby boy with congenital diaphragmatic hernia(CDH). He presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. CDH is commonly manifested by nonspecific respiratory problems. The symptoms of CDH in older infants are atypical and misleading. Children may have only gastrointestinal problems even the acute abdomen. In our case, the ultrasound examination of abdomen did not detect the exact cause of vomiting and intolerance of oral intake, but the explanation has brought classic chest X-ray. (author)

  5. Gastrointestinal complications of leukemia and its treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.B.; Bjelland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia represents 4% of all cancer deaths and is the leading cause of death from malignancy for all patients under 30 years of age. Various rare, usually preterminal gastrointestinal complications of leukemia have been reported. These complications are becoming more common and no longer should be considered unusual. Their increasing incidence is the result of new, more aggressive treatment methods and increased patient lifespan. The authors describe the relative incidence and common radiographic presentations of leukemia-related gastrointestinal disease and emphasize that its prognosis is favorable with prompt diagnosis and treatment

  6. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  7. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  8. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio

    1981-01-01

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  11. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, A.

    1980-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding may be localized using noninvasive radionuclide methods. We have favored the use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid with sequential imaging because of the rapid clearance of background activity. Definition of the site of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, however, may be obscured by intense uptake of radioactivity by liver and spleen. The sensitivity of the method is such that the bleeding rates of 0.05-0.1 ml/min can be detected compared to a sensitivity of 0.5 ml/min for angiography.

  12. Wnt Signalling in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling regulates several cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration, and is critical for embryonic development. Stem cells are defined by their ability for self-renewal and the ability to be able to give rise to differentiated progeny. Consequently, they are essential for the homeostasis of many organs including the gastrointestinal tract. This review will describe the huge advances in our understanding of how stem cell functions in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by Wnt signalling, including how deregulated Wnt signalling can hijack these functions to transform cells and lead to cancer.

  13. Granular cells Tumor in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano LL, Rodrigo; Gaitan B, Maria H; Juliao E, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are ubiquitous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, are rare and asymptomatic and they are generally an incidental discovery at gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. In the gastrointestinal tract they are more frequently located in the esophagus, right colon and rectum, stomach, appendix, small intestine or biliopancreatic tract. This article describes three patients with four tumors of granular cells in rectum, esophagus (2 lesions) and appendix. It becomes special emphasis in their neural origin, their benign behavior that justifies the endoscopic resections or limited surgical excisions and the necessity of a pursuit for the possibility, although little, of malignant transformation

  14. Oral adverse effects of gastrointestinal drugs and considerations for dental management in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disease is associated with alterations in the mouth or influence the course of the dental diseases, and the dental health care workers are expected to recognize, diagnose, and treat oral conditions associated with gastrointestinal diseases and also provide safe and appropriate dental care for afflicted individuals. Drugs used in the management of these diseases result in oral adverse effects and also are known to interact with those prescribed during dental care. Hence, this article has reviewed the drug considerations and guidelines for drug use during dental management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

  15. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytunlu Murat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  16. Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus) from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. ... the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Gastrointestinal estromal tumor: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Gonzalez, Alexis; Hernandez Perez, Arnaldo; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Diana; Hernandez Fernandez, Diana M; Castanneda Munnoz, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Since the first descriptions made by Golden and Stout, this group of mesenchymal lesions is considered of muscular origin and they were named as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, epithelioid leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, bizarre leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. But Mazur and Clark created the term estromal tumor only after they began to use the inmunohistochemistry and subsequently showed the absence of muscular markers, and the occasional presence of neural markers. Nowadays, gastrointestinal estromal tumors are called the primary mesenchymal CD117 positive, fusiform or epithelioid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperitoneum. The gastrointestinal estromal tumors appear at the wall of the digestive tube: stomach (50-60 %), small intestine (20-30 %), large intestine (10 %) and esophagus (5 %), and occasionally in epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperineum (5 %). In our work we present a 67 year-old patient, entered in our hospital for presenting high digestive bleeding. We studied the case, and found a 6 cm tumor of the gastric fundus. The tumor was operated and the definitive results of the pathologic anatomy showed a gastrointestinal estromal tumor

  18. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  19. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  20. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  1. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results

  2. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  3. [Biomorphology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, S

    2006-09-01

    Under the term gastrointestinal nematodes are included numerous parasites species of livestock belonging to the families Strongyloididae (Strongyloides), Strongylidae (Chabertia, Oesophagostomum) Trichostrongylidae (Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Marshallagia), Molineidae (Nematodirus), Ancylostomatidae (Bunostomum) and Trichuridae (Trichuris). This paper reviews the biomorphology aspects of these parasites as well as the controversy by the taxonomists in the classifications.

  4. Pattern of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two per cent (22%) of these had mixed parasitosis of cryptosporidium and hookworm. There was no significant association of CD4 cells count with intestinal parasitosis. x2 = 5.286 and p=0.259. However marital status was significantly associated with gastrointestinal opportunistic parasitosis with x2 of 12.693, ...

  5. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  6. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Disease in Sjogren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Yevgeniy; Salomon-Escoto, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Sjogren syndrome (SS) is a lymphocyte-mediated, infiltrative autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of exocrine glands leading to secretory dysfunction. The typical manifestations include xerostomia and xerophthalmia; however, extensive gastrointestinal involvement is increasingly being recognized, emphasizing the variable and systemic nature of SS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary (AL) amyloidosis with gastrointestinal involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone Galmstrup; Gimsing, Peter; Schiødt, Frank V

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare disease that can affect several organs. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with gastrointestinal manifestations of AL amyloidosis, in terms of symptoms, biochemistry, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospectivel...

  8. Association between Khat Chewing and Gastrointestinal Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of gastritis was 580 (57.7%); constipation 235 (23.4%); hemorrhoids 54 (5.4%) and that of dental problems (carries, decay, filling and extraction) was 225 (22.4%) of all study participants. Gastrointestinal disorders were found to be higher among khat chewers, where 64(36.2%) of them had dental problems; ...

  9. Gastrointestinal Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment included segmental resection with end to end anastomosis, wedge resection with anastomosis, exteriorizations stomas, simple excision of the perforation and closure in two layers (gastric perforation). The total mortality was four (21.1%), two of them due to associated injuries. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal injuries ...

  10. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  11. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  12. Gastrointestinal diseases in HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an estimated 65 million people believed to be infected and an estimated. 14 000 new infections ... HIV is a staggering 10 - 20% of the population.1 Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases ... Oral fluconazole is a very successful treatment for ... candidiasis should be started on voriconazole.7 .... habits point to further investigation. An.

  13. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...

  14. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, R.; Grassot, A.; Souchon, R.

    1982-03-01

    In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography. Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hemorrhage (angiotherapy). 81 patients were diagnosed by this method. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients.

  15. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both presented with a history of fever and passage of bloody stools. There was a positive history of NSAID ingestion in both patients that was prescribed in the referring hospitals. ..... Bostwick HE, Halata MS, Feerick J, Newman LJ, Medow MS. Gastrointestinal bleeding in children following ingestion of low-dose. Ibuprofen.

  16. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  17. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  19. Stem Cells in Repair of Gastrointestinal Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Zilbauer, Matthias; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Clevers, Hans

    Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh

  20. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Sandra H.; Hancock, Steven L.; Varghese, Anna; Cox, Richard S.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Markov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In cases of severe forms of infectious di­seases, in addition to local inflammation, secondary lesions of the gastrointestinal organs may occur. We aimed to study the semiotics and epidemiology of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with acute neuroinfection. Materials and methods. This observational, retrospective, case-control study. We analyzed cases of in-patient treatment of children aged 1 month to 18 years with acute neuroinfections (meningitis, encephalitis and encephalomyelopolyneuropathy. Results. The study included 117 patients with acute central nervous system infections. Clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal infection were observed in 83 (70.9 % children. Among revealed symptoms, disorders of intestinal moti­lity, such as constipation and diarrhea, were prevalent. Manifestations of hepatobiliary system dysfunction included increased transaminase level (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGTF and/or ultrasound changes (enlargement, diffuse structural changes and were observed in 39.1 % of patients. Among the laboratory parameters, elevated ALT level was observed in 8.3 % of patients, bilirubin was elevated in only one child, alkaline phosphatase was above the age norm in 11.8 %, an increased GGTF above the age norm was observed in 31.3 % of patients. The level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP was elevated in 86.4 %, and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP — in all (100 % children. Clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction (the presence of at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms had an inverse relationship with the child’s age (rpb = –0.19, p = 0.033, correlated with staying in intensive care unit (odds ratio (OR = +5.25; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.62–16.97, artificial ventilation (OR = +4.5; 95% CI 1.00–21.69 and level of I-FABP (rpb = 0.34, p = 0.019. Conclusions. Among gastrointestinal symptoms in children with

  2. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  3. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  4. Risk Management for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Elderly Patients: Questionnaire for Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Umegaki, Eiji; Abe, Shinya; Tokioka, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Nozomi; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Yoda, Yukiko; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2009-01-01

    More elderly patients now undergo gastrointestinal endoscopy following recent advances in endoscopic techniques. In this study, we conducted a high-risk survey of endoscopies in Japan, using a questionnaire administered prior to upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy (UGITE), and identified anticholinergic agents and glucagon preparations as high-risk premedication. We also evaluated the cardiovascular effects of anticholinergic agents and glucagon through measurements of plasma levels of hum...

  5. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIN infection was associated with 1.4 litres per cow per day less milk and this ... Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle are of considerable economic importance .... Table 2. Mean faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal nematodes and the 95% confidence ... 3.2 Gastrointestinal nematode species. The pooled ...

  6. Psychophysiological Associations with Gastrointestinal Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Akers, Jill; Sohl, Kristin; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hartnett, Kaitlyn; Kille, Briana; Mazurek, Micah; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Barstow, Mariah; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disturbances, which also may impact behavior. Alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning are also frequently observed in ASD. The relationship between these findings in ASD is not known. We examined the relationship between gastrointestinal symptomatology, examining upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptomatology separately, and autonomic nervous system functioning, as assessed by heart rate variability and...

  7. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using

  8. Gastrointestinal Fistula: Audit of management in a remote hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of gastrointestinal fistula continues to present considerable challenge to the surgeon in general and gastrointestinal surgeon in particular. Objectives: To audit the management and report the outcome of the gastrointestinal fistula in a remote hospital. Setup: Eldamazeen Hospital is a regional ...

  9. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  10. Effects of topical 0.2% Cyclosporine A on corneal neovascularization induced by xenologous amniotic membrane implantation into a corneal stroma micropocket of rats Efeitos do uso tópico da Ciclosporina A (CsA 0,2% na neovascularização corneal induzida pelo implante de membrana amniótica xenógena em microbolsa no estroma da córnea de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana F. Milani

    2008-08-01

    efeitos tópicos da Ciclosporina a 0,2% (CsA sobre a neovascularização corneana de ratos após implante cirúrgico de membrana amniótica eqüina em microbolsa do estroma corneana. O implante da membrana foi feito bilateralmente em 90 ratos. O tratamento com CsA iniciou-se no mesmo dia da cirurgia, nos olhos direitos dos animais, duas vezes ao dia. Os olhos esquerdos não receberam nenhum tratamento e serviram de controle. A avaliação da neovascularização corneana foi feita por análise de imagem computadorizada e por exame histopatológico aos dias 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 e 60 de pós-cirúrgico. Para a análise de imagem foram utilizados 10 animais por período, e para o exame histopatológico, 5 por período. A análise de imagem demonstrou que a neovascularização iniciou-se no 3° dia pós-cirúrgico, alcançou seu pico no 7° dia e então regrediu rápida e progressivamente até o 60° dia. A análise estatística indicou que a neovascularização no 7º dia nos olhos tratados com CsA foi significantemente mais acentuada do que aquela observada nos olhos não tratados. Entretanto, no 30º dia este fato se reverteu, e a neovascularização observada nos olhos tratados com CsA diminuíra a níveis baixos comparáveis àquela do 3º dia. Já nos olhos não tratados, o grau de neovascularização somente pôde ser comparado àquele nível básico encontrado no 3º dia aos 60 dias de pós-operatório. A análise histopatológica demonstrou que a deposição de colágeno no tecido implantado se completou no 15º dia. Desta maneira, foi possível concluir que (1 a membrana amniótica em estroma corneano de ratos produz intensa neovascularização até o 15º dia de pós-operatório com posterior regressão, (2 a deposição de colágeno do tecido implantado foi completa ao 15º dia de pós-operatório, e que (3 o uso de CsA esteve associado com aumento inicial da neovascularização corneana, seguido de rápida e intensa regressão.

  11. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  12. The application of PET-CT in gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian Weijun; Feng Yanlin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential that arises predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract. Due to lack of specific physical signs, imagin g-x examination is an important auxiliary means in diagnosing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Compared to other conventional imaging examinations, PET-CT has demonstrated unique superiority in staging, response evaluation and follow-up of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. And now it presents an overview of the application valuation of PET-CT and related imaging technology in gastrointestinal stromal tumor as follow. (authors)

  13. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  14. Nanotechnology in gastrointestinal endoscopy: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the understanding, control of matter and development of engineered devices in nanometer range (1-100 nm. Nanoparticles have different physicochemical properties (small size, large surface area to volume ratio, and high reactivity in comparison to bulk materials of the same composition. The nanotechnology has proved its usefulness in early diagnosis, proteonomics, imaging diagnostics and multifunctional therapeutics. Recent studies have shown its role in early diagnosis and targeted therapy of various gastrointestinal disorders such as hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus related liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastric ulcer, and malignancy. Application of this technology appears promising in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy such as the endoscopic hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding, prevention of clogging of plastic stent and advance capsule endoscopy. This article will highlight the basic concepts of nanotechnology and its potential application in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  15. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... mass index and smoking on the motility variables. The results were compared with data from 16 healthy individuals (eight women, eight men) of mean age 24 years (range 20-30 years). RESULTS: Advanced age did not influence gastric emptying or small intestinal transit rate. Older individuals had a slower.......0022). CONCLUSION: Normal ageing seems to reduce the propulsive capacity of the colon, whereas gastric and small intestinal motility is not affected....

  16. Characteristics of Emergency Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Ahmet Deniz; Oymaci, Erkan; Carti, Erdem Bariş; Yakan, Savaş; Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Mehmet, Yildirim

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Importance of GISTs is increasing while surgeons are facing with more frequent either in emergency setting of elective cases. Delineating the presentation and management of emergency GIST is important. From 2005 to 2014, emergency cases with final diagnosis of GIST were examined retrospectively. Total of 13 operated cases were evaluated by patients characteristics, clinical presentation, operational findings and postoperative prognosis. There were 9 male and 4 female with the mean age of 48.15 years. The most frequent presentations are ileus and GIT hemorrhage both covering the 84% of patients. Small bowel was the dominating site with ileus. Stomach was the second frequent site of the disease with the finding of hemorrhage. Emergency patients are more likely to come with small bowel GIST and obstruction symptoms. Hemorrhage is the most frequent symptom for emergency GIST of stomach and duodenum.

  17. Dermatologic symptoms associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Młynarczyk-Bonikowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tumors are among the most common neoplastic causes of death worldwide. Presence of characteristic skin lesions can allow faster diagnosis and therapy and this way can increase the probability of a cure. In the paper we present the most important paraneoplastic syndromes that can coexist with gastrointestinal malignancy including colon, gastric, esophagus and pancreatic cancers. We take into account genetic syndromes such as Cowden syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM (melanoma/pancreatic cancer, Clarke Howel-Evans, Peutz-Jeghers, Muir-Torre, Gardner syndromes and acquired syndromes such as acantosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, Leser-Trelat, Bazex, hypertrichosis languinosa, erythema gyratum repens , carcinoid and glucagonoma syndrome. We also include cutaneous metastases and coexistence of neoplasia in some cases of dermatomyositis.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisalamah, A.A.; Mraiat, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    To define the various causes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to outline management modalities and to determine the final outcome of patients. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from January 2003 to December 2006 (4 years) was conducted. Patients with endoscopically proven variceal bleeding were excluded. Out of the 120 patients, most of the patients belonged to an age group of more than 50 years (mean 48.5 years). Haematemesis was the most common presentation and Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion (AGML) was the most frequently encountered lesion. The cause of bleeding was not identified in 10 patients (undetermined group). Twenty-two (18.3%) underwent surgery and we had an overall mortality of 15.8%. AGML being the leading cause can be managed conservatively most of the time. There is a male preponderance and the incidence and mortality increases with advancing age. The undetermined group remains a diagnostic problem. (author)

  19. Detoxification of carbaryl by anaerobic gastrointestinal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszewski, S.J.; Harkin, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria originating from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were tested in vitro for their ability to hydrolyze carbaryl, the most widely used carbamate insecticide. Carbaryl hydrolysis prevents acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Degradation of [1- 14 C]naphthyl N-methylcarbamate was assessed through the use of carbon-and nitrogen-free enrichment cultures as well as a cometabolic enrichment culture. The carbon-free enrichment culture showed the greatest ability to hydrolyze carbaryl. Two facultative anaerobes, identified as DF-3 and Citrobacter freundii were isolated. Cell-free extracts from these bacteria were able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, 1-naphthyl acetate and carbaryl. This investigation suggests carbaryl degradation could occur prior to gastrointestinal absorption. Human GIT organisms are also widespread in anaerobic environments. Microbial hydrolysis of a xenobiotic can be an important reaction in the anaerobic environments of man or nature

  20. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    New generation CT scans combined with high-detail barium studies have now allowed radiologists to see and gain a more complete understanding of the wall and surrounding structures of the gastrointestinal tract. The editors state that their intent is to ''present in a comprehensive volume an up-to-date evaluation o the role, significance, indications, and limitations of computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract.'' There is an initial chapter on CT scanning techniques and the use of oral contrast agents. Chapters follow on Ct of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon. The chapters start with a description of the anatomic structures and then cover in detail common pathologic conditions that affect the organ. Indications for examinations are also included in many chapters. There are final chapters on percutaneous drainage of abscesses and fluid collections and on radiologic-patholoic correlation of some of the more common entities

  1. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed

  2. Effects of Kampo on functional gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Takakazu; Okumi, Hirokuni; Nishida, Shinji; Ito, Takashi; Morikiyo, Shinichi; Kimura, Yoko; Murakami, Masato

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the effectiveness of Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal medicine) in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The results of four randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) suggested the usefulness of rikkunshito in relieving the subjective symptoms of patients with FD. Rikkunshito significantly improved not only gastric symptoms, such as epigastiric discomfort, but also extra-gastric sympto...

  3. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Madic, C.; Willemot, J.M.; Germain, P.; Colle, C.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10 +3 μg (4 x 10 -2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10 -4 . For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10 -2 and (7.4 + 4.1) x 10 -4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10 -4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10 -4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10 -3 would provide better safety margin [fr

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Course NICER in gastrointestinal and urogenital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksel Kruse; Nolan, D.J.; Allison, D.J.; Jackson, J.; Gibson, R.

