WorldWideScience

Sample records for del congo drc

  1. Onchocerciasis control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): challenges in a post-war environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenga Bof, J-C; Maketa, V; Bakajika, D K; Ntumba, F; Mpunga, D; Murdoch, M E; Hopkins, A; Noma, M M; Zouré, H; Tekle, A H; Katabarwa, M N; Lutumba, P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate onchocerciasis control activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the first 12 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Data from the National Programme for Onchocerciasis (NPO) provided by the National Onchocerciasis Task Force (NOTF) through the annual reports of the 21 CDTI projects for the years 2001-2012 were reviewed retrospectively. A hypothetical-inputs-process-outputs-outcomes table was constructed. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin expanded from 1968 communities in 2001 to 39 100 communities by 2012 while the number of community-directed distributors (CDD) and health workers (HW) multiplied. By 2012, there were ratios of 1 CDD per 262 persons and 1 HW per 2318 persons at risk. More than 80% of the funding came from the fiduciary funds of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. The cost of treatment per person treated fell from US$ 1.1 in 2001 to US$ 0.1 in 2012. The therapeutic coverage increased from 2.7% (2001) to 74.2% (2012); the geographical coverage, from 4.7% (2001) to 93.9% (2012). Geographical coverage fell in 2005 due to deaths in loiasis co-endemic areas, and the therapeutic coverage fell in 2008 due to insecurity. Challenges to CDTI in DRC have been serious adverse reactions to ivermectin in loiasis co-endemic areas and political conflict. Targets for personnel or therapeutic and geographical coverages were not met. Longer term funding and renewed efforts are required to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis in DRC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Budget process bottlenecks for immunization financing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Mibulumukini, Benoît; Gessner, Bradford D; Colombini, Anaïs

    2014-02-19

    In Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the availability of domestic resources for the immunization program is limited and relies mostly on external donor support. DRC has introduced a series of reforms to move the country toward performance-based management and program budgets. The objectives of the study were to: (i) describe the budget process norm, (ii) analyze the budget process in practice and associated bottlenecks at each of its phases, and (iii) collect suggestions made by the actors involved to improve the situation. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through: a review of published and gray literature, and individual interviews. Bottlenecks in the budget process and disbursement of funds for immunization are one of the causes of limited domestic resources for the program. Critical bottlenecks include: excessive use of off-budget procedures; limited human resources and capacity; lack of motivation; interference from ministries with the standard budget process; dependency toward the development partner's disbursements schedule; and lack of budget implementation tracking. Results show that the health sector's mobilization rate was 59% in 2011. For the credit line specific to immunization program activities, the mobilization rate for the national Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) was 26% in 2011 and 43% for vaccines (2010). The main bottleneck for the EPI budget line (2011) and vaccine budget line (2011) occurs at the authorization phase. Budget process bottlenecks identified in the analysis lead to a low mobilization rate for the immunization program. The bottlenecks identified show that a poor flow of funds causes an insufficient percentage of already allocated resources to reach various health system levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Madungu, Tumwaka P; Emina, Jacques B O; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2011-04-25

    Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is

  4. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC: does geographic location matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzita Kikhela PD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in

  5. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  6. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of incident hematologic malignancy. These findings highlight the importance of aging, pollution, the dry season, El Nino and La Nina as related to global warming as determinants of hematologic malignancies among African patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Cancer registries in DRC and other African countries will provide more robust database for future researches on

  7. Accounting for recent trends in the prevalence of diarrhoea in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): results from consecutive cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2012-01-01

    To analyse trends in diarrhoea prevalence by maternal education, access to clean water and improved sanitation, household wealth index; to identify the sources of variation and assess contribution of changes in socioeconomic characteristics in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Consecutive cross-sectional surveys. DRC. The databases contain information on 9748 children from the 2001 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey and 7987 children from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. N/A. Whether the child had diarrhoea 14 days preceding the survey. The overall prevalence of diarrhoea decreased by 26 percent (from 22.1% in 2001 to 16.4% in 2007). Findings from the three complementary statistical methods are consistent and confirm a significant decrease in diarrhoea regardless of socioeconomic characteristics. Changes in behaviour and/or in public health policy seem to be the likely main source of the change. There were no significant changes in diarrhoea prevalence associated with variation of the population structure. It is worth mentioning that the decrease in diarrhoea prevalence is in contrast to the generalised poor living conditions of the population. Therefore, it is difficult to ascertain whether the decline in diarrhoea prevalence was due to real improvement in public-health policy or to data quality issues. The decline of diarrhoea prevalence in our study need to be further investigated by conducting district-based or provincial-based studies to validate findings from household surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey taking into account the current context of the country: ongoing conflict, poor socioeconomic and poor health infrastructure. However, improvement in living conditions such as access to clean water and improved sanitation will contribute to accelerate the reduction of diarrhoea prevalence as well as reduction of child mortality.

