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Sample records for del cowpea vigna

  1. Physiological and molecular characterization of cowpea [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaga Diouf

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  2. Seed yield and agronomic parameters of cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... 1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Bozok University, Sivas ... Key words: Vigna unguiculata, seed yield, thousand seed weight, Black Sea. INTRODUCTION. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important.

  3. Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) ... and Bar genes for β-glucuronidase expression and bialaphos resistance respectively. ... expression also showed positive signals under PCR and Southern analysis giving ...

  4. survey of the symptoms and viruses associated with cowpea (vigna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-29

    Oct 29, 2012 ... of the prevalence of virus disease symptoms and to specifically identify the viruses infecting cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata . ... 1Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of ..... emerging viruses. This will ...

  5. Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To Attack By Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) ... in Ghana were screened for susceptibility to the cowpea beetle, C. maculatus, in storage for a period of 30 days in the laboratory at an ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.9oC and relative humidity of 64.6 ± 2%.

  6. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  7. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  8. Weed control in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted between 1994 and 1997 at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin (8o29`N; 4o35`E), in the southern Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone, to evaluate the efficacy of pre-emergence applications of two imidazolinone-based herbicide mixtures in cowpea (Vigna ...

  9. Plants regeneration from African cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plant was efficiently regenerated from cotyledonary node explants. The shoots multiplication rate was ... Africa, insect pests are often responsible for 100% losses of cowpea yields (Singh and .... 26 days after acclimatization first flower buds were observed; thus plants were ...

  10. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, E.; Colucci, G.; Ciardi, F.; Monti, L.

    1997-01-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T 1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, E; Colucci, G; Ciardi, F; Monti, L [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Univ. of Naples Federico 11, Portici (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 {mu}M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 {mu}M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T{sub 1} transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. De novo transcriptomic analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for genic SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Liangliang; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2017-07-11

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions. However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Approximately 54 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from cowpea based on Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and were de novo assembled to generate 47,899 unigenes with an N50 length of 1534 bp. Sequence similarity analysis revealed 36,289 unigenes (75.8%) with significant similarity to known proteins in the non-redundant (Nr) protein database, 23,471 unigenes (49.0%) with BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database, and 20,654 unigenes (43.1%) with high similarity in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Further analysis identified 5560 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as potential genic molecular markers. Validating a random set of 500 SSR markers yielded 54 polymorphic markers among 32 cowpea accessions. This transcriptomic analysis of cowpea provided a valuable set of genomic data for characterizing genes with important agronomic traits in Vigna unguiculata and a new set of genic SSR markers for further genetic studies and breeding in cowpea and related Vigna species.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P; Srinivasappa, K.N.; Shankara, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is regarded as hardy and one of the important tropical legumes. The plants respond differently to mutagenic treatments. Ionizing radiations affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities of plants. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour of two important cowpea varieties viz., KBC-1 and TVX-994-02E in M 1 generation under laboratory conditions. (author)

  14. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  15. Recent advances in cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] “omics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After decades of research on cowpea, significant amount of omics datasets are available and useful in understanding the genetic relationship between Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and other species belonging to the same genus as well as its genetic variation. Besides, the development of genetic map allowed the ...

  16. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  17. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from cowpea unigene ...

  19. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  20. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental, F1 and segregating F2 populations were raised in the field and the study revealed that self colour ...

  1. Effects of high plant cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum bicarbonate values of baseline rats were significantly higher (P<0.01) in rats fed casein diet and cowpeas diets. However, urinary bicarbonate value of the casein fed rat was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of baseline and cowpeas fed rats. This study has shown that the intake of high casein diet leads to an ...

  2. Pollination and yield responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Key words: Apis mellifera adansonii, Vigna unguiculata, bee plant, foraging, pollination, increased yield. INTRODUCTION. There are ... several techniques such as fire-prone, crop rotations, ..... Inventory of melliferous plants.

  3. Genetic engineering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): history, status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citadin, Cristiane T; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, a number of attempts have been made to develop reproducible protocols for generating transgenic cowpea that permit the expression of genes of agronomic importance. Pioneer works focused on the development of such systems vis-à-vis an in vitro culture system that would guarantee de novo regeneration of transgenic cowpea arising from cells amenable to one form of gene delivery system or another, but any such system has eluded researchers over the years. Despite this apparent failure, significant progress has been made in generating transgenic cowpea, bringing researchers much nearer to their goal than thirty years ago. Now, various researchers have successfully established transgenic procedures for cowpea with evidence of inherent transgenes of interest, effected by progenies in a Mendelian fashion. New opportunities have thus emerged to optimize existing protocols and devise new strategies to ensure the development of transgenic cowpea with desirable agronomic traits. This review chronicles the important milestones in the last thirty years that have marked the evolution of genetic engineering of cowpea. It also highlights the progress made and describes new strategies that have arisen, culminating in the current status of transgenic technologies for cowpea.

  4. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  5. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    AN EVALUATION OF SIX COWPEA VARIETIES GROWN ... provide cheap sources of protein, micronutrients and mineral elements that can ... traditional vegetables is that, these leafy vegetables are present in most home ..... REFERENCES. 1.

  6. Effects of feeding different levels of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose by the hexokinase method (Gemeni, ENI Company). Total protein was ... compared by an 8 by 2 chi-square contingency test, using sin- .... small intestinal morphology caused by feeding cowpea diet ... Similar views were documented.

  7. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  8. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  9. Identification of QTL controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sassoum; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Boukar, Ousmane; Herniter, Ira; Cisse, Ndiaga; Guo, Yi-Ning; Roberts, Philip A; Xu, Shizhong; Fatokun, Christian; Close, Timothy J

    2018-04-19

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a warm-season legume with a genetically diverse gene-pool composed of wild and cultivated forms. Cowpea domestication involved considerable phenotypic changes from the wild progenitor, including reduction of pod shattering, increased organ size, and changes in flowering time. Little is known about the genetic basis underlying these changes. In this study, 215 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a cultivated and a wild cowpea accession were used to evaluate nine domestication-related traits (pod shattering, peduncle length, flower color, days to flowering, 100-seed weight, pod length, leaf length, leaf width and seed number per pod). A high-density genetic map containing 17,739 single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed and used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these nine traits. Based on annotations of the cowpea reference genome, genes within these regions are reported. Four regions with clusters of QTL were identified, including one on chromosome 8 related to increased organ size. This study provides new knowledge of the genomic regions controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea as well as candidate genes underlying those QTL. This information can help to exploit wild relatives in cowpea breeding programs.

  10. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  11. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, F.C.K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O.; Wilson, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: → We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. → Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. → Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. → Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  12. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  13. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamananjara, A. [LRI-SRA, Laboratoire des Radio-isotopes, Universite d' Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Abdou, M. Malam [Laboratoire Banques de genes CERRA / KOLLO, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), Niamey (Niger); Pernot, C.; Drevon, J. J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier (France)

    2013-11-15

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1}. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g{sup -1} nodule DW showing large variation among lines

  14. Pollination and yield responses of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the apicultural value of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae) and evaluate the Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity on its pod and seed yields, the bee foraging and pollinating activities were studied in Ngaoundéré. The experiment was carried out within the University of ...

  15. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Frequency analysis showed that all the F2 populations for fodder yield exhibited a continuous distribution, suggesting that inheritance of fodder yield is ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... using the ABC scaling test (Mather, 1949), incorporating the weighted ...

  16. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  17. Management of foliar and soilborne pathogens of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White and pink garlic extracts were tested for their antifungal potentials on mycelial radial growth, spores and sclerotial production of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Colletotrichum destructivum O gara and Colletotrichum capsici (Syd) Butler and Bisby pathogens of cowpea in vitro. Water or ethanol extracts of ...

  18. Growth and Yield Responses of Vegetable Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amendment of acidic soil with lime application enhances nutrient availability for optimum vegetable cowpea production. Field experiments were conducted in the teaching and research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons to determine the growth and yield ...

  19. Genetic analysis of seed proteins contents in cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to select cowpea genotypes with high food value, 10 varieties were genetically screened in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) for seed crude protein and its soluble fractions contents. Five divergent lines were studied through a 5 x 5 half diallel cross mating. The genotypes presented a significant genetic variability for these ...

  20. Effect of Malting on the Chemical Composition of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The out-of-steep grains were germinated in the dark for 72 hours and oven dried at 50 °C. The malts were analyzed for diastatic activity and their contents of moisture, protein, sugar, fat, peroxidation products, phytate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor. Results: After malting, the diastatic activity of cowpea increased from 28.87 to ...

  1. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  2. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelombola, Waltram; Shi, Ainong; Weng, Yuejin; Mou, Beiquan; Motes, Dennis; Clark, John; Chen, Pengyin; Srivastava, Vibha; Qin, Jun; Dong, Lingdi; Yang, Wei; Bhattarai, Gehendra; Sugihara, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    This is the first report on association analysis of salt tolerance and identification of SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The lack of knowledge on the genetic underlying salt tolerance in cowpea limits the establishment of a breeding strategy for developing salt-tolerant cowpea cultivars. The objectives of this study were to conduct association mapping for salt tolerance at germination and seedling stages and to identify SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. We analyzed the salt tolerance index of 116 and 155 cowpea accessions at germination and seedling stages, respectively. A total of 1049 SNPs postulated from genotyping-by-sequencing were used for association analysis. Population structure was inferred using Structure 2.3.4; K optimal was determined using Structure Harvester. TASSEL 5, GAPIT, and FarmCPU involving three models such as single marker regression, general linear model, and mixed linear model were used for the association study. Substantial variation in salt tolerance index for germination rate, plant height reduction, fresh and dry shoot biomass reduction, foliar leaf injury, and inhibition of the first trifoliate leaf was observed. The cowpea accessions were structured into two subpopulations. Three SNPs, Scaffold87490_622, Scaffold87490_630, and C35017374_128 were highly associated with salt tolerance at germination stage. Seven SNPs, Scaffold93827_270, Scaffold68489_600, Scaffold87490_633, Scaffold87490_640, Scaffold82042_3387, C35069468_1916, and Scaffold93942_1089 were found to be associated with salt tolerance at seedling stage. The SNP markers were consistent across the three models and

  3. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  4. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterisation and determination of virus resistance among cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Carlos Kweku

    2017-07-01

    Several households in Ghana feed on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] which serves as good source of protein. However, cowpea viral diseases and the lack of adaptable cultivars have become a limiting factor in cowpea production. This work therefore sought to explore morphogenetic diversity and viral resistance traits in cowpea germplasm to improve productivity. Thirty-eight exotic and local cowpea genotypes were cultivated at the Teaching and Research Field of the School of Agriculture, the University of Cape Coast. Two plants were maintained per stand at planting distance of 50 cm x 30 cm with three replications in a randomized complete block layout during the major (June – September) and minor seasons (November – February). The cowpea genotypes were characterised using both morphological and molecular methods to assess diversity in the coastal savanna agro-ecological zone of Ghana. They were also screened for resistance to cowpea viruses using visual scale on-field and DAS-ELISA protocol. The cowpeas showed significant (P < 0.05) variations in plant height, canopy diameter, number of branches, area of leaf, days to 50% flowering, days to pod maturity, pod length, number of seeds per pod and hundred seed weight. There were significant and positive correlations between pod weight and seed yield (r = 0.985, P < 0.05), plant height and canopy diameter (r = 0.576, P < 0.05), canopy diameter and number of branches (r = 0.576) as well as pod length and the number of seeds per pod (r = 0.530, P < 0.05). Hundred seed weight ranged from 10.03 g to 22.7 g. On the whole, 23 quantitative and qualitative parameters differentiated the cowpea genotypes into two main clusters with sub-clusters. Genomic analysis involving nine polymorphic SSR primers showed a mean genetic diversity of 0.7, polymorphic information content of 0.67 and allele frequency of 0.4 among the cowpea genotypes, which were differentiated into two main clusters with sub-clusters. Incidence and severity

  6. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  8. Vigna unguiculata L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... via organogenesis from cotyledonary node of cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata L. ... cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) has been established. The cotyledonary node ..... Genomic/Proteomic Technol. 3: 45-47. Pellegrineschi A ...

  9. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  11. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  12. Identification of water storage tissue in the stem of cowpea plant (Vigna unguliculata Walp) by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Don-Jin, K.; Ishii, R.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea, common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant. (author)

  13. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  14. Gel-free/label-free proteomic, photosynthetic, and biochemical analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) resistance against Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Anna Lidia N; Komatsu, Setsuko; Wang, Xin; Silva, Rodolpho G G; Souza, Pedro Filho N; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2017-06-23

    Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes significant losses in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production. In this present study biochemical, physiological, and proteomic analysis were done to identify pathways and defense proteins that are altered during the incompatible interaction between the cowpea genotype BRS-Marataoã and CPSMV. The leaf protein extracts from mock- (MI) and CPSMV-inoculated plantlets (V) were evaluated at 2 and 6days post-inoculation (DPI). Data support the assumptions that increases in biochemical (high hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and secondary compounds) and physiological responses (high photosynthesis index and chlorophyll content), confirmed by label-free comparative proteomic approach, in which quantitative changes in proteasome proteins, proteins related to photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, regulation factors/RNA processing proteins were observed may be implicated in the resistance of BRS-Marataoã to CPSMV. This pioneering study provides information for the selection of specific pathways and proteins, altered in this incompatible relationship, which could be chosen as targets for detailed studies to advance our understanding of the molecular, physiological, and biochemistry basis of the resistance mechanism of cowpea and design approachs to engineer plants that are more productive. This is a pioneering study in which an incompatible relationship between a resistant cowpea and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) was conducted to comparatively evaluate proteomic profiles by Gel-free/label-free methodology and some physiological and biochemical parameters to shed light on how a resistant cowpea cultivar deals with the virus attack. Specific proteins and associated pathways were altered in the cowpea plants challenged with CPSMV and will contribute to our knowledge on the biological process tailored by cowpea in response to CPSMV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  16. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  17. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Asher, Colin J.; Kopittke, Rosemary A.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    A concentration as low as 1 μM lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.06 μM for the roots. The primary site of Pb 2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb 2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and 0.06 μM for the roots

  18. Cluster analysis technique for assessing variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp accessions from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Abiola Toyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability among 10 accessions of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp was studied by the use of 13 qualitative and 13 quantitative traits. From the results on qualitative traits, dendrogram grouped the 10 accessions into two major clusters, 1 and 2.Cluster 1 had 3 accessions and cluster 2 had 2 sub-clusters (I and II, having 2 accessions in sub-cluster I and 5 accessions in sub-cluster II. The dendrogram revealed two major clusters, 1 and 2, for quantitative data, for the 10 accessions. At distance of 4 and 6, cluster 1 had two sub-clusters (I and II, with sub-cluster I having 5 accessions, sub-cluster II having 4 accessions while cluster 2 had only 1 accession. This study made the observation that identification of the right agro-morphological traits of high discriminating capacity is essential, before embarking on any genetic diversity; as it was revealed that some traits discriminated more efficiently among the accessions than others. A group of accessions, which are NGSA1, NGSA2, NGSA3, NGSA4, NGSA7, NGSA9 and NGSA10, was identified as being different from the others for number of seeds per pod, pod length, plant height, peduncle length, seed weight and number of pods per plant. These accessions may be good for cowpea improvement programs.

  19. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  20. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genetic variability in dinitrogen fixation between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cultivars determined using the nitrogen-15 isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiaye, M.A.F.; Spencer, M.M.; Gueye, M.

    2000-01-01

    N fixed in 16 cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] inoculated with effective Bradyrhizobium strains collected from the West African MIRCEN culture collection was measured by 15N isotope dilution technique. In all plant parts, significant differences in the percentage of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) and the amount of Ndfa occurred between the cultivars. Ndoute variety exhibited the highest %Ndfa (74.33% in shoots; 60.90% in roots) and accumulated more fixed N (960 mg N plant–1 and 38 mg N plant–1 in shoots and roots, respectively). Therefore this cultivar should be selected as the highest N-fixing cowpea cultivar. It also should be used in a breeding programme to contribute to the development of cultivars that could stimulate an intensive use of cowpea in many different cropping systems in Africa with a view to maintaining soil fertility. (Authors)

  2. New observations on gametogenic development and reproductive experimental tools to support seed yield improvement in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Gamboa, Rigel; Johnson, Susan D; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Koltunow, Anna M G; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties. Here, we show that these two varieties exhibit distinct morphological and phenological traits but share a common developmental sequence in terms of ovule formation and gametogenesis. We present a reproductive calendar that allows prediction of male and female gametogenesis on the basis of sporophytic parameters related to floral bud size and reproductive organ development, determining that gametogenesis occurs more rapidly in the anther than in the ovule. We also show that the mode of megagametogenesis is of the Polygonum-type and not Oenothera-type, as previously reported. Finally, we developed a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol and applied it to detect meiotic proteins in the cowpea megaspore mother cell, opening opportunities for comparing the dynamics of protein localization during male and female meiosis, as well as other reproductive events in this emerging legume model system.

  3. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  4. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  6. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  7. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Dart, Peter J.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu 2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu 2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu 2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu 2+ . The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu 2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu 2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu 2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu 2+ , rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  8. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Gungula, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  9. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48 T and B. liaoningense USDA 3622 T and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Using artificial neural networks to select upright cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes with high productivity and phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Nascimento, A C C; Azevedo, C F; Teixeira, F R F

    2016-11-03

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in three Brazilian regions: the Midwest, North, and Northeast, and is consumed by people on low incomes. It is important to investigate the genotype x environment (GE) interaction to provide accurate recommendations for farmers. The aim of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability for growing in the Brazilian Cerrado, and to compare the use of artificial neural networks with the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method. Six trials with upright cowpea genotypes were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the States of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The data were subjected to adaptability and stability analysis by the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method and artificial neural networks. The genotypes MNC99-537F-4 and EVX91-2E-2 provided grain yields above the overall environment means, and exhibited high stability according to both methods. Genotype IT93K-93-10 was the most suitable for unfavorable environments. There was a high correlation between the results of both methods in terms of classifying the genotypes by their adaptability and stability. Therefore, this new approach would be effective in quantifying the GE interaction in upright cowpea breeding programs.

  11. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanamaker Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

  12. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  13. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  14. Genetic diversity and a population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed from cowpea unigene and genome sequences, respectively. Among them, 27 genic and 27 genomic SSR markers were polymorphic and were used for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in 105 selected cowpea accessions. A total of 155 alleles and 2.9 alleles per marker were identified, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC value was 0.3615. The average PIC of genomic SSRs (0.3996 was higher than that of genic SSRs (0.3235, and most of the polymorphic genomic SSRs were composed of di- and trinucleotide repeats (51.9% and 37.0% of all loci, respectively. The low level of detected genetic diversity may be attributed to a severe genetic bottleneck that occurred during the cowpea domestication process. The accessions were classified by structure and cluster analysis into four subgroups that correlated well with their geographic origins or collection sites. The classification results were also consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis and can be used as a guide during future germplasm collection and selection of accessions as breeding materials for cultivar improvement. The newly developed genic and genomic SSR markers described in this study will be valuable genomic resources for the assessment of genetic diversity, population structure, evaluation of germplasm accessions, construction of genetic maps, identification of genes of interest, and application of marker-assisted selection in cowpea breeding programs.

  15. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The l...

  16. Association mapping of aphid resistance in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, as well as other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The utilization of aphid resistance in cowpea breeding is one of the most efficient and environmental friendly methods to contro...

  17. A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luadthong, Sanit

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

  18. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  19. A compendium of transcription factor and Transcriptionally active protein coding gene families in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vikram A; Wang, Yu; Timko, Michael P

    2017-11-22

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is the most important food and forage legume in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa where approximately 80% of worldwide production takes place primarily on low-input, subsistence farm sites. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs are the rapid manipulation of agronomic traits for seed size and quality and improved resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses to enhance productivity. Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. We used a computational approach that employed three different predictive pipelines to data mine the cowpea genome and identified over 4400 genes representing 136 different TF and TAP families. We compare the information content of cowpea to two evolutionarily close species common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max) to gauge the relative informational content. Our data indicate that correcting for genome size cowpea has fewer TF and TAP genes than common bean (4408 / 5291) and soybean (4408/ 11,065). Members of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene families appear to be over-represented in the genome relative to common bean and soybean, whereas members of the MADS (Minichromosome maintenance deficient 1 (MCM1), AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, and serum response factor (SRF)) and C2C2-YABBY appear to be under-represented. Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein (AP2-EREBP), NAC (NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF1, 2 (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense signaling, revealed changes and phylogenetic rearrangements relative to common bean and soybean that suggest these groups may have evolved different functions. The availability of detailed

  20. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component.

  1. Effect of extrusion conditions and lipoxygenase inactivation treatment on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Moguel, Odri; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge; Martínez-Ayala, Alma; González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lipoxygenase inactivation and extrusion cooking on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends was studied. Corn was blended in an 80:15 proportion with cowpea flour treated to inactivate lipoxygenase (CI) or non-inactivated cowpea flour (CNI). Extrusion variables were temperature (150 degrees C, 165 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and moisture (15%, 17% and 19%). Based on their physical properties, the 165 degrees C/15% corn:CNI, and 165 degrees C/15% corn:CI, and 150 degrees C/15% corn:CI blends were chosen for nutritional quality analysis. Extrudate chemical composition indicated high crude protein levels compared with standard corn-based products. With the exception of lysine, essential amino acids content in the three treatments met FAO requirements. Extrusion and lipoxygenase inactivation are promising options for developing corn/cowpea extruded snack products with good physical properties and nutritional quality.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research.