    1998-01-01

    Course of NICER (Nycomed Intercontinental Continuing Education in Radiology) in gastrointestinal and urogenital radiology in the frameworks of NICER program. This program is one of the best educational programs the purpose of which consists in education of maximum good quality, free of marketing and advertisement accessible to roentgenologists of all the countries. The above course was presented in Hua Dong Hospital, Shanghai, China, April 18-21, 1996

  6. Informational needs of gastrointestinal oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Janet; Urowitz, Sara; Olmstead, Craig; Jusko Friedman, Audrey; Zhu, Jason; Catton, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    In response to the dearth of consumer health information for patients with gastrointestinal cancers, this study examined the informational needs of these patients to build a plan for future resource development. Although studies have examined informational needs of some such cancers, no published literature has investigated the comprehensive informational needs across all sites of gastrointestinal cancer. A cross-sectional needs assessment comprising a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at an ambulatory gastrointestinal oncology clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patient informational needs were measured, including importance of information, amount desired and preferred mode of delivery. Informational needs were grouped into six domains: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social and spiritual. Eighty-two surveys were analysed. The majority of the respondents were male (53.8%), over the age of 50 (77.8%), and born outside of Canada (51.9%). While many did not speak English as a child (46.3%), and do not speak English at home (22.2%), nearly all indicated comfort with receiving health information in English (97.5%). The majority of respondents were college educated (79.3%) and married (73%). Multiple cancer types were reported; the most common being colorectal (39%), followed by pancreatic (12%) and cancers of the gallbladder or bile duct (12%). Overall, respondents placed highest importance on medical information (P < 0.001). Preferred education modalities were pamphlets, websites and one-on-one discussions with health-care professionals. This study highlights the principal informational needs of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, along with preferred modality for information delivery. This information will guide the development of educational resources for future patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transcatheter embolization therapy of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae In; Park, Auh Whan; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of massive gastrointestinal arterial bleeding. The study was based on retrospective analysis of twelve cases(8 men, 4 woman) including two patients with hemobilia in which transcatheter embolization was attempted for the control of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from March 1987 to October 1993. Clinical diagnoses of these patients were peptic ulcer(5), pseudoaneurysm formation(3) following percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or traffic accident, stomach cancer(1), typhoid fever(1), duodenal leiomyoma(1) and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease (1). Embolized vessels are as follows: gastroduodenal artery(6), left gastric artery(2), ileocolic artery(2), and hepatic artery(2). Embolization was effective in immediate control of bleeding in all patients. Although five of the six patients who had undergone embolization of the gastroduodenal artery developed rebleeding within 24 hour, only 2 required surgery and none showed serious complication. Embolization therapy is safe and effective initial treatment of choice for life-threatening massive gastrointestinal bleeding

  8. Transcatheter embolization therapy of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae In; Park, Auh Whan; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of massive gastrointestinal arterial bleeding. The study was based on retrospective analysis of twelve cases(8 men, 4 woman) including two patients with hemobilia in which transcatheter embolization was attempted for the control of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from March 1987 to October 1993. Clinical diagnoses of these patients were peptic ulcer(5), pseudoaneurysm formation(3) following percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or traffic accident, stomach cancer(1), typhoid fever(1), duodenal leiomyoma(1) and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease (1). Embolized vessels are as follows: gastroduodenal artery(6), left gastric artery(2), ileocolic artery(2), and hepatic artery(2). Embolization was effective in immediate control of bleeding in all patients. Although five of the six patients who had undergone embolization of the gastroduodenal artery developed rebleeding within 24 hour, only 2 required surgery and none showed serious complication. Embolization therapy is safe and effective initial treatment of choice for life-threatening massive gastrointestinal bleeding.

  9. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine; Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  10. Neonatal gastrointestinal involvement and congenital cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Porta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital viral infection, affecting 0.2 to 2.3% of all live births in developed countries. Very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight newborns are at higher risk of symptomatic CMV infection, most commonly secondary and acquired through breast milk. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in acquired CMV infections, but it could be an important manifestation of postnatal infection in preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Early onset of CMV gastrointestinal signs/symptoms is very rare. In a review of the literature it is described in 5 newborns in the first 24 hours of life, and 6 considering the onset in the first week of life. This review describes also a case report of congenital CMV in an immunocompetent newborn with onset of gastrointestinal signs immediately after birth: a possible association between viral infection and enteric manifestations was considered in the differential diagnosis. A review of the literature of the different case reports found has done, with description and comparison of the different patients and clinical presentations.

  11. Conservative treatment of perforated upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Daishi; Sano, Wataru; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Tsuguhiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the validity of indication criteria of the conservative treatment for perforated upper gastrointestinal tract, a retrospective study was carried out. We enrolled 28 patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract who were determined to receive conservative treatment at the time of hospitalization from January 2000 to December 2007. When the following criteria were satisfied, we treated the patients by the conservative treatment after informed consent was gained from them and their families: stable condition of vital signs; peritoneal signs localized in the upper abdomen; and no or slight fluid collection at the Douglas' pouch determined by computed tomography. Patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection during follow-up were promptly converted to surgery. Six patients were converted to surgery, but all of them were discharged very much improved. We compared patient's data of the conservative treatment group and the converted surgery group at the time of consultation. All data were not statistically different between two groups. If all criteria are satisfied, it seemed that we can start conservative treatment for perforated gastrointestinal tract with careful observation and the system of prompt conversion to operation for patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection. (author)

  12. Gastrointestinal helminths in raccoons in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, Amy E; Henke, Scott E; Pence, Danny B

    2009-01-01

    Raccoons (n=590) were collected from October 1999 to August 2003 from 35 counties across Texas, and gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth parasites. Prevalence was calculated and differences in mean abundance were examined among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes. Twenty different species of helminths (13 nematodes, two cestodes, two acanthocephalans, and three trematodes) were positively identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of 590 raccoons in Texas. Five of the 20 helminth species collected (Physaloptera rara, Placoconus lotoris, Molineus barbatus, Atriotaenia procyonis, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens) had a prevalence >20%. The total number of individuals of these five species (n=22,777) accounted for over 86% of the total number of individuals of all helminth species (n=26,426) collected. Subsequent analyses were based on these five helminths. Mean abundance differed among habitat ecoregions, age classes, and between sexes for all five parasites evaluated. This study is the most comprehensive statewide survey ever done of gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons across Texas. The five most prevalent helminths identified have all been reported in at least one previous survey, indicating that these parasites are not new to Texas and that raccoons are not naïve to the effects these parasites have on them. It may be helpful to wildlife rehabilitators, trappers, wildlife biologists, and other professionals to be aware of parasite abundance in raccoons from different areas of the state, as frequent human-raccoon interactions occur, and some of these parasites could be harmful to humans and domestic animals.

  13. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  14. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  15. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  16. The role of endoscopy in pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Markus; Geiß, Andrea; Greiner, Peter; Wellner, Ulrich; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Bausch, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20 % of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents. Patients and methods: Pediatric patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to our endoscopy unit from 2001 to 2009 (n = 154) were identified. Retrospective statistical and neural network analysis was used to assess outcome and to determine an investigative management algorithm. Results: The source of bleeding could be identified in 81 % (n = 124/154). Gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly lower gastrointestinal bleeding (66 %, n = 101); upper gastrointestinal bleeding was much less common (14 %, n = 21). Hematochezia was observed in 94 % of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 95 of 101). Hematemesis (67 %, n = 14 of 21) and melena (48 %, n = 10 of 21) were associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of a neural network to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 98 % and 63.6 %, respectively and to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 75 % and 96 % respectively. The sensitivity and specifity of hematochezia alone to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 94.2 % and 85.7 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hematemesis and melena to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 82.6 % and 94 %, respectively. We then developed an investigative management algorithm based on the presence of hematochezia and hematemesis or melena. Conclusions: Hematochezia should prompt colonoscopy and hematemesis or melena should prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy. If no

  17. Imágenes ecográficas de la mola hidatiforme parcial en el segundo trimestre del embarazo Ultrasound imaging of partial hydatidiform mole in the second trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jover Labiste

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente de 27 años de edad y 18 semanas de gestación, ingresada en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Provincial "Mariana Grajales Coello" de Santiago de Cuba, por presentar cifras tensionales elevadas, cefalea y dolor en bajo vientre. Los exámenes complementarios efectuados confirmaron que se trataba de una mola hidatiforme parcial, por lo cual se legró la cavidad uterina y se extrajeron pequeños fragmentos de estroma endometrial para estudio anatomopatológico. Se indicó seguimiento médico por consulta externa y se citó a los 21 días para el control y la evaluación de su estado general.The case report of a 27 year-old patient with 18 weeks gestation, admitted to the Obstetrics Department of "Mariana Grajales Coello" Provincial Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Santiago de Cuba due to high blood pressure, cephalea and pain in lower abdomen is described. Additional tests confirmed a partial hydatidiform mole, so that uterine curettage was performed and small fragments of endometrial stroma were removed for pathological study. Outpatient medical monitoring was recommended and the patient had an appointment at 21 days for controlling and evaluating her general state.

  18. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  19. Sonographic features of gastrointestinal lymphoma in 15 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, M; Lane, A E; Lenard, Z M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the sonographic appearance of lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs. A retrospective review was conducted and patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma diagnosed by histopathology (including immunohistochemistry, where available) or cytology that had an abdominal ultrasound were included. Four of 15 (26·7%) cases with histopathologically confirmed lymphoma exhibited no sonographic abnormalities. In the dogs with sonographic abnormalities, features including intestinal wall thickness and the presence or absence of wall layering were highly variable. Clinical signs pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract were also unreliable markers of gastrointestinal lymphoma, with weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea being uncommon presenting complaints; intestinal obstruction was not present in any patient. The sonographic appearance of gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs is non-specific. Gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs should be maintained as a differential diagnosis despite a sonographically normal appearing bowel. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Roles and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Eosinophils in Immunity and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergy reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune responses. Under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract where their involvement in various biological processes within the gastrointestinal tract has been posited. In this review, we summarize the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and describe eosinophil trafficking to the gastrointestinal tract. We synthesize the current findings on the phenotypic and functional properties of gastrointestinal eosinophils and the accumulating evidence that they have a contributory role in gastrointestinal disorders, with a focus on primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, we discuss the potential role of eosinophils as modulators of the intestinal immune system. PMID:25049430

  1. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isete Fares Franco

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of malignant lymphoma that has aggressive biological behavior, early systemic dissemination and poor prognosis. It is considered to be a manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents the gastrointestinal counterpart of mantle cell nodal lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: A case of gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is presented and the anatomopathological, clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects of this unusual neoplasia are discussed. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 59-year-old white male with a complaint of asthenia, night sweating, alteration in intestinal habit and weight loss over the preceding two months. The physical examination showed pallid mucosa and a palpable mass in the epigastrium and mesogastrium. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed the presence of gastric and duodenal polyps. An opaque enema showed multiple polypoid lesions, especially in the cecum. A rectal biopsy revealed infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by diffuse lymphoma consisting of small cleaved cells. Immunohistochemical study showed lymphocytes that expressed the antibody CD20 (L-26 and light-chain kappa (k immunoglobulin, but not light-chain lambda (l immunoglobulin. The patient presented a condition of acute intestinal obstruction with the presence of a mesenteric mass formed by agglutinated lymph nodes that surrounded the proximal ileum, thereby obstructing its lumen. He was submitted to a segmental enterectomy and gastrotomy with excisional biopsies of the gastric polypoid lesions. After two cycles of chemotherapy there was a worsening of the general state, with an increase in the dimensions of the abdominal masses and sepsis, accompanied by progressive respiratory insufficiency, leading to death.

  2. Endovascular treatment of nonvariceal acute arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization as treatment of upper nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding is increasingly being used after failed primary endoscopic treatment. The results after embolization have become better and surgery still has a high mortality. Embolization is a safe and effective...... procedure, but its use is has been limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and high mortality, both of which are associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and non-gastrointestinal related mortality causes. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable minimal invasive method...

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liong Chin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are rare tumors which are increasingly recognised by practising endoscopists. After confirmation by endoscopic biopsies of these focal lesions, many questions may arise. As NETs are less frequently encountered compared to other malignancies or gastrointestinal pathology, many endoscopists may not fully understand the natural history, diagnosis and management of these tumors. In this review, we aim to update the practising endoscopist on the key clinical features and management of patients with upper gastrointestinal NET.

  4. Seven cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after cold biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alneaimi, Khaled; Abdelmoula, Ali; Vincent, Magalie; Savale, Camille; Baye, Birane; Lesur, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Routine biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract is performed with increasing frequency. It is generally considered to be safe without significant complication. However, gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of cold biopsy is a known complication. We report seven cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after cold biopsy and discuss clinical data, risks factors, severity and management of this event. We suggest that physicians must be more cautious with this rare ...

  5. The role of endoscopy in pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Markus; Gei?, Andrea; Greiner, Peter; Wellner, Ulrich; Richter-Schrag, Hans-J?rgen; Bausch, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20?% of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents. Patients and methods: Pediat...

  6. Radiation pathomorphology of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, V.V.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Kvetnoj, I.M.; Ulitina, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results of histochemical, electronmicroscopic and radioautographic analysis of the effects of a total single gamma irradiation on the functional morphology of cells of the diffuse endocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. Irradiation in dosses from 5 to 20 Gy results in reduction of the detectability of argyrophilic and argentaffine cells. Changes in these cells counts are related to the irradiation dose. The reaction observed early after the irradiation is related to changes in the endocrine and endoplasmatic reticulum

  7. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N. Fiorino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA, which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123MIBG scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and 123MIBG in evaluation and treatment.

  8. Malignancies of gastrointestinal tract in geriatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, B.

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of gastrointestinal cancer rises with age. In spite of this fact, older patients are underrepresented in clinical trials. We need to take into account several variables prior to selection of therapy in these patients. These are physiologic aging processes, comorbidities, functional and cognitive status. There are several assessment tools in geriatric population – the most used is comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). A close cooperation with geriatrician is useful before starting cancer treatment. This article reviews treatment algorithms in selected malignancies of GI tract in geriatric patients. (author)

  9. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  10. Multiple gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poškus, Eligijus; Platkevičius, Gediminas; Simanskaitė, Vilma; Rimkevičiūtė, Ernesta; Petrulionis, Marius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy. Primary Merkel cell carcinomas are treated by wide radical excision with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, while benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy remain doubtful. There are only several cases of gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma reported so far. We report a case of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma with metastases to the stomach and the small intestines after wide excision of primary Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. WFUMB Position Paper. Learning Gastrointestinal Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Nathan S S; Bryant, Robert V; Dong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is an ultrasound application that has been practiced for more than 30 years. Recently, GIUS has enjoyed a resurgence of interest, and there is now strong evidence of its utility and accuracy as a diagnostic tool for multiple indications. The method of learning...... GIUS is not standardised and may incorporate mentorship, didactic teaching and e-learning. Simulation, using either low- or high-fidelity models, can also play a key role in practicing and honing novice GIUS skills. A course for training as well as establishing and evaluating competency in GIUS...

  12. Distribución de tres polimorfismos del gen TSLP en población afrodescendiente de San Basilio de Palenque, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La linfopoyetina tímica del estroma (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, TSLP se ha vinculado como un gen de propensión al desarrollo de enfermedades alérgicas. Se sabe que la población de Cartagena es una mezcla triétnica, en la cual el componente de herencia africana se asoció con el riesgo de asma y altos niveles séricos de IgE total. Este componente provino de esclavos africanos que lograron organizarse en “palenques”, uno de ellos es San Basilio de Palenque, en la Costa Caribe colombiana. Objetivo. Determinar la distribución de los polimorfismos de nucleótido simple (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, SNP rs1837253, rs17551370 y rs2289276 del gen TSLP en individuos afrodescendientes de San Basilio de Palenque. Materiales y métodos. Mediante PCR en tiempo real y sondas TaqMan SNP Genotyping™ segenotipificaron estos SNP en 80 individuos afrodescendientes entre los 5 y 18 años de edad. Resultados. El alelo de menor frecuencia para el polimorfismo rs1837253 fue el alelo T (41,9 %, para el rs17551370, el alelo A (14,3 %, y para el rs2289276, el alelo T (22,5 %. La distribución de los polimorfismos rs17551370 y rs2289276 se mantuvo en equilibrio genético de Hardy-Weinberg. Las frecuencias alélicas de cada SNP no mostraron diferencias significativas con las reportadas para poblaciones africanas. Conclusiones. Los tres polimorfismos analizados en el gen TSLP estuvieron presentes en la muestra de población de San Basilio de Palenque y su distribución es similar a la reportada para poblaciones africanas y para poblaciones americanas de ancestro africano. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.655

  13. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  14. [Massive hemorrhage of upper gastrointestinal tract caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalović, Nenad; Dukić Vladicić, Nikolina; Marić, Radmil; Cuk, Mirjana; Simatović, Milan; Jokanović, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system is a medical emergency which is followed by high mortality rate, ranging from 6 to 15% in spite of modern diagnostic methods and treatment. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system may be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach, which are mainly characterized by occult bleeding, while profuse bleeding rarely occurs accompanied by hemorrhagic shock. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of stomach are the most common mesenchimal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In our study we showed a 60-year-old female patient with profuse bleeding from the stomach and the clinical picture of severe hemorrhagic shock, caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor. An ovoid junction, raised towards the lumen, covered with ulcerated mucosa in several places and followed by massive arterial bleeding was found intraoperatively, after the performed gastrotomy. Histopathological examination with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that this was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Acute bleeding from the digestive system is a sudden and serious condition of the body. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic and therapeutic method of choice. Massive bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract is very rarely caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors, whose clinical picture is very heterogeneous and depends on tumor size and location. Abundant bleeding from the tumor is an indication for urgent surgical intervention. According to the literature massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive system can rarely be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. It is shown that abundant hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract can be caused with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Surgical resection is the main form of treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the digestive system and bleeding from these tumors caused by failure of endoscopic hemostasis.

  15. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  16. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  17. Melatonin and serotonin effects on gastrointestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, P J; Krolczyk, G; Gil, K; Zurowski, D; Nowak, L

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the most important extra pineal source of melatonin. Presence of melatonin (M) suggests that this hormone is somehow involved in digestive pathophysiology. Release of GI melatonin from serotonin-rich enterochromaffin EC cells of the GI mucosa suggest close antagonistic relationship with serotonin (S) and seem to be related to periodicity of food intake. Food deprivation resulted in an increase of tissue and plasma concentrations of M. Its also act as an autocrine and paracrine hormone affecting not only epithelium and immune system but also smooth muscle of the digestive tract. Low doses M improve gastrointestinal transit and affect MMC. M reinforce MMCs cyclic pattern but inhibits spiking bowel activity. Pharmacological doses of M delay gastric emptying via mechanisms that involve CCK2 and 5HT3 receptors. M released in response to lipid infusion exerts a modulatory influence that decreases the inhibitory effects of the ileal brake on gastric emptying. On isolated bowel S induces dose dependent increase in tone and reduction in amplitude of contraction which is affected by M. M reduced the tone but not amplitude or frequency of contraction. M is a promising therapeutic agent for IBS with activities independent of its effects on sleep, anxiety or depression. Since of its unique properties M could be considered for prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, gastric ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.