  8. Abducted children and youth in Lord's Resistance Army in Northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): mechanisms of indoctrination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jocelyn Td; Branham, Lindsay; Decker, Michele R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, an estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 participate in combat situations; those in armed groups in particular suffer prolonged exposure to psychological and physical abuse. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) is a rebel movement known for its widespread conscription of children; yet little is known about this process once the group moved beyond northern Uganda. In this paper, we describe the processes related to abduction and indoctrination of youth by the LRA in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC). In-depth interviews were conducted with formerly abducted children, their family members, community leaders, and service providers (total n = 34) in four communities in LRA-affected areas of northeastern DRC. Inductive coding of transcripts was undertaken to identify salient themes. Informants articulated a range of practices by the LRA to exert high levels of control over new recruits, including strict social isolation from recent abductees; control of communication; promoting new identity formation; and compelling children to act out strictly defined gendered roles. Witchcraft and secrecy are used to intimidate recruits and to magnify perception of the group's power. These methods promote de-identification with one's civilian and family life; and eventually the assimilation of a new language and identity. Indoctrination of newly abducted children into the LRA occurs via a complex system of control. This study provides one of the first detailed explorations of social and psychological mechanisms through which this is achieved, and focuses particularly on the gendered differences in the indoctrination process. Results support past findings that the LRA is a strategic and well-organized organization in its approach to enlisting child soldiers. Understanding some of the ways in which the LRA controls its recruits and the psychological impact of indoctrination enables reintegration programs to more effectively address these issues

  9. Gendered forests: exploring gender dimensions in forest governance and REDD+ in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Achu Samndong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze gender relations legitimatized by socio-political institutions of forest governance in REDD+ pilots in Équateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Using data from interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations, we show that men and women have different knowledge and use of forests, but these differences are not given due consideration in forest governance. Women's voices are often muted in decision-making arenas and they occupy only a nominal position in both forestry and development initiatives as compared with men. This status quo is extended to the REDD+ pilot projects as well. Women have limited information about REDD+ compared with men. The mechanisms used to establish new village organization for REDD+ exclude women from decision making in the ongoing REDD+ pilot project. We show that women's bargaining power for equal inclusion in decision-making processes and for sharing benefits are constrained by existing social norms regarding local access to land and material resources, existing gender division of labor, local perceptions regarding women's roles and contributions/responsibilities, as well as men's dominant position in rural settings. For a gender transformative REDD+, we suggest that REDD+ actors should attempt to bring about institutional changes that transform gender relations and thereby increase women's bargaining power.

  10. Insecurity in the DRC: The Obstacle to Peace and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Mouvement de Liberation du Congo, (MLC), Including Leadership and Treatment of Party Members (2009-2012),” refworld: Democratic Republic of Congo, March...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced complex warfare that has involved various...economy, and better relations with neighboring countries. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Democratic Republic of Congo, disarmament, demobilization

  11. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  12. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

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    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  14. Complex conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identifi ed business ethics as a way to mitigate the destructive commercial practices that ... Ethical business initiatives have peacebuilding potential; however, the ... of the Congo (DRC) and its surrounding areas by purchasing minerals that fi ...

  15. Protección contra la violencia sexual en la República Democrática del Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mosely, Sarah; Cetinoglu, Talita; Glad, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Si bien la prestación de servicios a los supervivientes de la violencia sexual es la principal prioridad en la República Democrática del Congo, la protección para las mujeres y niñas también puede mejorarse.

  16. Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. During 7-10 February 2005, representatives of five francophone African countries (Cameroon, Morocco, Niger, Sénégal, and the Democratic Republic of Congo - DRC) met to consider ways and means of galvanizing the appropriation ...

  17. Assessing fistula and obstetrical surgical capacity in South Kivu, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Morris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo has suffered from decades of conflict and poverty. The Eastern DRC, in particular, continues to be a region dominated by instability, resulting in a fragmented health system. Governments and agencies interested in working towards improving health in the region are often challenged by an absence of knowledge of health metrics, limited capacity for health care delivery and overwhelming needs. The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and Engender Health needs assessment, outlined in this report, demonstrates an effort to better understand the current state of surgical capacity in the region with an emphasis on needs and opportunities related to fistula repair.