  3. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  4. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  5. Drought increases cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) susceptibility to cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) at early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodolpho G G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Martins, Thiago F; Varela, Anna L N; Souza, Pedro F N; Lobo, Ana K M; Silva, Fredy D A; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2016-12-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of a drought tolerant, virus-susceptible cowpea genotype exposed to drought stress (D), infected by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) (V), and to these two combined stresses (DV), at 2 and 6 days post viral inoculation (DPI), were evaluated. Gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 partial pressure) were reduced in D and DV at 2 and 6 DPI compared to control plants (C). Photosynthesis was reduced by stomatal and biochemical limitations. Water use efficiency increased at 2 DPI in D, DV, and V, but at 6 DPI only in D and DV compared to C. Photochemical parameters (effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport rate) decreased in D and DV compared to C, especially at 6 DPI. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II did not change, indicating reversible photoinhibition of photosystem II. In DV, catalase decreased at 2 and 6 DPI, ascorbate peroxidase increased at 2 DPI, but decreased at 6 DPI. Hydrogen peroxide increased at 2 and 6 DPI. Peroxidase increased at 6 DPI and chitinase at 2 and 6 DPI. β-1,3-glucanase decreased in DV at 6 DPI compared to V. Drought increased cowpea susceptibility to CPSMV at 2 DPI, as verified by RT-PCR. However, at 6 DPI, the cowpea plants overcome this effect. Likewise, CPSMV increased the negative effects of drought at 2 DPI, but not at 6 DPI. It was concluded that the responses to combined stresses are not additive and cannot be extrapolated from the study of individual stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Oppolzer, David; Ramos, Ana; Ferreira, Luis; Rosa, Eduardo As; Rodrigues, Miguel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at -18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices. For the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky-Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g -1 dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used. The spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Analysis of pre- and post-harvest practices of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Practices such as farming and storage conditions may influence the production ... Cowpea infestation by insects on farm and in storage was a major problem mentioned by farmers.

  8. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants.

  9. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  10. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...... under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  11. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15 N sources included residual soil 15 N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15 N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N 2 fixed varied with the source of 15 N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15 N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 1 5N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15 N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15 N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15 N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15 N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  13. Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakora Felix D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, δ15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study

  14. Proanthocyanidin profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) reveals catechin-O-glucoside as the dominant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph

    2013-08-15

    Proanthocyanidin (PA) profile and content can have important nutritional and health implications on plant foods. Six diverse cowpea phenotypes (black, red, green, white, light-brown and golden-brown) were investigated for PA composition using normal-phase HPLC and reversed-phase UPLC-TQD-MS. Catechin and (epi)afzelechin were the major flavan-3-ol units. Unusual composition was observed in all cowpea phenotypes with significant degrees of glycosylation in the monomers and dimers. The PA content of cowpea (dry basis) ranged between 2.2 and 6.3 mg/g. Monomeric flavan-3-ols were the largest group of PA (36-69%) in cowpea, with catechin-7-O-glucoside accounting for most (about 88%) of the monomers. The oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-4 ranged from 0.41 to 1.3 mg/g (15-20%), whereas DP>10 polymers accounted for only 13.5% of PA. Future studies that highlight the impact of the unusual cowpea PA profile on nutritional and bioactive properties of this important legume are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening selected genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] for salt tolerance during seedling growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogile, A; Andargie, M; Muthuswamy, M

    2013-07-15

    The environmental stress such as, salinity (soil or water) are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world. This study was conducted to assess the potential for salt tolerance of cowpea genotypes during the seedling stage. The experimental treatments were 9 cowpea genotypes and 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) and they were tested in greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized design in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1) statistical software. Seedling shoots and root traits, seedling shoots and root weight, number of leaves and total biological yield were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length, shoot length, seedling shoot and root weight of cowpea genotypes. The extent of decrease varied with genotypes and salt concentrations. Most genotypes were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. The correlation analysis revealed positive and significant association among most of the parameters. Genotypes 210856, 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The study revealed the presence of broad intra specific genetic variation in cowpea varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production.

  16. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts. PMID:22741546

  17. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population for genetic analysis and improvement of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Huang, Bevan Emma; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Fatokun, Christian; Kusi, Francis; Agyare, Richard Y; Guo, Yi-Ning; Herniter, Ira; Lo, Sassoum; Wanamaker, Steve I; Xu, Shizhong; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2018-03-01

    Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations are an emerging type of resource for dissecting the genetic structure of traits and improving breeding populations. We developed a MAGIC population for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) from eight founder parents. These founders were genetically diverse and carried many abiotic and biotic stress resistance, seed quality and agronomic traits relevant to cowpea improvement in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa, where cowpea is vitally important in the human diet and local economies. The eight parents were inter-crossed using structured matings to ensure that the population would have balanced representation from each parent, followed by single-seed descent, resulting in 305 F 8 recombinant inbred lines each carrying a mosaic of genome blocks contributed by all founders. This was confirmed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping with the Illumina Cowpea Consortium Array. These lines were on average 99.74% homozygous but also diverse in agronomic traits across environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for several parental traits. Loci with major effects on photoperiod sensitivity and seed size were also verified by biparental genetic mapping. The recombination events were concentrated in telomeric regions. Due to its broad genetic base, this cowpea MAGIC population promises breakthroughs in genetic gain, QTL and gene discovery, enhancement of breeding populations and, for some lines, direct releases as new varieties. © 2018 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  19. Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, I.K; Acheampong, A.O.; Adu-Dapaah, H.

    2007-01-01

    Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

  20. Diel pattern of circadian clock and storage protein gene expression in leaves and during seed filling in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Terry, Marta I; Martos-Fuentes, Marina; Letourneux, Lisa; Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Fernández, Juan A; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2018-02-14

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock. We identified cowpea orthologues of the core clock genes VunLHY, VunTOC1, VunGI and VunELF3, the protein storage genes VunLEG, VunLEGJ, and VunCVC as well as nine candidate reference genes used in RT-PCR. ELONGATION FACTOR 1-A (ELF1A) resulted the most suitable reference gene. The clock genes VunELF3, VunGI, VunTOC1 and VunLHY showed a rhythmic expression profile in leaves with a typical evening/night and morning/midday phased expression. The diel patterns were not completely robust and only VungGI and VungELF3 retained a rhythmic pattern under free running conditions of darkness. Under field conditions, rhythmicity and phasing apparently faded during early pod and seed development and was regained in ripening pods for VunTOC1 and VunLHY. Mature seeds showed a rhythmic expression of VunGI resembling leaf tissue under controlled growth chamber conditions. Comparing time windows during developmental stages we found that VunCVC and VunLEG were significantly down regulated during the night in mature pods as compared to intermediate ripe pods, while changes in seeds were non-significant due to high variance. The rhythmic expression under field conditions was lost under growth chamber conditions. The core clock gene network is conserved in cowpea leaves showing a robust diel expression pattern except VunELF3 under growth chamber conditions. There appears to be a clock transcriptional reprogramming in pods and seeds compared to

  1. Microvirga vignae sp. nov., a root nodule symbiotic bacterium isolated from cowpea grown in semi-arid Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Viviane; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Martins, Lindete Míria Vieira; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Baldani, José Ivo; Zilli, Jerri Edson

    2014-03-01

    16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of eight strains (BR 3299(T), BR 3296, BR 10192, BR 10193, BR 10194, BR 10195, BR 10196 and BR 10197) isolated from nodules of cowpea collected from a semi-arid region of Brazil showed 97 % similarity to sequences of recently described rhizobial species of the genus Microvirga. Phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, dnaK and rpoB), DNA-DNA relatedness and AFLP further indicated that these strains belong to a novel species within the genus Microvirga. Our data support the hypothesis that genes related to nitrogen fixation were obtained via horizontal gene transfer, as sequences of nifH genes were very similar to those found in members of the genera Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium, which are not immediate relatives of the genus Microvirga, as shown by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phenotypic traits, such as host range and carbon utilization, differentiate the novel strains from the most closely related species, Microvirga lotononidis, Microvirga zambiensis and Microvirga lupini. Therefore, these symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are proposed to be representatives of a novel species, for which the name Microvirga vignae sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is BR3299(T) ( = HAMBI 3457(T)).

  2. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venâncio T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

  3. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Deborah Moura; De Sousa, Yuri Maia; Bagard, Matthieu; Costa, Jose Helio; Jolivet, Yves; De Melo, Dirce Fernandes; Repellin, Anne

    2017-03-03

    The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG):monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2) and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8) genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake.

  4. Diversity in 113 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] accessions assessed with 458 SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection.

  5. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Cowpea Landraces (Vigna unguiculata from Western Cameroon Using Qualitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscani NGOMPE-DEFFO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity and analysis of the genetic relationship between accessions of a crop species is a key step in breeding superior cultivars. The main objective of the hereby study was to determine the genetic variation between 30 cowpea accessions collected throughout the eight divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon using qualitative traits. Phenotypic variation of these accessions was evaluated using diversity indices and cluster analyses. A total of twenty qualitative traits were used for the study. Fifteen of them (75% were polymorphic, displaying each at least two phenotypic classes. The monomorphic characters were growth pattern, leaf color, leaf hairiness, plant hairiness and pod hairiness, each with only one phenotypic class. Results showed a relatively significant level of genetic diversity among the studied cowpea accessions. Overall, the average of the observed and effective number of phenotypic classes per qualitative trait were Na = 2.350 and Ne = 1.828 respectively. The Nei’s genetic diversity and the Shannon weaver diversity index were He = 0.369, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.655 (growth habit and H’ = 0.609, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.996 (seed crowding, respectively. The dendrogram constructed from the twenty qualitative traits revealed 05 accessions clusters with the number of accessions in each cluster varying from one to eleven. Information obtained from this study is likely be useful for future cowpea breeding program.

  6. Vigna unguiculasta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna ... content, level of starch damage and foaming capacity; Iron was least affected in TDF and SI while. Ife brown was the least ... cowpea in storage is reported to reach 100% sometimes, if left ..... potato flake quality as influenced by free starch.

  7. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  8. A major QTL corresponding to the Rk locus for resistance to root-knot nematodes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William C; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Lucas, Mitchell R; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Genome resolution of a major QTL associated with the Rk locus in cowpea for resistance to root-knot nematodes has significance for plant breeding programs and R gene characterization. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a susceptible host of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN), major plant-parasitic pests in global agriculture. To date, breeding for host resistance in cowpea has relied on phenotypic selection which requires time-consuming and expensive controlled infection assays. To facilitate marker-based selection, we aimed to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the resistance trait. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) and two F2:3 populations, each derived from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent, were genotyped with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The populations were screened in the field for root-galling symptoms and/or under growth-chamber conditions for nematode reproduction levels using M. incognita and M. javanica biotypes. One major QTL was mapped consistently on linkage group VuLG11 of each population. By genotyping additional cowpea lines and near-isogenic lines derived from conventional backcrossing, we confirmed that the detected QTL co-localized with the genome region associated with the Rk locus for RKN resistance that has been used in conventional breeding for many decades. This chromosomal location defined with flanking markers will be a valuable target in marker-assisted breeding and for positional cloning of genes controlling RKN resistance.

  9. Complete sterility studies in three mutants of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Dapaah, H. K.; Singh, B. B.; Fatokun, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Three completely-sterile cowpea mutants IT85D-3625, IT85D-3628, IT85D-3641 obtained from spontaneous mutation and gamma irradiation were-characterized. Reciprocal crosses between them and fertile plants failed to set pods. These lines showed significant differences with respect to various traits such as number of pollen grain per anther, anther length and width, plant height, anther indehiscence,unopened flower buds, and premature abortion of pods and seeds. The major cause of sterility was chromosome aberrations. Complete sterility in each of the three lines was conditioned by a simple recessive gene pair. Sterility in each of the three mutants was associated with floral aberrations. The symbols cs 1 , cs 2 and cs 3 are being assigned to IT85D-3625, IT85D-2628 and IT85D-3641 respectively. The three mutants were homogeneous with reference to sterility inheritance. (au)

  10. New molecular features of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata, l. Walp) β-vignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Demonte, Aureluce; Consonni, Alessandro; Augusto Neves, Valdir; Maffud Cilli, Eduardo; Duranti, Marcello; Scarafoni, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    Cowpea seed β-vignin, a vicilin-like globulin, proved to exert various health favourable effects, including blood cholesterol reduction in animal models. The need of a simple scalable enrichment procedure for further studies for tailored applications of this seed protein is crucial. A chromatography-independent fractionation method allowing to obtain a protein preparation with a high degree of homogeneity was used. Further purification was pursued to deep the molecular characterisation of β-vignin. The results showed: (i) differing glycosylation patterns of the two constituent polypeptides, in agreement with amino acid sequence features; (ii) the seed accumulation of a gene product never identified before; (iii) metal binding capacity of native protein, a property observed only in few other legume seed vicilins.

  11. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona-Ayala Carlos Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  12. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  13. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Fatokun, Christian; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-06-12

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

  14. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  15. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  16. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  17. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  18. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  19. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  20. Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Mellor, Karolina E; Paul, Shom N; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Timko, Michael P

    2012-08-17

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301-SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots following successful and unsuccessful

  1. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D.D.; Ofosu, D.O.; Ocloo, F.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation of cowpea on quality characteristics of its resultant flour. ► Flour was prepared from four cowpea cultivars irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ► Proximate and physical properties of flour from irradiated cowpea were generally not affected by the radiation doses used. ► Functional properties of flour samples were affected by gamma irradiation of cowpea. ► Pasting parameters studied were also affected by the radiation at various radiation doses.

  2. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (pcowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  3. Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum

  4. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250μm and stored at 4 o C for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p o C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any

  5. COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The protein contents of the weaning food blends met ... Dietary Allowance (RDA) for infants (0 – 1 year), though the fat contents were ... foods along side breast milk as from four months, ... grams (100g) of the cleaned pearl millet (raw grain).

  6. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  7. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  8. Cloning of cDNA sequences encoding cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins: Computational simulations suggest a binding mode of cowpea vicilins to chitin oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Antônio J; Sousa, Bruno L; Girão, Matheus S; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Monteiro-Júnior, José E; Oliveira, José T A; Nagano, Celso S; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Rocha, Bruno A M; Freire, Valder N; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2018-05-27

    Vicilins are 7S globulins which constitute the major seed storage proteins in leguminous species. Variant vicilins showing differential binding affinities for chitin have been implicated in the resistance and susceptibility of cowpea to the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. These proteins are members of the cupin superfamily, which includes a wide variety of enzymes and non-catalytic seed storage proteins. The cupin fold does not share similarity with any known chitin-biding domain. Therefore, it is poorly understood how these storage proteins bind to chitin. In this work, partial cDNA sequences encoding β-vignin, the major component of cowpea vicilins, were obtained from developing seeds. Three-dimensional molecular models of β-vignin showed the characteristic cupin fold and computational simulations revealed that each vicilin trimer contained 3 chitin-binding sites. Interaction models showed that chito-oligosaccharides bound to β-vignin were stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds, a common structural feature of typical carbohydrate-binding proteins. Furthermore, many of the residues involved in the chitin-binding sites of β-vignin are conserved in other 7S globulins. These results support previous experimental evidences on the ability of vicilin-like proteins from cowpea and other leguminous species to bind in vitro to chitin as well as in vivo to chitinous structures of larval C. maculatus midgut. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Long Period Cooling Storage on the Nucleic Acid of Harvested Cowpea Seeds ( Vigna Sinensis L.) Treated by Gamma Irradiation and Micro Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.; Salama, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea seeds ( Vigna sinensis L.) were exposed to 40 and 80 Gy gamma radiation, in order to study the effect of long period under cooling storage by using RAPD and ISSR PCR facilities. The obtained results indicated that RAPD protocol gave 65% monomorphic and 56% polymorphic fragments between the samples as compared to storage and non-storage controls. While , ISSR protocol gave 83% monomorphic and 85% polymorphic fragments. It should be mentioned that other percentage s 86% and 91% were found among samples in case of using another primers. The results could be summarized as follow: 1-Primer OP - B01 gave 7 monomorphic and 13 polymorphic fragments (65%). 2 - The Primer OP - B02 and Primer OP - B05 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 14 polymorphic fragments (79%). 3 - The Primer HA-98 gave 4 monomorphic fragments with 19 detected polymorphic 83%. 4 - The Primer HA - 99 and HB-12 gave 3 monomorphic fragments and 17 polymorphic 85 and 86%, respectively. 5 - The Primer HB - 13 gave 2 monomorphic fragments with 21 detected polymorphic fragments 91%. 6 - The primer HA-98 gave 83% while the primer HA - 99 gave 85%. The previous results showed some polymorphism differences among the samples, while the primer HB-12 gave 86% and the primer HB-13 91% exhibited high levels of polymorphism. The DNA of stored cowpea seeds which were exposed to 80 Gy in the presence of zinc showed the highest differentiation , while radiation dose 40 Gy treated with zinc or boron, 80 Gy with boron and 40 or 80 Gy treatment alone compared to the two controls (storage and non storage)

  11. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  12. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection

  13. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  14. Distribution and Phylogeny of Microsymbionts Associated with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Nodulation in Three Agroecological Regions of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebe, Ifeoma N; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D

    2018-01-15

    Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeographic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and phylogenies of rhizobia at different agroecological regions of Mozambique using PCR of the BOX element (BOX-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-RFLP), and sequence analysis of ribosomal, symbiotic, and housekeeping genes. A total of 122 microsymbionts isolated from two cowpea varieties (IT-1263 and IT-18) grouped into 17 clades within the BOX-PCR dendrogram. The PCR-ITS analysis yielded 17 ITS types for the bacterial isolates, while ITS-RFLP analysis placed all test isolates in six distinct clusters (I to VI). BLAST n sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes ( glnII , gyrB , recA , and rpoB ) showed their alignment with Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species. The results revealed a group of highly diverse and adapted cowpea-nodulating microsymbionts which included Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi , Bradyrhizobium arachidis , Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense , and a novel Bradyrhizobium sp., as well as Rhizobium tropici , Rhizobium pusense , and Neorhizobium galegae in Mozambican soils. Discordances observed in single-gene phylogenies could be attributed to horizontal gene transfer and/or subsequent recombinations of the genes. Natural deletion of 60 bp of the gyrB region was observed in isolate TUTVU7; however, this deletion effect on DNA gyrase function still needs to be confirmed. The inconsistency of nifH with core gene phylogenies suggested differences in the evolutionary history of both chromosomal and symbiotic genes. IMPORTANCE A diverse group of both Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium species responsible for cowpea

  15. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPCvarietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM and Low Population High Market (LPHM on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.

  17. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris K. Ondieki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited nitrogen (N content in the soil is a major challenge to sustainable and high crop production in many developing countries. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia plays an important role in supplying sufficient N for legumes and subsequent nonleguminous crops. To identify rhizobia strains which are suitable for bioinoculant production, characterization of rhizobia is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological and genetic diversity of rhizobia that nodulates cowpea in agricultural soils of lower eastern Kenya. Twenty-eight rhizobia isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from farmers’ fields in Machakos, Makueni, and Kitui counties in lower eastern Kenya and characterized based on morphological characteristics. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and characterized using BOX repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. Based on the dendrogram generated from morphological characteristics, the test isolates were distributed into two major clusters at a similarity of 75%. Phylogenetic tree, based on BOX repetitive element PCR, grouped the isolates into two clusters at 90% similarity level. The clustering of the isolates did not show a relationship to the origin of soil samples, although the isolates were genetically diverse. This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Accession in Kenya Gene Bank Based on Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Emily N; Muoma, John; Wekesa, Clabe

    2016-01-01

    Increased agricultural production is an urgent issue. Projected global population is 9 million people by mid of this century. Estimation projects death of 1 million people for lack of food quality (micronutrient deficit) and quantity (protein deficit). Majority of these people will be living in developing countries. Other global challenges include shrinking cultivable lands, salinity, and flooding due to climate changes, new emerging pathogens, and pests. These affect crop production. Furthermore, they are major threats to crop genetic resources and food security. Genetic diversity in cultivated crops indicates gene pool richness. It is the greatest resource for plant breeders to select lines that enhance food security. This study was conducted by Masinde Muliro University to evaluate genetic diversity in 19 cowpea accessions from Kenya national gene bank. Accessions clustered into two major groups. High divergence was observed between accessions from Ethiopia and Australia and those from Western Kenya. Upper Volta accessions were closely related to those from Western Kenya. Low variation was observed between accessions from Eastern and Rift Valley than those from Western and Coastal regions of Kenya. Diversity obtained in this study can further be exploited for the improvement of cowpea in Kenya as a measure of food security.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Accession in Kenya Gene Bank Based on Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N. Wamalwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased agricultural production is an urgent issue. Projected global population is 9 million people by mid of this century. Estimation projects death of 1 million people for lack of food quality (micronutrient deficit and quantity (protein deficit. Majority of these people will be living in developing countries. Other global challenges include shrinking cultivable lands, salinity, and flooding due to climate changes, new emerging pathogens, and pests. These affect crop production. Furthermore, they are major threats to crop genetic resources and food security. Genetic diversity in cultivated crops indicates gene pool richness. It is the greatest resource for plant breeders to select lines that enhance food security. This study was conducted by Masinde Muliro University to evaluate genetic diversity in 19 cowpea accessions from Kenya national gene bank. Accessions clustered into two major groups. High divergence was observed between accessions from Ethiopia and Australia and those from Western Kenya. Upper Volta accessions were closely related to those from Western Kenya. Low variation was observed between accessions from Eastern and Rift Valley than those from Western and Coastal regions of Kenya. Diversity obtained in this study can further be exploited for the improvement of cowpea in Kenya as a measure of food security.

  20. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piebiep Goufo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  1. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondieki, Damaris K; Nyaboga, Evans N; Wagacha, John M; Mwaura, Francis B

    2017-01-01

    Limited nitrogen (N) content in the soil is a major challenge to sustainable and high crop production in many developing countries. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia plays an important role in supplying sufficient N for legumes and subsequent nonleguminous crops. To identify rhizobia strains which are suitable for bioinoculant production, characterization of rhizobia is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological and genetic diversity of rhizobia that nodulates cowpea in agricultural soils of lower eastern Kenya. Twenty-eight rhizobia isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from farmers' fields in Machakos, Makueni, and Kitui counties in lower eastern Kenya and characterized based on morphological characteristics. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and characterized using BOX repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. Based on the dendrogram generated from morphological characteristics, the test isolates were distributed into two major clusters at a similarity of 75%. Phylogenetic tree, based on BOX repetitive element PCR, grouped the isolates into two clusters at 90% similarity level. The clustering of the isolates did not show a relationship to the origin of soil samples, although the isolates were genetically diverse. This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya.