  18. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites and Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, R.A.; Chandrawathani, P.; Rosli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is common in buffalo calves. The effect of helminths on growth was studied by administration of an anthelmintic to buffalo calves following natural infections with gastrointestinal parasites. In studies conducted on calves belonging to an institute and a smallholder farmer, the treated calves showed improved weight gains. Serial parasitic examinations showed these animals had moderate to high faecal counts with Strongyloides, Toxocara vitulorum and Haemonchus eggs and Eimeria oocytes. In another study, there was no live weight advantage in treated over untreated calves. Few animals in this study had evidence of parasites and even those which were infested had low faecal egg counts. Hence, in general, helminths at certain levels of infection do affect the live weight gains of young buffalo calves. The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi, as assessed parasitologically using the haematocrit centrifugation technique and mice inoculation, was 2.7 and 1%, respectively, in cattle and buffaloes. The serological prevalence using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was 35 and 2% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Current opinion on PET for gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, C.G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Staib, L.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET for restaging of colorectal carcinoma and for the differentiation of indeterminate hepatic lesions is well-documented. Accuracies of FDG-PET for recurrence, lymph node status and the detection of distant metastases are higher compared with computed tomography, for example. For other epithelial gastrointestinal tumors similar results have also been demonstrated in smaller trials or case presentations. The differentiation of recurrent rectal carcinoma from scar and PET for endocrine tumors are described elsewhere (Der Nuklearmediziner PET II, in preparation). Almost no data exist for rare tumors like anal carcinoma or tumors of the small intestines. For hepatocellular carcinoma, FDG-PET has a high positive predictive value, and the intensity of the uptake correlates well with grading. However, FDG-PET is not suitable for the exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma due to insufficient sensitivity. The differentiation of benign and malignant pancreatic masses works well for selected patients. FDG-PET for lymph node staging is at least as accurate as conventional staging, and for the detection of distant metastases FDG-PET is superior compared with conventional staging. Few data exist on therapy control of gastrointestinal tumors. (orig.) [de

  2. Adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendler, A.; Feldmann, H.J.; Fink, U.; Molls, M.; Siewert, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In modern surgical oncology, adjuvant therapies are important complementary strategies. In local advanced carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, 5-year survival data are still disappointing despite standardized surgery. In this context, it has to be differentiated between adjuvant therapy following complete tumor exstirpation (so-called UICC R 0 resection) and additive therapies following incomplete tumor resections (UICC R 1 or R 2 resection). Modalities in the adjuvant setting are chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the combined radio-/chemotherapy. In esophageal and gastric cancer there is up to now no benefit of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In pancreatic cancer, there are studies indicating a benefit of combined radio-/chemotherapy after complete tumor resection. A standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment is proven in colon cancer stage III (Dukes C) with levamisole and 5-FU. Completely resected rectal carcinoma should be treated postoperatively with combined radio-/chemotherapy. In the common clinical or practical setting, adjuvant therapy is indicated only in locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors following R 0 resection. Postoperative therapy following incomplete tumor resection has its reason only in a palliative intention. (orig.) [de

  3. Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-01-16

    The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees' learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application.

  4. Laparoscopic jejunostomy for obstructing upper gastrointestinal malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; TAKAHATA, RISA; NOMURA, SHINSUKE; ITO, NOZOMI; KANEMATSU, KYOHEI; HORIGUCHI, HIROYUKI; AOSASA, SUEFUMI; YAMAMOTO, JUNJI; HASE, KAZUO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic jejunostomy (Lap-J) technique for obstruction due to upper gastrointestinal malignancies and evaluate the nutritional benefit of Lap-J during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cases with obstructing esophageal cancer. Under general anesthesia, the jejunum 20–30 cm distant from the Treitz ligament was pulled out through an extended umbilical laparoscopic incision and a jejunal tube was inserted to 30 cm. The loop of bowel was gently returned to the abdomen and the feeding tube was drawn through the abdominal wall via the left lower incision. The jejunum was then laparoscopically sutured to the anterior abdominal wall. Lap-J was performed in 26 cases. The median operative time was 82 min. The postoperative course was uneventful. Lap-J prior to NAC was not associated with a decrease in body weight or serum total protein during NAC, compared with patients who received NAC without Lap-J. This minimally invasive jejunostomy technique may be particularly useful in patients in whom endoscopic therapy is not feasible due to obstruction from upper gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:26807238

  5. Gastrointestinal transit in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fynne, Lotte; Worsøe, Jonas; Gregersen, Tine; Schlageter, Vincent; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis and collagen deposits. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SSc, including abdominal pain, bloating and discomfort, are common but diffuse and their pathophysiology remains obscure. To investigate the pathophysiology of abdominal pain and discomfort in individuals with SSc. A total of 15 individuals with SSc (13 women, median age 58 years), all suffering from diffuse abdominal symptoms, and 17 healthy volunteers (12 women, median age 52 years) were evaluated with the Motility Tracking System, MTS-1, measuring gastric emptying (GE) and velocity through the small intestine. SSc patients were also examined for bacterial overgrowth using the hydrogen breath test and with radiopaque markers to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). Assessed with the MTS-1, the velocity through the proximal small intestine was significantly reduced in SSc patients (median 0.525 m/h, range 0.11-1.15) when compared to healthy subjects (median 0.91 m/h, range 0.51-1.74) (p = 0.02). Prolonged GE was found in 4 SSc patients (27%) but in none of the healthy volunteers (p = 0.04). Only 3 SSc patients (21%) had positive breath tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. GITT was >3 days in 8 patients (53%). Slow small intestinal transit was associated with a prolonged GITT (p < 0.05). Velocity through the small intestine is significantly reduced in SSc patients with diffuse abdominal symptoms.

  6. Anti-angiogenic treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Stuart; Lockhart, A Craig; Berlin, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    The scientific rationale to block angiogenesis as a treatment strategy for human cancer has been developed over the last 30 years, but is only now entering the clinical arena. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the importance of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and have led to the development of approaches to block its role in tumor angiogenesis. Bevacizumab is an antibody to VEGF and has been shown to prolong survival when given with chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Although this is the first anti-angiogenic treatment to be approved for the treatment of human epithelial malignancy, a number of other approaches currently are in development. Soluble chimeric receptors to sequester serum VEGF and monoclonal antibodies against VEGF receptors have both shown considerable promise in the laboratory and are being brought into clinical investigation. A number of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have activity against VEGF receptors also are in clinical trials. Although these novel treatments are being pioneered in CRC, anti-angiogenic approaches also are being tested in the treatment of other gastrointestinal malignancies. Anti-VEGF therapy has shown promise in such traditionally resistant tumors as pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review will examine the preclinical foundation and then focus on the clinical studies of anti-VEGF therapy in gastrointestinal cancers.

  7. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornyotin, Somchai

    2013-11-16

    Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopic (GIE) procedures vary widely in different countries depending on health system regulations and local circumstances. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety, as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy, once occurred, can lead to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in patients. The risk factors of these complications include the type, dose and mode of administration of sedative agents, as well as the patient's age and underlying medical diseases. Complications attributed to moderate and deep sedation levels are more often associated with cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, sedation-related complications during GIE procedures are commonly transient and of a mild degree. The risk for these complications while providing any level of sedation is greatest when caring for patients already medically compromised. Significant unwanted complications can generally be prevented by careful pre-procedure assessment and preparation, appropriate monitoring and support, as well as post-procedure management. Additionally, physicians must be prepared to manage these complications. This article will review sedation-related complications during moderate and deep sedation for GIE procedures and also address their appropriate management.

  8. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei

    2017-08-20

    Aspirin is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for the past few years. However, much attention has been paid to the adverse effects associated with aspirin such as gastrointestinal bleeding. How to weigh the benefits and hazards? The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of a cardiovascular/gastrointestinal risk calculator, AsaRiskCalculator, in predicting gastrointestinal events in Chinese patients with myocardial infarction (MI), determining unique risk factor(s) for gastrointestinal events to be considered in the calculator. The MI patients who visited Shapingba District People's Hospital between January 2012 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on gastroscopic data, the patients were divided into two groups: gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal groups. Demographic and clinical data of the patients were then retrieved for statistical analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for gastrointestinal events. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the predictive value of AsaRiskCalculator for gastrointestinal events. A total of 400 MI patients meeting the eligibility criteria were analyzed, including 94 and 306 in the gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal groups, respectively. The data showed that age, male gender, predicted gastrointestinal events, and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were positively correlated with gastrointestinal events. In multiple logistic regression analysis, predicted gastrointestinal events and HP infection were identified as risk factors for actual gastrointestinal events. HP infection was highly predictive in Chinese patients; the ROC curve indicated an area under the curve of 0.822 (95% confidence interval: 0.774-0.870). The best diagnostic cutoff point of predicted gastrointestinal events was 68.0‰, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 60.6% and 93

  10. Estudio inmunohistoquímico de moléculas de adhesión en placentas de niños de bajo peso al nacer en el Hospital Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Alba Silvera Arenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Observar la expresión de moléculas de adhesión VCAM-1, ICAM-1 en placentas de niños de bajo peso al nacer. Se estudiaron 21 placentas de pacientes atendidas en el Hospital Universidad del Norte en el periodo de mayo a diciembre de 2006. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó estudio macroscópico de las placentas: forma, peso, diámetro grosor, consistencia, color, olor. Para estudios microscópicos se realizaron 5 cortes de la placa corial, uno del rollo de membrana y otro del cordón umbilical. Los cortes fueron fijados en formol al 10 %, incluidos en parafina, coloreados con hematoxilia - eosina para estudios morfológicos. Para estudios inmunohistoquímicos se usaron anticuerpos monoclonales Nova Castra para ICAM-1, VCAM-1, macrófagos. Resultados: Dieciocho placentas de forma redonda, 3 ovaladas; el peso varió entre 240 - 400 gramos; 3 presentaron infarto en los cotiledones. En la micro 18 presentaron necrosis hialina de la media, hiperplasia de la intima, macrófagos xantomatosos, infiltrado linfocitario en tres. En la inmunohistoquímica se observó expresión de ICAM-1, VCAM-1, en la basal de las vellosidades coriales, en la basal de los vasos sanguíneos y macrófagos en el estroma conjuntivo Conclusiones: En dieciocho de los casos los cambios fueron compatibles con preeclampsia, tres con proceso virales. La expresión de moléculas de adhesión y macrófago en la inmunohistoquímica nos sugiere que estas moléculas son fundamentales en los proceso fisiopatológicos de la placenta.

  11. Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Kjeldsen, J

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs in a number of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and may lead to a high transfusion need. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding in a geographically well defined HHT population....

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of rams brought into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to gain a better understanding into the role played by food animals in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites, we assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different breeds of rams brought into Abeokuta during a festive season by ... The only protozoan parasite identified was Eimeria spp.

  13. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  14. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  15. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract | Wright | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately 50% of athletes will develop gastrointestinal symptoms at some stage in their careers. These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding. Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common ...

  16. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  17. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers (Letter)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  18. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  19. Blødende gastrointestinal stromatumor i et Meckels divertikel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennervaldt, Kasper; Bisgaard, Thue

    2009-01-01

    We present at rare case of severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a 57-year-old patient due to a gastrointestinal stromal tumour located in a Meckel's diverticulum (MD) without ectopic tissue. We discuss indications and pro et cons of prophylactic resection of MD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Dec-7...

  20. Relaxant effect of Enantia clorantha on the gastrointestinal smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous boiled and evaporated extract of Enantia chlorantha (0.8 and 1.5g kg-1) were studied on certain functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) vis-a-vis, gastrointestinal fluid accumulation and motility as well as castor oil induced diarrhoea, using adult rats and mice that have been starved 14-20h prior to ...

  1. Timing of onset of gastrointestinal bleeding in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Lange, T; Anthon, C T

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm....... For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...... will describe baseline characteristics and assess the time to onset of the first clinically important episode of GI bleeding accounting for survival status and allocation to SUP or placebo. In addition, we will describe differences in therapeutic and diagnostic procedures used in patients with clinically...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of trefoil peptides and their stability in gastrointestinal contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellev, Stine; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are considered promising for therapeutic use in gastrointestinal diseases, and there is a need to explore the fate of injected TFF and the stability of the peptides in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenously (i.v.) administ......Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are considered promising for therapeutic use in gastrointestinal diseases, and there is a need to explore the fate of injected TFF and the stability of the peptides in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenously (i.......v.) administered hTFF2 in mice and rats and of hTFF3 administered i.v., intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, and subcutaneously in mice, and estimated by ELISA the decay of the peptides added to rat and human gastrointestinal contents. We found that i.v. injected hTFF2 and hTFF3 were cleared from the circulation...

  3. [Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract: the paradigm that lasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelović, Milos M; Babić, Tamara D

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the tumors that were morphologically different and clinically less agressive than the more common gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas were clasified under carcinoid tumors. However, the development of molecular biology tehniques revealed the heterogeneity of these tumors on cellular and subcellular level and ther different biological behaviour. Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract originated from neuroendocrine cells scaterred across the gastrointestinal mucosa. As a result these tumors were capable of secreting many different neurotransmiters, which may or may not be biologically active. The incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has been incresing over the last 2 to 3 decades. Patients often presented with vague, nonspecific symptoms which resulted in delayed diagnosis and adequate treatment. In this article, we discuss the nature of gastrointestinal NETs, clinical presentation, treatment options and prognosis.

  4. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  5. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  6. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  7. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  8. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  9. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2014-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus......-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse...... sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised...

  10. Gastrointestinal Angiodysplasia in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaroud H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI hemorrhage is a frequent and sometimes life-threatening complication of end-stage renal failure. Angiodysplasia (AD, vascular malformation, is the most common cause of recurrent lower-intestinal hemorrhage in patients with renal failure. We report four chronic hemodialysis patients with AD. All patients presented with severe anemia requiring transfusion. GI hemorrhage ceased spontaneously in three cases and after treatment with argon plasma coagulation in another. Diagnosis of AD is usually challenging, since its cause is still unknown, and its clinical presentation is variable. Lesions are multiple in 40-75% of cases, often located in the stomach and duodenum but can affect the colon and the jejunum. Diagnosis is improved by endoscopy which has a much higher sensitivity compared to angiography. Capsular endoscopy may reveal the hemorrhage site in the small intestine when regular endoscopy fails, and therapeutic intervention usually include argon plasma coagulation.

  11. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vigano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the successful assessment and management of symptomatic FGID. The sensory, cognitive and affective components of pain intensity expression need to be addressed in the context of a good physician-patient rapport. A multidisciplinary team approach is ideal for the smaller subset of patients with severe and disabling symptoms. Although pharmacotherapy may target specific functional disorders, the role of behavioural techniques and psychotherapy appears much more important for pain management in FGID. Functional performance and quality of life improvement, rather than pain intensity, are the main therapeutic goals in these patients.

  12. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  13. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  14. Viral gastrointestinal syndrome in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patić A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral gastrointestinal syndrome is a cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Infection is spread through contact with an infected person, as well as through contaminated food and water. A lethal outcome is possible in infants and young children due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The study included 141 patients with gastroenteritis from Vojvodina. Real-Time PCR method in stool samples was used to determine the presence of rota-, noro-, and astrovirus nucleic acid. Out of 141 patients with gastroenteritis, 60.3% were confirmed to have one of the three viruses. Rotavirus was significantly more common in children up to 3 years of age (43.3%. Norovirus was more frequently detected in patients older than 20 (50%. These infections started in collectives. Astrovirus was detected in four patients (2.8%. The results confirm the necessity to implement PCR in routine diagnostics for the proper treatment of patients.

  15. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marivaldo Benício da Silva

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (gists represent relatively rare lesions that arise from connective tissue elements located along the entire length of the gut. They were initially identified by immunohistochemical investigation, proving their origin from nondifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Only a minority of this lesions, mainly those confined to the esophagus and rectum, have been shown to correspond to mature, well-differentiated types of neoplasms such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. The majority of gists corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions that have as their common denominator an immature proliferation of epithelioid or spindle cells arising from its muscle layers, or between them, showing partial or incomplete myoide, neural, ganglionic, or mixed features of differentiation. This case report intends to show a gist of small bowel in a male, 46 years old, with a two-year of evolution.

  16. Gastrointestinal ultrasound in neonates, infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Maria Luisa; Roque, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Today US plays an important and increasing role in the assessment of many, partially age-specific conditions in the GI tract in neonates, infants and children. Knowledge of the potential capabilities of US and its restrictions together with a skillful performance of GI US examination can provide essential anatomic and functional diagnostic information in many pediatric GI disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in neonates, infants and children. Basic and potential applications of modern US tools in pediatric GI tract are addressed, the GI US examination technique is discussed – including some common and/or typical clinical applications of and indications for US

  17. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  19. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  20. [Gastrointestinal bleeding--concepts of surgical therapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, W T; Rehders, A

    2006-02-01

    Bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal tract is the main symptom of a variety of possible conditions and still results in considerable mortality. Endoscopy is the first diagnostic modality, enabling rapid therapeutic intervention. In case of intractable or relapsing bleeding, surgery is often inevitable. However, emergency operations result in significantly higher mortality rates. Therefore the option of early elective surgical intervention should be considered for patients at increased risk of relapsing bleeding. If bleeding is symptomatic due to a complex underlying condition such as hemosuccus pancreaticus or hemobilia, angiography is now recognized as the definitive investigation. Angiographic hemostasis can be achieved in most cases. Due to the underlying condition, surgical management still remains the mainstay in treating these patients. This paper reviews surgical strategy in handling upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Mansi Arora,1 Jan B Egan,1 James M Bogenberger,1 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Daniel H Ahn,1 Mitesh J Borad1–3 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 3Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success. This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, C; Dublineau, I; Griffiths, N M; Joubert, C; Linard, C; Martin, J M; Mathe, D; Scanff, P; Valette, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1994-10-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation (<10 Gy) on several parameters of gastrointestinal function: (a) regulatory peptides; (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions and (c) electrolyte and lipid transport using both gamma alone (cobalt-60) and a mixture of gamma/neutron ({gamma}/N Silene reactor) in two animal models, the rat and the pig. Preliminary data in rats following gamma irradiation (2-8 Gy) show that plasma nurotensin gastrin releasing peptide and substance P are increased in a dose dependent manner most markedly between two and four days after exposure. Intestinal brush border marker enzyme activities (sucrose and leucine amino-peptidase) were also reduced. Such differences were more marked and persisted longer after {gamma}/N irradiation (2-4 Gy: +Pb: {gamma}/:N =0.2). Following the latter type of irradiation (4 Gy) plasma cholesterol increased as well as the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Analysis of cholesterol distribution in lipoprotein actions revealed a large increase in cholesterol carried b High Density Lipoprotein-1 (HDL1). In the pig following either type of irradiation the volumes of both pancreatic and biliary secretions were reduced. Irradiation of pigs with either {gamma} (6 Gy) alone or {gamma}/N (6 Gy: {gamma}/N I :1) resulted in a marked decrease in both brush border (sucrase: leucine aminopeptidase) and basolateral (sodium ump` aden late cyclase) enzyme activities. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulated adenylate cyclase was markedly attenuated and in addition specific VIP binding was modified as shown by a reduction in receptor affinity. The significance of the data will be discussed and the importance of a new therapeutic strategies or new biological markers of radiation-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis; Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: diagnostico y pronostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M. [Fundacion Hospital de Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein (tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: AsaRiskCalculator had a predictive value for gastrointestinal events in Chinese patients with MI. HP infection seemed to be an independent risk factor for gastrointestinal events caused by long-term aspirin treatment in Chinese patients with MI, and it should be included in the risk calculator adapted for Chinese patients.

  6. Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement for reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all GI endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art

  7. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  8. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sunitinib in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulet-Margalef N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuria Mulet-Margalef, Xavier Garcia-del-Muro Sarcoma Multidisciplinary Unit and Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia Hospitalet, IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. In advanced setting and after progression to imatinib, the multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has clearly demonstrated a clinical benefit in terms of response rate and progression-free survival with an acceptable toxicity profile. The recommended schedule for sunitinib administration is 50 mg per day 4 weeks ON and 2 weeks OFF; however, potential alternative schedules are also reviewed in the present article. Several biomarkers have been explored to better select candidates for sunitinib therapy, such as the value of early changes in standardized uptake value assessed by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, circulating biomarkers, clinical biomarkers such as the appearance of arterial hypertension during treatment that correlates with better outcomes, and the GIST genotype. GISTs with KIT mutations at exon 9 and the so-called wild-type GISTs seem to better respond to sunitinib. Nonetheless, further investigation is required to confirm these findings as well as to understand the mechanisms of sunitinib resistance such as the development of new KIT mutations or conformational changes in KIT receptor. Keywords: sunitinib, GIST, KIT, refractory GIST

  10. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Appendiceal hemorrhage – An uncommon cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Chiang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a common disease among elderly patients. The common sources of lower gastrointestinal bleeding include vascular disease, Crohn’s disease, neoplasms, inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and ischemic colitis. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding arising from the appendix is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of appendiceal hemorrhage in a young male. Diagnosis was made by multidetector computerized tomography during survey for hematochezia. The patient recovered well after appendectomy. The histological finding revealed focal erosion of appendix mucosa with bleeding.