  18. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  19. Heath sector network governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-01-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However,

  20. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen

  1. Cuando los cuerpos hablan. La corporalidad en las narraciones sobre la violencia sexual en las guerras de la República Democrática del Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Mingo, Elisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available News, documentaries and humanitarian campaigns in the mass media have become the source of accounts on the systematic violence perpetrated against women in the DRC since 1996. These accounts, whether political or media, exploit the specific facts regarding these attacks on women’s bodies, rarely visibilizing the true impact of sexual violence on women’s lives. This has helped shape a standpoint —already to some extent historically consolidated and ensconced in international forums— that identifies Congolese women as passive victims, as mere raped bodies. It is a standpoint that mobilises pity and compassion in the public and generates an immobilist approach to humanitarian intervention and international aid, rather than promoting frameworks in which Congolese women are relevant players in peacebuilding. This article analyses the different narratives circulating on sexual violence from the perspective of the «social body,» rendering visible problems that arise from the abuse of this type of narrative practice.Las noticias, los documentales y las campañas mediáticas de la industria humanitaria se han convertido en los principales relatos sobre la violencia sexual sistemática que se ha perpetrado contra las mujeres en la República Democrática del Congo desde el año 1996 hasta el día de hoy. Las narraciones, ya sean políticas o mediáticas, explotan los hechos concretos que tienen que ver con los ataques contra los cuerpos y rara vez dan cuenta del auténtico impacto que tiene la violencia sexual en las vidas de las mujeres, más allá de las lesiones y la enfermedad. Este hecho ha contribuido a forjar la visión, que ya de por sí goza de cierta potencia histórica y está cómodamente instalada en los foros internacionales, que identifica a la mujer congoleña como víctima pasiva, como mero cuerpo violable. Esta visión moviliza la lástima y la compasión en el público general y genera enfoques inmovilistas en los sectores de

  2. Civilian Protection in the Eastern DRC: Evaluation of the MONUSCO Peacekeeping Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Richard Shelly Hartigan, Civilian Victims in War: A Political History (Chicago: Precedent Publishers, 2010), 5–6. 32 Ibid., 7. 33 Martha Finnemore...in the DRC, and also because it casts light on the convoluted reality of violence in the eastern Congo. That is, it presents a visceral example of how...be Anonymous,’” National Public Radio World News, 6 April 2011. Hartigan, Richard Shelly . Civilian Victims in War: A Political History. Chicago

  3. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  4. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural areas in DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu Fidèle; Ndongo, Gahungu Parfait; Messina, Lauren J; Bertrand, Jane T

    2017-09-01

    Recent research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has shown that over a quarter of women have an unmet need for family planning and that modern contraceptive use is three times higher among urban than rural women. This study focuses on the reasons behind the choices of married men and women to use contraception or not. What are the barriers that have led to low levels of modern contraceptive use among women and men in DRC rural areas? The research team conducted 24 focus groups among women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods and users of modern methods) and husbands (of non-users or users of traditional methods) in six health zones of three geographically dispersed provinces. The key barriers that emerged were poor spousal communication, sociocultural norms (especially the husband's role as primary decision-maker and the desire for a large family), fear of side-effects and a lack of knowledge. Despite these barriers, many women in the study indicated that they were open to adopting a modern family planning method in the future. These findings imply that programming must address mutual comprehension and decision-making among rural men and women alike in order to trigger positive changes in behaviour and perceptions relating to contraceptive use.

  5. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE DRC: EVIDENCE OFREVENUE ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationalefor central government to devolve resources for service provisionhas been debated in decentralization literature. Decentralization enhancesdemocracy,encouragesparticipation in local development initiativesandpromotes local political accountability.This discourse has been complemented bythe implementation of fiscal decentralization to increase the ability of sub-nationalgovernment in financing municipal service delivery. Fiscal decentralization hasoften been adopted by African statessince the onset ofthe New PublicManagement erain an effortto improvethe standard ofgovernance. The concernis that African states have taken minimal steps to adopt fiscal devolution thatpromotes revenue assignment which in turn limits sub-nationalgovernments’ability to generate own source revenues.This article examines the revenue assignment function of fiscal decentralization inthe Democratic Republic of Congo(DRCinthelight of decentralizationconcerns that have been raised by civil society, as the country charts its course todemocracy. The article is a desktop study that will consider documents andpoliciesin theDRCon thenational, provincialand locallevel as far asstaterevenue sourcesare concerned. Revenue assignment should enable DRC’sprovinces and local authoritiestogeneratesignificantrevenueindependently.However, post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts in the Great Lakesregion and in the DRC have largely isolated decentralization which wouldotherwise entrench local fiscalautonomy infinancing for local services anddevelopment. The article concludes that revenue generation for local authoritiesandtheprovinces in the DRC is still very centralised by the national government.Thearticleproposes policy recommendations that will be useful for the country toensurethatdecentralization effortsinclude fiscal devolution toenhance thefinancing for local development initiatives.