  2. Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ederson; Pinheiro, Victor; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Cone, John W; Marques, Guilhermina; Silva, Valéria; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. Therefore treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbit feeding. There was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments, reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation. Overall, net losses of dry and organic matter occurred during fungi treatments. Although the fiber content remained identical, higher consumption of cell wall contents was measured for P. citrinopileatus incubation (between 40 and 45%). The incubation period did not influence lignin degradation for any of the fungi treatments. Differences within the fungal degradation mechanisms indicate that P. citrinopileatus treatment was most effective, enhancing in vitro organic matter digestibility by around 30% compared with the control. Treatment of cowpea stover with P. citrinopileatus led to an efficient delignification process which resulted in higher in vitro organic matter digestibility, showing its potential in the nutritional valorization of this feedstuff. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Metabolomics: Osmoprotection as a Physiological Strategy for Drought Stress Resistance and Improved Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Jorge, Tiago F; Correia, Carlos M; Oliveira, Manuela R; Rosa, Eduardo A S; António, Carla; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation. Osmoadaptation was investigated in leaves and roots using photosynthetic traits, water homoeostasis, inorganic ions, and primary and secondary metabolites. Multifactorial analyses indicated allocation of high quantities of amino acids, sugars, and proanthocyanidins into roots, presumably linked to their role in growth and initial stress perception. Physiological and metabolic changes developed in parallel and drought/recovery responses showed a progressive acclimation of the cowpea plant to stress. Of the 88 metabolites studied, proline, galactinol, and a quercetin derivative responded the most to drought as highlighted by multivariate analyses, and their correlations with yield indicated beneficial effects. These metabolites accumulated differently in roots, but similarly in leaves, suggesting a more conservative strategy to cope with drought in the aerial parts. Changes in these compounds roughly reflected energy investment in protective mechanisms, although the ability of plants to adjust osmotically through inorganic ions uptake could not be discounted.

  4. Essential oil optimizes the susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and enhances the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akami, Mazarin; Chakira, Hamada; Andongma, Awawing A; Khaeso, Kanjana; Gbaye, Olajire A; Nicolas, Njintang Y; Nukenine, E-N; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2017-08-01

    The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations. The resistance index and biochemical parameters of grains were determined. The results from this study revealed that the survival rate and resistance index significantly increased proportionally with damage in DDVP treatments ( r  = 0.889; p  = 0.018) while in EO treatments, those values remained low without significant variations ( p  = 0.0764) throughout the generations. DDVP stored grains yielded higher crude protein values, but lower carbohydrates, tannins, phenolics and minerals compared to EO. Eighteen amino acids were detected in EO treated grains and 14 in DDVP which was devoid of albumin and prolamin. Lippia adoensis EO could therefore represent a safe alternative bio-pesticide to cope with insect resistance and enhance the nutritional qualities of stored cowpea seeds.

  5. Evaluation of dwarf mutant of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) developed through gamma irradiation for nitrogen fixation characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjana, G.; Thimmaiah, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    A dwarf mutant developed through gamma-irradiation and mutation breeding of its parent cowpea variety, namely KBC-1 has been characterized for nitrogen-fixation characters such as root nodule acetylene reduction activity (ARA) and legthemoglobin content at different days after sowing (DAS). Significant variations in these characters were noticed among the varieties and for interactions between the varieties and DAS. The ARA was nearly one-and-a half fold higher in the mutant at both 30 (12.69 μmoles)C 2 H 4 formed/h/g fr.wt. of nodules) and 50 DAS (6.74 μmoles) over its parent (9.20 and 4.46 μmoles at 30 and 50 DAS, respectively). Further, the ARA in the mutant decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content was also higher in the mutant over the parent at all the DAS. However, it decreased linearly with an increase in the DAS in both the mutant and the parent. The highest leghemoglobin content was noticed at 30 DAS in both mutant (2.1 mg/g fr. wt. of nodules) and the parent (1.45 mg/g). Thus, the dwarf cowpea mutant was found to be associated with higher nitrogen-fixing ability which could be exploited in future breeding programmes. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  8. Inheritance of Early Maturity in Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Genotypes under Rain Fed Conditions in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Owusu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute in 2015 cropping season to examine the inheritance of early maturity among an extra-early maturing landrace Sanzi and a medium maturing variety Padi-Tuya and their progenies. The results indicated highly significant (P0.05 were observed between F1 and RF1, implying absence of maternal effect. The segregation ratio in the F2 population for early and medium maturity fitted into the ratio 3 : 1, indicating single dominant gene mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlations were found between DNPM, DFFI, DFF, and DFPM; hence selection criteria to improve early maturity of cowpea should focus on these traits. Grain yield also had significant positive correlations with maturity indices indicating high grain yield is associated with late maturity; therefore, high grain yield should be considered alongside early maturity when selecting progenies for earliness.

  9. Allelopathic Effect of Wheat and Barley Residues on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. and Weeds Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahbyki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weeds are a major constraint limiting crop yield in agricultural systems and in organic systems in particular. Although herbicides are efficient for weed control, continuous use has caused the development of resistance in weeds against several herbicides. Furthermore, herbicides also pollute the soil, water and aerial environments and herbicide residues in food have deteriorated food quality and enhanced the risk of diseases. Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known to be allelopathic against crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effect of wheat and barley residues on weeds control and cowpea yield. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l. of Agricultural Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology in 2015. Treatments were included; weeding all season, no weeding, trifluralin according to the recommended dose (2 ton ha-1, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 100%, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 2 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 4 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 8 ton ha-1, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 100%. Statistical analysis of data was performed with MSTAT-C software and means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of treatments was significant (P 0.01 on weed density and dry weight. Soil incorporation with wheat

  10. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da

    2009-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15 N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N 2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg -1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15 N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  11. Effects of substituting roasted soybean (Glycine max seeds by those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, and of the protein level in the diet, on growth performance and profitability of local-breed chickens (Gallus gallus in Burkina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ouattara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting roasted seeds of soya (Glycine max by those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, and of the protein level in the diet, on growth performance and economic profitability of local-breed chickens (Gallus gallus in Burkina Faso. Three hundred 12-day-old chicks were divided into 12 batches of 25 chicks each. Four diets incorporating seeds of cowpea or soya, with different protein levels for starting and growing/finishing, were prepared. Data on various parameters (body weight, weight gain, intake and feed conversion, mortality were recorded once every two weeks from the 12th to the 138th day of age. At the 138th day, four chickens (two males and two females from each batch were slaughtered to assess the characteristics of carcasses and selected organs. The comparative profitability of the different treatments was evaluated. Results indicate that the substitution of roasted seeds of soya by those of cowpea had no devaluing effect on growth performance nor on carcass characteristics of the local chicken. In addition, the use of these seeds did not decrease profitability. Lastly, increasing the protein level in the diets significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved weight gains and reduced the duration of the breeding period by two weeks.

  12. Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P en el suelo, laineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de mejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP. En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum y un microorganismo solubilizador de  (MSP (Mortierella sp. sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento deplantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., con adición detres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo. Los resultadosmostraron un incremento significativo (PLa adición de RP y la inoculación con MSP, no tuvo un efectoestadísticamente significativo (P>0,05 sobre las variables decrecimiento evaluadas. Sin embargo, en todos los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el MSP, se incrementó significativamente el P soluble. Con base en lo encontrado en este trabajo, se puede plantear que el hongo micorrízico arbuscular evaluado (HMA,mejora la eficiencia de absorción de P y el crecimiento del caupí bajo las condiciones evaluadas. / The low phosphorus (P availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving Pdisponibility, absorption and the use of fertilizer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR. This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP (Mortierella sp. on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100

  13. Analysis of ibuprofen and its main metabolites in roots, shoots, and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: uptake, metabolism, and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Yolanda; Alvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Wijaya, Leonard; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Alyemeni, Mohammed; Barceló, Damià

    2018-01-01

    A liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOF-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of ibuprofen (IBU), 1- and 2-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH IBU and 2-OH IBU), and carboxyibuprofen (CBX IBU) while preserving the ability of the instrument to get precursor and product ion mass spectra of non-target compounds. The trigger was the precursor ions reaching 100 cps intensity. Sample preparation was carried out by ultrasound solid-liquid extraction with methanol as extraction solvent at pH  70% for all target analytes at low and high concentration levels. The lowest limit of quantification was cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) treated at high IBU concentrations and its presence in vegetables irrigated with treated water. Up to 46 metabolites, mostly hydroxylated metabolites and conjugates with hexosides and amino acids, were identified. The most abundant metabolites were also identified in an eggplant sample. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Ibuprofen metabolite identification.

  14. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis for plant growth habit in worldwide Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a legume widely grown in Africa, North, Central and South America, and Asia. The Cowpea plant growth habits consist of erect, semi-prostrate, and prostrate types. Developing a cultivar while considering plant growth habit is essential within a breeding program since the need for a particul...

  15. Effect of Six Different Audio Frequencies on Growth of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) during Seedling Stage%6种不同声频对豇豆苗期生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜仕仁; 黄俊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长的影响.[方法]以古典音乐与昆虫鸣声的混合声波(MI)、杜鹃鸣声、蟋蟀鸣声、单一频率的400 Hz声波和多种频率合成的F5,Fn声波进行试验比较,对豇豆苗高、苗重进行测定,采用EXCEL进行统计分析和多重比较.[结果]经6种不同类型和频率声频处理后,豇豆苗期生长状况均显著优于对照组,表明声波能显著促进株高生长,对豇豆苗期助长效果较好的是400Hz、杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声,其次是MI,Fn和F5;与对照组相比,杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声处理组在生长期间能显著促进苗株增重.[结论]不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长都有明显的助长作用,但作用效果有所差异.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the effects of acoustic waves with different types and frequency characteristics on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during seedling stage. [ Method] The insect-music mixed sound (MS), cuckoo acoustic song, cricket acoustic song, single 400 Hz frequency acoustic wave, F5 and Fn acoustic waves composed of different frequencies were designed to investigate the effects on height and weight of cowpea seedling, and experimental data were statistically analyzed and multiple-compared by EXCEL. [ Result ] After treatment by six different types and frequencies of acoustic waves, the growth situations of cowpea were better than control. This indicated that acoustic waves could significantly promote height growth of plant. The treatments with good growth promotion effect included 400 Hz frequency acoustic wave, cuckoo acoustic song and cricket acoustic song, followed by MI, Fn and F5. Cuckoo and cricket acoustic song treatment could promote the weight of cowpea seedling during growth stage. [ Conclusion ] Acoustic waves with different types and frequency characteristics had significant growth-promotion effect on growth of cowpea during seedling stage, but

  16. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  17. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  18. Association analysis of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop, widely grown in Africa, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the southern United States. Cowpea is consumed as both fresh vegetable and dry grain, and as an animal feed and fodder, and it is a major dietary protein source t...

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BEST ACTION, FURADAN, AND NEEM EMULSION IN THE CONTROL OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran, Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani. Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.

  20. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

  1. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea (Vigna ... that responds negatively to RP, using generation mean analysis of the parents, their ... was observed to be below the critical level, phosphorus uptake in the F1 and the ...

  3. Influence of farmyard manure on some morphological and biochemical parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedling grown in cadmium-treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asagba, Samuel Ogheneovo; Ezedom, Theresa; Kadiri, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in all the treated soils relative to control. Addition of poultry manure to the soil significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soil augmented with poultry manure but not in cowpea seedlings in cadmium-treated soil with pig manure amendments. Similarly, augmentation of Cd-treated soil with pig manure did not alter the Cd-induced effect on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in leaf, stem and roots, as SOD remained significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soils amended with poultry manure were restored to a level not significantly (p > 0.05) different from control. Like in the case of SOD, the Cd-induced inhibition of the activity of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase remained significantly (p  0.05) different from control. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed that supplementation of Cd-treated soils with pig and poultry manures reversed effects of Cd on cowpea seedlings. However, poultry manure was more effective than pig manure in ameliorating the effects of Cd.

  4. Grain legume improvement in Ghana with induced mutagenesis - Special reference to winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaah, G.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two varieties each of winged bean and cowpea were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Seed emergence, seedling height, seedling survival, plant survival at maturity, and plant and pod fertility were all progressively reduced with increasing dosage of irradiation. Mutants isolated in th M 2 for winged bean included a single stem erect mutant, a multiple branch bush, early, extra long-poded, strap and a spectrum of seed size and colour mutants. In cowpea an erect mutant was isolated. (author)

  5. Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Wanamaker, Steve; Ma, Yaqin Q; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant) x 24-125B-1 (susceptible). Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties

  6. Relating sensory profiles of canned amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cleome (Cleome gynandra), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) leaves to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Isiguzoro O; Kinnear, Marise; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-04-01

    The younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, "poverty" foods. Canning of these vegetables could create value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products. The sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste. Amaranth and Swiss chard products were described as sweet with a popcorn-like aroma. Cleome products were described as bitter, sour, pungent, chemical-tasting, astringent, sandy with a metallic mouthfeel and strong aftertaste. Cowpea products were described as having woody and tobacco aromas as well as a chewy and cohesive texture. Among the products canned with a cream sauce, young female consumers preferred amaranth and Swiss chard; cowpea was less liked, while cleome was least liked. Canned amaranth leaves have potential as a commercial product that may be well liked by young consumers. The cowpea leaves product has consumer potential, but the formulation needs revision, while canned cleome leaves need further research work. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Natural infection of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Ahohuendo, B.C.; Fandohan, P.

    2009-01-01

    for the two periods. About 23 fungal species were identified on cowpea seed samples across zones of which Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that produces aflatoxins, was most frequently encountered. Fusarium species shown to produce fumonisins were not recorded from cowpea seeds. Overall incidence of A. flavus...... infection was found to increase after storage from 7.6% at T0 to 28.25% at T3. In spite of this natural infection of cowpea, very low levels of fumonisin and aflatoxin were detected. Only three out of the 92 cowpea samples, all collected at T0, were found to be fumonisin B1 positive with a mean level of 0.......03 mg/g. Similarly, only six samples out of the 92, all collected at T3, were aflatoxin B1 positive with mean levels of 3.58 µg/kg. Fumonisin (B2 and B3) and aflatoxin (B2, G1 and G2) were not detected in any of the samples. Contrary to the situation with maize and groundnut where high levels of toxin...

  8. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM).

  9. Identification of candidate genes and molecular markers for heat-induced brown discoloration of seed coats in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J; Lonardi, Stefano; Wanamaker, Steve; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Heat-induced browning (Hbs) of seed coats is caused by high temperatures which discolors the seed coats of many legumes, affecting the visual appearance and quality of seeds. The genetic determinants underlying Hbs in cowpea are unknown. We identified three QTL associated with the heat-induced browning of seed coats trait, Hbs-1, Hbs-2 and Hbs-3, using cowpea RIL populations IT93K-503-1 (Hbs positive) x CB46 (hbs negative) and IT84S-2246 (Hbs positive) x TVu14676 (hbs negative). Hbs-1 was identified in both populations, accounting for 28.3% -77.3% of the phenotypic variation. SNP markers 1_0032 and 1_1128 co-segregated with the trait. Within the syntenic regions of Hbs-1 in soybean, Medicago and common bean, several ethylene forming enzymes, ethylene responsive element binding factors and an ACC oxidase 2 were observed. Hbs-1 was identified in a BAC clone in contig 217 of the cowpea physical map, where ethylene forming enzymes were present. Hbs-2 was identified in the IT93K-503-1 x CB46 population and accounted for of 9.5 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance. Hbs-3 was identified in the IT84S-2246 x TVu14676 population and accounted for 6.2 to 6.8% of the phenotypic variance. SNP marker 1_0640 co-segregated with the heat-induced browning phenotype. Hbs-3 was positioned on BAC clones in contig512 of the cowpea physical map, where several ACC synthase 1 genes were present. The identification of loci determining heat-induced browning of seed coats and co-segregating molecular markers will enable transfer of hbs alleles into cowpea varieties, contributing to higher quality seeds.

  10. Supplementation of native grass hay with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay, wilted leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala forage, wilted tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis forage or a wheat middling for young Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Varvikko

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A 100-day experiment of a randomized block design was conducted with forty Friesian x Zebu (Boran crossbred growing steers to compare the value of wheat middling, an agro-industrial by-product (diet W, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata hay (diet C, and wilted forages of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, diet L and tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis, diet T as cattle feed. These feeds were fed daily at a level of 1.5 kg (on an air dry basis to supplement the basal diet (diet H of native hay. A mineral supplement containing 50 g bone meal and 10 g common salt was also given daily. The steers were group-fed, but during the last two weeks at the end of the experiment the animals were housed individually in feeding pens to estimate the feed intake and apparent digestibilities of the diets. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, thereafter every two weeks, and finally at the end of the experiment. The animals consumed all the offered supplements, except for tagasaste forage, of which one third remained unconsumed. The mean daily total dry matter intake during the individual feeding period ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kg between the diets (P

  11. Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch, a diferentes genótipos de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, preference to different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gutemberg Leite Moraes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a avaliar a resposta de cultivares de feijão-de-corda, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., à presença do pulgão-preto (Aphis craccivora Koch. Os experimentos foram conduzidos de agosto a outubro de 2004, em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC. As cultivares foram: "Epace-10", "Epace-11", "Patativa", "Pingo de Ouro", "Pitiúba", "BR-10 Piauí", "BR-12 Canindé", "BR-14 Mulato" e "BR-17 Gurguéia". O experimento constou de três ensaios, cada um com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os genótipos foram cultivados em copos plásticos de 300ml e mantidos em gaiolas protegidas por tela antiafídeos. As plantas foram infestadas após doze dias do plantio através da liberação de cinco fêmeas adultas do pulgão-preto por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas após o terceiro e o quinto dia da infestação, constando da contagem direta das formas adulta e jovem do inseto presentes nas plantas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey em 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares "Epace-10" e "Patativa" foram as menos preferidas por A. craccivora.This research was conducted with the intention of evaluating the response of different cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivars to the black aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch. The bioassays were conducted from August through October of 2004 in a greenhouse at the Ceará Federal University (UFC campus. The cowpea cultivars used were: Epace-10, Epace-11, Patativa, Pingo de Ouro, Pitiúba, BR-10 Piauí, BR-12 Canindé, BR-14 Mulato and BR-17 Gurguéia. Each assay had five treatments and six replications in a completely randomized block design. The genotypes were raised in a 300ml plastic cup and maintained in cages protected by an insect proof net. Plants were infested twelve days after planting with five adult females per plant

  12. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  13. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the competitiveness analysis of selected indigenous cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Bradyrhizobium strains from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Samuel Mathu; Messmer, Monika M; Ziegler, Dominik; Thuita, Moses; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Frossard, Emmanuel; Thonar, Cécile

    2018-06-01

    Cowpea N 2 fixation and yield can be enhanced by selecting competitive and efficient indigenous rhizobia. Strains from contrasting agro-ecologies of Kilifi and Mbeere (Kenya) were screened. Two pot experiments were established consisting of 13 Bradyrhizobium strains; experiment 1 (11 Mbeere + CBA + BK1 from Burkina Faso), experiment 2 (12 Kilifi + CBA). Symbiotic effectiveness was assessed (shoot biomass, SPAD index and N uptake). Nodule occupancy of 13 simultaneously co-inoculated strains in each experiment was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to assess competitiveness. Strains varied in effectiveness and competitiveness. The four most efficient strains were further evaluated in a field trial in Mbeere during the 2014 short rains. Strains from bacteroids of cowpea nodules from pot and field experiments were accurately identified as Bradyrhizobium by MALDI-TOF based on the SARAMIS™ database. In the field, abundant indigenous populations 7.10 × 10 3 rhizobia g -1 soil, outcompeted introduced strains. As revealed by MALDI-TOF, indigenous strains clustered into six distinct groups (I, II, III, IV, V and VI), group III were most abundant occupying 80% of nodules analyzed. MALDI-TOF was rapid, affordable and reliable to identify Bradyrhizobium strains directly from nodule suspensions in competition pot assays and in the field with abundant indigenous strains thus, its suitability for future competition assays. Evaluating strain competitiveness and then symbiotic efficacy is proposed in bioprospecting for potential cowpea inoculant strains.

  14. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Callosobruchus maculatus has for years remained a serious menace in cowpea in Sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genotypic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties, time and dose on C. maculatus exposed to powders of Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica.

  16. Current approaches to Alectra vogelii control in cowpea | Ngwako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alectra vogelii (L.) Benth is a parasitic weed in the family Scrophulariaceae that causes substantial damage by attaching onto the cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) plant and tapping nutrients from it. Cowpea is one of the most important food legumes and is widely adapted to semi-arid environments in Africa. The crop is ...