  13. [Microflora of gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Chervinets, Iu V; Barashkov, A P; Sekareva, E V

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gastrointestinal microflora in patients with chronic cholecystitis. Bacteriological analysis of biopsy samples of esophageal and gastric mucosae as well as stool samples was performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 patients with chronic cholecystitis. Opportunistic microorganisms are acquiring greater significance in formation of gastrointestinal microbiocenosis. Significant increase of both isolation rate and density of gastrointestinal tract colonization by staphylococci, enterobacteriae and anaerobic microorganisms was revealed. Obtained results showed abnormalities of microbiocenosis of esophageal and gastric mucosae and presence of intestinal disbacteriosis of different degrees of intensity.

  14. The emerging role of the microbial-gastrointestinal-neural axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. McLean

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract and its associated mucosal immune system have been extensively studied in the context of their involvement in disease processes, both within the tract itself and in its associated organs. However, historically a number of aspects of both gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology have been to some extent overlooked. In particular, the relationship of the gastrointestinal tract with its indigenous microbiota, and also the influence of the tract on behavior and neural systems and vice versa. Here, we describe recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of these areas, and attempt to put these advances in perspective with regard to potential therapeutic strategies.

  15. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  17. Angiographic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Sung, Kyu Bo; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Bae, Tae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Diagnostic angiographic evaluations were done in 33 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding for recent 5 years at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. On 11 patients of them, therapeutic interventional procedures were made and the results were analysed. 1. In a total of 33 cases, there were 18 cases of upper GI bleeding and 15 cases of lower GI bleeding. The most frequent causes were peptic ulcer in the former and intestinal typhoid fever in the latter. 2. Bleeding sites were localized angiographically in 28 cases, so the detection rate was 85%. Four of the five angiographically negative cases were lower GI bleeding cases. 3. The most frequent bleeding site was left gastric artery (7/33). The next was ileocecal branch of superior mesenteric artery (6/33). 4. Among the 11 interventional procedures, Gelfoam embolization was done in 7 cases and Vasopressin infusion was tried in 4 cases. They were successful in 4 and 3 cases, suggesting 57% and 47% success rates respectively.

  18. Human gastrointestinal tolerance to D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1999-04-01

    D-Tagatose is a stereoisomer of D-fructose which is poorly absorbed in the small intestine and may, therefore, have potential as a reduced calorie bulk sweetener. However, one of the major limitations is the use of malabsorbed sugars is that their consumption may be associated with gastric discomfort. This is due to the osmotic impact of the sugar molecules remaining in the gut lumen for a prolonged period. We have performed a series of studies in which gastrointestinal symptoms have been recorded after the consumption of 29 or 30 g of D-tagatose. Nausea and diarrhea were reported with an incidence of 15.1 and 31.5%, respectively, in 73 healthy young male subjects in a screening study. Increased flatulence after D-tagatose was frequently reported in all the studies and the flatulence did not decline during a 15-day period with intake of 30 g in one dose daily. In most cases, symptoms were reported as light or moderate. However, the results suggest that 30 g taken at one time may be above the dose which should be recommended for ordinary use. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-05-07

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available.

  20. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders.

  1. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    -analysis. Meta-regression assessed the effect of covariates across the trials. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 20 randomised trials (211,818 participants), assessing beta-carotene (12 trials), vitamin A (4 trials), vitamin C (8 trials), vitamin E (10 trials), and selenium (9 trials). Trials quality was generally...... effects on mortality in a random-effects model meta-analysis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07, I(2) = 53.5%), but significantly increased mortality in a fixed-effect model meta-analysis (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07). Beta-carotene in combination with vitamin A (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.23) and vitamin E...... (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11) significantly increased mortality. Increased yellowing of the skin and belching were non-serious adverse effects of beta-carotene. In five trials (four with high risk of bias), selenium seemed to show significant beneficial effect on gastrointestinal cancer occurrence...

  3. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed.

  4. Gastrointestinal function in the parasitized host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emphasis in this review is on (1) digestive-absorptive, secretory and smooth muscle functions altered by gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, (2) mechanisms by which parasites induce changes, and (3) the influence of parasite-induced alterations on the health of the host. Examples involving laboratory and domestic animals indicate that inflammation is an important factor in pathological alterations in epithelial and smooth muscle tissues throughout the alimentary canal. Observations on GI secretory activity reveal an influence of parasites on the host GI endocrine system. It is argued that assessments of the significance of parasite-induced changes on the host must be balanced with the adaptive potential and 'reserve capacity' of the GI system. In this regard host immunity should be considered a specific adaptation. Some tracer studies are mentioned marginally, such as the use of 14 C polyethylene glycol to estimate the direction of not fluid movement in the small intestine, and the use of 51 Cr to demonstrate the significantly faster intestinal transit in Trichinella spiralis infected animals

  5. Patient management following uncomplicated elective gastrointestinal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, H; Taylor, E W

    1990-12-01

    The management of patients after uncomplicated elective gastrointestinal operations is frequently left to junior members of the surgical team once they have learnt their seniors' regimens. The use of nasogastric (N/G) tubes, the volume of intravenous (IV) fluid replacement and the reintroduction of oral fluids and solids are topics not generally covered in the surgical textbooks and so are learnt in hospital. A postal survey of all consultant general surgeons in Scotland was conducted to assess the variations in management of patients after cholecystectomy, right haemicolectomy and sigmoid colectomy. A completed questionnaire was received from 111 (81%) of the surgeons circulated. As might be expected, patient management varied widely from surgeon to surgeon, and from unit to unit. There would appear to be a need for prospective studies in this area of patient management. This may indicate that the use of N/G tubes could be further reduced and that oral fluids and solids could be reintroduced sooner after operation with improved patient comfort and reduced hospital stay, yet without detriment to patient care.

  6. Evaluation of doses in gastrointestinal fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, Lucia Viviana

    1995-04-01

    This work aims at the development of a methodology to measure radiation doses to patients and professionals (radiologists) in fluoroscopic gastrointestinal tract examinations. Also, it aims at the assessment of the performance of this type of medical x-ray equipment, from the radiation protection point of view at the Department of Radiology of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro). This work was developed in order to identify the actual status and to set base lines as a reference for a quality control program. The calibration procedures of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiodiagnosis quality beams are discussed and described here as well as its application in dose measurements, for patients and radiologists. The performance of two types of x-ray equipment (fluorescent screen and image intensifier) usually used to perform this examinations was evaluated through appropriate tests. Radiation protection features are also considered. Dose to radiologists at unprotected regions and to patients at several sample points were measured. A comparison of the measured doses given by both types of equipment was made. After further analysis, the necessity to look for methods that reduce unnecessary doses became evident. The high values obtained in some procedures using fluorescent screen make the use of this type of equipment unacceptable. With these results, we consider that Health Care authorities have the responsibility of replacing all fluorescent screen equipment and of establishing standards, and raising awareness the responsible staff. (author)

  7. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  8. Gastrointestinal system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Xu, D; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Zhang, S; Li, M; Zeng, X

    2017-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder which can affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although GI symptoms can manifest in 50% of patients with SLE, these have barely been reviewed due to difficulty in identifying different causes. This study aims to clarify clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the four major SLE-related GI system complications: protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), hepatic involvement and pancreatitis. It is a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the major search terms were SLE, PLE, IPO, hepatitis and pancreatitis. A total of 125 articles were chosen for our study. SLE-related PLE was characterized by edema and hypoalbuminemia, with Technetium 99m labeled human albumin scintigraphy ( 99m Tc HAS) and alpha-1-antitrypsin fecal clearance test commonly used as diagnostic test. The most common site of protein leakage was the small intestine and the least common site was the stomach. More than half of SLE-related IPO patients had ureterohydronephrosis, and sometimes they manifested as interstitial cystitis and hepatobiliary dilatation. Lupus hepatitis and SLE accompanied by autoimmune hepatitis (SLE-AIH overlap) shared similar clinical manifestations but had different autoantibodies and histopathological features, and positive anti-ribosome P antibody highly indicated the diagnosis of lupus hepatitis. Lupus pancreatitis was usually accompanied by high SLE activity with a relatively high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and timely intervention were crucial, and administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants was effective for most of the patients.

  9. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sedation and monitoring for gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornyotin, Somchai

    2013-02-16

    The safe sedation of patients for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures requires a combination of properly trained physicians and suitable facilities. Additionally, appropriate selection and preparation of patients, suitable sedative technique, application of drugs, adequate monitoring, and proper recovery of patients is essential. The goal of procedural sedation is the safe and effective control of pain and anxiety as well as to provide an appropriate degree of memory loss or decreased awareness. Sedation practices for gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) vary widely. The majority of GIE patients are ambulatory cases. Most of this procedure requires a short time. So, short acting, rapid onset drugs with little adverse effects and improved safety profiles are commonly used. The present review focuses on commonly used regimens and monitoring practices in GIE sedation. This article is to discuss the decision making process used to determine appropriate pre-sedation assessment, monitoring, drug selection, dose of sedative agents, sedation endpoint and post-sedation care. It also reviews the current status of sedation and monitoring for GIE procedures in Thailand.

  11. Radiation dose measurement in gastrointestinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Barium studies investigations (barium swallow, barium meal and barium enema) are the basic routine radiological examination, where barium sulphate suspension is introduced to enhance image contrast of gastrointestinal tracts. The aim of this study was to quantify the patients' radiation doses during barium studies and to estimate the organ equivalent dose and effective dose with those procedures. A total of 33 investigations of barium studies were measured by using thermoluminescence dosemeters. The result showed that the patient entrance surface doses were 12.6±10, 44.5±49 and 35.7±50 mGy for barium swallow, barium meal, follow through and enema, respectively. Effective doses were 0.2, 0.35 and 1.4 mSv per procedure for barium swallow, meal and enema respectively. Radiation doses were comparable with the previous studies. A written protocol for each procedure will reduce the inter-operator variations and will help to reduce unnecessary exposure. (authors)

  12. Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding during anticoagulant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas-Gimeno, Aitor; Lanas, Angel

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major problem in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy. This issue has become even more pressing since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in 2009. Areas covered: Here we review current evidence related to GIB associated with oral anticoagulants, focusing on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and post-marketing observational studies. Dabigatran 150 mg twice daily and rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily increase the risk of GIB compared to warfarin. The risk increase with edoxaban is dose-dependent, while apixaban shows apparently, no increased risk. We summarize what is known about GIB risk factors for individual anticoagulants, the location of GIB in patients taking these compounds, and prevention strategies that lower the risk of GIB. Expert opinion: Recently there has been an important shift in the clinical presentation of GIB. Specifically, upper GIB has decreased with the decreased incidence of peptic ulcers due to the broad use of proton pump inhibitors and the decreased prevalence of H. pylori infections. In contrast, the incidence of lower GIB has increased, due in part to colonic diverticular bleeding and angiodysplasia in the elderly. In this population, the addition of oral anticoagulation therapy, especially DOACs, seems to increase the risk of lower GIB.

  13. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  14. The human gastrointestinal microbiota - An unexplored frontier for pharmaceutical discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Bouwman, J.; Venema, K.; Montijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors microorganisms (the microbiota) of vast phylogentic, genomic, and metabolic diversity, and recent years have seen a rapid development in the techniques for studying these complex microbial ecosystems. It is increasingly apparent that the GIT

  15. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  16. Experimental treatment of gastrointestinal radiation syndrome in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Bingzhi; Chen Dezheng; Liu Zuobin

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal radiation syndrome occurred in 27 mongrel dogs irradiated with 9-12 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. Six of them received autologous bone marrow transplantation (auto-BMT), 10 animals were treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only, and the remaining 11 dogs served as controls without any treatment. All animals of the latter two groups died between 3 and 11 days after irradiation without any evidence of hematopoietic recovery. Recovery of gastrointestinal injury was found in 7 dogs treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only. Of 6 dogs having received auto-BMT 2 died 15 days after irradiation, 3 survived over 30 days with recovery of gastrointestinal and hematopoietic injury but died of distemper later, and the other one, still alive, has survived for more than 4 years. The results show that the effective measures for gastrointestinal radiatin syndrome are BMT and symptomatic therapy

  17. Estimation of average bioburden values on flexible gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medhat Mohammed Anwar Hamed

    2014-06-21

    Jun 21, 2014 ... on flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes after clinical use and ... c Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, Medical Research Institute, Egypt ... pharmaceutical products and medical products for quality control purposes.

  18. Gastrointestinal surgical emergencies in patients treated for hemathological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronna, R; Cardi, M; Arcese, W; Iori, A P; Martelli, M; Catinelli, S; Mangioni, S; Corelli, S; Priore, F; Tarantino, E; Frantellizzi, V; Spera, G; Borrini, F; Chirletti, P

    2005-01-01

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms are major and serious complications in patients who undergo chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. Their most frequent causes are acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplant, infections, toxicity or preexisting gastrointestinal diseases. Mortality can reach 30-60% of cases. We report 15 cases operated on for abdominal emergencies: 3 severe gastrointestinal bleeding and 12 acute abdomen. We performed 10 bowel resections, one cholecystectomy, one splenectomy, two laparotomy with pancreatic debridement and peritoneal lavage, and one suture of perforated peptic ulcer. Operative mortality was 33.3% (5/15). Deaths have been reported only in the group of patients with acute abdomen. In all cases death was correlated to generalized sepsis related to immunosuppression. We believe that an aggressive approach, consisting of close monitoring and early laparotomy combined with vigorous supportive therapy, should be used when dealing with suspected gastrointestinal complications in patients with hematological malignancies.

  19. An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in post-war Iraq. Noor Abdulhaleem, Aliyu Mahmuda, Al-Zihiry Khalid Jameel Khadim, Roslaini Abd Majid, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Wan Omar Abdullah, Zasmy Unyah ...

  20. Administration of calcimimetics after dialysis: Same effectiveness, better gastrointestinal tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve Simo

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Post-dialysis use of calcimimetic was effective in secondary hyperparathyroidism control, improved gastrointestinal tolerability and ameliorated patients’ satisfaction. Based on our findings, post-dialysis use of calcimimetics should be considered in selected patients with low therapeutic compliance.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: The Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paediatric disorders. This is more ... Uganda, gastritis and duodenal ulcers were found to be the most .... Each procedure was carried out after a venous access ..... Body mass index and chronic unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: An adult.

  2. Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract. FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We assess the usefulness of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. Four cases (five lesions) in which metastases from three lung cancers and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the femur were found in the gastrointestinal tract were reviewed (men/women 3:1, age 63-78 years, mean 72 years). The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. FDG-PET was unable to detect small masses, but it was able to detect unforeseen lesions such as gastrointestinal metastases because FDG-PET is a whole-body scan in a single-operation examination. FDG-PET imaging provided valuable information for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastasis. (author)

  3. Predictors of Recurrent Ingestion of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Grimes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients.

  4. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Sorghum bicolor, gastrointestinal, motility, diarrhoea, jejunum, ileum, fundus. INTRODUCTION ..... the propulsive movement of charcoal meal through the .... A delay in gastric emptying will prevent speedy evacua-.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of metformin in patients with gastrointestinal intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mccreight, Laura J.; Stage, Tore B.; Connelly, Paul

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Metformin intolerance symptoms are gastrointestinal in nature, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess potential causes of metformin intolerance including: altered metformin uptake from the intestine; increased anaerobic glucose utilisation and...

  6. Diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owensby, Susan; Taylor, Kellee; Wilkins, Thad

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon but potentially serious, life-threatening condition in children. Rapid assessment, stabilization, and resuscitation should precede all diagnostic modalities in unstable children. The diagnostic approach includes history, examination, laboratory evaluation, endoscopic procedures, and imaging studies. The clinician needs to determine carefully whether any blood or possible blood reported by a child or adult represents true upper gastrointestinal bleeding because most children with true upper gastrointestinal bleeding require admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. After the diagnosis is established, the physician should start a proton pump inhibitor or histamine 2 receptor antagonist in children with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Consideration should also be given to the initiation of vasoactive drugs in all children in whom variceal bleeding is suspected. An endoscopy should be performed once the child is hemodynamically stable. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. A large gastrointestinal stromal tumor of duodenum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ahmadi Amoli

    2014-01-01

    Case presentation: The patient is a forty six years old man. He complained of frequent colic pain in left upper quadrant of abdomen for two months before admitting to the hospital. The pain resolved spontaneously after a few hours. This situation almost has been repeated every week. The patient had severe repeated melena and faint for two weeks. As soon as the patient was entered the Sina Hospital in 2012, supportive care was started. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed for him and the bleeding point was detected. Also abdominal and pelvic computed tomography with oral and intravenous contrast was done. Finally the patient was operated on tumor diagnosis in duodenal area according to classic Whipple procedure. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common symptom of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The bleeding is minimal and chronic. It will be progress to sudden and severe bleeding. Diagnosis is done by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The large tumors with high mitotic

  8. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent...

  9. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  10. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamilo, M.; Suoranta, H.; Suramo, I.

    1986-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)

  12. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Presenting as Mediastinal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafeel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and are predominant in the stomach and intestine but rare in the esophagus. Here, we report a case of esophageal GIST which presented as a mediastinal mass on chest X-ray and dyspnea. The case was initially diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma, which could create a diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, recognizing this uncommon presentation as a mediastinal mass with esophageal GIST is important in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    In experimets with albino mongrel female rats a study was made of the absorption of 249 Bk from the gastrointestinal tract after a single per os administration. The bulk of 249 Bk (96 per cent) administered either intravenously or per os was mainly deposited in the skeleton and liver. The value of 249 Bk absorption from the gastrointestinal trat by days 4 and 8 following administration was 0.05 per cent

  14. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  15. Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Philip A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.

  16. Spinal Epidural Haemangioma Associated with Extensive Gastrointestinal Haemangiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.T.E.; Lim, W.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A case of spinal epidural cavernous haemangioma associated with gastrointestinal haemangiomas is discussed. The patient was a young Chinese female presenting with chronic lower back pain. She had a history of extensive gastric and small bowel haemangiomas. Lumbar spine MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing epidural mass infiltrating the paravertebral muscles. Open biopsy confirmed an epidural cavernous haemangioma. To our knowledge, an association between spinal epidural cavernous haemangiomas and gastrointestinal haemangiomas has not been reported. PMID:20584496

  17. Asbestos and Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Robert W.; Foliart, Donna E.; Wong, Otto

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, we listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, we calculated summary SMRs for total gastrointestinal tract cancer fo...

  18. Localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis presenting with protein-losing enteropathy and massive hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Corrêa

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is usually a systemic disease. Localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis without evidence of extraintestinal involvement or an associated plasma cell dyscrasia is uncommon and does not usually cause death. We report a case of a patient with localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis who presented with protein-losing enteropathy and a fatal upper gastrointestinal bleed.