  17. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  18. A novel feedstuff: ensiling of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) stover and apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) mixtures. Evaluation of the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ederson; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Silva, Valéria; Pinheiro, Victor; Rodrigues, Miguel; Ferreira, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are of low economic value as foods for human consumption but may have potential value as animal feedstuffs. This study evaluated a novel feedstuff, ensiled discarded apple (85%) and cowpea stover (15%) mixtures with two different ensiling periods (45 and 60 days), regarding the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Generally, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between ensiling periods for nutritive value and fermentation characteristics. Silages were stable after ensiling, presenting high lactic acid (77.3 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) and acetic acid (54.7 g kg -1 DM) and low ethanol (15.7 g kg -1 DM) and NH 3 -N (105.6 g kg -1 total N) concentrations. No butyric acid was detected in silages, and they were aerobically stable for up to 216 h. Lactic acid bacteria numbers were high at silo opening (7.14 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), while Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and yeasts/moulds were low (2.44 log CFU g -1 ). Yeast/mould and Enterobacteriaceae numbers grew considerably during 12 days of air exposure. A mixture of low calibre discarded apples with cowpea stover can be used as animal feed after the ensiling process owing to its nutritive value and long aerobic stability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Genotype evaluation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) using 1H qNMR combined with exploratory tools and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena M A; Teofilo, Elizita M; Larsen, Flemming H; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to apply a non-targeted chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis using the heat map approach) of NMR data to investigate the variability of organic compounds in nine genotype cowpea seeds, without any complex pre-treatment. In general, both exploratory tools show that Tvu 233, CE-584, and Setentão genotypes presented higher amount mainly of raffinose and Tvu 382 presented the highest content of choline and least content of raffinose. The evaluation of the aromatic region showed the Setentão genotype with highest content of niacin/vitamin B3 whereas Tvu 382 with lowest amount. To investigate rigid and mobile components in the seeds cotyledon, 13 C CP and SP/MAS solid-state NMR experiments were performed. The cotyledon of the cowpea comprised a rigid part consisting of starch as well as a soft portion made of starch, fatty acids, and protein. The variable contact time experiment suggests the presence of lipid-amylose complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cowpea pod (Vigna unguiculata) biomass as a low-cost biosorbent for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, U; Moyo, M

    2017-01-01

    The use of cowpea pod (CPP) biomass for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of factors such as dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g L -1 ), pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), metal ion concentrations (10 to 80 mg L -1 ) and temperature (20 to 50 °C) were examined through batch studies. The biosorption data conformed best to the Langmuir model at the three working temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C) as revealed by the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) which were greater than 0.940. The maximum sorption capacity of the CPP for Pb(II) was 32.96 mg g -1 at 313 K. Furthermore, the kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error (SSE) values and correlation coefficients close to unity (R 2  > 0.999). The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, feasible and endothermic. The results obtained in the present study indicated that cowpea pod biomass could be used for the effective removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  1. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10 hrs, one hydroprimed control (10 hr, and an unprimed control. These five treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated four times. The results showed that osmopriming with KNO3 for different durations was at par but was superior to unprimed treatments in terms of seed germination, emergence, plant height, and dry matter accumulation at 3 weeks after sowing. From this study, it can therefore be concluded that seeds of cowpea could be primed (both hydro and osmopriming for increased performance. However, osmopriming with KNO3 salt (soaked in 1% KNO3 salt solution and dried before sowing for 6 hours could result in greater seed germination and seedling height than hydropriming.

  2. Nucleotide sequences from the genomes of diverse cowpea accessions for discovery of genetic variation as part of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Climate Resilient Cowpea

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Nucleotide sequences were generated from 37 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) accessions relevant to Africa, China and the USA to discover at type of genetic...

  3. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  4. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  5. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Production in Pichia pastoris, antifungal activity and crystal structure of a class I chitinase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Insights into sugar binding mode and hydrolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Patrícia G Castro; Correia, Tuana O; Silva, Fredy D A; Nepomuceno, Denise R; Costa, Helen P S; Pereira, Humberto M; Lobo, Marina D P; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Brandão-Neto, José; Medeiros, Suelen C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Sousa, Bruno L; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Freire, Valder N; Carvalho, Cristina P S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2017-04-01

    A cowpea class I chitinase (VuChiI) was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. The recombinant protein was secreted into the culture medium and purified by affinity chromatography on a chitin matrix. The purified chitinase migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as two closely-related bands with apparent molecular masses of 34 and 37 kDa. The identity of these bands as VuChiI was demonstrated by mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The recombinant chitinase was able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin but did not exhibit enzymatic activity toward synthetic substrates. The highest hydrolytic activity of the cowpea chitinase toward colloidal chitin was observed at pH 5.0. Furthermore, most VuChiI activity (approximately 92%) was retained after heating to 50 °C for 30 min, whereas treatment with 5 mM Cu 2+ caused a reduction of 67% in the enzyme's chitinolytic activity. The recombinant protein had antifungal activity as revealed by its ability to inhibit the spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium herquei. The three-dimensional structure of VuChiI was resolved at a resolution of 1.55 Å by molecular replacement. The refined model had 245 amino acid residues and 381 water molecules, and the final R-factor and R free values were 14.78 and 17.22%, respectively. The catalytic domain of VuChiI adopts an α-helix-rich fold, stabilized by 3 disulfide bridges and possessing a wide catalytic cleft. Analysis of the crystallographic model and molecular docking calculations using chito-oligosaccharides provided evidences about the VuChiI residues involved in sugar binding and catalysis, and a possible mechanism of antifungal action is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Ahanchédé, A.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Agbicodo, E.; Struik, P.C.; Sanni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the

  8. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and its response to the application of humic acids (HA´s in Canton Jipijapa in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayón Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in the Jipijapa canton, Manabi province of Ecuador, with the following objectives: i to identify the dose of humic acid in the caupí crop, ii to determine the time for foliar application of humic acid, and iii determine the marginal rate of return in terms of cost/benefit. A plot in experimental design of completely randomized blocks (DCRB with factorial arrangement of 4 x 3 with four replications was implemented. The variables plant height (PH, stem diameter (SD, sheath length (SL, number of decks (ND and average weight of decks (AWD were evaluated. The results showed that to improve cowpea production, the addition of significant amounts of iron is required. The dose of leaf application was 1000 cm3/ha of humic acids, the PH was 48.76 cm and SD of 9.66 mm. The time for foliar application of humic acids was at 30 days, the length of pod was obtained with 21.16 cm and numbers of decks with 14.34. For the weight of the mallets, the treatment was the application to the 15 days after the sowing. There was a high and significant correlation between PH and SD (0.54. When the economic analysis was carried out, the T8 treatment, 1000 cm3/ha of humic acid was applied, applied 30 days after sowing was the one with the marginal return rate with 271.43%.

  10. INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ogar Takim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p≤0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

  11. Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) par rapport au maïs (Zea mays L.) sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé

    OpenAIRE

    Osiru, DSO.; Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.

    2002-01-01

    Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Relative to Maize (Zea mays L.) on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yie...

  12. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    Mustapha & Singh (2008) SWJ:39-42. Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea. INHERITANCE OF POD COLOUR IN. COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP). * MUSTAPHA, Y1. & SINGH, B. B2. 1 Department of Biological Sciences. Bayero University, Kano Nigeria. 2 Department of Genetics and Plant breeding,. G.B. Pant ...

  13. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  14. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical

  15. Performance of polymer compositions as carrier to cowpea rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was to evaluate inoculant formulations to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) containing polymers as carrier materials and rhizobial strains. To assess the efficiency of the new inoculants formulations, the rhizobial survival in inoculated and stored seeds and the field performance of a selected formulation were evaluated.

  16. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to

  17. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  18. Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in artificially heavy metal polluted soil was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and Rhizobium (N-fixing bacteria, NFB) on the host plant cowpea (Vigna sinensis) in pot ...

  19. Numerical and RAPD Analysis of Eight Cowpea Genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta-Nigeria. (Received: ... Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is one of the world's main legumes and is an important source of ... length, 100-seed weight and seed weight per plant contributed significantly to the overall variation ... accounts for most of Africa's production, with.

  20. Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). DK Ojo, MS Oduola, OA Oduwaye. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 20 2006: pp. 17-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  2. Vigna unguiculata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... significant economic importance worldwide with high protein and mineral ... Therefore, the rapid spread of this parasitic weed to new regions would constitute a severe threat to cowpea .... way to develop stable and durable Striga resistant cultivars. .... before reaching reproductive stage due to severe attack.

  3. Genotype evaluation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) using 1H qNMR combined with exploratory tools and solid-state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Teofilo, Elizita M.

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to apply a non-targeted chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis using the heat map approach) of NMR data to investigate the variability of organic compounds in nine genotype cowpea seeds, without any complex pre-tr...

  4. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  5. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  6. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  7. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  8. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  9. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuik, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35 S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  10. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  11. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, E.A.; Hekal, A.M.; El-Refai, S.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  12. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  13. Assessment of the polytank for fumigation and storage of cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademang Korletey, Francis

    2009-06-01

    Insect infestation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in storage is identified as a major constraint facing cowpea farmers in Ghana. The major insect pest causing losses to stored cowpea in West Africa is the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus). Fumigation is the most effective control method against cowpea weevil considering its mode of infestation. The jute sack lined with a plastic film bag commonly used by farmers for fumigation and storage is very delicate to handle, not sufficiently airtight for fumigation and easily attacked by rodents. The objectives of the project were to (1) assess the polytank for fumigation and storage of cowpea, and (2) compare the storage qualities of stored cowpea using the polytank and jute sack lined with a plastic film bag. The cowpea was fumigated using aluminium phosphide tablets for a period of 7 days and stored for six mouths. Data was collected, analysed and compared between the two storage containers on seed germination, seed vigour, grain moisture content, insect infestation, percentage usable proportion by number and by weight before, mid-storage and after the trial. The levels of phosphine gas concentration in the polytank and the jute sack were assessed daily for 7 days. The results showed no significant differences (1% probability) between the two storage containers in their performance as storage containers in terms of grain moisture content, seed germination, seed vigour, insect infestation, percentage usable proportion by number and by weight. There was also significant difference (5%) in phosphine gas concentration between the two storage containers in their performance as fumigation containers except on day one. However, it was found that fumigation and storage using the polytank had a greater advantage over the jute sack lined with plastic film bag in terms of air tightness, handling and resistance to rodent attacks. (au)

  14. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  15. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essowè Palanga

    Full Text Available Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae] five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus, two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae, a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae. Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  16. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  17. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  18. Genetic linkage map of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.ADETUNMBI

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Constructed map provides basic information that could assist in genetic improvement of .... mix contains two universal (FRET) fluorescent resonance energy transfer cassettes. (FAM and HEX), ROX™ passive reference dye, Taq polymerase, free nucleotides and MgCl2 in an optimized buffer solution, while ...

  19. Genetic linkage map of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic linkage maps provide a genomic framework for quantitative trait loci identification applied in marker assisted selection breeding in crops with limited resources. It serves as a powerful tool to breeders for analysing the mode of inheritance of genes of interest and monitoring of the transmission of target genes from ...

  20. Management of foliar and soilborne pathogens of cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... spores and sclerotial production of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Colletotrichum destructivum O gara .... out using the same method but was concentrated to about 2 ml with ..... Plant clinic handbook IMI. Technical.

  1. Variability studies in some qualitative characters of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two types of flower colour were observed, purple and white. With the exception of the Upper East Region accessions which showed only white flower colour, accessions from all the other regions showed both white and purple colours with the accessions with purple colour in the majority. In most of the accessions from the ...

  2. Fungal species associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Cowpea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat) Novel, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb ex Link were isolated from both blotter and agar methods. Botryodiplodia theobromae had the highest mean occurrence (42.37%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (30.02%), Aspergillus ...

  3. Genetic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sive protein in human diets with grains containing about. 23–25% protein ... Keywords: heritability, phenotype, principal component analysis, variance. Introduction .... be due to genotype, environment, and the interaction of genotype and ...

  4. Storing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds in active cattle kraals for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... propagation of crops through seeds (Hartmann et al.,. 1988). Previously, Bremner and Krogmeier (1989) demonstrated that the adverse effect of urea fertilisers on seed germination in soil was due to ammonia and CO2, which are released during hydrolysis of urea by soil urease. Apparently, in this storage ...

  5. FIXING ABILITY OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... mixture and later thinned to two plants per stand at two weeks after planting (2 WAP).,This gave a total population of about 80, 000 plants per ... nitrogen requirement from the atmosphere. Root nodules formed by soil rhizobia ..... solar radiation requirements on growth and nitrogen fixation of soybean,.

  6. Effect of high plant protein cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent trends in weight loss diets have been formulated that led to a substantial increase in protein intake. It has however been established that high protein intake impacts negatively on already compromised kidney, while its effect on a healthy kidney remains unclear. Our aim therefore was to study the effect of animal ...

  7. Stable gene transformation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size of microcarriers, microflight distance and helium pressure significantly affected transient expression of reporter genes. A total of 1692 explants were bombarded with DNA-coated particles and placed on 3 mg/l bialaphos selective medium. Only 12 regenerated shoots produced seeds eventually, and all were Gus ...

  8. Effects of effluent water on the abundance of cowpea insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Sitwane, Monametsi; Obopile, M; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Ali, Sajjad

    2017-10-03

    Botswana experiences low and unreliable rainfall. Thus, the use of effluent water in agriculture is increasingly important. Insect damage is the major constraint for cowpea grain production in the most cowpea-producing lands. We investigated the effects of effluent water on insect pest abundance on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 100, 75, 50, and 25% of effluent water and 0% (control-clean tap water) treatments. Treatments with 100% effluent water resulted in a significant increase in insect pest populations as compared with the control. These results show that the use of effluent water to irrigate crops may increase incidence, abundance, and damage caused by insect pests possibly by decreasing plant vigor. The use of effluent water in agriculture should be addressed in a wise way.

  9. A High Density Genetic Map Derived from RAD Sequencing and Its Application in QTL Analysis of Yield-Related Traits in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is an annual legume of economic importance and widely grown in the semi-arid tropics. However, high-density genetic maps of cowpea are still lacking. Here, we identified 34,868 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that were distributed in the cowpea genome based on the RAD sequencing (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technique using a population of 170 individuals (two cowpea parents and 168 F2:3 progenies. Of these, 17,996 reliable SNPs were allotted to 11 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The length of the genetic map was 1,194.25 cM in total with a mean distance of 0.066 cM/SNP marker locus. Using this map and the F2:3 population, combined with the CIM (composite interval mapping method, eleven quantitative trait loci (QTL of yield-related trait were detected on seven LGs (LG4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 in cowpea. These QTL explained 0.05–17.32% of the total phenotypic variation. Among these, four QTL were for pod length, four QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW, two QTL for grain number per pod, and one QTL for carpopodium length. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding genes related to grain yield in the cowpea and genus Vigna.

  10. Comparative nutritional analysis between Vigna radiata and Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Vigna mungo (mash bean) of the family Fabaceae are among staple food in Pakistan. The experiments were conducted on these beans to determine the proximate composition such as moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein content. The protein isolates from V. radiata and V. mungo was ...

  11. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, N.O.; Ogunbodede, B.A.; Adediran, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afolabi, N O; Ogunbodede, B A; Adediran, J A [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ibadan (Nigeria). Inst. of Agricultural Research and Training

    1996-07-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although a few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece. The genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean. The present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name 'aegeanense' is proposed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-J?nior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and ...

  15. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses and Micro Elements on Some Physical, Chemical and Crop Parameters of Vigna sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, L.O.S.; Saleh, O.I.; Abdullah, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present work aim to expose Vigna sinensis L. (cowpea) seeds to gamma rays at dose levels 40, 80 and 120 Gy and to spray the growing plants with micro elements; boron (B) and zinc (Zn) after one month of planting; until harvest date, for increasing crop quality and quantity. Some physical parameters, some chemical analysis, the yield and net percentage of the produced crop were evaluated. The result obtained refer that, the 40 Gy dose enhanced most of physical, chemical and yield parameters of cowpea crop. Moreover, the harvested crop was increased and improved in case of those produced from plants sprayed with different concentrations of B or Zn plus 40 Gy dose as compared with the other treatments used followed by the dose of 80 Gy. Meanwhile, the dose of 120 Gy gave the least enhancement on the quality and quantity of the aforementioned treatments in cowpea crop

  16. Radiation-use efficiency of soybean, mungbean and cowpea under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Robertson, M.J.; Pengelly, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-use efficiency (RUE), defined as the amount of biomass accumulated per unit radiation intercepted, is a key measure of the photosynthetic performance of crops growing in different environments. The RUE of soybean (Glycine max L.), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growing under well-watered field conditions in tropical and subtropical environments was determined from frequent biomass samplings and continous logging of intercepted radiation throughout growth. The slope of the relationship between net biomass accumulation and intercepted radiation was linear throughout most of growth, almost until the end of pod-filling in all species and all environments. The decrease in RUE just prior to maturity was associated with losses of biomass due to leaf shedding, and also with a decline in specific leaf nitrogen. The RUE during the linear phase was slightly higher in cowpea than in mungbean and soybean. For each species, the RUE was similar in different environments despite large differences in air temperature, water vapour saturation deficit and incident radiation. It was concluded that RUE under well-watered conditions is constant throughout most of growth and unaffected by the aerial environment. Baseline values of RUE were 0.88 g MJ -1 for soybean, 0.94 g MJ -1 for mungbean, and 1.05 g MJ -1 for cowpea. (author)

  17. Vigna unguiculata [Linn] Walp varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walp) have differential effects on blood glucose when equal amounts are consumed. Objective: To ... Previous studies have described the benefit of consumption of ... Beans (Vigna unguiculata) are one of the staple local foods consumed by ...

  18. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Leite, Jakson; Marie Rouws, Luc Felicianus; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178 bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems.

  20. biostudy on vigna sinensis beetle, callosobruchus chinensis l.and its control by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.I.A.

    2005-01-01

    the present study carried out to determine: 1.the effects of the separate and combined effect of bacillus thuringiensis and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of callosobruchus chinensis. 2. the weight loss in infected seeds and total population of the pest after store it for different on adult beetles to determine the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates contents. 4. some analysis in the cowpea vigna anguiculata seeds to investigate the nutritive value after different treatments with bacillus thuringiensis (b.t) and gamma radiation

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osekre, E. A.; Abrahamani, J.; Abudu, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  2. Analysis of radiation-induced genome alterations in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vyver C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Christell van der Vyver1, B Juan Vorster2, Karl J Kunert3, Christopher A Cullis41Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, and 3Department of Plant Science, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Seeds from an inbred Vigna unguiculata (cowpea cultivar were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 180 Gy in order to identify and characterize possible mutations. Three techniques, ie, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites, and representational difference analysis, were used to characterize possible DNA variation among the mutants and nonirradiated control plants both immediately after irradiation and in subsequent generations. A large portion of putative radiation-induced genome changes had significant similarities to chloroplast sequences. The frequency of mutation at three of these isolated polymorphic regions with chloroplast similarity was further determined by polymerase chain reaction screening using a large number of individual parental, M1, and M2 plants. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the rate at which various regions of the genome is mutated in irradiation experiments differs significantly and also that mutations have variable “repair” rates. Furthermore, regions of the nuclear DNA derived from the chloroplast genome are highly susceptible to modification by radiation treatment. Overall, data have provided detailed information on the effects of gamma irradiation on the cowpea genome and about the ability of the plant to repair these genome changes in subsequent plant generations.Keywords: mutation breeding, gamma radiation, genetic mutations, cowpea, representational difference analysis

  3. Effects of Tillage on Yield and Economic Returns of Maize and Cowpea in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Nyamwaro, S.O; Heng, K.L

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and financial returns are important criteria for adoption of conservation tillage by farmers. A study was conducted between 2007-2010 to compare the financial returns of subsoiling-ripping and tied-ridge tillage with the conventional ox-plough tillage in the production of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under semi-arid subsistence farming conditions in lower eastern Kenya. Four cropping systems namely maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure were evaluated in a split-plot treatments arrangement with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots. The grain yields of maize and cowpea, prevailing market prices for cowpea and maize grains, labour, inputs applied and other relevant socio-economic data were collected every season, to enable estimation of economic returns and acceptability of the technologies. The results showed that average grain yield for maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure cropping systems under tied-ridge were 5, 9, 97 and 27% greater than the yields under oxplough tillage, respectively. Crop yields produced under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillage were generally similar. However, land preparation and weeding labour expenses (KES 4240 / ha) for ox-plough tillage were 34% greater than those for subsoiling-ripping tillage but 40% lower than those for tied-ridge tillage. When averaged across seasons and tillage systems, the highest gross margins (KES 8567 / ha) were obtained in sole cowpea cropping system, followed by sole maize with manure (KES 4070 / ha), intercrop (KES 864 / ha) and least (loss of KES 1330 / ha) in sole maize without manure cropping system. (author)

  4. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  5. Eficiência e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas que nodulam caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] e feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação Efficiency and phenotypic diversity among nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in bauxite-mined soils under rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2006-04-01

    as leguminosae-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacteria (LNNFB are essential because they are involved in nutrient cycling processes and, therefore, to the sustainability of these areas. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB, soil samples were collected from different bauxite mining areas with distinct rehabilitation strategies and chronosequences in the summer of 1999. With these materials we installed experiments using bean and cowpea as trap species under greenhouse conditions. At flowering, the plants were harvested and the shoot dry weight, nodule number, nodule weight, nitrogenase activity, and phenotypic diversity of LNNFB isolates evaluated by culture characterization on 79 medium. There was no influence of the different rehabilitation strategies on the efficiency of LNNFB populations in promoting bean growth. After phenotypic characterization of 328 bean and 420 cowpea LNNFB isolates, it was found that the latter is better suited than bean for studies evaluating LNNFB nodulation, efficiency and diversity in these areas. Mining strongly decreases the LNNFB diversity, while there is little effect on nodulation of trap plants. Rehabilitation strategies contribute to increase LNNFB diversity in bauxite mined soils, mainly when legume species were introduced.

  6. The ability of rhizobacteria to solubilize phosphate and synthesize of indoleacetic acid in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslany Silva Rocha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado comprises a vast ecoregion in central Brazil where plants show both growth and nitrogen fixation deficiencies due to low soil fertility. Farmers may overcome such problem using species of microorganisms capable of improving soil fertility such as the Rhizobia bacteria. This work aimed to assess the ability of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA of Rhizobium isolates obtained from Cerrado soils in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, evaluating their symbiotic efficiency in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. plants. We used a total of 32 isolates (or strains of Rhizobium and a reference species of Bradyrhizobium. The capacity of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of IAA was evaluated in vitro, while the symbiotic function of rhizobia isolates and the effect on cowpea biomass was assessed in a greenhouse. Only eight strains were able to solubilize calcium phosphate, while all isolates produced IAA. The rhizobia inoculation caused a significant increase in biomass and nodulation of cowpea. The isolates UFT R122 and UFT R124 stood out with the highest values for the studied parameters, showing rises above 33% of relative efficiency in comparison to the treatment with nitrogen fertilization. By associating the results of phosphate solubilization capacity, IAA synthesis, symbiotic ability, and nodulation, we conclude that the isolates that showed good performance are potential inoculants for cowpea in Cerrado soils.