  19. Terapia celular en la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur en pacientes con drepanocitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymara Maria Baganet-Cobas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La necrosis aséptica de la cabeza femoral (NACF es una causa importante de morbilidad en pacientes jóvenes con drepanocitosis. En su tratamiento ningún método es completamente satisfactorio. Investigaciones recientes sugieren que la terapia celular puede contribuir a la reparación de tejidos como el óseo resultando útiles en el proceso de osteogénesis y angiogénesis. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad del implante de concentrado de células mononucleares autólogas de médula ósea (CMN-MO en el tratamiento de la NACF en pacientes con drepanocitosis. Método: se incluyeron 18 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 32,8 años (rango entre 21 y 46 años, con un seguimiento mínimo de dos años. A todos se les realizó descompresión de la cabeza femoral por perforación e implante de CMN-MO. A estas células se les cuantificó por citometría de flujo expresión de moléculas CD34, CD45, CD117, HLADR, CD29 y CD14. Resultados: el promedio de viabilidad del concentrado implantado fue del 97%. Fenotípicamente las CMN-MO mostraron un patrón de expresión asociado a poblaciones de células madre adherentes del estroma medular CD34-/CD45-/DR-/CD29+/CD14-/CD117-. Los mejores resultados clínicos y radiográficos se observaron en pacientes en estadios iniciales (I o II de la enfermedad. En 12 caderas (72,9 % tratadas, los pacientes no refirieron ningún dolor a los dos años posteriores al tratamiento. Se obtuvieron buenos resultados radiológicos en siete pacientes (41,2 %. Tres pacientes (17,6 % requirieron el remplazo total de cadera. Conclusiones:el implante de CMN-MO para los primeros estadios de la NACF, es un tratamiento útil en los pacientes con drepanocitosis. El método empleado es relativamente simple y poco costoso.

  20. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Related to Fluoxetine in a Patient With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Tze Chao

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient who developed massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage related to the use of fluoxetine in combination with aspirin and clopidogrel. A 58-year-old man was admitted with a posterior circulation infarct with significant weakness in all four limbs and dysarthria. Aspirin and clopidogrel were started. Fluoxetine was started for pharmacological neurostimulation to promote motor recovery and for low mood. He developed gastrointestinal hemorrhage a week after fluoxetine was started. Fluoxetine was suspended and investigations failed to reveal the source of the bleeding. He was then restarted on fluoxetine along with dual antiplatelets, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage recurred after 1 week. He was extensively investigated for a source of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and again no source could be identified. Eventually, fluoxetine was switched to mirtazapine with no further gastrointestinal hemorrhage. He remained on dual antiplatelets. A number of case-control and cohort studies had identified the association of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). We hope to raise awareness of this association in physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians as the use of SSRI is expected to rise.

  1. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  2. Congenital portosystemic shunts with and without gastrointestinal bleeding - case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ying; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qi; Ji, Min; Pa, Mier; Qiao, Zhongwei [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Hui [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Shan [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-15

    The clinical presentation of congenital portosystemic shunt is variable and gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon presentation. To describe the imaging features of congenital portosystemic shunt as it presented in 11 children with (n = 6) and without gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 5). We performed a retrospective study on a clinical and imaging dataset of 11 children diagnosed with congenital portosystemic shunt. A total of 11 children with congenital portosystemic shunt were included in this study, 7 with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts and 4 with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Six patients with gastrointestinal bleeding had an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and the imaging results showed that the shunts originated from the splenomesenteric junction (n = 5) or splenic vein (n = 1) and connected to the internal iliac vein. Among the five cases of congenital portosystemic shunt without gastrointestinal bleeding, one case was an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt and the other four were intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Most congenital portosystemic shunt patients with gastrointestinal bleeding had a shunt that drained portal blood into the iliac vein via an inferior mesenteric vein. This type of shunt was uncommon, but the concomitant rate of gastrointestinal bleeding with this type of shunt was high. (orig.)

  3. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  4. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  5. Leadership and team building in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Roland M; Johnston, Deborah J

    2016-06-01

    A modern endoscopy service delivers high volume procedures that can be daunting, embarrassing and uncomfortable for patients [1]. Endoscopy is hugely beneficial to patients but only if it is performed to high standards [2]. Some consequences of poor quality endoscopy include worse outcomes for cancer and gastrointestinal bleeding, unnecessary repeat procedures, needless damage to patients and even avoidable death [3]. New endoscopy technology and more rigorous decontamination procedures have made endoscopy more effective and safer, but they have placed additional demands on the service. Ever-scarcer resources require more efficient, higher turnover of patients, which can be at odds with a good patient experience, and with quality and safety. It is clear from the demands put upon it, that to deliver a modern endoscopy service requires effective leadership and team working [4]. This chapter explores what constitutes effective leadership and what makes great clinical teams. It makes the point that endoscopy services are not usually isolated, independent units, and as such are dependent for success on the organisations they sit within. It will explain how endoscopy services are affected by the wider policy and governance context. Finally, within the context of the collection of papers in this edition of Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, it explores the potentially conflicting relationship between training of endoscopists and service delivery. The effectiveness of leadership and teams is rarely the subject of classic experimental designs such as randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless there is a substantial literature on this subject within and particularly outside healthcare [5]. The authors draw on this wider, more diffuse literature and on their experience of delivering a Team Leadership Programme (TLP) to the leaders of 70 endoscopy teams during the period 2008-2012. (Team Leadership Programme Link-http

  6. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age ± 95% confidence interval = 70 ± 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 ± 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 ± 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding

  7. The Use of Probiotics in Gastrointestinal Disease

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    Karen L Madsen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or the combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus, is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile, as well as in preventing the frequency and severity of infectious acute diarrhea in children. Prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea with the concomitant administration of either Lactobacillus GG or Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated. The most successful studies involve the use of Lactobacillus GG at a dose of 1×1010 viable organisms per day and the yeast boulardii at a dose of 1 g/day. A probiotic preparation (VSL#3 - 6 g/day that uses a combination of three species of Bifidobacterium, four strains of Lactobacillus and one strain of Streptocccus has shown promise in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, as well as in preventing the postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. The mechanism of action of probiotics may include receptor competition, effects on mucin secretion or probiotic immunomodulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Oral administration of probiotic compounds has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and safe. However, while probiotics have the potential to improve human health and to prevent and treat some diseases, major improvements are needed in labelling and quality assurance procedures for probiotic compounds. In addition, well planned and controlled clinical studies are necessary to delineate fully the potential for probiotic compounds.

  8. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

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    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  9. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyalpatil, Nikhil Suresh; Supriya, Chopra; Prachi, Patil; Ashwin, Dsouza; Avanish, Saklani

    2016-01-01

    GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), esophageal cancer (EC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist, these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes. The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach) to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs) need focussed attention

  10. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases in Nigeria: Histopathologic Analysis of 74 Cases

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    Abudu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are vulnerable to a vast number of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders, which may be associated with life threatening complications that sometimes result in mortality especially if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the age and sex distribution of children in the study population as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children who were aged 14years and below in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data such as age, sex, and clinical summary of children in the study population were extracted from the medical records of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State from January 2003 to December 2009. Based on this information, a review of paraffin embedded blocks and slides as well as histopathological reports of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children aged 14years and below was undertaken at the Morbid Anatomy Department of the hospital. RESULTS: Seventy–four cases of gastrointestinal diseases were seen in children aged 14years and below. The majority (39.2% of gastrointestinal diseases were accounted for by appendiceal lesions. Hirschsprung’s disease, intussusceptions, enterocolitis and jejunal atresia accounted for 29.7%, 10.8%, 6.8% and 4.1% of cases respectively. Adenocarcinoma of the intestine was the predominant gastrointestinal tumour, occurring in 5 out of 7 children. Two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were also seen. The ages of the children ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean age of 8.6years and a peak age incidence of gastrointestinal disease in the 10-14year age group. Male children were more commonly affected with the exception of appendiceal lesions, which occurred more in females (M:F ratio= 1.6:1.0. Acute suppurative appendicitis was the most prevalent lesion of the appendix, occurring in 13 out of 29 appendiceal lesions. Moderately differentiated to poorly

  11. Overall severities of gastrointestinal symptoms in pediatric outpatients with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasi, Venkatraman; Steer, Robert A; Monteiro, Iona M; Ming, Xue

    2018-03-01

    In order to determine the effectiveness of a Gastrointestinal Severity Index to screen for gastrointestinal disorders, the Gastrointestinal Severity Index was administered to 135 children with autism spectrum disorders and 146 comparisons with and without gastrointestinal disorders. The mean Gastrointestinal Severity Index scores of the groups were 3.53 ± 1.78, 3.15 ± 1.99, 0.81 ± 1.25, and 0.29 ± 0.76 (comparative pediatric patients with gastrointestinal disorder = autism spectrum disorder + gastrointestinal disorder > autism spectrum disorder-gastrointestinal disorder > comparative pediatric patients without gastrointestinal disorder, respectively), Ps disorders. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.97) for the comparison group was higher (P autism spectrum disorder children indicating that the Gastrointestinal Severity Index was more effective in screening for gastrointestinal disorders in comparisons. However, the same Gastrointestinal Severity Index cutoff score of 2 and above yielded, respectively, sensitivity and specificity rates of 92% and 93% for comparisons and 80% and 79% for autism spectrum disorder children. The negative and positive predictive values based on these sensitivity and specificity rates were calculated for a range of prevalences of gastrointestinal disorders and indicated that the Gastrointestinal Severity Index may be useful for screening children with and without autism spectrum disorder for gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. [Risk factors for malignant evolution of gastrointestinal stromal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, S; Andrei, Adriana; Tonea, A; Andronesi, D; Becheanu, G; Dumbravă, Mona; Pechianu, C; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent non-epithelial digestive tumors, being classified in the group of primitive mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. These tumors have a non predictable evolution and where stratified regarding the risk for malignant behavior in 4 categories: very low risk, low risk, intermediate risk and high risk. We performed a retrospective non randomised study including the patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation of Fundeni Clinical Institute in the period January 2002 - June 2007, to define the epidemiological, clinico-paraclinical, histological and especially evolutive features of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors from this group, with a special regard to the risk factors for their malignant behavior. The most important risk factors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the tumor size and the mitotic index, based on them being realised the classification of Fletcher in the 4 risk categories mentioned above. In our group all the local advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors, regardless of their location, were classified in the group of high risk for the malignant behavior. The gastric location and the epithelioid type were positive prognostic factors, and the complete resection of the tumor, an other important positive prognostic feature, was possible in about 80% of the cases, probably because the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in our study were diagnosed in less advanced evolutive situations, only about one third being metastatic and about 14% being locally advanced at the time of diagnose. The association with other neoplasias was in our cases insignificant, only 5% of the patients presenting concomitant malignant digestive tumors and 7.6% intraabdominal benign tumors. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors remain a challenge for the medical staff, regarding their diagnose and therapeutical management, the stratification of the

  13. The Clinical Outcomes of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Are Not Better than Those of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min Seob; Cha, Jae Myung; Han, Yong Jae; Yoon, Jin Young; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is increasing; however, predictors of outcomes for patients with LGIB are not as well defined as those for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical outcomes and the predictors of poor outcomes for patients with LGIB, compared to outcomes for patients with UGIB. We identified patients with LGIB or UGIB who underwent endoscopic procedures between July 2006 and February 2013. Propensity score matching was used to improve comparability between LGIB and UGIB groups. The clinical outcomes and predictors of 30-day rebleeding and mortality rate were analyzed between the two groups. In total, 601 patients with UGIB (n = 500) or LGIB (n = 101) were included in the study, and 202 patients with UGIB and 101 patients with LGIB were analyzed after 2:1 propensity score matching. The 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates were 9.9% and 4.5% for the UGIB group, and 16.8% and 5.0% for LGIB group, respectively. After logistic regression analysis, the Rockall score (P = 0.013) and C-reactive protein (CRP; P = 0.047) levels were significant predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with LGIB; however, we could not identify any predictors of rebleeding in patients with LGIB. The clinical outcomes for patients with LGIB are not better than clinical outcomes for patients with UGIB. The clinical Rockall score and serum CRP levels may be used to predict 30-day mortality in patients with LGIB.

  14. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

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    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  15. Antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts subjected to gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2015-07-01

    Broccoli is a common vegetable recognized as a rich source of antioxidants. To date, research on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, predominantly conducted on extracts, has not considered the lesions of composition and this activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Here the stability of antioxidants during gastrointestinal digestion was evaluated in conjunction with the protective effects of broccoli sprouts (BS) against oxidative stress in human colon cells. The obtained data suggest that, among the biocompounds identified in BS, glucosinolates were mainly degraded under gastrointestinal digestion, while phenolics, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, were the most resistant constituents. The antioxidant capacity of BS extract subjected to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to or higher than that determined for non-digested BS. Gastrointestinal digested BS extract exhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inhibitory capacity in NCM460 human colon cells, with 1 mg mL(-1) showing an ROS clearance of 76.59%. A 57.33% reduction in oxidative DNA damage in NCM460 cells due to treatment with digested BS extract was observed. The results lend support to the possible application of BS as a rich source of antioxidants to improve the defensive system against oxidative stress in the human colon mucosa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Enteroendocrine cells: a site of 'taste' in gastrointestinal chemosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternini, Catia; Anselmi, Laura; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2008-02-01

    This review discusses the role of enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract as chemoreceptors that sense lumen contents and induce changes in gastrointestinal function and food intake through the release of signaling substances acting on a variety of targets locally or at a distance. Recent evidence supports the concept that chemosensing in the gut involves G protein-coupled receptors and effectors that are known to mediate gustatory signals in the oral cavity. These include sweet-taste and bitter-taste receptors, and their associated G proteins, which are expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa, including selected populations of enteroendocrine cells. In addition, taste receptor agonists elicit a secretory response in enteroendocrine cells in vitro and in animals in vivo, and induce neuronal activation. Taste-signaling molecules expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa might participate in the functional detection of nutrients and harmful substances in the lumen and prepare the gut to absorb them or initiate a protective response. They might also participate in the control of food intake through the activation of gut-brain neural pathways. These findings provide a new dimension to unraveling the regulatory circuits initiated by luminal contents of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Burden of acute gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    René Simavé Dembele, Elisa Huovinen, Denis Yelbéogo, Markku Kuusi, Guétawendé Sawadogo, Kaisa Haukka, Isidore Bonkoungou, Anja Siitonen, Alfred S. Traoré

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal infections are one of the major health problems in developing countries. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methods: A door-to-door survey of selected residents in Ouagadougou city was conducted. Of the Ouagadougou’s 30 districts, nine most populated ones were selected to the study. The residents of these districts have middle incomes as those of the secondary cite of Burkina Faso. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in the 30 days prior to the interview was 77/491 (15.7%: among children 44/223 (19.7% and among adults 33/268 (12.3%. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the most com­mon symptoms among 33 adult cases while diarrhea and vomiting were the most common among children. None of the cases were hospitalized and a stool sample was taken in three of 77 cases. Medication for gastrointestinal infections was received by 55% percent of adults and 77% of children. Conclusions: Our results shown that antibiotics with and without prescription were the most common medicine used. Washing hands before meals and boiling milk before drinking had a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 45-52

  18. Treatment of Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Tanveer; Salam, Basit; Beg, Madiha; Sayani, Raza; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% postembolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention

  19. Treatment of Non variceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ul Haq, T.; Salam, B.; Beg, M.; Sayani, R.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% post embolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, A. E.; Ridley, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to carry out a systematic review determining the accuracy of CT angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. A search of published work in Medline and manual searching of reference lists of articles was conducted. Studies were included if they compared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eight published studies evaluating 129 patients were included. Data were used to form 2 x2 tables. Computed tomography angiography showed pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval 78-92%) and specificity of 95% (95% confidence interval 76-100%), without showing significant heterogeneity (x 2 = 3.5, P=0.6) and (x 2 - 5.4, P = 0.6), respectively. Summary receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.93. Computed tomography angiography is accurate in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can show the precise location and aetiology of bleeding, thereby directing further management. Strong recommendations for use of CT cannot be made from this review because of the methodological limitations and further large prospective studies are needed to define the role of CT in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Techniques and principles of endoscopic treatment of benign gastrointestinal strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Shayan; Kozarek, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental goal of treating any stenosis is luminal enlargement to ameliorate the underlying obstructive symptoms. Symptoms depend on the etiology and the site of the stricture and may include dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, obstipation, or frank bowel obstruction. This article compares the various current technologies available for the treatment of gastrointestinal stenoses with regard to ease and site of application, patient tolerance, safety and efficacy data, and cost-benefit ratio. Recent studies indicate that gastrointestinal dilation and stenting have evolved to a point at which in many if not most situations they can be the first line therapy and potentially the final therapy needed to treat the underlying condition. Following techniques and principles in the management of gastrointestinal strictures would allow for the well tolerated and effective treatment of most patients with the tools currently available today.

  2. Interventional therapy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xiuqin; Yu Shiping; Zhang Jin; Zhang Caizhen; Yuan Wei; Meng Xiangwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and assess the efficiency and clinical value of interventional therapy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease. Methods: Ten patients definitely diagnosed with Dieulafoy disease suffering from massive acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage received celiac arterial and left gastric arterial angiography, outcoming with 8 positively and 2 negative cases. Among them, 6 were embolized with gelfoam particles and the other two with aneurismal dilatation received gelfoam particles and spring steel coils; and one of the negtive cases was given hypophysin and without intervention to the other. Results: Among the 8 intra-arterial embolized cases, only 1 case rebleeded on the third day after gelfoam embolization, and then treated by surgical operation, and the rest 7 showed no rebleeding. One case with hypophysin treatment rehabilitated after one week. Conclusions: Interventional therapeutics is a safe and effective emergency management for gastrointestinal hemorrhage induced by Dieulafoy disease. (authors)

  3. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST masquerading as an ovarian mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beneduce Pasquale

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are rare mesenchymal tumors originating in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Myogenic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a distinctive morphologic variant is characterized by an unusually prominent myxoid stromal background. Case presentation We report a case of myxoid variant of GIST in a 42 years old woman presenting as an epigastric mass associated to an ovarian cyst and elevated CA-125. Histologically, the lesions was composed of a proliferation of spindle cells in an abundant myxoid stroma, without evidence of atypia or anaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains showed strong positive staining with muscle actin, positive staining with CD34 and weak positive staining with CD117, while showed negative for S-100. Conclusion At surgery every effort should be made to identify the origin of the tumor. A complete surgical removal of the tumor should be obtained, as this is the only established treatment that offers long term survival.

  4. Upper gastrointestinal tract injuries by intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, I; Isawa, T; Satomi, T; Tazima, T [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-one patients with unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas were treated by intraoperative irradiation with a large electron dose of 1500 - 3000 rads and upper gastrointestinal complications were encountered in five cases. All of those five cases were for carcinoma of the pancreatic head, and were seen for gastrointestinal tract injuries of the duodenum as follows, gastric ulcer in 2 cases, ulcer of the 1st duodenal portion in one case and ulcer with severe stenosis of the 2nd or 3rd duodenal portion in one case, respectively. Endoscopic features of these postirradiation gastrointestinal ulcers were characterized by deep, punched-out ulcers with grayish bases and sharp margins. Clinically these ulcers and stenosis were very difficult to treat, so by-pass operations were performed in two cases, resulting in prolonged survival.

  5. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejerskov, Cecilie; Krogh, Klaus; Ostergaard, John R

    2017-01-01

    siblings (median age 10 years). The overall likelihood of having gastrointestinal symptoms usually attributed to either functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome or constipation was 30.4% in patients vs. 10.9% in siblings, odds ratio 3.58 (95% CI: 1.30-9.79). The prevalence of constipation was 22......OBJECTIVES: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by symptoms of the skin and nervous system. A previous study indicated that constipation is common in children with NF1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenotype and prevalence...... of gastrointestinal symptoms in a population of 4-17-year-olds with NF1 compared to their unaffected siblings. METHODS: Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with a web-based, parent or self-administered, validated, Rome® III diagnostic questionnaire. Participants were recruited from one of two Danish National...