  7. Land use and vegetation cover on native symbionts and interactions with cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. F. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are important components of agroecosystems and they respond to human interference. The objective of this study was to investigate native communities of those microorganisms in soil collected under the native forest, four pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, Arachis pintoi and Stylosanthes guianensis and a fallow soil after maize cultivation, in interaction with cowpea (Vigna unguculata. The cowpea grew in a greenhouse until flowering. They were randomly distributed depending on soil, in five replications. The lowest mycorrhizal fungi sporulation and mycorrhizal root colonization occurred under the Panicum and forest soil. In the soils under forest and Stylosanthes, the cowpea did not exhibit nodules and grew less. Among the anthropized areas, the effect was variable, with stimulus to the multiplication and symbiosis of these microorganisms, except in areas of Panicum and Stylosanthes. When the native vegetation is substituted by pasture or farming, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia proliferation predominate. However, the effect and its magnitude depends on the grown plant species, with reflects on the plant species in succession, such as the cowpea.

  8. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  9. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  10. Socio-economic, agronomic and molecular analysis of yam and cowpea diversity in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp.),

  11. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China.

  13. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Prasad, T.V.; Pramod, R.; Verma, V.P.; Petwal, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Bhalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M 1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  14. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A

  15. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  16. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  17. Comparison of inoculant and indigenous rhizobial dinitrogen fixation in cowpeas by direct nitrogen-15 analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElHassan, G.A.; Focht, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Soil that contained 15 N enriched organic matter (0.461 % 15 N) was used to determine competitiveness of six strains at different logarithmic inoculum densities against indigenous rhizobia and against a previous surviving inoculant (strain P132). Analyses of N content of plant tissues by direct 15 N technique showed that cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were capable of deriving 60 to 98% of shoot N from N 2 fixation. The two fast-growing strains (176A26 and 176A28) were poorer competitors and fixed less N 2 compared to the other slow-growing strains. Inoculum density had no effect upon yield response of cowpeas, but inoculation with strains P132, 401, and 22A1 effected greater seed yield, shoot dry matter, total N, and percentage of N derived from fixation (86-98%) than other strains and the uninoculated control (60-73%). By contrast, N 2 fixation and yield parameters in inoculated cowpeas were not significantly different from inoculated controls that contained residual P132 from a previous inoculum study. The higher hydrogen uptake (Hup) efficiency of nodules containing residual P132 (98 ± 2%) facilitated presumptive identification of P132 (100% ± 0 Hup efficiency axenically) as the surviving and infecting inoculant strain since nodules infected by indigenous rhizobia had lower Hup efficiencies (88 ± 2%)

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  20. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kombiok, J.M.; Safo, E.Y; Quansah, C.

    2006-01-01

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (P I). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

  1. Genome resources for climate-resilient cowpea, an essential crop for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Xu, Pei; Wanamaker, Steve I; Luo, MingCheng; Alhakami, Hind; Alpert, Matthew; Atokple, Ibrahim; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Bozdag, Serdar; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Farmer, Andrew; Fatokun, Christian; Gu, Yong Q; Guo, Yi-Ning; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Jackson, Scott A; Kusi, Francis; Lawley, Cynthia T; Lucas, Mitchell R; Ma, Yaqin; Timko, Michael P; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank; Barkley, Noelle A; Roberts, Philip A; Lonardi, Stefano; Close, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a legume crop that is resilient to hot and drought-prone climates, and a primary source of protein in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. However, genome resources for cowpea have lagged behind most other major crops. Here we describe foundational genome resources and their application to the analysis of germplasm currently in use in West African breeding programs. Resources developed from the African cultivar IT97K-499-35 include a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical map, and assembled sequences from 4355 BACs. These resources and WGS sequences of an additional 36 diverse cowpea accessions supported the development of a genotyping assay for 51 128 SNPs, which was then applied to five bi-parental RIL populations to produce a consensus genetic map containing 37 372 SNPs. This genetic map enabled the anchoring of 100 Mb of WGS and 420 Mb of BAC sequences, an exploration of genetic diversity along each linkage group, and clarification of macrosynteny between cowpea and common bean. The SNP assay enabled a diversity analysis of materials from West African breeding programs. Two major subpopulations exist within those materials, one of which has significant parentage from South and East Africa and more diversity. There are genomic regions of high differentiation between subpopulations, one of which coincides with a cluster of nodulin genes. The new resources and knowledge help to define goals and accelerate the breeding of improved varieties to address food security issues related to limited-input small-holder farming and climate stress. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of

  3. Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques...... to trace the amount of deposition and its transfer to associated and subsequent crops. Half of the total cowpea crop N was located below-ground at plant maturity, which exceeded 20 kg N ha−1 when intercropped with millet. Only 15% of the below-ground cowpea N was recovered in roots, while 85% was found...... in the rhizodeposited pools. The experiment demonstrated that direct below-ground N transfer occurred from cowpea to millet in intercrop at a rate of 2 kg N ha−1 over the growing season. Forty percent of the 25 kg below-ground N that the cowpea crop left at harvest were identifiable in the top 0.30 m soil...

  4. Barrières pré-zygotiques chez les hybrides entre formes sauvages du niébé, Vigna unguilata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids pre-zygotic barriers between wild forms of cowpea. The wild forms of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, constitute an important gene pool insufficiently exploited for the improvement of the cultivated form. In order to promote the use of these wild forms in the genetic improvement programmes, we undertook to understand the various incompatibility reactions which appear in the crosses between wild forms. Efforts were concentrated to understand the incompatibility barriers in the hybridizations between subsp. baoulensis NI 933 and the other wild forms of V. unguiculata. Thanks to the use of the aniline blue fluorescence, we observed a high frequency of pre-zygotic barriers. They appear in three sites, i.e. the higher and lower third of the style, and within the ovary. However, these incompatibility barriers are not absolute. Indeed, in our hybridizations, more than 4% of the ovules were fertilized in the various studied combinations.

  5. Cowpea fresh pods - a new legume for the market: assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanos, Ioannis; Papandreou, Anastasia; Skouloudi, Marianna; Makrogianni, Despoina; Fernández, Juan A; Rosa, Eduardo; Ntatsi, Georgia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. This paper aims at covering this gap in knowledge, thereby contributing to the dissemination of fresh cowpea pods as a novel product for the market. The quality and dietary characteristics of pods from 37 accessions (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and ssp. sesquipedalis) grown in southern Europe were assessed in an attempt to provide information on pod quality and nutritional properties and to identify relationships between quality traits and accession origin. Pods from the sesquipedalis accessions were heavier and larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the unguiculata accessions. There were also large differences in the quality and dietary characteristics of the accessions. The pods of most accessions were rich in proteins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics, and showed high antioxidant activity and low concentrations of nitrates and raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Cluster analysis based on quality, dietary or antinutritional traits did not reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions. All the quality characteristics were independent of accession origin and subspecies. Most of the accessions produced fresh pods of good quality and high dietary value, suitable for introduction in the market and/or for use as valuable genetic material for the development of new improved varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  7. Variation in relative water content, proline accumulation and stress gene expression in two cowpea landraces under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaoui, Zahia; Planchais, Séverine; Cabassa, Cécile; Djebbar, Reda; Abrous Belbachir, Ouzna; Carol, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Many landraces of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] are adapted to particular geographical and climatic conditions. Here we describe two landraces grown respectively in arid and temperate areas of Algeria and assess their physiological and molecular responses to drought stress. As expected, when deprived of water cowpea plants lose water over time with a gradual reduction in transpiration rate. The landraces differed in their relative water content (RWC) and whole plant transpiration rate. The landrace from Menia, an arid area, retained more water in adult leaves. Both landraces responded to drought stress at the molecular level by increasing expression of stress-related genes in aerial parts, including proline metabolism genes. Expression of gene(s) encoding proline synthesis enzyme P5CS was up regulated and gene expression of ProDH, a proline catabolism enzyme, was down regulated. Relatively low amounts of proline accumulated in adult leaves with slight differences between the two landraces. During drought stress the most apical part of plants stayed relatively turgid with a high RWC compared to distal parts that wilted. Expression of key stress genes was higher and more proline accumulated at the apex than in distal leaves indicating that cowpea has a non-uniform stress response at the whole plant level. Our study reveals a developmental control of water stress through preferential proline accumulation in the upper tier of the cowpea plant. We also conclude that cowpea landraces display physiological adaptations to water stress suited to the arid and temperate climates in which they are cultivated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  9. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  10. Isolation of cowpea genes conferring drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate the genes conferring drought tolerance in cowpea. A cDNA library enriched for cowpea genes expressed specifically during responses to drought was constructed. A procedure called suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was successfully employed to obtain ...

  11. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F M; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R; Radl, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium , and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions.

  12. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions. PMID:28163711

  13. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  14. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  15. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  16. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  17. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  18. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  19. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Hall, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  20. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.; Osiru, DSO.

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  1. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  2. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  3. Genomics Data for Cowpea Pests in Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset contains the complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods. To get to the...

  4. COMPARATIVE GERMINATION RESPONSES OF COWPEA AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    inadequate soil moisture (25%) in both cowpea and maize with greater effect on ... Of all factors controlling productivity, seed germination and vigour are pre- .... depth and date of first irrigation on seed cane germination of two commercial.

  5. Molecular detection, distribution and Pathogenesis of cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... In addition, fresh leaf and mature seed samples (100 per field) were collected ... protocol. Seed samples were processed as described by Koenraadt and ..... of farmer perception on pesticide usage for management of cowpea.

  6. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  7. Dual-purpose cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) straw as sole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) Walp.) (IT89KD-391; IT86D-716; IT86D-719; IT81D-994) using 24 West African dwarf (WAD) rams solefed the straw over a 60-d period. Voluntary dry matter (57 to 88 g kg-1 W0.75 d-1), organic matter (OM) ranged from 50.5 to 78.9 g kg-1 ...

  8. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  9. Genetic differentiation and diversity upon genotype and phenotype in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution of species is complex and subtle, which always associates with the genetic variation and environment adaption during active/ passive spread or migration. In crops, this process is usually driven and influenced by human activities such as domestication, cultivation and immigration. One ...

  10. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorssers, L.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was the purification and identification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase engaged in replicating viral RNA in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)- infected cowpea leaves.

    Previously, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produced upon infection of

  11. Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Heng, K.L

    2012-01-01

    Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize.cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P.0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop

  12. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  13. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  14. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  15. Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea to Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilization in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Boahen, Stephen; Savala, Canon E. N.; Chikoye, David; Abaidoo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a major source of dietary protein and essential component of the cropping systems in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, yields are very low due to lack of improved cultivars, poor management practices, and limited inputs use. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of rhizobia inoculant and P on nodulation, N accumulation and yield of two cowpea cultivars in Mozambique. Field study was conducted in three contrasting environments during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons using randomized complete block design with four replications and four treatments. Treatments consisted of seed inoculation, application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1, inoculation + P, and a non-inoculated control. The most probable number (MPN) technique was used to estimate the indigenous bradyrhizobia populations at the experimental sites. The rhizobia numbers at the sites varied from 5.27 × 102 to 1.07 × 103 cells g-1 soil. Inoculation increased nodule number by 34–76% and doubled nodule dry weight (78 to 160 mg plant-1). P application improved nodulation and interacted positively with the inoculant. Inoculation, P, and inoculant + P increased shoot dry weight, and shoot and grain N content across locations but increases in number of pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, and 100-seed weight were not consistent among treatments across locations. Shoot N content was consistently high for the inoculated plants and also for the inoculated + P fertilized plants, whereas the non-inoculated control plants had the lowest tissue N content. P uptake in shoot ranged from 1.72 to 3.77 g kg-1 and was higher for plants that received P fertilizer alone. Inoculation and P either alone or in combination consistently increased cowpea grain yield across locations with yields ranging from 1097 kg ha-1 for the non-inoculated control to 1674 kg ha-1 for the inoculant + P treatment. Grain protein concentration followed a similar trend as grain yield and ranged from 223 to

  16. Ethics and quality assessment of cowpea grains sold in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the supply side of cowpea markets in two states of Nigeria. Specifically, quality status; grades of cowpea grains sold and effect of ethics on sales, quality and price were determined. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred cowpea grain sellers in the study areas. Questionnaire ...

  17. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability in the cowpea genotypes studied, which can be exploited in breeding improved cowpea varieties for resistance to A. vogelii in Kenya. A great progress towards developing improved cowpea variety that meets farmer's preferences with durable resistance to A.

  18. Transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of cowpea aphid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a potyvirus that infects cowpea causing significant yield reduction. However, there is no durable natural resistance to the virus within the crop and genetic engineering for virus resistance was not possible because of a lack of an efficient, reliable and reproducible cowpea ...

  19. Yields and protein content of two cowpea varieties grown under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sole cowpea and sweet corn treatments were included and all treatments replicated four times. Fully expanded cowpea leaves on all cowpea plants in the two middle rows were harvested once at seven weeks after seed sowing prior to flowering. Growth and yield component data were collected from component crops while ...

  20. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and cowpea steaming can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of fermented maize dough. In the production of maize-cowpea blends, it is important that the quality characteristics are evaluated to determine their functionality in the products. A 5x4x2x2 factorial experiment with cowpea level, ...

  1. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  2. Complete genome sequences of cowpea polerovirus 1 and cowpea polerovirus 2 infecting cowpea plants in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Martin, Darren P; Galzi, Serge; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe; Filloux, Denis

    2017-07-01

    The full-length genome sequences of two novel poleroviruses found infecting cowpea plants, cowpea polerovirus 1 (CPPV1) and cowpea polerovirus 2 (CPPV2), were determined using overlapping RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. Whereas the 5845-nt CPPV1 genome was most similar to chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (73% identity), the 5945-nt CPPV2 genome was most similar to phasey bean mild yellow virus (86% identity). The CPPV1 and CPPV2 genomes both have a typical polerovirus genome organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the inferred P1-P2 and P3 amino acid sequences confirmed that CPPV1 and CPPV2 are indeed poleroviruses. Four apparently unique recombination events were detected within a dataset of 12 full polerovirus genome sequences, including two events in the CPPV2 genome. Based on the current species demarcation criteria for the family Luteoviridae, we tentatively propose that CPPV1 and CPPV2 should be considered members of novel polerovirus species.

  3. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  4. Efficacy of wild plant in combination with microbial antagonists for the control of root rot fungi on mungbean and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Dawar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of Aerva javanica in combination with different microbial antagonists namely Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. Soil amended with A. javanica stem, leaves, flower powder at the rate1% w/w and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were coated with microbial antagonists for the control of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn. Infection of M. phaseolina and R. solani were completely suppressed when seeds were coated with P. aeruginosa, T. harzianum, A. niger, R. meliloti and A. javanica leaves powder mixed in soil at the rate 1% w/w. All antagonists showed reduction in combination with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate1% but T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa in combination with A. javanica leaves showed promising results in complete reduction of R. solani and M. phaseolina on both crops. All growth parameters were maximum when soil was amended with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate 1% w/w and seeds were coated with T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa. (author)

  5. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color, los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijación de nitrógeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen

  6. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nunes Marinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco. The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp., and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  7. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  8. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  9. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos de la Costa Caribe Colombiana en Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Alberto Mendoza Labrador

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos de la Costa Caribe Colombiana  en Vigna unguiculata Título en ingles: Infectivity and effectiveness of isolated rhizobia from colombian caribbean soils in Vigna unguiculata Título corto: Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos Resumen:  Es el primer estudio en Colombia que abarca una evaluación de rizobios nativos asociados a frijol Caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. en los departamentos del Cesar y la Guajira. En esta investigación, se demostró que la utilización de  aislamientos de rizobios nativos aislados a partir de  nódulos,  mejoraron el desarrollo del frijol Caupí  (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., siendo estas bacterias más eficientes que los tratamientos químicos y absolutos (sin inóculo ni fertilización y que las cepas inducidas mejorando además, la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y la tasa fotosintética. Como aportes del estudio, se determinó que en condiciones de invernadero la fertilización biológica fue más eficiente que la química y que, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes variables agronómicas evaluadas, esto podría influir positivamente en los rendimientos nutricionales del cultivo, base alimentaria de los sistemas ganaderos de estas regiones del país y  fuente alimenticia  de la comunidad indígena y de bajos recursos económicos.  Palabras clave Nodulación, fijación Biológica de Nitrógeno, Fertilización, Tasa Fotosintética Abstract:  This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean   (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development of the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  11. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  12. EFFECTS OF COWPEA FORTIFICATION, DEHYDRATION METHOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fortification of cereal-based traditional foods with legume protein can improve their nutritional value. It is, however, important to find out the extent to which the addition of cowpea affects the desirable quality characteristics of traditional weaning foods prepared from fermented maize and also to assess the effect of ...

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  14. (ajst) influence of fermentation and cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Statgraphics (Graphics Software System, STCC, Inc. U.S.A). Comparisons .... 7 2. 0.473. 0.597. 1.056. 0.14. Co-fermentation. Fermented maize and cowpea blends showed varied effects ...... Oligosaccharides in eleven Legumes and their air-.

  15. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

  16. Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt stress at the ... of reduction was highly dependent on different genotypes and salinity levels. ... the mechanism of salt tolerance and for the provision of genetic resources for ...

  17. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  18. Biochemical studies of amylase, lipase and protease in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations fed with Vigna unguiculata grain cultivated with diazotrophic bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Torres, É B; Nóbrega, R A S; Lopes, G N; Vogado, R F; Pavan, B E; Fernandes-Junior, P I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen). The parameters evaluated were enzymatic activities of insect protease, amylase and lipase and the starch content of the grains. There were differences in the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and protease of insect homogenate according to the food source. A lower activity of the enzyme amylase from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when insects were fed grain of the cultivar BRS Carijó. A lower activity of lipase enzyme from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when the insects fed on grain from the interaction of the cultivar Tapaihum inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. The lowest proteolytic activity was observed in homogenate of insects fed on interaction of 'BRS Carijó' inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. Starch content correlated positively with the amylase activity of C. maculatus homogenate. The cultivar BRS Carijó had a different behavior from the other cultivars, according to the cluster analysis.

  19. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  20. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  1. Physical and cooking characteristics of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzaffar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi; Mohd. Munaf Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Two local cowpea cultivars (Red cowpea and Black cowpea) were studied for various physical, cooking and textural properties. The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate content of seeds ranged from 10.0% to 10.1%, 21.29–23.90%, 0.49–1.94%, 19.8–2.81%, and 60.53–62.45%, respectively. Sphericity, 1000-seed weight and surface area were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. However bulk density was found significantly higher for Black cowpea than Red cowpea. Black cowp...

  2. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  3. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  4. Nutrient composition of climbing and prostrate vegetable cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the nutrient content of different accessions of two vegetable cowpea genotypes. The mineral content of the vegetable cowpea accessions were high. Potassium content of the accessions of the climbing genotype “Akidi enu” ranged from 1.25 to 1.52% with a mean value of 1.43 ± 0.13% while in the ...

  5. Bioactive metabolites in improved cowpea seeds | Ameen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has developed some pest and disease resistant cowpeas. From these the seeds of 8 cowpea cultivars were extracted with ethanol, and partitioned into chloroform and water-soluble fractions, the water-soluble fraction was further extracted with ethyl acetate. Residues ...

  6. Nutritional quality and utilization of local and improved cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpeas are grown for their leaves and grains both of which are used as relish or side dishes together with the staple food. Little information is available on the nutritional quality of local and improved cowpea varieties grown in Tanzania as well as the recipes in which they are ingredients. This study was done to investigate ...

  7. Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And Productivity Of Component Crops In Cowpea/Cassava Intercropping System. ... Similarly, fresh root yield (t/ha) of cassava was influenced by cropping system and population density in 2005/2006, but not in 2004/2005 cropping season. Cassava tuber yield was ...

  8. nature of resistance of cowpea alectra vogelii infestation abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The objective of this study was to identify the type of gene action controlling the trait for resistance to. Alectra vogelii in cowpea and estimate the heritability of the trait. Seven genotypes of cowpea were mated in half diallel and their F2 progeny, including parents, were evaluated for reaction to Alectra vogelii infection in the ...

  9. Nature of resistance of cowpea Alectra vogelii infestation | Mbwando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the type of gene action controlling the trait for resistance to Alectra vogelii in cowpea and estimate the heritability of the trait. Seven genotypes of cowpea were mated in half diallel and their F2 progeny, including parents, were evaluated for reaction to Alectra vogelii infection in the ...

  10. Field evaluation of improved cowpea lines for resistance to bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The average productivity of cowpea in the existing traditional systems is low due to a complex of biotic and abiotic stresses. The biotic factors include insect pests, parasitic plants, and viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. Concerted efforts are being made to develop improved cowpea varieties with combined ...

  11. Microbiology of natural fermentation of cowpea and groundnut for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, locustbean is fermented naturally for dawadawa production. Scarcity of locustbean indicated a need for using other legumes as substitutes for producing dawadawa. The feasibility of using cowpea and groundnut was therefore investigated. The microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of cowpea ...

  12. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  13. COMPOSICIÓN NUTRICIONAL Y FACTORES ANTINUTRICIONAL DE ESPECIES POCO CONOCIDAS DE VIGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas de Vigna trilobata, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. umbellata, V. unguiculata subsp. cylindrica, V. aconitifolia, V. vexillata and V. bourneae se colectaron de diferentes regiones geográficas en el oeste de Ghats Tamil Nadu. Se analizó su composición proximal y mineral, vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico, perfiles de ácidos grasos, perfiles de aminoácidos de la proteína total de la semillas, digestibilidad de la proteína in vitro (IVPD y algunos factores antinutricionales. La proteína cruda tuvo un rango entre 18.24 a 26.12%, lípidos totales de 3.8 a 6.48%, fibra dietética total de 3.42 a 7.48%, cenizas de 3.10 a 4.12% y carbohidratos de 59.44 a 72.06%. Los valores de energía de la semilla estuvieron entre 1584.87 a 1644.34 kJ100g-1MS, los cuales fueron comparables con otras leguminosas. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos de todas las especies de Vigna revelaron altas concentraciones de ácido oleico, linoleico y linolenico. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991, con excepción de ciertas deficiencias de aminoácidos azufrados en todas las especies de Vigna El IVPD de las diferentes especies de Vigna tuvo un rango de 70.38 a 79.12%. Sustancias antinutricionales como el total de fenoles libres, taninos, L-DOPA (3-4 dihidroxifenilalanina, ácido fitico, cinacina hidrogenada, actividad inhibidora de la tripsina, oligosacáridos y actividad fitohematoaglutinadora también se determinaron. Los factores antinutricionales que fueron detectados, se presume que presentan una pequeña significancia si los frijoles son procesados correctamente.

  14. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  15. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  16. Genomic identification and characterization of the elite strains Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense BR 3267 and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi BR 3262 recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    2017-03-31

    The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped

  18. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  19. Priming of cowpea volatile emissions with defense inducers enhances the plant's attractiveness to parasitoids when attacked by caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhy, Islam S; Bruce, Toby Ja; Turlings, Ted Cj

    2018-04-01

    The manipulation of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (HI-VOCs) via the application of the inducers benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and laminarin (β-1,3-glucan) is known to enhance the attractiveness of caterpillar-damaged cotton and maize plants to parasitoids. To test if this is also the case for legumes, we treated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. unguiculata) with these inducers and studied the effects on HI-VOC emissions and the attraction of three generalist endoparasitoids. After the inducers had been applied and the plants subjected to either real or mimicked herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars, females of the parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis and Microplitis rufiventris showed a strong preference for BTH-treated plants, whereas Cotesia females were strongly attracted to both BTH- and laminarin-treated plants with real or mimicked herbivory. Treated plants emitted more of certain HI-VOCs, but considerably less indole and linalool and less of several sesquiterpenes. Multivariate data analysis revealed that enhanced wasp attraction after treatment was correlated with high relative concentrations of nonanal, α-pinene, (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and with low relative concentrations of indole, (S)-linalool and (E)-β-farnesene. Inducer treatments had no significant effect on leaf consumption by the caterpillars. Our findings confirm that treating cowpea plants with inducers can enhance their attractiveness to biological control agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  1. Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose em caupi Diagrammatic scale for assessment of Cercospora leaf spot severity in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Corrêa Lima Albert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora cannescens e Pseudocercospora cruenta, é uma importante doença do caupi (Vigna unguiculata no Brasil. Devido à inexistência de métodos padronizados para quantificação dessa doença, foi desenvolvida uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 82% de área foliar lesionada. A escala diagramática foi validada por 10 avaliadores, usando 50 folíolos de caupi com diferentes níveis de severidade, mensurados previamente com o programa Assess®. A acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples entre a severidade real e a estimada, com e sem o auxílio da escala. Com a escala, os avaliadores obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão das estimativas, com os erros absolutos concentrando-se na faixa de 10%. Os avaliadores apresentaram elevada repetibilidade (94% e reprodutibilidade (90% em 82,3% dos casos das estimativas com a utilização da escala. Portanto, a escala diagramática proposta é adequada para avaliação da severidade da cercosporiose do caupi.Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens and Pseudocercospora cruenta is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in Brazil. Due to the inexistence of standard methods for the assessment of this disease, a diagrammatic scale was developed with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 82% of diseased leaf area. The diagrammatic scale was validated by 10 raters using 50 cowpea leaflets with different levels of severity previously measured by the software Assess®. The accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the estimative of each rater were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity, with and without the use of the scale. With the scale raters obtained better levels of accuracy and precision, with absolute errors concentrating around 10%. Raters showed high repeatability (94% and reproducibility ( 90% in

  2. Assessment of sorghum–cowpea intercrop system under water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support ... Planting dates (trigger season climate method, modelling and fixed date approaches), .... cowpea intercrop system for biomass accumulation (2.1%), water.

  3. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  4. inhibition of germination and growth behavior of some cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... COWPEA VARIETIES USING NEEM (AZADIRACTA INDICA) LEAF WATER. EXTRACTS ... Keywords: Neem, Allelopathic effect, Leaf extract, Germination, Growth behavior ... and lotion today, as well as biological insecticide.

  5. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  6. Use of Strategic Placement of Dredged Sediments to Support Horseshoe Island in the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana: A Preliminary Ecological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    cowpea (Vigna luteola), broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), invasive Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera), rosemallow (Hibiscus lasiocarpos), and...Benth. hairypod cowpea Fabaceae N Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cowpea Fabaceae - Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle waterthyme Hydrocharitaceae I

  7. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp) in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPC)varietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM) and Low Population High Market (LPHM) on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this stud...

  8. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  9. 1H NMR spectra dataset and solid-state NMR data of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Teofilo, Elizita M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article the NMR data from chemical shifts, coupling constants, and structures of all the characterized compounds were provided, beyond a complementary PCA evaluation for the corresponding manuscript (E.G. Alves Filho, L.M.A. Silva, E.M. Teofilo, F.H. Larsen, E.S. de Brito, 2017) [3]. In a...

  10. Potential use of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, Ederson; Pinheiro, Victor; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Cone, John W.; Marques, Guilhermina; Silva, Valéria; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. Therefore treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the

  11. Gene Pools and the Genetic Architecture of Domesticated Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Lam Huynh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [ (L. Walp.] is a major tropical legume crop grown in warm to hot areas throughout the world and especially important to the people of sub-Saharan Africa where the crop was domesticated. To date, relatively little is understood about its domestication origins and patterns of genetic variation. In this study, a worldwide collection of cowpea landraces and African ancestral wild cowpea was genotyped with more than 1200 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Bayesian inference revealed the presence of two major gene pools in cultivated cowpea in Africa. Landraces from gene pool 1 are mostly distributed in western Africa while the majority of gene pool 2 are located in eastern Africa. Each gene pool is most closely related to wild cowpea in the same geographic region, indicating divergent domestication processes leading to the formation of two gene pools. The total genetic variation within landraces from countries outside Africa was slightly greater than within African landraces. Accessions from Asia and Europe were more related to those from western Africa while accessions from the Americas appeared more closely related to those from eastern Africa. This delineation of cowpea germplasm into groups of genetic relatedness will be valuable for guiding introgression efforts in breeding programs and for improving the efficiency of germplasm management.

  12. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  13. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of genetic diversity in germplasm collections is crucial for cultivar development. Genetic relationships among 105 Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) accessions from Kenya were evaluated using 12 microsatellite markers. The Bambara landraces were collected from farmers in the western ...

  14. Heat stable peroxidases from Vigna species (V) | Mbassi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoots of three landraces of a Vigna species from two climatic areas of Cameroon were evaluated for their content of heat-resistant peroxidases. The peroxidase activity in the three landraces was detected with a greater catalytic efficiency for oxidation of O-dianisidine relative to ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis-(3- ...

  15. Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L. beneficial to ... This study aimed to select suitable strains that can be used as inoculants to enhance legume production and simultaneously reduce the use of ... contributor to natural or biological N2 fixation and allows legumes to grow in the ...

  16. Photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of an EMS-mutagenized cowpea associated with its resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pedro F N; Silva, Fredy D A; Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2017-01-01

    The seed treatment of a CPSMV-susceptible cowpea genotype with the mutagenic agent EMS generated mutagenized resistant plantlets that respond to the virus challenge by activating biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms. Cowpea is an important crop that makes major nutritional contributions particularly to the diet of the poor population worldwide. However, its production is low, because cowpea is naturally exposed to several abiotic and biotic stresses, including viral agents. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) drastically affects cowpea grain production. This study was conducted to compare photosynthetic and biochemical parameters of a CPSMV-susceptible cowpea (CE-31 genotype) and its derived ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized resistant plantlets, both challenged with CPSMV, to shed light on the mechanisms of virus resistance. CPSMV inoculation was done in the fully expanded secondary leaves, 15 days after planting. At 7 days post-inoculation, in vivo photosynthetic parameters were measured and leaves collected for biochemical analysis. CPSMV-inoculated mutagenized-resistant cowpea plantlets (MCPI) maintained higher photosynthesis index, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents in relation to the susceptible (CE-31) CPSMV-inoculated cowpea (CPI). Visually, the MCPI leaves did not exhibit any viral symptoms neither the presence of the virus as examined by RT-PCR. In addition, MCPI showed higher SOD, GPOX, chitinase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities, H 2 O 2 , phenolic contents, and cell wall lignifications, but lower CAT and APX activities in comparison to CPI. All together, these photosynthetic and biochemical changes might have contributed for the CPSMS resistance of MCPI. Contrarily, CPI plantlets showed CPSMV accumulation, severe disease symptoms, reduction in the photosynthesis-related parameters, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic compound, and H 2 O 2 contents, in addition to increased β-1,3-glucanase, and catalase activities that might have

  17. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Palaniappan, S. P. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore - 641 003 (India)

    1981-05-15

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts.

  18. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Palaniappan, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  19. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  20. Performance of cowpea grown as an intercrop with maize of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative effects of shade were more pronounced in the semi-determinate cowpea than in the indeterminate. Therefore, in high maize populations, indeterminate spreading cowpeas should be grown; while semi-determinate cowpeas should be planted in low to moderate maize populations because of their intolerance ...

  1. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  2. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We

  3. Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of arbuscular ... Roots of the cowpea lines were all heavily colonized by the fungi and their leaf P was ... Total dry weight of inoculated cowpea was not affected by soil acidity while it ...

  4. Influence de différents traitements de prégermination des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. sur les performances germinatives et la tolérance au stress hydrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucelha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different pre-germination treatments of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds on germination performance and water stress tolerance. Description of the subject. Priming or hardening is a pregermination treatment. This treatment consists of incorporating an osmotic seed treatment (osmopriming or a hormonal (hormopriming and/or a redehydration (hydropriming treatment. The approach allows the elimination of dormancy, homogenization (synchronization of germination, better growth, earlier flowering and a tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this kind of treatment, the seed is soaked and then dehydrated before radicle breakthrough, i.e. during the reversible phase of germination. Thus, the seed can return to its initial stage without any damage. Objectives. In this paper, we aimed to study the consequences of hydropriming and osmopriming (by PEG6000 at 10 and 30% on cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata, on germination performance and on the water stress tolerance of plants from these seeds. Method. Vigna unguiculata seeds were hydroprimed, hydroprimed twice or osmoprimed (with PEG6000 10 and 30%. For each treatment, germination performance (germination capacity, speed and the water stress tolerance of the plants were studied. Results. Results showed that increased hardness of the seed allowed a faster, more uniform germination and better growth of both the radicle and aerial parts. We also demonstrated that a double redehydration was more effective in improving these parameters. Conclusions. Application of these pretreatments, adapted according to the plant species, will has the capacity to improve seed germination and crop yield, as well as tolerance to water deficit.

  5. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade Yolanda Nsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu76. The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods and seeds. CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  6. Efetividade de rizóbios e caracterização fenotípica dos isolados que nodulam feijão-caupi em solos da Amazônia Central Effectiveness and phenotypic characterization of cowpea rhizobia isolated from central Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura importante na Amazônia Central, mas os rizóbios associados a essa leguminosa são poucos estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e caracterizar fenotipicamente os isolados de rizóbio que nodulam feijão-caupi na região. As populações de rizóbio de Novo Ayrão proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca da parte aérea e total, raiz, número de nódulos e peso dos nódulos secos nas plantas de feijão-caupi; porém, não diferiram do tratamento testemunha com N. Com base nos critérios fenotípicos avaliados, foi possível identificar uma ampla diversidade de populações de rizóbios contidos nos solos da Amazônia.Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume cultivated in central Amazonia, but its rhizobia have been little studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and to characterize phenotypically the population of indigenous rhizobia that infect cowpea in the region. The rhizobia population from Novo Ayrão soils provided the highest shoot, root and total dry matter yields, number of nodules and nodule dry weights in cowpea plants; however, they were not different from those found for the control treatment with N. Based on phenotypic criteria, it was possible to identify a wide diversity of populations of rhizobia contained in Amazonian soils.

  7. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  8. Resistência de genótipos de feijão-caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] ao Ataque do Caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerllanya Medeiros

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. The Cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the main Prague during storage of grains of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.]. Due to the economic losses caused by this insect, is of paramount importance to develop studies to select varieties resistant to this pest. In this study assessed the effect of genotypes of V. unguiculata about the behavior and the development of C. maculatus in two consecutive generations. The study was conducted in laboratory with conditions of temperature and relative humidity monitored, in completely randomized design using BRS Epace 10, Capela, BRS Urubuquara, BRS Pajeu, Itaim, BRS Rouxinol, Pingo de ouro, BRS Corujinha, IT85 F-2687 and BR 17 Gurguéia genotypes with eight repetitions. In each genotype were confined 10 adults of c. maculatus for it was held the oviposition. After a period of five days, the adults were removed from the pots containing the genotypes. Waited-if the emergence of adults (first generation and new infestation was held in the same access to obtain the second generation. The parameters evaluated were number of eggs, egg viability, total number of adults emergency, viability of immature phase, average period of development and dry weight of adults. IT85 F2687 genotype presented resistance of non-preference for oviposition and the genotypes BR 17 Gurguéia and BRS Urubuquara presented antibiose type resistance in relation to C. maculatus. BR 17 Gurguéia genotype was the strongest among the genotypes studied in relation to c. maculatus. The genotypes Capela and Itaim were characterized as susceptible to C. maculatus.

  9. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, S.S.; Hundal, H.S.; Vig, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurisrael de Moura Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1 e RC2 (P2xF1 foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditiva e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes.The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G. The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1, and RC2 (P2xF1 generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and broad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

  12. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  13. Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bharath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo.Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0% were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters.Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%.Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.

  14. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  15. Partial Molecular Characterization Of Cowpea Stunt Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial molecular characterization of the coat protein of the cowpea stunt-causing isolates of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) from Arkansas and Georgia revealed that both isolates of CMV belong to CMV subgroup I and differ at eight nucleotides positions, resulting in two amino acids difference. There was only one amino ...

  16. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and

  17. Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot spots in Niger. M. SALIFOU1*, J. B. L. S. TIGNEGRE2, P. TONGOONA3, S. OFFEI3,. K. OFORI3 and E. DANQUAH3. 1National Agricultural Research Institute of Niger, Maradi Regional Research Centre, Niger. 2 The world Vegetable Centre, West and Central ...

  18. Short communication Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Mabel Antwi

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... cowpea crop, application of lambda cyhalothrin, dimethoate, and cypermethrin is recommended (Afun et al.,. 1991) and commonly practised in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries. Inherent problems of pesticide residue accumulation and degradation compounds in edible tissues (Laben, 1968) ...

  19. interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    variety (V), exposure time (T) and dose (D) on the tolerance of C. maculatus to both plant materials. The effect ... laboratories and institutions of higher education in several West .... Each value is the mean±S.E of 20 cowpea seeds. Means ...

  20. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. Integrated management of cowpea insect pests using elite cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea planted in June flowered and podded between early to mid-August when post-flowering pests (M. vitrata, M. sjostedti and Clarigralla tomentosicollis) densities were relatively low and produced significantly higher grain yields without insecticide protection compared to other planting dates. The flowering and pod ...

  2. Numerical and RAPD Analysis of Eight Cowpea Genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, numerical tools such as single linkage cluster analysis (SLCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) have been used to determine the extent of variability. This study was conducted to determine the performance, character contribution as well as variation pattern in eight cowpea genotypes collected in Nigeria.

  3. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  4. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is

  5. Climate change impacts on cowpea productivity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a climate signal could be detected at state or regional level, it would be useful to policy planners, agricultural authority and farmers to prepare for climate change. This study, therefore, employed a statistical model to investigate the relationship between the yield of cowpea and temperature (in centigrade) and precipitation ...

  6. Needs assessment of cowpea production practices, constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... worsen the limitations to cowpea production in these provinces. Lack of .... avert risk, crop failure and distribution of farm labour. (Singh et al. ... turity groups was based on the length of rainfall. Farmer ... The market potential for bambara groundnut. ... Management of productivity of major cropping system.

  7. Consumer preference for cowpea in Kwara State, Nigeria | Ayinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary data were collected through a structured from 120 respondents and secondary data was used to determine the factors for variation in prices of cowpea. The study revealed that consumers prefer that is of medium size, red in colour, very sweet in taste and a shelf-life of at least month. It also showed that the most ...

  8. Yields and protein content of two cowpea varieties grown under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... cropping systems (sole and intercropping) and cowpea-leaf pruning regimes ... pruning did have consequential effects on the nutritional value of ... and cabbage for direct consumption or eaten as relish ... long history of fertilization (Mpangane et al., 2004). ..... cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) proteins.

  9. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  10. Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress impaired cowpea plant growth and decreased ion percentage and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration in the shoot as well as yield and its quality. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 250 mg/l, increased plant growth, yield and its quality as well as physiological constituents in plant shoot under stressed ...

  11. Study on transformation of cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transferred into cauliflower by agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and 14 transgenic cauliflower plants were obtained. Cotyledons and hypocotyls were used as explants. The putative transformants were assayed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. The results ...

  12. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  13. CRY 1AB trangenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Ab insecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected ...

  14. Cowpea mosaic virus: effects on host cell processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.; Carette, J.E.; Lent, van J.; Wellink, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Taxonomy: Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of the Comoviridae and bears a strong resemblance to animal picornaviruses, both in gene organization and in the amino acid sequence of replication proteins. Little systematic work has been done to compare isolates of the virus from different

  15. Recent characterization of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals ...

  16. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Res. Crop Evol. 48: 559-566. Mignouna HD, Ng NQ, Ikea J, Thottapilly G (1998). Genetic diversity in cowpea as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. J. Gen. Breed. 52: 151-159. Nei M, Li WH (1979). Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc.

  17. Diversity and Efficiency of Rhizobia Communities from Iron Mining Areas Using Cowpea as a Trap Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Luísa de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mining is an important economic activity. However, its impact on environment must be accessed, mainly on relevant processes for their sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial communities in soils under different types of vegetation in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero: ironstone outcrops, Atlantic Forest, neotropical savanna, and a rehabilitated area revegetated with grass. Suspensions of soil samples collected under each type of vegetation were made in a saline solution to capture rhizobia communities that were then inoculated on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], which was used as a trap plant. The symbiotic efficiency of the communities was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment and the data obtained were correlated to the chemical and physical properties of the soils under each type of vegetation. At the end of the experiment, the bacteria present in the nodules were isolated to evaluate their diversity. The highest numbers of nodules occurred in the treatment inoculated with soil samples from rehabilitated area revegetated with grass and neotropical savanna vegetation, and the lowest numbers were observed in the treatment inoculated with soil samples from ironstone outcrops and Atlantic Forest. In relation to root dry matter, the treatment inoculated with soil samples from Neotropical savanah was superior to those inoculated with soil samples from the other areas; already, in relation to the shoot dry matter, no significant difference among the treatments was observed. The soil properties with the greatest influence on the microbial communities were Al3+ content, considered as high in the Atlantic Forest and neotropical savanna vegetation, as intermediate in the iron outcrops, and as very low in the rehabilitated area revegetated with grass; organic matter, considered as very high in the ironstone outcrops and neotropical savanna, as high in the

  18. COMPARATIVELY STUDY OF VARIETIES OF VEGETABLE COWPEA OF DIFFERENT BREEDING PERIODS IN PRIMORIYE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Chebukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L. Verdc. draw breeders’ attention due to their valuable properties, form variation, particularly, among long asparagus beans. The climatic condition of South Far-East is favorable for the cultivation of cowpea. Introduction of the species expands the range of cultivated crops in the region. The aim of the study was to comparatively investigate the modern and local old accessions of cowpea in the field condition of Primoriye and also to select accessions studied suitable for cultivation in this region. Field experiments were carried out at Far-Eastern Experimental Station (VIR, Vladivostok in 2012-2015. Forty accessions of different breeding periods of time from VIR plant collection were assessed. Local varieties included into collection in 1920-1930, varieties selected in 1950-1980 and modern varieties developed after 2010 were significantly different by the morphometric characteristics such as length and width of leaf, bean length and weight, seed productivity per plant, period duration – from shoots to bean-filling and from shoots to bean-ripening. The productivity of green beans depended on different morphobiological traits. For varieties bred in 1950-1980, the correlation between seed and green bean productivity and the number of beans was observed. The yield of green beans was connected with bean length and width and the duration of vegetative period in modern varieties. The varieties bred in 1950-1980 were distinguished by their simultaneous maturation and early ripening, along with the balanced number of pods per plant and seed productivity. Modern varieties essentially exceeded the previously bred cultivars in pod length, yield capacity and duration of harvesting period. Local old varieties were distinguished by broad genetic variation, and were very important as a source of valuable traits. As a result of the study the varieties suitable for

  19. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado

  20. Effect of composts on microbial dynamics and activity, dry root rot severity and seed yield of cowpea in the Indian arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu BAREJA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient-deficient sandy soil, having poor moisture retention, favors  Macrophomina phaseolina, a soil-borne plant pathogen, occurring in severe form on many important crops grown in the Indian arid region. In a 2-year field experiment, five composts (4 ton/ha prepared from residues of Calotropis procera, Prosopis juliflora, Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, and on-farm weeds were tested on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to determine their effectiveness in limiting the  severity of charcoal rot caused by M. phaseolina in relation to the microbial population dynamics, microbial activity and the seed yield of cowpea.  In general, compost-amended plots retained 8.9% higher moisture than unamended plots. The microbial population increased in amended plots during the crop season. Populations of total fungi and actinomycetes were heighest in Calotropis compost-amended soil, while total bacteria were maximum in weed- compost amended soil. Microbial activity in amended plots was  26.3% higher than in unamended plots. Among trace elements,  uptake of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu was  heighest  in plants grown in weed-compost amended soil followed by A. nilotica compost-amended soil. Soil amendment with the composts significantly reduced  plant mortality due to charcoal rot. The lowest mortality was recorded in plants amended with A. nilotica compost (5.5% followed by P. juliflora compost (5.8, while the  highest plant mortality (11.5% from charcoal rot occurred in the unamended control on the basis of the pooled average of two years. There was a significant inverse correlation between microbial activity and charcoal rot incidence in cowpea at 20 days after planting. Composts also had a beneficial effect on yield, with a 28.3% increase in seed yield in P. juliflora compost-amended plots. These results suggest that in resource-deficient farming , certain on-farm wastes can be effectively utilized for managing soil-borne pathogens, as well as  for

  1. 6种不同声频对豇豆苗期生长的影响%Effect of Six Different Acoustic Frequencies on Growth of Cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)during Its Seedling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 姜仕仁

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of sound waves with different types and frequency characteristics on the growth of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)during seedling stage.[Method] The insect-music mixed sound(MI),cuckoo acoustic song,cricket acoustic song,single 400 Hz frequency sound wave,F5 and Fn sound waves composed of different frequencies were designed to investigate their effects on height and weight of cowpea seedling,and experimental data were statistically analyzed and multiple-compared by EXCEL.[Result] After treatment by sound waves with six different types and frequencies,the growth situations of cowpea were better than that in control.This indicated that sound waves could significantly promote height growth of plant.The treatments with good growth-promotion effect included 400 Hz frequency sound wave,cuckoo acoustic song and cricket acoustic song,followed by MI,Fn and F5.Cuckoo and cricket acoustic song treatment could promote the weight of cowpea seedling during seedling stage.[Conclusion] Sound waves with different types and frequency characteristics had significant growth-promotion effect on growth of cowpea during seedling stage,but their effects were different.%[目的]研究不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长的影响。[方法]以古典音乐与昆虫鸣声的混合声波(MI)、杜鹃鸣声、蟋蟀鸣声、单一频率的400Hz声波和多种频率合成的F5、Fn声波进行试验比较,对豇豆苗高、苗重进行测定,采用EXCEL进行统计分析和多重比较。[结果]经6种不同类型和频率声频处理后,豇豆苗期生长生长状况均显著优于对照组,表明声波能显著促进株高生长,对豇豆苗期助长效果较好的是400Hz、杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声,其次是MI、Fn和F5;与对照组相比,杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声处理组在生长期间能显著促进苗株增

  2. GERMINATION AND INITIAL GROWTH OF COWPEA CULTIVARS UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS AND SALICYLIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    ARAÚJO, EDILENE DANIEL DE; MELO, ALBERTO SOARES DE; ROCHA, MARIA DO SOCORRO; CARNEIRO, REBECA FERREIRA; ROCHA, MAURISRAEL DE MOURA

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cowpea is one of the major food crops in Northeast Brazil, where it is commonly cultivated in the semi-arid regions with limited water availability. It is important to study the elicitors associated with cowpea to mitigate any deleterious effects of abiotic stress on the initial establishment of this crop. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the morphophysiological changes in cowpea cultivars under osmotic stress with seeds soaked in salicylic acid. The germination test was conducted...