  6. Pancreatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor after Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Performance of Whipple Procedure: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziret, Mehmet; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Aktaş, Elife; İrkörücü, Oktay; Bali, İlhan; Erdem, Hasan

    2015-08-03

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal system. These types of tumors originate from any part of the tract as well as from the intestine, colon, omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. GIST is a rare tumor compared to other types of tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. A 56-year-old male patient was hospitalized due to an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the start of abdominal pain on the same day. In the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that was performed, a solitary mass was found in the second section of the duodenum and a blood vessel (Forrest type 2a) was seen. The extent and location of the mass was detected by abdominal tomography. After hemodynamic recovery, a Whipple procedure was performed without any complications. A subsequent histopathological examination detected a c-kit-positive (CD117) pancreatic GIST with high mitotic index. The most effective treatment method for GISTs is surgical resection. In patients with a head of pancreatic GIST, the Whipple procedure can be used more safely and effectively.

  7. Regulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferases in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Philip A.; Lewinsky, Rikke H.; Gardner-Stephen, Dione A.; Mackenzie, Peter I.

    2004-01-01

    The UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a crucial role in protection against the toxic effects of lipophilic chemicals in the environment. UGTs such as UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 are exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, each with a unique tissue distribution pattern that is subject to interindividual variation. The factors regulating this tissue-specific expression and that contribute to variability are beginning to be elucidated. Studies on the UGT1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 gene promoters in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of enterocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, have identified the caudal homeodomain transcription factor, Cdx2, as an important regulator of the UGT1A8 and 1A10 gene proximal promoters. This transcription factor is found exclusively in the small intestine and colon: it is absent in the gastric epithelium and the esophagus. Cdx2 regulates the UGT1A8 and 1A10 promoters in cooperation with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α). It is noteworthy that UGT1A7 is not expressed in gastrointestinal tissue distal to the gastric mucosa and does not contain a Cdx2 binding site in its proximal promoter. Transcription factors, including Sp1, which differentially bind to the initiator regions of the UGT1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 promoters, also contribute to the differences in expression of these UGTs in Caco-2 cells. The identification of important regulatory regions of UGT genes expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, and the transcription factors that bind to these regions, will aid in the elucidation of factors that contribute to interindividual differences in gastrointestinal UGT expression. In turn, this will lead to further understanding of interindividual variation in the capacity of the GI tract to metabolize lipophilic chemicals and to act as a barrier to dietary toxins and orally administered drugs

  8. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  9. Sedation and Monitoring in the Pediatric Patient during Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Kee; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2016-07-01

    Sedation is a fundamental component of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures. The 2 main types of sedation for pediatric endoscopy remain general anesthesia and procedural sedation. Although anesthesiologist-administered sedation protocols are more common, there is no ideal regimen for endoscopy in children. This article discusses specific levels of sedation for endoscopy as well as various regimens that can be used to achieve each. Risks and considerations that may be specific to performing gastrointestinal procedures in children are reviewed. Finally, potential future directions for sedation and monitoring that may change the practice of pediatric gastroenterology and ultimately patient outcomes are examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos G. Markakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs.

  11. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon Banos Madrid; Fernando Alberca de las Parras; Angel Vargas Acosta and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosions and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomach. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach, the habitual is to diagnose this entity of accidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological or surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  12. Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease (PD are well-recognized problems and are known to be an initial symptom in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from the involvement of either the central or enteric nervous systems, or these symptoms may be side effects of antiparkinsonian medications. Weight loss, excessive salivation, dysphagia, nausea/gastroparesis, constipation, and defecation dysfunction all may occur. Increased identification and early detection of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for PD patients.

  13. [Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, D O; Krylov, K M; Verbitsky, V G; Shlyk, I V

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns by developing a prophylactic algorithm. The study consisted of retrospective group of 488 patients with thermal burns grade II-III over 20% of body surface area and prospective group of 135 patients with a similar thermal trauma. Standard clinical and laboratory examination was applied. Instrumental survey included fibrogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic pH-metry and invasive volumetric monitoring (PICCO plus). Statistical processing was carried out with Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS 20.0. New algorithm significantly decreased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (p<0.001) and mortality rate (p=0.006) in patients with advanced burns.

  14. Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and its health benefits in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Kore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal microbial balance is the most important prerequisite for normal functions of digestive system, physiological and immunological homeostasis in dogs as well as in other animals. It helps in prevention of pathogenic colonization, provides energy through SCFA by nutrient breakdown, and improves mineral-vitamin supply to host, augment host immune status. Hence, it is imperative to explore the potential means to improve the gastrointestinal microbial diversity which in turns boost up dog health. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 140-141

  15. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  16. Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to ulcer in duodenal diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos Madrid, Ramon; Alberca de las Parras, Fernando; Vargas Acosta, Angel and others

    2006-01-01

    The reasons more frequent of high gastrointestinal bleeding are the peptic gastric and duodenal, followed by acute erosion and the varicose veins in oesophagus and stomachs. The diverticulosis of the small bowel is a very rare reason of gastrointestinal bleeding, must considerate in patients with bleeding without evident reason in oesophagus and stomach the habitual is to diagnose this entity of occidental form in the course of endoscopic procedures, radiological of surgical. The complications associated with the diverticulosis duodenal are rare; it justifies supporting a not surgical attitude at first

  17. Non-anesthesiologist administration of propofol for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Riphaus, Andrea; Schreiber, Florian

    2015-01-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Nurses and Associates (ESGENA). It addresses the administration of propofol by non-anesthesiologists for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy...... driving, drinking alcohol, operating heavy machinery, or engaging in legally binding decisions. Advice should be provided verbally and in written form to the patient, including a 24-hour contact phone number (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 10 For patients of ASA classes 1 - 2 who have...

  18. Spironolactone use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem E; Lassen, Annmarie T; Aalykke, Claus

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. * We conducted this population-based case-control study to confirm the association between spironolactone use and acute nonvaricose UGB alone...... is not modified by high cumulative doses or by concurrent use of antithrombotic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AIMS Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. The aim was to confirm the association, identify the risk factors...

  19. Haemorrhage from Pancreatic Pseudocysts Presenting as Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Garcea

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. The high mortality associated with pancreatic haemorrhage makes prompt and aggressive management essential. Occasionally, haemorrhage may present atypically, leading to delay in its diagnosis and management. This report details a case of pancreatic haemorrhage presenting as an upper gastrointestinal bleed and discusses the subsequent management. When managing patients with pancreatic pseudocysts who present with the stigmata of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the possibility that the bleeding originates from the pancreas must always be borne in mind.

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective of their fun......This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective...

  1. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  2. Del bit al qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Font, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aquest document pretén donar una visió del desenvolupament dels computadors electrònics i dels components que els han fet possibles. Dintre de les opcions de futur en computació, també intenta donar una visió de les bases en que es fonamenta la computació quàntica.

  3. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy for a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermansaravi, Mohammad; Rokhgireh, Samaneh; Darabi, Sattar; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) include 80% of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors that originate from interstitial Cajal cells and include 0.1-3% of GI malignancies, and the stomach is the most commonly involved organ. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical resection with clear margins. Although laparoscopic resection of small GISTs is a standard treatment, there is controversy about laparoscopic surgical resection for large and giant GISTs. A 52-year-old woman, a known case of large GIST of the stomach that was under neoadjuvant imatinib therapy, was admitted to the emergency department due to acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). The patient underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy and received adjuvant imatinib after surgery. Laparoscopic resection is a safe and feasible method in large and giant GISTs with oncologic and long-term outcomes comparable to open surgery, and with better short-term outcomes.

  4. The Incidence and gastrointestinal infectious risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders in a healthy US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chad K; Gormley, Robert; Tribble, David R; Cash, Brooks D; Riddle, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are recognized sequelae of infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Within the active duty military population, a group with known high IGE rates, the population-based incidence, risk factors, and attributable burden of care referable to FGD after IGE are poorly defined. Using electronic medical encounter data (1999-2007) on active duty US military, a matched, case-control study describing the epidemiology and risk determinants of FGD (irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FD), dyspepsia (D)) was conducted. Incidence rates and duration of FGD-related medical care were estimated, and conditional logistic regression was utilized to evaluate FGD risk after IGE. A total of 31,866 cases of FGD identified were distributed as follows: FC 55% (n=17,538), D 21.2% (n=6,750), FD 2.1% (n=674), IBS 28.5% (n=9,091). Previous IGE episodes were distributed as follows: specific bacterial pathogen (n=65, 1.2%), bacterial, with no pathogen specified (n=2155, 38.9%), protozoal (n=38, 0.7%), viral (n=3431, 61.9%). A significant association between IGE and all FGD (odds ratio (OR) 2.64; Phigh risk for IGE. When considering effective countermeasures and mitigation strategies, attention directed toward prevention as well as the acute and chronic sequelae of these infections is needed.

  5. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, JH; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  6. Diagnostic strategies in children with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Geeske Atje

    2016-01-01

    Chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms are common presentations among children in primary care. Because symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders may be indistinguishable from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians to differentiate between them

  7. International prospective observational study of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Does weekend admission affect outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Iain A.; Dalton, Harry R.; Stanley, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Out of hours admissions have higher mortality for many conditions but upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage studies have produced variable outcomes. Methods Prospective study of 12 months consecutive admissions of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from four international high volume...

  8. Dientamoeba fragilis colonization is not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in children at primary care level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A.; Kranenberg, Justin J.; Blanker, Marco H.; Ott, Alewijn; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Dientamoeba fragilis is commonly identified in children in primary care and is suspected to cause gastrointestinal disease. Objective. To determine the association between D. fragilis colonization and gastrointestinal symptoms in children. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff Timothy J. Wade, Reagan R. Converse, Elizabeth A. Sams, Ann H. Williams, Edward Hudgens, Alfred P. Dufour Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers have been associated with fecal ...

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites of domestic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of domestic rats was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites in Maiduguri municipal between February and June 2015. Rats were randomly collected from residential sites within Maiduguri metropolis by trapping using mechanical and glue board traps. Trapped ...

  11. Gastrointestinal malignancies at five regional referral hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancers diagnosed per year across the five referral hospitals was ... Conclusion: Oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancer remain the most common gastrointestinal malignancies and their rate is .... intake, poor dietary patterns such as consumption of a.

  12. Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Involvement in Primary Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low.

  13. Induced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) derangement following a long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug administration commenced from 10th day of gestation to the end of parturition. On the 13th day after parturition the maternal rats were then sacrified for tissue processing. The results showed that the control animals had a normal architecture of the gastrointestinal tract. While the paracetamol treated animals showed a ...

  14. Functional dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and transit in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitkara, Denesh K.; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of abnormal gastric emptying and small bowel transit in children with functional dyspepsia at a tertiary care center, and the relationship between abnormal gastric and small bowel transit and symptoms in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Patients

  15. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among the Trade Donkeys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study was carried out to determine the gastrointestinal parasites among trade donkeys brought to the three major donkey markets of Alkaleri, Bauchi and Soro in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 116 donkeys comprising of 69 Idabari, 24 Duni and 23 Auraki breeds were randomly selected and examined for ...

  16. Extravasation of contrast medium into the gastrointestinal tract following lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, K.; Koga, K.; Tsurudome, H.; Nakano, T.; Hoshi, H.; Yamada, H.; Kawahira, K.; Inakura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Haraguchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases with roentgenologic findings of extravasation of contrast medium into the stomach and colon following lymphangiography are presented. One is clinically diagnosed as primary intestinal lymphangiectasia; the other as retroperitoneal spread from uterine cancer. The significance of lymphangiography in gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal disorders is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Extravasation of contrast medium into the gastrointestinal tract following lymphangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, K.; Koga, K.; Tsurudome, H.; Nakano, T.; Hoshi, H.; Yamada, H.; Kawahira, K.; Inakura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Haraguchi, Y.

    1981-07-15

    Two cases with roentgenologic findings of extravasation of contrast medium into the stomach and colon following lymphangiography are presented. One is clinically diagnosed as primary intestinal lymphangiectasia; the other as retroperitoneal spread from uterine cancer. The significance of lymphangiography in gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal disorders is discussed.

  18. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  19. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  20. Diversity of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of microbiology, more than a century ago, representatives of over 400 different microbial species have been isolated and fully characterized from human gastrointestinal samples. However, during the past decade molecular ecological studies based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences

  1. DSA diagnosis and embolization therapy of gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruming; Qiu Shuibo; Liu Minhua; Yang Huijun; Zhuang Shaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of digital subtraction angiography and transcatheter embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage received celiac arteries, superior mesenteric arteries and inferior mesenteric arteries angiography. Superselective angiography were performed when the arteries were suspicious by clinic or angiogrraphy. Ten patients with definite diagnosis and manifestation of hemorrhagic arteries by angiography were embolized after superselective catheterization with gelfoam particles, gelfoam particles and coils, polyvinyl alcohol particles. Results: The positive signs were observed in 13 cases. The DSA features including contrast medium accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract outside vascular, aneurysm, tumorous vascularization and staining, artery affect and local vasospasm. The bleedings were stopped immediately in 8 patients. No rebleeding and intestinal ischaemia or necrosis were observed in 30 days. One patient died in the second day after embolization from multiple organ failure. Rebleeding occurred 3 days after embolization in another patient, and was recovered after surgical operation. Conclusion: DSA is more effective for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal vascular malformation and tumors complicating acute bleeding. Transcatheter embolization is effective and safe to control the hemorrhage. (authors)

  2. Concepts and controversies in disorders of upper gastrointestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is one part of the digestive system where tremendous innovations and advancements in knowledge have been recorded in the last several decades. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshal in 1983 and the introduction of Rome process for the classification, diagnosis and ...

  3. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...

  4. Behavioural medicine and gastrointestinal disorders: the promise of positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie

    2018-04-12

    Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. A shift towards a strength-based, positive psychological science of gastrointestinal disorders could facilitate the integration of early, effective psychological care into gastroenterology practice. In this Perspective, I discuss the potential role of three human strengths with relevance to gastrointestinal health - resilience, optimism and self-regulation - and how these three constructs can be cultivated through existing or emerging brain-gut psychotherapies.

  5. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  6. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology unit of University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur in the year 2006 by reviewing the autopsy reports. There were 61 cases of GIT perforation out of 5579 autopsies conducted during a period of ten years (1996-2005). The incidence rate of fatal gastrointestinal perforation was 1.09% during this period. Out of these 61 cases, ...

  7. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic. ... female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated ...

  8. Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Honoré Hansen, S

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of toluene and the influence of small doses of ethanol were measured in eight male volunteers after gastrointestinal uptake, the toluene concentration in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol being used as the measures of metabolism. During toluene...

  9. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Dschang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal samples from 131 household dogs were examined for gastrointestinal helminth parasites using the simple floatation method. 116 (88.5%) of the dogs were found infected with one or more of the following parasite species: Toxocara canis (34.35%), Ancylostoma caninum (73.28%), Ancylostoma braziliense ( 14.50%), ...

  11. Prevalence of Spirometra and other gastrointestinal helminths in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogs are domesticated by human for different purpose and perform a wide range of social, cultural, and economic functions in the society but are prone to different kinds of health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Spirometra and other gastrointestinal helminths affecting dogs in ...

  12. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug de...

  13. Rare upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of cetuximab: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Peng-Liang; Gong, Bao-Cheng; Huang, Han-Wei; Luo, Lei; Wang, Xin; Xing, Ya-Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Liu, Fu-Nan

    2017-12-01

    cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a targeted therapeutic regimen of colorectal cancers. Several common adverse effects have been found, such as cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. However, according to the articles had been published, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is considered to be rare and its mechanism remains unclear. In this report, we presented a 42-year-old male patient with advanced recto-sigmoid cancer. After palliative operation, the patient suffered from complete upper gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, which was induced by extensive abdominal metastasis of the tumor. Considering his poor condition, we chose the targeted drug, cetuximab, as his further treatment. But after the application of cetuximab, the UGIB immediately happened twice in this patient. UGIB, as a rare complication of cetuximab, occured to the patient. We stopped the bleeding with thrombin, hemocoagulase and somatostatin and suspended the subsequent treatment plan of cetuximab. At the same time, anti-shock treatment was given immediately. He was died of respiratory and circulatory failure caused by UGIB and advanced tumor eventually. UGIB should be considered as a rare but severe complication of cetuximab. When cetuximab is applied for patients with advanced colon tumors, more cautions should be required if the patients are accompanied by upper gastrointestinal obstruction. In addition, for those patients who suffered from UGIB recently, cetuximab should be prohibited if the Rockall score ranged > 5 points. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Manometry of the gastrointestinal tract: toy or tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the eyes of scientific researchers, there are various manometric techniques that are useful tools for studying the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians, however, regard most of these techniques as toys, either because they do not lead to clinically relevant results, or because they

  15. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  16. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  17. The spectra of selected functional gastrointestinal disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) including functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) was not studied in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence of these disorders in Sudanese university students using ...

  18. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  19. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  20. Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Thad; Sequoia, Jacqueline

    2017-08-01

    Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells. Probiotic effectiveness can be species-, dose-, and disease-specific, and the duration of therapy depends on the clinical indication. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conversely, there is evidence that probiotics are not effective for acute pancreatitis and Crohn disease. Probiotics are safe for infants, children, adults, and older patients, but caution is advised in immunologically vulnerable populations.

  1. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  2. Pneumomediastinum: An unusual complication of acute gastrointestinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, III, W W; Merten, D F; Kirks, D R

    1985-02-01

    Atraumatic of primary pneumomediastinum is an uncommon complication of severe retching and vomiting associated with acute gastrointestinal disorders. In two cases pneumomediastinum was the presenting radiographic abnormality; one patient presented with acute gastroenteritis, and the other present with duodenal obstruction due to hematoma. The pathogenesis of pneumomediastinum in these patients is presented.

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly; Monrad, Jesper

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalences and intensities of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in lamas in the Bolivian Andes. A quantitative and qualitative necro-copro-parasitlogical study was performed on 33 lamas between October and December 2007. At the time of necropsy t...

  4. Treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal distress with acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennie, A T; Dalley, V M [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK); Dinneen, L C; Collier, H O.J.

    1975-11-15

    Highly buffered acetylsalicylate was used to treat diarrhoea and other gastro-intestinal side-effects of radiotherapy in 28 women who were receiving treatment for uterine cancer. In a double-blind, balanced, and randomised trial, acetylsalicylate significantly reduced the number of bowel motions and relieved abdominal pain and flatulence.

  5. Gastrointestinal manifestation's history in the systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Chalem, Philippe; Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the history of the gastrointestinal manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus since century XIX to our days, making a review of every organ and system involved, with special emphasis in gastropathy, enteritis, ileitis, malabsorption syndrome vasculitis bowel vasculopathy, mesenteric thrombosis, pancreatitis, ascites, peritonitis autoimmune hepatitis and more

  6. Association between helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Leo A A; Madderom, Marieke B; Pijpers, Maaike; van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Berger, Marjolein Y

    OBJECTIVE: Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common complaints among children. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the cause of these complaints remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is an increasing pressure on primary care clinicians to screen for H

  7. Gastrointestinal robot-assisted surgery. A current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunca, Sorinel; Bouras, George; Stanescu, Alexandru Calin

    2005-12-01

    Minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized operative surgery. Computer aided surgery and robotic surgical systems strive to improve further on currently available minimally invasive surgery and open new horizons. Only several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. In gastrointestinal surgery, robotic surgery is applied to a wide range of procedures, but is still in its infancy. Cholecystectomy, Nissen fundoplication and Heller myotomy are among the most frequently performed operations. The ZEUS (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) and the da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) surgical systems are today the most advanced robotic systems used in gastrointestinal surgery. Most studies reported that robotic gastrointestinal surgery is feasible and safe, provides improved dexterity, better visualization, reduced fatigue and high levels of precision when compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery. Its main drawbacks are the absence of force feedback and extremely high costs. At this moment there are no reports to clearly demonstrate the superiority of robotics over conventional laparoscopic surgery. Further research and more prospective randomized trials are needed to better define the optimal application of this new technology in gastrointestinal surgery.