  3. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  4. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. B.

    2000-10-01

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  5. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  6. 23 cowpea for a changing environment in the rainforest of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cowpea may be a desirable option for use in mitigating the effect of climate change in the context of shift in crops and animals that can ..... Table 4: Frequency distributions and selection scores for cowpea varieties. Selection attributes. Variety value. Selection score*. Number of varieties. Remarks. Biomass (kg ha-1). 876.0- ...

  7. On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of thesis Paulus den Hollander entitled “On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread”.

    Defence: 18th of November 13.30 h

    Abstract

    Intercellular spread of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) occurs via movement

  8. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted at the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Research and Training farm Port Harcourt to test the effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control. The cultivars of cowpea used were Dan Kano, Bornu local and Sokoto local while the oil palm sludge levels applied ...

  9. Protein and Iron composition of cowpea leaves: An evaluation of six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein and Iron composition of cowpea leaves: An evaluation of six cowpea varieties grown in eastern Africa. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Mineral element, protein-energy and micronutrient deficiencies are primary public health concerns in Eastern and Southern Africa. Promoting the ...

  10. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  11. Effects of cowpea fortification and the level of ripeness of plantain on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cowpea fortification and the level of ripeness of plantain on the nutritive value of plantain based snack foods. ... The proximate composition and acceptability of products using a 7-point hedonic scale were evaluated. With the addition of 30% cowpea, the protein content of the Kaklo from the firm ripe and soft ripe ...

  12. The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a

  13. Utilization of graded levels of corn cobs and cowpea husk on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corncob (CC) and cowpea husk (CH) are by – products of maize and cowpea production respectively. They can be used as alternative feed resources for ruminants especially during the dry season. A 70d study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and CH based diets on performance of WAD rams. Sixteen ewes ...

  14. Socio-cultural factors influencing and maintaining yam and cowpea diversity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.

    2007-01-01

    Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of

  15. Nodulação e produtividade de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. por cepas de rizóbio em Bom Jesus, PI Yield and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. inoculated with rhizobia strains in Bom Jesus, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. "BR 17 Gurguéia" à inoculação com duas cepas isoladas de solos de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação: UFLA 3-164 e UFLA 3-155 e três cepas INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 e BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, autorizadas pelo MAPA como inoculantes para a cultura do feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em campo na Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com sete tratamentos e com seis repetições, sendo cinco cepas citadas e dois controles não inoculados, um com N-mineral (70 kg ha-1 de N e outra sem N mineral. Foram avaliados a nodulação (número e massa seca de nódulos, o crescimento (massa seca da parte aérea, o rendimento de grãos e o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio na parte aérea e nos grãos, além da eficiência relativa. A inoculação das sementes com as cepas de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas resultou em rendimentos de grãos equivalente à testemunha adubada com nitrogênio mineral. A cepa em fase de teste, UFLA 3-155 apresentou rendimento de grãos igual à cepa recomendada INPA 03 11B (BR 3301, podendo também ser testada em outras regiões brasileiras. Entre as cepas aprovadas pelo MAPA a INPA 03 11B (BR 3301 apresentou a maior produção de grãos.It evaluates the effect of inoculation with two rhizobia strains isolated from soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining: UFLA 3-164 and UFLA 3-155, compared to inoculation with strains INPA 03 11B (BR 3301; UFLA 03 84 (BR 3302 and BR 3267 (SEMIA 6462, officially authorized as inoculant to cowpea by MAPA, in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp cv. "BR 17 Gurgueia". The experiment was carried out at the 'Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, PI,' in a randomized block design, white seven treatments and six replications. Treatments were the five strains and

  16. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxinby Aspergillus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Schnidt-Heydt, M.; Geisen, R.

    2008-01-01

    A number of 21 Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterizedby RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped with A. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other...... produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed...... coat. Interestingly when the cowpea medium was heat sterilized the fungus was able to produce high amounts of aflatoxin. This, however, was not the case after the use of gamma irradiation as sterilization method for the medium. The expression of the nor-1 gene, which is one of the early genes involved...

  17. Advantage of Sesame and Cowpea Intercrops in Different Fertilizer Application Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Aminifar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different fertilizer applications and sesame/cowpea intercropping systems on soil fertility, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted in Fasa, Fars province, during 2014. The main plots were five fertilizer levels consisted of: using chemical fertilizers nitrogen+phosphorous (F1, organic fertilizers (F2, biofertilizers (F3, 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% organic fertilizer (F4 and 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% biofertilizer (F5, and sub plots consisted of: sole cropping of sesame (M1, sole cropping of cowpea (M2, 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3, 75:25 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M4 and 25:75 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M5. The results showed that soil fertility and cropping systems affected the yield and yield components of sesame and cowpea significantly. The highest yield of sesame (1292.6 kg.ha-1, and cowpea (3772.4 kg.ha-1 were obtained from their sole croppings. Among the applications of fertilizer, the highest yield of sesame (950.49 kg.ha-1 and cowpea (2582.50 kg.ha-1 belonged to bioorganic and biofertilizer treatments, respectively. In spite of these results, the highest land equivalent ratio (LER belonged to F4 (1.24 and M3 (1.03 treatments. In general, according to the results, it seems that 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3 and application of 30 kg.ha-1 N + 50 kg.ha-1 P + 150 kg.ha-1 bio-organic fertilizer (F4, may reduce application of chemical fertilizers and be beneficial to sesame-cowpea intercropping system.

  18. N fixation and transfer in Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea inter cropping systems as determined by N-15 isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayatilake, G.A.; Subasinghe, S.; Senaratne, R.

    2000-01-01

    N fixation and transfer in maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea intercropping systems, as determined by N-15 dilution technique was studied in two field trials conducted at Bata-atha, in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Two cvs. of cowpea i.e; Bombay and MI-35 were used in maize/cowpea intercropping system, with following combinations of treatments; maize/Bombay, maize/MI-35, Bombay (monocrop), MI-35 (monocrop) and maize (monocrop). A similar set of treatments was used in sorghum/cowpea intercropping system also. The N-15 atom excess, percentage Ndfa, total amount of N fixed, N yield and the total dry matter production were estimated. Maize/cowpea intercropping resulted in an increase in total dry matter production and total N yield compared to monocrop treatment. However the percentage Ndfa and total N fixed showed a decrease compared to monocrop stand. The percentage Ndfa was 60-65 percent monocrop while the same was 45-50 percent in intercropped treatments

  19. Produtividade e morfologia de acessos de caupi, em Mossoró, RN Yield and morphology of cowpea accessions in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador B Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e caracterizar a morfologia de dez acessos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], nas condições edafoclimáticas do município de Mossoró, RN. Dez acessos (Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba e Sempre-verde foram avaliados em experimento de campo, de agosto/2006 a junho/2007, em Mossoró. Verificou-se que todos os genótipos de caupi apresentaram hábito de crescimento indeterminado e semi-enramador volúvel, exceto o "BRS Potiguar" que revelou comportamento semi-enramador. O número de sementes variou de 12 a 16 por vagem. Para a região de Mossoró, pode ser indicado como melhor alternativa ao produtor, o acesso Amapá, por ser mais precoce, possuir maior número de vagens por planta e maior produtividade, seguido de BRS Potiguar e Casca-de-seda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and to describe the morphology of ten cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] accessions in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Mossoró, Brazil. The accessions Amapá, BRS Potiguar, Canapu, Casca-de-seda, Coruja, Costela-de-vaca, João-vieira, Pingo-de-ouro, Rabo-de-peba and Sempre-verde were evaluated in a field experiment from August 2006 to June 2007. The majority of accessions was of indeterminate and semi-branched voluble growth habit; only BRS Potiguar was semibranched. The number of seeds per pod varied from 12 to 16. For the Mossoró region, the accession Amapá is considered be the best alternative for small farmers. This accession is earlier maturing, presents a high number of pods per plant and high yield. Other promising genotypes are BRS Potiguar and Casca-de-seda.

  20. Foliar Desiccators Glyphosate, Carfentrazone, and Paraquat Affect the Technological and Chemical Properties of Cowpea Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Lang, Gustavo Heinrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien

    2017-08-16

    The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments. Catechin-3-glucoside and epicatechin significantly contributed for discriminating GLY-treated cowpea, while citric acid was responsible for discriminating GLY/CAR-treated cowpea. Quercetin derivative and gluconic acid were responsible for discriminating control treatment. Residual glyphosate and paraquat content was higher than the maximum limits allowed by Codex Alimentarius and the European Union Commission. Improvements in the technological and chemical properties of cowpea may not be overlapped by the risks that those desiccants exhibit when exceeding the maximum limits of tolerance in food.

  1. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  2. Glutathione reductase in leaves of cowpea: cloning of two cDNAs, expression and enzymatic activity under progressive drought stress, desiccation and abscisic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contour-Ansel, Dominique; Torres-Franklin, Maria Lucia; Cruz DE Carvalho, Maria Helena; D'Arcy-Lameta, Agnès; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2006-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are frequently produced when plants are exposed to abiotic stresses. Among the detoxication systems, two enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) play key roles. GR has also a central role in keeping the reduced glutathione pool during stress thus allowing the adjustments on the cellular redox reactions. The aim of this work was to study the variations in cytosolic and dual-targeted GR gene expression in the leaves of cowpea plants submitted to progressive drought, rapid desiccation and application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars, one drought-resistant ('EPACE-1'), the other drought-sensitive ('1183') were submitted to progressive drought stress by withholding irrigation. Cut-off leaves were air-dried or treated with exogenous ABA. Two GR cDNAs, one cytosolic, the other dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria were isolated by PCR and cloned in plasmid vectors. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to study the variations in GR gene expression. Two new cDNAs encoding a putative dual-targeted and a cytosolic GR were cloned and sequenced from leaves of V. unguiculata. Drought stress induced an up-regulation of the expression of the cytosolic GR gene directly related to the intensity of the stress in both cultivars. The expression of dual-targeted GR was up-regulated by the drought treatment in the susceptible cultivar only. Under a fast desiccation, the '1183' cultivar responded later than the 'EPACE-1', although in 'EPACE-1' it was the cytosolic isoform which responded and in '1183' the dual-targeted one. Exogenous ABA enhanced significantly the activity and expression levels of GR in both cultivars after treatment for 24 h. These results demonstrate a noticeable activation in both cultivars of the antioxidant metabolism under a progressive water stress, which involves both GR genes in the case of the susceptible cultivar. Under a fast desiccation, the susceptible cultivar

  3. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senaratne, R.; Dayatilake, G.A.; Subasinghe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N 2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N 2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  4. Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Sonsol Gondim

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997, numa área irrigada da Fazenda Experimental do Vale do Curu, pertencente à Universidade Federal do Ceará, no município de Pentecoste, CE, localizada a 100 km de Fortaleza. O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a utilização do tensiômetro de mercúrio, do Tanque Classe A e da equação de Hargreaves, na determinação da lâmina de água a ser aplicada na irrigação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, enquanto os tratamentos foram representados pelos três diferentes métodos de estimação citados, de quando e quanto irrigar (Tratamento 1 - Tensiômetro; Tratamento 2 - Tanque Classe A e Tratamento 3 - equação de Hargreaves e a cultura utilizada foi o caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp para consumo em estado verde, cultivar João Paulo II, no espaçamento de 0,90 x 0,40 m, com duas plantas por cova, irrigada por aspersão convencional. A análise dos resultados constatou uma economia de água no tratamento 1, de 28 e 23%, em relação aos tratamentos 2 e 3, respectivamente, e também evidenciou a inexistência de diferenças significativas entre as produtividades alcançadas em todos os tratamentos. O tensiômetro pode ser indicado como instrumento de racionalização do uso da água em irrigação.A field study was conducted from September to December 1997 at the Federal University of Ceará Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, Brazil. The irrigation scheduling was based on a tensiometer, Class A pan evaporation and Hargreaves equation. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the three treatments (Treatment 1 - tensiometer, Treatment 2 - pan evaporation and Treatment 3 - Hargreaves equation with four replications in a completely randomized design. Sprinkler irrigated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, cultivar João Paulo II for fresh consumption was grown on the experimental area. Plants were spaced at 0.90 x 0

  5. NUTRIMENTAL POTENTIAL OF RED DOLICHOS, BROWN DOLICHOS AND COWPEA FOR GREEN MANURE PRODUCED UNDER THREE TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Alfredo Beltran-Morales

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrimental content of N, NO3-N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B, was evaluated in three bean cultivars of two species with potential to be used as green manure. Cultivars were the red lab-lab bean (RL (Lablab purpureus, brown lab-lab bean (BL (L. purpureus and cowpea (CW (Vigna unguiculata. Three tillage systems were assayed: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and optimal tillage (OT. Results showed that the nutrimental content of N, NO3, P, K did not evidence statistical differences (P≤0.05 among bean cultivars and tillage systems. However, the greater content of N was in BL-CT with 4.85%. The content of P varied from 0.38 to 0.41% and the concentration of K from 2.40 to 2.84%. Ca showed the highest concentration in RL-OT with 2.88%, while the lowest percentage was evidenced by CW-CT, with 2.12% (P≤0.05. The highest percentage of Mg appeared in CW-OT with 0.89% and the lowest concentration was registered for BL-CT, showing 0.52% (P≤0.05. The highest Fe concentration was observed in RL-OT with 0.15% and the lowest in BL-CT and RL-CT, with 0.10%. The Mn content was significantly greater in CW without concerning the tillage system with 0.39% and the smallest concentration was obtained in RL-MT with 0.17%. The greatest percentage content of nutriment B was observed in BL-OT, RL-CT, CW-MT and CW-OT, from 0.024 to 0.030%. In contrast, the lowest content of B was found in RL-MT with 0.015%. The content of Zn did not showed statistical differences respect to the cropping system; the lowest concentration of Zn was observed in CW-OT with 0.0026% and the highest percentage in BL-OT with 0.0040. Cu was significantly highest in BL-CT, BL-MT, BL-OT, RL-CT, RL-MT, RL-OT and CW-OT, being BL-MT and BL-OT the combinations with the highest concentration (0.0061%, while the lowest concentration was observed in CW-MT and CW-CT, with 0.0048% and 0.0044%, respectively.

  6. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  8. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... high relative humidity, which correlates with high rainfall .... BThe 18 lines are representative samples of the 71-cowpea lines evaluated showing high, moderate and ... Nigeria has shown that water or alcohol extract of Piper.

  9. 23 cowpea for a changing environment in the rainforest of south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea adapted and grown in the rainforest ... kg ha-1 with adjusted moisture at 15%. Above ... distributions were done by dividing the range ... several workers. .... *significant at 5% level of probability; **significant at 1% level of probability.

  10. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  11. Management of Seed-Borne Fungi in Cowpea Using Leaf Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-15

    Apr 15, 2018 ... Management of Seed-Borne Fungi in Cowpea Using Leaf Extracts and Sodium. Bicarbonate ... is regarded as the most essential legume crop for poor people in ..... legumes and oil seeds of Nigeria: Principles of. Production ...

  12. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented

  13. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  14. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  15. RNAi-derived transgenic resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Tanti, Bhaben; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important grain legume crop of Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Leaf curl and golden mosaic diseases caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) have emerged as most devastating viral diseases of cowpea in Southeast Asia. In this study, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to control cowpea-infecting MYMIV. For this, we generated transgenic cowpea plants harbouring three different intron hairpin RNAi constructs, containing the AC2, AC4 and fusion of AC2 and AC4 (AC2+AC4) of seven cowpea-infecting begomoviruses. The T0 and T1 transgenic cowpea lines of all the three constructs accumulated transgene-specific siRNAs. Transgenic plants were further assayed up to T1 generations, for resistance to MYMIV using agro-infectious clones. Nearly 100% resistance against MYMIV infection was observed in transgenic lines, expressing AC2-hp and AC2+AC4-hp RNA, when compared with untransformed controls and plants transformed with empty vectors, which developed severe viral disease symptoms within 3 weeks. The AC4-hp RNA expressing lines displayed appearance of milder symptoms after 5 weeks of MYMIV-inoculation. Northern blots revealed a positive correlation between the level of transgene-specific siRNAs accumulation and virus resistance. The MYMIV-resistant transgenic lines accumulated nearly zero or very low titres of viral DNA. The transgenic cowpea plants had normal phenotype with no yield penalty in greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-derived resistance to MYMIV in cowpea.

  16. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onim, J.F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M 2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  17. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  18. Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridi, Efstathia; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernández, Juan A; Karapanos, Ioannis; Carnide, Valdemar; Savvas, Dimitrios; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material, a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. To assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, the characterization and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required. In the present study, an estimation of the diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits, was performed, aiming to assist with the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe. A notable mean total phenotypic diversity (H T = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. The Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces such as Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 presenting higher values of some traits studied could contribute to the breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating the feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption. The present study has revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijão-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgânicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Weather Station (Estação Meteorológica, from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 factorialwith five replications. The first factor consisted of electrical conductivity of irrigation water levels, as follows: 0.8 dS m-1; 1.5 dS m-1; 3.0 dS m-1; 4.5 dS m-1 and 6.0 dS m-1; and the second factor comprised three conditions: without biofertilizers (B0, with enriched crabbio fertilizer (B1 and with bovine common biofertilizer (B3. The evaluated variables were: photosynthesis, leaf temperature, transpiration, stomatal conductance, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and shoot dry mass. The crab enriched biofertilizer more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants with biofertilizer and biofertilizer bovine common. The biofertilizer of crab enriched more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants without biofertilizer and bovine common biofertilizer. = O uso de fertilizantes orgânicos provenientes de resíduos de origem animal pode atenuar os efeitos danosos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre as plantas. Um experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometeorológica da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, objetivando-se avaliar a

  20. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than

  1. Simulation of growth and development of irrigated cowpea in Piauí State by CROPGRO model Simulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi irrigado no Estado do Piauí pelo modelo CROPGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves Bastos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adapt the CROPGRO model, which is part of the DSSAT system, for simulating the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata growth and development under soil and climate conditions of the Baixo Parnaíba region, Piauí State, Brazil. In the CROPGRO, only input parameters that define crop species, cultivars, and ecotype were changed in order to characterize the cowpea crop. Soil and climate files were created for the considered site. Field experiments without water deficit were used to calibrate the model. In these experiments, dry matter (DM, leaf area index (LAI, yield components and grain yield of cowpea (cv. BR 14 Mulato were evaluated. The results showed good fit for DM and LAI estimates. The medium values of R² and medium absolute error (MAE were, respectively, 0.95 and 264.9 kg ha-1 for DM, and 0.97 and 0.22 for LAI. The difference between observed and simulated values of plant phenology varied from 0 to 3 days. The model also presented good performance for yield components simulation, excluding 100-grain weight, for which the error ranged from 20.9% to 34.3%. Considering the medium values of crop yield in two years, the model presented an error from 5.6%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar o modelo CROPGRO, o qual faz parte do sistema DSSAT, para simular o crescimento e desenvolvimento do caupi (Vigna unguiculata nas condições de solo e clima do Baixo Parnaíba, Piauí. No CROPGRO, foram modificados apenas parâmetros que definem os arquivos de espécie, de cultivar e de ecótipo, visando caracterizar a cultura do caupi. Foram criados arquivos contendo as características de solo e de clima do referido local. Na calibração do modelo, foram utilizados experimentos de campo sem restrições hídricas nos quais foram avaliados a matéria seca (MS, o índice de área foliar (IAF, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos da cultivar BR 14 Mulato. Os valores médios dos R² e do erro absoluto médio (EAM

  2. Nodulation studies with induced mutants of black gram (Vigna mungo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Garg, Rekha; Parvateesam, M.

    1990-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been widely used to generate genetic variability in plants, but reports of mutations affecting the root system are less common. In the present work, black gram (Vigna mungo L. var T9), has been used for studies on the effect of induced mutations on nodulation patterns

  3. Photoperiod regulation of development and growth in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Westphal, E.; Wessel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of constant photoperiods of 10, 12, 14 and 16 h on development and growth in two bambara groundnut genotypes (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc., syn. Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thouars) was studied in a greenhouse experiment in the Netherlands. Data on dry matter accumulation were

  4. Aperçu de la culture du voandzou ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aperçu de la culture du voandzou ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) au Burkina Faso: enjeux et perspectives d'amélioration de sa productivité. ... 2016 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. ... The favorite variety is the cream-colored white hilum for its organoleptic, agronomic and aesthetic qualities. Lack of ...

  5. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badere, R.S.; Koche, D.K.; Choudhary, A.D.; Pawar, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  6. Fertilizer Use and Management Practices among Maize and Cowpea Smallholder Farmer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okebalama, CB.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of West Africa, poverty contributes immensely to poor fertilizer adoption by smallholder farmers. Fertilizer adoption could be improved with micro-dosing technology. A socio-economic survey was conducted in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to assess the extent of fertilizer use and management among maize and cowpea smallholder farmers. Oral interview with structured questionnaire was used to interview one hundred farmers each at two locations. The results showed that farmers are aware of the use of fertilizer to increase crop yield. About 65% and 80% of maize and cowpea farmers respectively, identified high cost of fertilizer as a major constraint to fertilizer utilization. Consequently, only 32% maize farmers and 19% cowpea farmers were fertilizer users. In addition, the choice of fertilizer type to use was dependent on the type available on the market. As such, NPK 15:15:15 was mostly used for both maize and cowpea crops. Also, fertilizer application rate was mainly determined by the quantity farmer can purchase. On average, fertilizer application rate for maize and cowpea crops were 18.45 kg/ha and 9.05 kg/ha, respectively. The prevalent fertilizer application method on maize was mostly by point/side placement while ring application was largely used for cowpea. Awareness of fertilizer micro-dosing among the farmers was only 10%. Since the quantity of fertilizer used by the farmers as well as the fertilizer application methods were comparable to fertilizer micro-dosing, dissemination of micro-dosing technology to these farmers could promote fertilizer use and management among smallholder farmers, and ultimately sustain maize and cowpea production.

  7. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwansyah.

    1988-01-01

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  8. First report of root rot of cowpea caused by Fusarium equiseti in Georgia in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot was observed on cowpea in Tift County, Georgia, in May of 2015. The disease occurred on approximately 10% of cowpea plants in 2 fields (2 ha). Symptoms appeared as sunken reddish brown lesions on roots and stems under the soil line, secondary roots became dark brown and rotted, and infected...

  9. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Insect pests associated with cowpea – sorghum intercropping system by considering the phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the main insect pest populations and their behavior in the combination cowpea - sorghum. This work took into account the phenology of each crop. The study was conducted on a Cambisol soil from the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Día y Noche”, which belongs to the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre”, Santa Clara municipality, Villa Clara province, Cuba. The experimental design was a random blocks included four treatments and four repetitions. The first arrangement consisted of two rows of cowpea for each row of sorghum; the second one included three rows of cowpea and one row of sorghum. The other treatments were the monocultures of cowpea and sorghum. The methodology included visual observations of plants with a weekly frequency until crop harvest to detect the presence of the insects. Also, the phenology of each crop was considered. The phytophagous insects quantified in the cowpea crop belong to the families Chrysomelidae, Pyralidae, Cicadellidae, while in the sorghum crop, these insects belong to the families Noctuidae and Aphididae. Finally, the results showed the positive effects of both spatial arrangements with a smaller incidence of insect pest populations.

  11. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, P.O.; Montford, K.G.; Klake, R.K.; Akpabli, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 μg g -1 ; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 μg g -1 . These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  12. NOTE - Phenotypic correlations between combining abilities of F 2 cowpea populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline de Jesús Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is a crop that has become socio-economically relevant, mainly in developing countries. Correlation studies are important to determine the association between quantitative traits and yield to guide the selection, i.e., choose direct or indirect selection. The objective was to estimate the correlations between six agronomic traits in cowpea as well as the correlations between the estimates of combining abilities of parents. Genotypes with high pod weight and pod length, 100-grain weight, and number of beans per pod should be used to improve grain yield in cowpea. The breeder should preferably insert plants into his group of crosses that have a high combining ability for pod length, number of grains per pod and yield per plot.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, David Okeh; Afiukwa, Celestine Azubike; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Ogbu, Kenneth Idika; Ojuederie, Omena Bernard; Ude, George Nkem

    2017-11-17

    Assessment of genetic diversity of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) accessions using informative molecular markers is imperative for their genetic improvement and conservation. Use of efficacious molecular markers to obtain the required knowledge of the genetic diversity within the local and regional germplasm collections can enhance the overall effectiveness of cowpea improvement programs, hence, the comparative assessment of Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and Start codon targeted (SCoT) markers in genetic diversity of V. unguiculata accessions from different regions in Nigeria. Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of eighteen accessions from different locations in Nigeria was investigated using ISSR and SCoT markers. DNA extraction was done using Zymogen Kit according to its manufacturer's instructions followed by amplifications with ISSR and SCoT and agarose gel electrophoresis. The reproducible bands were scored for analyses of dendrograms, principal component analysis, genetic diversity, allele frequency, polymorphic information content, and population structure. Both ISSR and SCoT markers resolved the accessions into five major clusters based on dendrogram and principal component analyses. Alleles of 32 and 52 were obtained with ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Numbers of alleles, gene diversity and polymorphic information content detected with ISSR were 9.4000, 0.7358 and 0.7192, while SCoT yielded 11.1667, 0.8158 and 0.8009, respectively. Polymorphic loci were 70 and 80 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Both markers produced high polymorphism (94.44-100%). The ranges of effective number of alleles (Ne) were 1.2887 ± 0.1797-1.7831 ± 0.2944 and 1.7416 ± 0.0776-1.9181 ± 0.2426 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. The Nei's genetic diversity (H) ranged from 0.2112 ± 0.0600-0.4335 ± 0.1371 and 0.4111 ± 0.0226-0.4778 ± 0.1168 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Shannon's information index (I) from ISSR and SCoT were 0

  14. Effect of different irrigation systems on root growth of maize and cowpea plants in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Mahgoub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University to study the influence of different irrigation systems on root length density and specific root length of maize and cowpea plants cultivated in sandy soil. Three irrigation systems (Surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in this study. The NPK fertilizers were applied as recommended doses for maize and cowpea. Root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (maize and cowpea which was irrigated by the three irrigation systems by using an iron box (30 cm× 20 cm which is divided into 24 small boxes each box is (5× 5 × 5 cm. At surface irrigation, root length density of cowpea reached to soil depth 30-40cm with lateral distances 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm. Vertical distribution of root length density of maize was increased with soil depth till 20-25 cm, and then it decreased till soil depth 35-40cm. Under drip irrigation, root length density of cowpea increased horizontally from 0-5cm to 10-15cm then it decreased till soil depth 25-30 cm and below this depth root length density disappeared. For the root length density and specific root length of maize under drip irrigation, the data showed that root length density and specific root length decreased with increasing in soil depth. The root length density of cowpea under sprinkler irrigation at 0-5cm disappeared from horizontal distance at 25-30 cm. The data showed that root length density of maize under sprinkler irrigation was higher at the soil top layers 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm than other layers from 10-40 cm.

  15. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  16. Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M.; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission. PMID:19412526

  17. Endothelial targeting of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV via surface vimentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J Koudelka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission.

  18. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniappan, S.; Balasubramanian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  19. PENGARUH JENIS DAN DOSIS PUPUK BOKASHI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL KACANG PANJANG (Vigna sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Djunaedy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this Research to determine the effect of fertilizer type and dose of bokashi of growth and yield bean (Vigna sinensis L.. Results of research: 1 bokashi fertilizer and chicken manure effect on plant length and number of leaves at the age of 24 days after the plant, 2 dose of fertilizer bokashi or chicken manure is best for the total fruit weight per plant is 20 tons / ha.

  20. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Voandzou (Vigna Subterranea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamananjara, A.; Rabeharisoa, L. [Laboratoire des Radio-isotopes, Universite d' Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Abdou, M. Malam [Laboratoire Banques de genes CERRA / KOLLO, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), Niamey (Niger); Masse, D. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier, (France); Amenc, L.; Pernot, C.; Drevon, J. J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier (France)

    2013-11-15

    Vigna subterranea, known as voandzou or Bambara groundnut as an African indigenous crop which is often neglected or under-used in African subsistence agriculture. Preliminary research and country perceptions have shown its agronomic and nutritional properties, in particular under atypical climates of arid and tropical areas, and in saline soils. There is a high potential to increase the production by optimizing symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) through effective inoculation even in nitrate-rich environments. In this study, Vigna subterranea inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 was studied in order to assess the symbiotic fixation potential of different cultivars and landraces of Madagascar, Niger and Mali under low-P and sufficient-P conditions. Six voandzou cultivars inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756, were grown under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks supplied with four phosphorus levels of 15, 30, 75 and 250 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1} in order to establish the response curve of voandzou to P supply, and to induce P deficient and sufficient levels. In another experiment five tolerant cultivars with high SNF and five sensitive cultivars with low SNF were chosen after a preliminary screening of 54 voandzou genotypes, including 50 landraces from Madagascar, Niger and Mali supplied with 2 P levels as P deficient and P sufficient (30 and 75 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1} ) under hydroaeroponic conditions. Genotypic variation in SFN for the high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was observed among the 54 cultivars and landraces. Variability was especially related to the nodule and shoot biomass, nodule permeability, nodule respiration and gene phytase expression. Contrasting cultivars and landraces in terms of PUE for SNF were selected for further evaluation under field conditions. (author)

  1. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  2. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin β1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin β 1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin β 1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin β 1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin β 1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin β 1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin β 1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  3. Diversity and Symbiotic Characteristics of Cowpea Bradyrhizobium Strains in Ghanaian Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fening, Joseph Opoku

    1999-08-01

    This study reports investigation of the biodiversity of bradyrhizobia isolates that nodulate cowpea in Ghanaian soils. As a prelude, some components of nitrogen fixation of cowpea in the various soils were examined through: (1) assessment of the natural nodulation of 45 cowpea cultivars in 20 soils sampled from 5 ecozones (coastal savanna, tain forest, semi deciduous forest, forest savanna transition and guinea savanna), (2) determination of the numbers of bradyrhizobial isolates in the soils and (3) determination of the response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilization. The results of the ability of 45 cowpea cultivars to nodulate naturally in different soil types showed large variability among the cultivars. Counts of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population in the soils showed that most of the soils in Ghana harbour large populations of bradyrhizobia (in the range of 0.6 x 10 to 31 x 10 3 ) capable of nodulating cowpea. Response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilizer differed in the different soils. In general all the cultivars showed significant responses to increasing levels of nitrogen, an indication that nitrogen fixation was not supplying the plants with all the external nitrogen required for maximum yield. A combination of morpho-physiological and molecular analysis was used to assess the diversity of the bradyrhizobia isolates. A total of 100 isolates were assessed. The results of the morpho physiological analysis indicated that cowpea is nodulated by both fast and slow growing rhizobia. The results also showed that the isolates were versatile and could survive under different soil conditions particularly acidity and salt stress. A cross inoculation study of the isolates with nine legume species produced seven major groupings with 28 subgroups based on distinct nodulation patterns. Results of the serology (ELISA) assay indicated that only a small fraction of the isolates reacted strongly with antisera of each other. The greater proportion showed no cross reactivity

  4. Effect of "6"0Co-induced gamma radiation exposure and Jasmonic acid on antioxidant responses in Cowpea varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep Kumar; Bhagoji, Ravi; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati; Maurice, Navodita

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea used to be the first crop harvested before the cereal crops are ready and therefore is referred to as 'hungry-season crop'. The gamma irradiation is known to increase nutritional values of food sources and also enhance and accelerate growth of certain vegetables Antioxidants are the metabolites, produced by the plant in response to different stress conditions e.g. radiation stress etc. Seeds of four cowpea varieties were treated with different doses of gamma radiation and effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant response of cowpea was studied. The results showed that there was no linear correlation between application of JA and different antioxidant contents. (author)

  5. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, Rob; Krijt, Jette

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  6. Cowpea bean production under water stress using hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Barcelos Souza Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population increase and the need of intensifying food production, coupled with the scarcity of water resources, have led to the search of alternatives that reduce consumption and optimize the water use during cultivation. In this context, hydrogels become a strategy in agricultural management, due to their water retention capacity in the soil and availability to plants. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of hydrogels on the development and production of cowpea bean ('Sempre-verde' cultivar under water stress, in a greenhouse. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design, with five replications, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of four types of hydrogel (Hydroplan-EB HyA, with granulometry of 1-3 mm; Hydroplan-EB HyB, with granulometry of 0.5-1 mm; Hydroplan-EB HyC, with granulometry < 0.5 mm; Polim-Agri, with granulometry of 1-0.5 mm and five concentrations (0 g pot-1; 1.5 g pot-1; 3 g pot-1; 4.5 g pot-1; 6 g pot-1. The following traits were evaluated: number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod and grain yield. The highest concentration (6 g pot-1 resulted in a higher number of pods and yield for all the hydrogels, especially for HyC and Polim-Agro, which presented 7.4 pods plant-1 and 7.0 pods plant-1, with yield of 15.43 g plant-1 and 16.68 g plant-1, respectively. The use of hydrogel shows to be efficient for reducing yield losses under water stress.

  7. Productivity of Roselle/cowpea intercropping system in a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three planting densities (27,700; 37,000 and 55,500 plants ha-1) of roselle grown sole or intercropped with cowpea were investigated in two field trials in the 1997 and 1998 wet seasons at Sokoto. The leaf area index (LAI) of roselle was highest with the highest roselle planting density in the sole or ...

  8. Insects observed on cowpea flowers in three districts in the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main insects observed on the cowpea flowers were bees such as Apis mellifera, Ceratina sp, Megachile sp, Xylocopa calens, Xylocopa imitator, Braussepis sp., .Lipotriches sp., Melecta sp and Amegilla sp. and other insects, such as thrips, flies, butterflies / moths, beetles, and Dysdercus sp. Thrips were the insects most ...

  9. Feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Creutzburg, S.; Heereveld, van L.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. To test the feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) particles as a

  10. Spectrophotometric versus NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for discriminating the impact of freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Ramos, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo As; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods, and thus the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (i.e. at 6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, with the samples being concomitantly assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), both mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR), aiming to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices. A decrease in phytochemical contents during freezing was observed, allowing the classification of samples according to the freezing period based on such variations. Also, MIR and NIR allowed discrimination of samples: the use of the first derivative demonstrated a better performance for this purpose, whereas the use of the normalized spectra gave the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance. Freezing of cowpea pods leads to a decrease of phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, whereas the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Molecular interactions during the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus studied by magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, G.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of 1 H- and 13 C- NMR, EPR, ST-EPR and calculational methods to study cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. This virus consists of RNA encapsidated by 180 identical protein subunits, arranged icosahedrally. The

  12. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... weed control in the humid forest zone of Nigeria ... tropics, where rainfall is scanty and soils are sandy with ... Impact of oil palm sludge on 3 cultivars of cowpea length or roots at 6 and 8 WAP in wet and dry season. 6 WAP.

  13. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Margam, Venu; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    ) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five

  14. BIOCHAR AS SOIL CONDITIONER IN THE SUCCESSION OF UPLAND RICE AND COWPEA FERTILIZED WITH NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEYTON DE OLIVEIRA MIRANDA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biochar and nitrogen application on yields of upland rice and cowpea and on soil fertility were determined in a greenhouse in Macaíba, RN, Brazil. The trial consisted of the succession of two crops in a completely randomized design and a factorial scheme, with four replicates. Initially, four doses of biochar and four doses of nitrogen were tested for cultivation of rice. Subsequently, four doses of biochar and two doses of nitrogen were tested in half of the pots maintained for planting cowpea. Soil was sampled after rice harvest for half of the pots and at end of the trial for the remaining pots. We evaluated the following parameters: mass of hundred grains of rice, dry shoot mass, panicle number, number of filled spikelets and of empty spikelets, and grain production. Determinations for cowpea were: pod number per pot, grain number per pod, and grain production per pot. Measured soil parameters were: pH, contents of organic carbon, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable sodium percentage. Biochar addition did not influence yield components of upland rice and cowpea, but resulted in increased soil N retention, which influenced rice dry shoot mass, spikelets sterility, panicle number, and grain mass. Biochar also promoted increased soil pH, potassium content, and exchangeable sodium percentage and decreased calcium and magnesium concentrations.

  15. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  16. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of koose, a deep-fat fried cowpea cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2017-12-15

    Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The phenolic acids identified included benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The predominant flavonoid classes were flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Deep-fat frying of the cowpea pastes decreased their TPC, radical scavenging capacities and total quantified flavonoids. The koose inhibited radical-induced oxidative cellular and DNA damage. It is concluded that koose is a potential functional food that can contribute to alleviating radical-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. US-1136, US-1137, and US-1138 cowpea lines for cover crop use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following five years of field evaluation, three cowpea populations were selected as best adapted for use as a cover crop. A pure line selection procedure was used to develop genetically uniform lines from the segregating populations. Field evaluations demonstrated that the lines grow rapidly for u...

  19. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  20. Are investments in an informal seed system for cowpea a worthwhile endeavour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Kamara, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Hearne, S.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    High seed quality is a critical component for realising yield potential. For smallholder cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria the informal seed system is a major supplier of genetically high-quality seed, but the physiological quality of farmers’ produced seed remains unknown. The project “Promoting

  1. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea, which has now become an important protein source for the teeming populace of Nigerians especially those living in the humid agro-ecological zones of South-western Nigeria, is severely attacked by diseases. The causal agents of these diseases find the environment more conducive for survival and hence induce ...

  2. Growth and yield of cassava as influenced by maize and cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, Igbariam sub-station (060151N, 060521E) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 cropping seasons to determine the growth and yield of cassava as influenced by maize and cowpea population densities. Cassava at ...

  3. The NTP-binding motif in cowpea mosaic virus B polyprotein is essential for viral replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S A; Verver, J; Nollen, E A; van Lent, J W; Wellink, J; van Kammen, A

    1994-01-01

    We have assessed the functional importance of the NTP-binding motif (NTBM) in the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) B-RNA-encoded 58K domain by changing two conserved amino acids within the consensus A and B sites (GKSRTGK500S and MDD545, respectively). Both Lys-500 to Thr and Asp-545 to Pro substitutions

  4. Development of a protein-rich composite sorghum-cowpea instant porridge by extrusion cooking process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available temperature gave lower NSI, TS and WAI, ESS, ER and WSI increased with severity of heat treatment. The composite of 50% sorghum and 50% cowpeas extruded at 130 degrees C was the most similar to a commercial instant maize-soya composite porridge in terms...

  5. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  6. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  7. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in

  8. Proteolytic processing of the primary translation products of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, H.

    1984-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of a group of plant viruses, the comoviruses, with a genome consisting of two single stranded RNA molecules separately encapsidated in icosahedral particles. A characteristic feature of the two genome RNAs is that they are both polyadenylated at their

  9. The genomic sequence of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and its similarities with other potyviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Kampen, van T.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The genomic sequence of a Zimbabwe isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV-Z) was determined by sequencing overlapping viral cDNA clones generated by RT-PCR using degenerate and/or specific primers. The sequence is 9465 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly (A) tail and

  10. Genes and sequences involved in the replication of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the RNA replication of the cowpea mosaic virus genome. Previously the replication of CPMV RNA has been examined extensively with crude membrane fractions prepared from

  11. Mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein of cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, J.E.; Kujawa, A.; Gühl, K.; Verver, J.; Wellink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we have performed a mutational analysis of the cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) genome-linked protein VPg to discern the structural requirements necessary for proper functioning of VPg. Either changing the serine residue linking VPg to RNA at a tyrosine or a threonine or changing the

  12. Biology and ecology of Apanteles taragamae, a larval parasitoid of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius is a key insect pest of cowpea in West Africa. Larvae of this moth can cause up to 80% of yield losses. The first classical biological control programme against M. vitrata started in 2005 with the introduction of Apanteles taragamae Viereck

  13. Structure, morphogenesis and function of tubular structures induced by cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D.T.J.

    1999-01-01

    During systemic plant infection, viruses move from the initially infected cells through plasmodesmata to neighbouring cells. Different mechanisms have been proposed for this cell-to-cell movement. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) employs one of the major movement mechanisms, i.e. tubule-guided

  14. AFLP/SSR mapping of resistance genes to Alectra vogelii in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find and map the resistance gene to A. vogelii in cowpea, a F2 population from a cross involving a resistant parent IT81D-994 and a susceptible TVX3236 was screened. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in combination with Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) analysis was used to identify markers that may be ...

  15. Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from this system have been found to promote ... Total dry weight of inoculated cowpea was not affected by soil acidity while it was ... leaves and fresh fruit, fodder and dry seed (Steele et al.,. 1985).

  16. Deficiência nutricional em plântulas de feijão-de-corda decorrente da omissão de macro e micronutrientes Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba é uma importante cultura nos âmbitos econômico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Ceará, que é considerado o maior produtor desta região. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências nutricionais em plântulas de feijão-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, após um período de cinco dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma solução nutritiva completa para o período de aclimatação. Após três dias, as plântulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: solução nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausência de aeração. Os sintomas das deficiências foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e parte aérea das plântulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficiência e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plântulas com carência em Fe, Ca e N. A matéria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausência de nutrientes. A ausência de Ca, N e Fe foi responsável por uma maior redução da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de redução foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeração > B > Completo.The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Ceará, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were

  17. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates

  18. QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis of cowpea reveals candidate genes for root-knot nematode resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jansen Rodrigo Pereira; Ndeve, Arsenio Daniel; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William Charles; Roberts, Philip Alan

    2018-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN). Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL) population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL) were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.

  19. QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis of cowpea reveals candidate genes for root-knot nematode resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Rodrigo Pereira Santos

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN. Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.

  20. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.