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer registration in Nigeria is poorly done, this is even so in North-Western Nigeria. It is only of recent that attempts are being made to know the profile of cancers seen in clinical practice in our environment. This study was done to establish the pattern of upper gastrointestinal cancers at Kano, North-Western Nigeria.

  9. Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion ( Panthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about gastrointestinal parasite infections in large carnivores in Africa and what is available is largely from East Africa. We collected faecal samples from nine spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), 15 lions (Panthera leo) and 13 African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) from Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The most common ...

  10. Link between diet and chemotherapy related gastrointestinal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mardas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To evaluate an association between food products consumption, dietary intake and the incidence of selected gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and methods : Fifty six women receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer were eligible for the study. Anthropometrical measurements were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hours food records. The association between the consumption of selected food products and gastrointestinal symptoms incidences was assessed by modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 77-different food items that was developed and applied in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Results : BMI values indicated 9%, 45%, 30% and 16% of patients as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese respectively. Only 23% and 32% of patients never experienced nausea and constipation when 43% and 45% never experienced vomiting and diarrhea. Nausea was promoted by oils, constipation by chocolate and chocolate products and diarrhea by dairy products, stone fruit and apple. Significant inverse correlations were found between vomiting and the intake of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, B groups vitamins, vitamin D, phosphorus and zinc. The difference in energy intake between marginal values of vomiting incidence exceeded 400 kcal. Conclusions : Dietary intake as well as specific food products influence on gastrointestinal side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The dietary approach based on either exclusion or limited intake of selected food products and improvement of diet could reduce and prevent chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal symptoms therefore should be taken under consideration in clinical practice.

  11. Late effects of radiation therapy on the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coia, Lawrence R.; Myerson, Robert J.; Tepper, Joel E.

    1995-01-01

    Late gastrointestinal complications of radiation therapy have been recognized but not extensively studied. In this paper, the late effects of radiation on three gastrointestinal sites, the esophagus, the stomach, and the bowel, are described. Esophageal dysmotility and benign stricture following esophageal irradiation are predominantly a result of damage to the esophageal wall, although mucosal ulcerations also may persist following high-dose radiation. The major late morbidity following gastric irradiation is gastric ulceration caused by mucosal destruction. Late radiation injury to the bowel, which may result in bleeding, frequency, fistula formation, and, particularly in small bowel, obstruction, is caused by damage to the entire thickness of the bowel wall, and predisposing factors have been identified. For each site a description of the pathogenesis, clinical findings, and present management is offered. Simple and reproducible endpoint scales for late toxicity measurement were developed and are presented for each of the three gastrointestinal organs. Factors important in analyzing late complications and future considerations in evaluation and management of radiation-related gastrointestinal injury are discussed

  12. Percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Li Jingyu; Lu Junliang; Xu Liyang; Liu Tao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization (PTSVE) for treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: Twenty cases with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension suffered upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PTSVE was administered to them with hardener and coils. Among them, 8 cases had massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in right lobe; 10 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma had portal vein tumor thrombus and occlusion; the other two cases with liver cirrhosis had portal vein thrombosis. All of these cases were not suitable for percutaneous transhepatic varices embolization (PTHVE). PTSVE was performed under the guidance of fluoroscopy. Results: Technical success was achieved in 18 patients. A total of 35 gastric coronary veins were embolized. In all these cases, upper gastrointestinal bleeding stopped after PTSVE. There was no recurrence within 1 month follow-up. No serious complication occurred. Conclusion: PTSVE is a safe and efficient alternative treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially for cases with portal vein occlusion or with massive HCC in right lobe of liver. (authors)

  13. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  14. Targeting cancers in the gastrointestinal tract: role of capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif SaifYale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Capecitabine is currently the only novel, orally home-administered fluorouracil prodrug. It offers patients more freedom from hospital visits and less inconvenience and complications associated with infusion devices. The drug has been extensively studied in large clinical trials in many solid tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and many others. Furthermore, the drug compares favorably with fluorouracil in patients with such cancers, with a safe toxicity profile, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects. Whereas gastrointestinal events and hand-foot syndrome occur often with capecitabine, the tolerability profile is comparatively favorable. Prompt recognition of severe adverse effects is the key to successful management of capecitabine. Ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to examine, and likely expand, the role of capecitabine as a single agent and/or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal as well as other solid tumors, both in the advanced palliative and adjuvant settings. The author summarizes the current data on the role of capecitabine in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, chemotherapy, adjuvant, advanced, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer

  15. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-07

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients.

  16. Multifocal Synchronous Granular Cell Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin-Moore, Zachary; Thomas, Rebecca M.; Rothstein, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare and unusual tumors, which are usually benign and asymptomatic. Only 5?10% of cases involve the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly as singular, non-cancerous lesions in the esophagus. We report a rare case of symptomatic, multifocal, synchronous GCT involving the esophagus, stomach, and cecum.

  17. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  18. The Impact of Opioid Treatment on Regional Gastrointestinal Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the impact ofopioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and regional GItransit times using the 3...

  19. Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumours in South Western Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern, age and sex distribution as well as histopathology characteristics of malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal system in Lagos ... Colorectal cancers peaked in the 60–69 year age group, liver and stomach cancer occurred mostly between the 50–59 years age group. Over half of the ...

  20. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.J.; Jensen, T.U.; Bestle, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......-angiotensin system....

  2. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan B; Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, Hugo; Tiwari, Achyut; Shrestha, Shyam S; Sigdel, Shalik R

    2014-12-02

    Gastrointestinal disorders cause morbidity and can lead to mortality, especially in the developing world where sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present review summarizes the traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nepal used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, and evaluates their bio-efficacy based on a review of the available phytochemical and pharmacological literature. We searched different electronic databases and libraries for the literature on medicinal plants used in Nepal to treat gastrointestinal disorders. For each species, we also searched the literature for information on conservation status, as well as for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in support of the ethnobotanical information. We used principal component analysis to explore the relation among disorders and plant families, plant life forms, plant parts and preparation modes. We also performed permutation tests to determine if botanical families were used more often than expected considering their availability in the Nepali flora. We documented a total of 947 species belonging to 158 families and 586 genera used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal. Diarrhea was the disorder treated by the highest number of species (348), followed by stomachache (340) and dysentery (307). Among the reported species, five were endemic to Nepal, whereas 16 orchid species were protected under CITES Appendices II and III. The randomization test showed that species belonging to 14 families were used less often than expected, whereas plants belonging to 25 families were used more often than expected. The PCA scatter plot showed distinct groups of gastrointestinal disorders treated with similar plant life forms, plant parts, and/or preparation modes. We found 763 phytochemical studies on 324 species and 654 pharmacological studies on 269 species. We showed the diversity and

  3. Effective and less invasive diagnostic strategy for gastrointestinal GVHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Katsuya; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Kuroha, Masatake; Moroi, Rintaro; Onodera, Motoyuki; Naito, Takeo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aims  Rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy has been regarded to be a useful procedure to diagnose gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, little is known about the specific colonoscopic features of gastrointestinal GVHD. In this study, we focused on the 4 unique colonoscopic findings – orange peel appearance, spotty redness, small mucosal sloughing, and diffuse mucosal defect – which are possible specific findings of gastrointestinal GVHD. We aimed to estimate the usefulness of these four unique colonoscopic findings in the rectosigmoid portion to diagnose gastrointestinal GVHD. Patients and methods  Seventy patients who were histologically diagnosed with gastrointestinal GVHD at our institute were retrospectively enrolled. Colonoscopic findings were reviewed, focusing on the four characteristic findings. The percentage of the positive cases for the characteristic findings was calculated. The final scoping portion and the number of cases showing any of the four characteristic findings in the rectosigmoid portion were also evaluated. The relationships between biopsy sites and the histological findings were also evaluated. Results  Orange peel appearance was observed in 66 cases (94.3 %). Spotty redness was observed in 45 cases (64.3 %). Small mucosal sloughing was observed in 49 cases (70.0 %). Diffuse mucosal defect was observed in six cases (8.6 %). The number of cases that were concurrently positive for one, two, and three findings were 16 (20.8 %), 20 (26.0 %), and 34 (48.6 %), respectively. Fifty-eight cases (82.9 %) were investigated up to the rectosigmoid portion, and 12 (17.1 %) were investigated beyond the sigmoid colon. All of the cases showed at least 1 of the 4 characteristics in the rectosigmoid portion. The percentage of crypt apoptosis in the biopsy specimen from orange peel appearance, spotty redness, small mucosal sloughing, and diffuse mucosal defect were 87.5 %, 83.3 %, 87.2

  4. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    ón de morbilidades gastrointestinales. FUENTES DE DATOS: Revisión no sistemática de la literatura utilizando como estrategia de búsqueda investigación bibliográfica en bases de datos, que incluyeron SciELO, Lilacs y MedLine entre 1990 y 2011. Los descriptores utilizados fueron: lactoferrina, leche materna/humana, gastrointestinal e inmunidad, en los idiomas portugués e inglés. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: La lactoferrina es la segunda proteína predominante en la leche humana, con concentraciones más elevadas en el calostro (5,0 a 6,7mg/mL respecto a la leche madura (0,2 a 2,6mg/mL. En contraste, la leche de vaca contiene tenores inferiores, 0,83mg/mL en el calostro y 0,09mg/mL en la leche madura. La lactoferrina desempeña diversas funciones fisiológicas en la protección del sistema gastrointestinal. La actividad antimicrobiana está relacionada a la capacidad de secuestrar hierro de los fluidos biológicos y/o de desestructurar la membrana de microorganismos. La lactoferrina posee además la capacidad de estimular la proliferación celular. La acción antiinflamatoria desempeñada por la lactoferrina está asociada a la capacidad de penetrar en el núcleo del leucocito y bloquear la transcripción del nuclear factor Kappa B. Frente a la importancia de la lactoferrina en la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas en niños amamantados al pecho, la industria viene, por medio de ingeniería genética, desarrollando tecnologías para expresar esta proteína recombinante humana en plantas y animales en el intento de adecuar la composición de las fórmulas infantiles a aquella de la leche humana. CONCLUSIONES: La lactoferrina humana es un péptido con potencial para prevenir morbilidades, especialmente las gastrointestinales. Evidencias científicas de los efectos protectores de la lactoferrina humana fortalecen todavía más la recomendación para la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To describe mechanisms of action of human lactoferrin to protect

  5. Focal intestinal lymphangiectasia: An unusual cause of acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of bleeding lesion in a patient of acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is a real challenge. Recently, authors have showed superiority of urgent capsule endoscopy (CE over angiography in patients with acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Focal type of intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare cause of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we describe a case of focal lymphangiectasia who presented to us with acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and diagnosed by urgent CE.

  6. Curcumin Alleviates the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders of Mice In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Wen-Hua; Sun, Wei; Sun, Yi; Guo, Zhi-Li; Yu, Xiao-Ling

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol extracted from the turmeric rhizome, which has a wide range of biological activities, but until now the effects of curcumin on the gastrointestinal peristalsis have not been fully understood. In vivo study, we observed the effects of curcumin on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice in normal state and in delayed state by atropine (ATR) or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (L-Arg). An in vitro study explored the direct effects of curcumin on the intestinal contractility, but were studied through measuring spontaneous contraction of isolated jejunum of mice. Our results showed that intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 10-20 days significantly improved gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice delayed by ATR. Moreover, intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days also significantly improved mice gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates delayed by L-Arg. There was no significant effect on normal gastrointestinal propulsion of mice after intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 1-20 days. When normal isolated jejunum of mice were incubated with curcumin in vitro, the amplitude of the spontaneous contractile waves of jejunum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin reduced the amplitude of the contractile waves of jejunum in both contracted and relaxed state induced by acetylcholine or ATR individually. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin has quite different effects on gastrointestinal peristalsis in vivo and in vitro. Moderate dose of curcumin by intragastric administration for more than 10 days can alleviate the functional gastrointestinal disorders of mice, but cannot affect normal gastrointestinal propulsion.

  7. Radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis: clinical and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; And Others

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis with clinical and pathologic correlation. In ten patients, findings were retrospectively analysed. There were two cases of the gastric variety of gastrointestinal anisakiasis and eight of the intestinal, and they were diagnosed during gastroscopy, by resection during surgery, and on the basis of typical clinical findings. All ten patients underwent both plain radiography and CT scanning of the abdomen. US was performed in five patients and an upper gastrointestinal series in one. Clinical data were evaluated with regard to a history of raw fish ingestion, time from ingestion of raw fish to onset of symptoms, location of abdominal pain, and laboratory data. Radiologic findings were analysed in terms of wall thickening and appearance, mesenteric infiltration, bowel dilatation proximal to lesion, and ascites. All patients had a history of recent ingestion of raw fish and complained of severe abdominal pain that occurred approximately 7-48 hours later. Pain occurred in the lower abdomen in five patients, the epigastrium in four, and the right lower abdomen in two. Laboratory test disclosed the leukocytosis in eight patients and eosinophilia in three. In all cases of intestinal anisakiasis, ileus was demonstrated on plain radiographs of the abdomen, while the upper gastrointestinal series showed mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects. US findings were bowel thickening and dilation, and on CT images, wall thickening revealed a target sign. Mesenteric infiltration and ascites were seen in seven patients. In four who underwent surgery, a cross-section through the lesion revealed submucosal eosinophilic granuloma with anisakis larva. Although the CT findings are non-specific, taken in conjunction with characteristic clinical findings, they may be helpful in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anisakiasis. (author)

  8. Radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis: clinical and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Tae Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Medical School, Chonnam University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the radiographic findings of gastrointestinal anisakiasis with clinical and pathologic correlation. In ten patients, findings were retrospectively analysed. There were two cases of the gastric variety of gastrointestinal anisakiasis and eight of the intestinal, and they were diagnosed during gastroscopy, by resection during surgery, and on the basis of typical clinical findings. All ten patients underwent both plain radiography and CT scanning of the abdomen. US was performed in five patients and an upper gastrointestinal series in one. Clinical data were evaluated with regard to a history of raw fish ingestion, time from ingestion of raw fish to onset of symptoms, location of abdominal pain, and laboratory data. Radiologic findings were analysed in terms of wall thickening and appearance, mesenteric infiltration, bowel dilatation proximal to lesion, and ascites. All patients had a history of recent ingestion of raw fish and complained of severe abdominal pain that occurred approximately 7-48 hours later. Pain occurred in the lower abdomen in five patients, the epigastrium in four, and the right lower abdomen in two. Laboratory test disclosed the leukocytosis in eight patients and eosinophilia in three. In all cases of intestinal anisakiasis, ileus was demonstrated on plain radiographs of the abdomen, while the upper gastrointestinal series showed mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects. US findings were bowel thickening and dilation, and on CT images, wall thickening revealed a target sign. Mesenteric infiltration and ascites were seen in seven patients. In four who underwent surgery, a cross-section through the lesion revealed submucosal eosinophilic granuloma with anisakis larva. Although the CT findings are non-specific, taken in conjunction with characteristic clinical findings, they may be helpful in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anisakiasis. (author)

  9. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases. A.B Olokoba, L.B Olokoba, A.A.G Jimoh. Abstract. Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament ...

  10. 77 FR 64597 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans (Irritable Bowel Syndrome--Diarrhea... information needed to evaluate chronic gastrointestinal disorders in Persian Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written... Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA Form 10-21092c. OMB Control Number: 2900-0742. Type of Review...

  11. Colonic basidiobolomycosis with liver involvement masquerading as gastrointestinal lymphoma: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekavat, Omid Reza; Abdolkarimi, Babak; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Fathpour, Gholamreza; Mokhtari, Maral; Shakibazad, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal skin infection that rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. This study reported a 5-year-old boy with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis that had been misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal lymphoma. He was treated by surgical resection and a combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate with an acceptable response and no recurrence.

  12. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  13. ¿Envenenamiento por consumo de Asclepias curassavica o nematodiasis gastrointestinal en ovinos en pastoreo? Hallazgos de un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo Barragán, Rafael; Arredondo Ruiz, Victalina; Ramírez Rodríguez, Julia; García Márquez, Luis Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de caso con el objetivo de documentar la posible ocurrencia de envenenamiento por el consumo de Asclepias curassavica o de casos agudos de nematodiasis gastrointestinal en ovinos en pastoreo. Se registró la densidad de población, la ubicación espacial de la maleza y el tipo de vegetación; además, se observaron los hábitos de pastoreo del rebaño y la semiología mostrada por los ovinos afectados. Posteriormente se realizó una necropsia con la finalidad de describir hallazg...

  14. Importancia de las rutas mediadas por MAPK en Candida albicans en el reconocimiento inmunitario y en la colonización gastrointestinal en un modelo murino

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Prieto, Antonio Daniel

    2013-01-01

    La levadura Candida albicans es la especie patógena fúngica más común. Forma parte de la microbiota del tracto gastrointestinal y urogenital de individuos sanos sin producir enfermedad. Sin embargo, alteraciones en el sistema inmunitario pueden llevar a una infección sistémica. Las rutas mediadas por proteínas quinasas activadas por mitógeno (MAPK) en C. albicans son importantes determinantes de virulencia. En este trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia de las diferentes rutas de MAPK en proce...

  15. Gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal presentation in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad Javad; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Volta, Umberto; Manenti, Stefania; Caio, Giacomo; Giovenali, Paolo; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea; Pellegrino, Salvatore; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Casella, Giovanni; Di Bella, Camillo; Decarli, Nicola; Biancalani, Mauro; Bassotti, Gabrio; Hogg-Kollars, Sabine; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Rostami, Kamran

    2013-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) may have a variety of different presentations. This study has aimed to explore the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms in patients with CD according to data collected in Italy and Romania (Europe) and Iran (Middle East). This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in Iran, Romania and Italy with data collection during the period from May 2009 - May 2011. For each center we included only patients with CD that was confirmed by endoscopy, small bowel biopsies and positive serology. GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting, weight loss and flatulence, as well as additional signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), osteoporosis, hypertransaminasemia, and other related abnormalities were collected. Overall, 323 women and 127 men, whose mean age at diagnosis was 34.2 ± 16.47 years were included in this study. Of these, 157 subjects (34.9%) reported at least one GI symptom. The majority of cases had the following primary presenting GI symptoms: diarrhea (13.6%), dyspepsia and constipation (4.0%). Other disease symptoms were reported by 168 (37.3%) patients. The most presenting non-GI symptoms in the majority of cases were anemia (20.7%) and osteopenia (6%). There were statistically significant differences between the majority of symptoms when we compared the reported clinical symptoms from different countries. This study indicated that upper abdominal disorders such as abdominal pain and dyspepsia were the most common primary complaints among European patients, whereas Iranian patients had complaints of diarrhea and bloating as the classic presentations of CD. For non-GI symptoms, anemia was the most frequent complaint for both Iranian and Italian patients; however it was significantly higher in Iranians.

  16. Transcatheter arterial embolisation in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a sample of 29 patients in a gastrointestinal referral center in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heining-Kruz, S; Finkenzeller, T; Schreyer, A; Dietl, K H; Kullmann, F; Paetzel, C; Schedel, J

    2015-09-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of interventional embolisation performed with catheter angiography in 29 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of a secondary care hospital. From April 2007 to February 2013, 29 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding underwent endovascular diagnostics and treatment. The diagnosis was established by endoscopy, computed tomography or clinically based on a significant decrease in hemoglobin. Transcatheter arterial embolisation was performed with coils, liquid embolic agents, and particles. The technical and clinical outcomes were assessed by postinterventional endoscopy, hemoglobin concentrations, number of necessary transfusions, or surgical interventions, as well as by post-interventional mortality within 28 days after the procedure. Selective angiographic embolisation in upper gastrointestinal bleeding was primarily successful technically and clinically in 22 of 29 patients. In 4/29 cases an angiographic reintervention was performed, which was successful in 3 cases. In 3 cases of primarily technically unsuccessful procedures reintervention was not attempted. No catheterisation-related complications were recorded. Peri-interventional mortality was 31%, but only 2 of these patients died due to uncontrolled massive bleeding, whereas the lethal outcome in the other 7 patients was due to their underlying diseases. Transcatheter arterial embolisation is an effective and rapid method in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Radiological endovascular interventions may considerably contribute to reduced mortality in GI bleeding by avoiding a potential surgical procedure following unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. The study underlines the importance of the combination of interventional endoscopy with interventional radiology in secondary care hospitals for patient outcome in complex and complicated upper gastrointestinal bleeding situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Clozapine-treated Patients Have Marked Gastrointestinal Hypomotility, the Probable Basis of Life-threatening Gastrointestinal Complications: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Every-Palmer

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation: Clozapine, unlike the other antipsychotics examined, causes marked gastrointestinal hypomotility, as previously hypothesized. Pre-emptive laxative treatment is recommended when starting clozapine.

  18. A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Lim, Kyu Yeob

    1983-01-01

    Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of

  19. A STUDY ON ENDOSCOPIC EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranaya Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the commonest gastrointestinal emergencies encountered by clinicians. Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Endoscopy has become the preferred method for diagnosis in patients with acute UGIB. This study is done in a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE setup of a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the causes of UGIB prevalent in this part of our country which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalent causes of UGIB in patients of this part of India admitted to a Govt. Tertiary Hospital with a provisional diagnosis of UGIB. METHOD One hundred consecutive patients with UGIB were subjected to UGIE to find out the aetiology. The clinical profile and endoscopic findings were analysed and compared with the data on UGIB from other studies. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 47.03 years with male: female ratio of 2.33:1. 58% of patients were first time bleeders. Majority of patients presented with melaena. Visualisation of active bleeding achieved to 85.7% when endoscopy was done within first 24 hrs. The commonest cause of UGIB was duodenal ulcer (DU which accounted for 41% cases. Gastric ulcer was responsible in 13% of cases. Portal hypertension was responsible for bleed in only 13%. Neoplasms accounted for 25% of cases. Other less common causes were erosive gastritis (3%, gastric polyp (3%, Mallory-Weiss tear (1%, and Dieulafoy’s lesion (1%. Among bleeding peptic ulcers, 27.8% of cases were classified as Forrest IIa and 20.4% in Forrest IIb & IIc each. Acid peptic disease was past history elicited in majority (33% followed by NSAID (26% and alcohol (26%. CONCLUSION The present study has diagnosed various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this part of country. The incidence of gastric carcinoma as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is significantly high compared to those in other studies. UGI endoscopy should be done in every case

  20. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  1. Heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce positive scintiscan in occult gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Brantly, M.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce a positive scintiscan was studied in a patient with chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding. When all standard diagnostic tests (upper and lower gastrointestinal series, upper and lower endoscopy, and conventional noninterventional Tc-99m RBC imaging) fail to detect and localize gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient who has definite clinical evidence (guaiac positive stool and dropping hemoglobin, hematocrit) of chronic occult gastrointestinal oozing, heparin may be used (with proper precaution) as a last resort to aid in the scintigraphic detection and localization of chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding

  2. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  3. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  4. Vigencia del Darwinismo

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Enrique P

    2009-01-01

    En este ensayo se presenta una revisión histórica del signifcado y legado del darwinismo, con énfasis en el último siglo. La principal conclusión es que la visión darwiniana de la evolución, con las modifcaciones requeridas para dar cuenta de los grandes desarrollos de la disciplina, se ha impuesto y mantiene vigencia en nuestros días. En particular, el papel del azar, la evolución como proceso de “descendencia con modifcación” a lo largo de diversas ramas del árbol de la vida, el pensamiento...

  5. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer - How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Both the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'esophageal' and 'esophageal cancer' and the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'gastric', 'gastric cancer', 'stomach', and 'stomach cancer' yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the 'test of time'. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect.

  6. Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Some Children Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial colonization is defined immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host. This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Gastrointestinal Motility, Part 2: Small-Bowel and Colon Transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Alan H

    2016-03-01

    Because of the difficulty often encountered in deciding whether a patient's symptoms originate in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy is a uniquely suited noninvasive, quantitative, and physiologic method of determining whether there is a motility disorder affecting the stomach, small bowel, or colon. Small-bowel and colon transit studies can be performed alone or together with gastric emptying studies after oral administration of an appropriately radiolabeled meal. It is hoped that newly published standards for performing these studies and the anticipated arrival of new Current Procedural Terminology codes in the United States for small-bowel and colon transit studies will increase their availability and use. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Schoolchildren in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.

  9. Gastrointestinal considerations related to youth sports and the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Garrett; Atay, Orhan; Lapsia, Sameer

    2017-07-01

    Young athletes, though often healthy, can carry a variety of symptoms that may impede their participation in sports or other activities. Typically we might think of musculoskeletal and respiratory problems primarily, however disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract must also be considered. In some instances musculoskeletal complaints may bring to light activity of an underlying GI condition as is the case with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms in the young athlete can be quite significant and a nuisance for participation. We aim to describe and discuss treatment options of a few conditions targeted specifically for your young athlete both that arise specifically from athletic participation and those GI disorders that are chronic in nature whose presence must not be neglected in the athlete.

  10. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Brisinda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A inhibits neuromuscular transmission. It has become a drug with many indications. The range of clinical applications has grown to encompass several neurological and non-neurological conditions. One of the most recent achievements in the field is the observation that botulinum toxin A provides benefit in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Although toxin blocks cholinergic nerve endings in the autonomic nervous system, it has also been shown that it does not block non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses mediated by nitric oxide. This has promoted further interest in using botulinum toxin A as a treatment for overactive smooth muscles and sphincters. The introduction of this therapy has made the treatment of several clinical conditions easier, in the outpatient setting, at a lower cost and without permanent complications. This review presents current data on the use of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Systematic review: tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S.L.; Langholz, S.E.; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE...... and Science Citation Index were combined. Intention-to-treat random effect meta-analyses were performed and results presented as RRs with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Seven double-blind randomized trials on tranexamic acid vs. placebo were included. Of 1754 patients randomized, 21% were excluded. Only...... one trial included endoscopic treatments or proton pump inhibitors. Five per cent of patients on tranexamic acid and 8% of controls died (RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.89). No significant differences were found on bleeding, bleeding-related mortality, surgery or transfusion requirements. Adverse events...

  12. Current management and prognostic features for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Gurpreet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stromal or mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI tract have undergone a remarkable evolution in how they are perceived, classified, approached, diagnosed and managed over the last 30 years. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST account for approximately 1% to 3% of all malignant GI tumors. The clinical features can vary depending on the anatomic location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor. Metastatic GIST represents a successful example of molecular targeted therapy. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnostic modalities for GIST. We also describe treatment options for early stage, locally advanced and metastatic GIST. Indications for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy along with duration of therapy are also explained. A brief discussion of latest biomarkers and updates from recent meetings is also provided.

  13. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  14. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckler, Michael R; Fisher, Joseph; Bowers, Rachel; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient's presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter.

  16. Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lynne S; Arrowood, Michael; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Paltridge, Graeme P; Pillai, Dylan R; Procop, Gary W; Ryan, Norbert; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2018-01-01

    This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention. As greater emphasis is placed on neglected tropical diseases, it becomes highly probable that patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections will become more widely recognized in areas where parasites are endemic and not endemic. Generally, these methods are nonautomated and require extensive bench experience for accurate performance and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Relative quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David S Y; Willicombe, Anita; Reid, Thomas D; Beaton, Ceri; Arnold, David; Ward, James; Davies, I Llion; Lewis, Wyn G

    2012-12-01

    Internet-derived health care information is increasingly accessed by patients, yet its quality and accuracy is variable and unregulated. The aim of this study was to assess the information available regarding common gastrointestinal cancers via three internet search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing). The top 30 websites for each of the terms: oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon and rectal cancer were evaluated (University of Michigan Consumer Health Website Checklist) and scored [-80 (poor) to 90 (excellent)]. The median score was 53 (-7 to 81) and was significantly higher for oesophageal (61) and pancreatic (65) cancer websites, compared with gastric (49), colon (48) and rectal cancer (50) (p = 0.014). Median scores related to charitable organisations were significantly better than academic, commercial, news agency, care provider, layperson and medical information websites collectively (79 vs. 42, p < 0.0001). Overall quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information remains poor and patients and clinicians should be aware.

  18. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minckler MR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report: This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion: This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. Keywords: jojoba butter, simmondsin, cyanoglycoside, anorectic

  19. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  20. What is the best diagnostic approach for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao Banos, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    For the gastroenterologist, the study of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is a diagnostic challenge. Using recent definitions as starting point for locating and defining the type of obscure bleeding allows better study and classification of these individuals. Since 25% of the causes of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding are within the reach of upper endoscopy and total colonoscopy, we are compelled to make good clinical evaluations and establish quality parameters for performance of these procedures. With the emergence of new techniques such as capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy, the study of the small intestine with higher performance than previously available through imaging studies is now possible in our environment. Rational sequential use of these diagnostic tools, exhaustive reviews of capsule endoscopy images plus and adequate training in performing balloon enteroscopy including the two-way approach when necessary, will help us to establish and treat the cause in most patients with this condition.

  1. Emerging role of thalidomide in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Michael; O'Flynn, Lauren; Ventre, Rachel; Disney, Benjamin R

    2018-04-01

    Thalidomide was initially synthesised in 1954 and marketed as a sedative and antiemetic for morning sickness. It was withdrawn in 1961 due to the realisation that it was teratogenic with over 10 000 children born with congenital abnormalities. Since then it has been used for treatment of dermatological and oncological conditions, including myeloma. In 1994, it was found to have a potent antiangiogenic effect via downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This has led to its use in gastrointestinal bleeding, as vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia have been found to have elevated VEGF levels. This article will review the current evidence of the use of thalidomide in bleeding associated with gastrointestinal vascular malformations, including angiodysplasia, gastric cancer and radiation-induced proctitis.

  2. Fibrin Glue Does Not Improve Healing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Anastomotic leakage remains a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. In order to reduce its incidence, several clinical and experimental studies on anastomotic sealing have been performed. In a number of these studies, the sealing material has been fibrin...... glue (FG), and the results in individual studies have been varying. The positive effect of anastomotic sealing with FG might be due to the mechanical/physical properties, the increased healing of the anastomoses or both. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence....... It is consequently plausible that the positive effect of FG sealing of gastrointestinal anastomoses, if there is any, may be due to a mechanical sealing effect rather than due to improved healing per se....

  3. Could imatinib replace surgery in esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salam, Suhail N.; El-Teraifi, Hassan A.; Taha, Mazen S.

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are cellular spindle, or epithelioid tumors that occur in the stomach, intestine and rarely in the esophagus. A 61-years-old man was complaining of resistant dry cough with dysphagia for one month duration. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic examination showed a polypoid mass 30 cm from the incisors obstructing 50% of the lumen, where multiple biopsies were taken. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the wall of the esophagus extending into the thoracic cavity. Histologically, the stained sections with routine hematoxylin and eosin as well as the immunohistochemical stainsfor CD117, CD34, S100, vimentin and smooth muscle actin confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal GIST. The patient was treated with imatinib 400mg/day. There was a dramatic reduction in the size of the tumor with successful improvement of his symptoms after 2 months of treatment, which was confirmed by reapeated upper GIT endoscopy, and MRI. (author)

  4. Adverse effects of anticoagulation treatment: clinically significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.

  5. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis: Still a challenge for radiologists and Gastroenterologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadnejad, M.; Malekzadeh, R.; Soroush, Z.; Sedighi, N.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Iran. All parts of the gastrointestinal tract can be affected by Tuberculosis. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnoses of almost and tuberculosis diseases, and physicians should be aware of the imaging characteristics of tuberculosis in the tuberculosis tract. This is a report of 4 patients with different types of tuberculosis involvement by tuberculosis, along with its clinical pictures and imaging characteristics

  6. A stable wireless energy transmission system for gastrointestinal microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, W H; Yan, G Z; Wang, W X

    2010-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system using a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a 3-dimensional secondary coil inside the body is introduced. It is designed to transmit stable power to a gastrointestinal microsystem regardless of its position and orientation when working in the gastric tract. Up to 310 mW of usable DC power can be delivered under worst-case geometrical conditions. Measured data of the system performance are presented and evaluated.

  7. STUDY OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Nair Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer is one of the leading cause of death both in developed and developing countries. In India, it accounts for 0.3 million deaths per year. Cancers of lung, GIT and oral cancers dominated among men while breast, cervix, ovary and oral cavity were commonest cancer seen in women. Among the gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and liver cancers were commonest. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of the various GIT cancers in a tertiary hospital of Coastal Andhra when compared to other studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, a total of 509 health records of patients affected by cancers were studied and relevant details noted. RESULTS A total of 509 cancer cases were reported in this period of 18 months (January 2016 - June 2017 of which 85 cases (16.3% were of Gastrointestinal (GIT cancers. The age group between 40 and 60 recorded the maximum incidence of 47 cancers (55.1%. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers were significantly higher in the men (56 cases (65.8% than the women (29 cases (34.11%. The commonest site of GIT cancers was the colorectal region (30 cases (35.7%. The most common type of cancer seen was adenocarcinoma seen in 73 cases (85.8%. CONCLUSION Public education and awareness for the warning symptoms should be increased to prevent reduction of the life span and health caused by the gastrointestinal cancers with intense awareness drive using various means including social media undertaken to educate the public regarding the warning symptoms and screening of such group for GIT cancers.

  8. Gastrointestinal Sarcoma in a Dog – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Caicó Collares Araujo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Araujo D.C.C., dos Santos I.O.V., da Silva M.A., Pessoa C.C. da V., de Carvalho J.R.G., Lopes N.L. & Fernandes J.I. [Gastrointestinal Sarcoma in a Dog – Case Report.] Saroma Gastrointestinal em Cão – Relato de Caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:31-38, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-000, Brasil. E-mail: vetjulio@yahoo.com.br Gastric cancers in dogs are rare and represent less than 1% of all malignancies in this species. There is a higher incidence in male dogs, large, with an average age of eight years. The etiology is not well defined, but studies show a relationship with gastric infection by bacteria of the genus Helicobacter sp. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs such as vomiting, regurgitation and weight loss, ultrasound, endoscopy, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The choice of therapy is surgery, performing the excision of the tumor with wide margins. Adjuvant chemotherapy does not work properly, except in cases of gastrointestinal lymphoma. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of gastric cancer in a dog, male, tenyear-old German Shepherd that had as main complaint regurgitation and vomiting with evolution of a month. Surgery was performed and histopathological diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. Subsequent immunohistochemical examination revealed fibrosarcoma. After surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy animal survival was eight months after diagnosis.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  10. PPARs Signaling and Cancer in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pazienza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy has gained a strong interest. From a biological point of view, the overall responsibility of PPARs in cancer development and progression is still controversial since several studies report both antiproliferative and tumor-promoting actions for these signaling molecules in human cancer cells and animal models. In this paper, we discuss PPARs functions in the context of different types of gastrointestinal cancer.

  11. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Chris; Waly , Nashwa

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces. Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu...

  12. The Association Between Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Yasmeen

    2013-01-01

    Every day many thousands of children face the complications of Autism. According to Geraghty, Depasquale, and Lane (2010), Autism has become one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disabilities, with one in one hundred children diagnosed with Autism in the United States every day. The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has not been determined. One of many questions researchers are asking is whether an association exists between gastrointestinal disorders and Autism. This li...

  13. Gastrointestinal absorption of soluble uranium from drinking water. Published paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Ruth, H.; Burleigh, D.

    1988-04-01

    This manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same for (234)U and (238)U for each subject. Absorption varied among subjects from -0.02% to 2.6%, with a mean of 0.6%. Low absorption may be due to concurrent ingestion of food

  14. 67Ga-citrate scanning in gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douds, H.N.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The value of 67 Ga-citrate scanning in cases of gastrointestinal malignancies is discussed. Seven cases are presented, including lymphomas of the stomach, small bowel, and rectum, and adenocarcinomas of the stomach and colon. In a review of the literature, there is general pessimism regarding the use of 67 Ga scans in GI malignancies. Based on previous reports and our own experience, specific clinical situations are cited in which the scan is of considerable value for diagnosis and followup of GI malignancy

  15. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  16. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly

  17. Dose-response relationship in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, T R; Demol, P

    1989-08-01

    Numerous clinical studies have been performed to establish efficacy and safety of drugs in gastroenterological disorders. Only in a few if any of these studies, however, the rationale for the optimal dose and the dose regimens, respectively, have been addressed. Adequate and well-controlled dose finding studies play a key role in the clinical assessment of new drugs and in the evaluation of new indications. Hereby the range from the minimal effective dose to the maximal effective and well tolerated dose can be assessed and thus the optimal dose-range and dosage regimen be determined. Meaningful pharmacodynamic studies can be performed in the gastrointestinal tract also in healthy volunteers provided that a method with a high predictability for the desired therapeutic effect is available such as measurement of gastric acid secretion and its inhibition by a drug. Dose finding studies in gastroenterology can be carried out under two main aspects: First, to assess the pharmacodynamic and therapeutic effect of a compound on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. anti-ulcer drug). Second, to evaluate the side effects of a drug on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. gastric mucosal damage by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). For the evaluation of new drugs in gastrointestinal therapy a number of methods are available which yield accurate and reproducible data. While careful clinical-pharmacological dose-response studies using these methods have been carried out already more than a decade ago, it is surprising that therapeutic dose finding studies have become available only during the past few years. For scientific as well as for ethical reasons more trials which determine the optimal therapeutic dose are warranted.

  18. Modulation of systemic immune responses through commensal gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Schachtschneider

    Full Text Available Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is initiated during birth and continually seeded from the individual's environment. Gastrointestinal microorganisms play a central role in developing and modulating host immune responses and have been the subject of investigation over the last decades. Animal studies have demonstrated the impact of GI tract microbiota on local gastrointestinal immune responses; however, the full spectrum of action of early gastrointestinal tract stimulation and subsequent modulation of systemic immune responses is poorly understood. This study explored the utility of an oral microbial inoculum as a therapeutic tool to affect porcine systemic immune responses. For this study a litter of 12 pigs was split into two groups. One group of pigs was inoculated with a non-pathogenic oral inoculum (modulated, while another group (control was not. DNA extracted from nasal swabs and fecal samples collected throughout the study was sequenced to determine the effects of the oral inoculation on GI and respiratory microbial communities. The effects of GI microbial modulation on systemic immune responses were evaluated by experimentally infecting with the pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Coughing levels, pathology, toll-like receptors 2 and 6, and cytokine production were measured throughout the study. Sequencing results show a successful modulation of the GI and respiratory microbiomes through oral inoculation. Delayed type hypersensitivity responses were stronger (p = 0.07, and the average coughing levels and respiratory TNF-α variance were significantly lower in the modulated group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0153, respectively. The M. hyopneumoniae infection study showed beneficial effects of the oral inoculum on systemic immune responses including antibody production, severity of infection and cytokine levels. These results suggest that an oral microbial inoculation can be used to modulate microbial communities, as well as

  19. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific vari...

  20. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...