  6. República Democrática del Congo: ¿El campo estéril de los olivos?

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    Adriana María Ramírez López

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los orígenes y las causas de la persistencia del conflicto en la República Democrática del Congo han sido explicados empleando argumentos simplificados que han tendido a minimizar la complejidad de los acontecimientos presentados en este país centroafricano desde la década de los noventa hasta el día de hoy. Estas explicaciones se caracterizan por su marcado carácter determinista y por ensombrecer aún más las perspectivas de paz de esta nación que se encuentra viviendo un coyuntural momento histórico. No obstante, una mirada más detallada al proceso de configuración del Estado poscolonial congoleño y a las dinámicas internacionales que han influido en su particular articulación pueden dar nuevas luces sobre el conflicto mismo, las causas de su prolongación y sus perspectivas de resolución.

  7. D3.2 The DR. Congo review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , representatives of the Congolese authorities, NGOs and other IOs. EU involvement started with the deployment of Artemis in 2003, and the study ends with the closure of EUSEC in July 2016. All EU missions in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have been part of EU support for the transition and implementation...

  8. Risk Assessment: Democratic Republic of Congo Post-Laurent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political system as opposed to the view that it was merely a power struggle between Kabila on the .... Local actors and international mining companies built alliances exploiting Congo's minerals to gain a ... They are preparing a contingency plan for their activities in the post-Laurent Kabila era, for ... small arms in the DRC.33.

  9. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz K Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.

  10. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Birthe; Benner, Marie T; Sondorp, Egbert; Schmitz, K Peter; Mesmer, Ursula; Rosenberger, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area. PMID:19284879

  11. The limits of corporate social responsibility and the possibilities for harnessing mining to reinstitute processes of state-led local development in the DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParallel with the increasing liberalisation of the Congolese economy since the turn of the century has been the increasing delegation of previously state-held functions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to corporate actors, and in particular transnational mining corporations

  12. Congolese women activists in DRC and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Godin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Congolese women are energetically engaged in peacebuilding, both in DRC and abroad.Their voices – inspired by different experiences and presenting different perspectives – deserve greater recognition.

  13. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.

  14. Espejo cultural africano: imágenes de los reinos del Congo y Angola en la Costa Caribe del reino de Nueva Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrero Mosquera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación pretendió a nalizar los escritos sobre África realizados durante el siglo XVII, con el fin de adentrarse a los imaginarios que se plasmaron acerca de las culturas de los reinos del Congo y Angola . Para el caso particula r de esta investigación , se usaron los textos de los capuchinos Giovanni António Cavazzi y Anto nio de Teruel . Estos textos son discursos escritos desde una perspectiva de lo observado y bajo el amparo de un discurso histórico - antropológico del africano, una imagen eurocentrista y católica que permeó tanto en Europa como en la s Indias. Con estos textos se intentó un acer camiento a los Black Atlantic Studies con lo que se logró a partir de las imágenes que se interpretar on , realizar una confrontación con la herencia cultural que se manifestaba en los escritos de la época y establecer los imaginar ios que llegaron desde África al reino de Nueva Granada .

  15. Discharge and other hydraulic measurements for characterizing the hydraulics of Lower Congo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Kevin; Shelton, John M.; Gardiner, Ned; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The first direct measurements of discharge of the Lower Congo River below Malebo Pool and upstream from Kinganga, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were made in July 2008 using acoustic Doppler current profilers, differential GPS, and echo sounders. These measurements were made in support of research that is attempting to understand the distribution of fish species in the Lower Congo River and reasons for separation of species within this large river. Analyses of these measurements show that the maximum depth in the Lower Congo River was in excess of 200 m and maximum water velocities were greater than 4 m/s. The discharge measured near Luozi, DRC was 35,800 m3/s, and decreased slightly beginning midway through the study. Local bedrock controls seem to have a large effect on the flow in the river, even in reaches without waterfalls and rapids. Dramatic changes in bed topography are evident in transects across the river.

  16. Alimentación de Microthrissa congica (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae en la cuenca alta del río Congo (África

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godefroid Mambyanga Mokoma

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Mensualmente durante un año, se estudió la alimentación de Microthrissa congica en la cuenca alta del Río Congo, mediante el análisis de contenidos estomacales de ejemplares adultos. De acuerdo con la frecuencia de aparición, las ninfas de quironómidos constituyen la base de su alimentación durante todo el año. La importancia de los insectos de origen terrestre aumenta durante la época de lluvias, momento en que aumenta la amplitud del nicho. Estos resultados demuestran que este clupeido es una especie insectívora pelágica, utilizando muy poco el bentos como fuente de alimento.The feeding habits of the fish Microthrissa congica were studied for a year in the upper Congo river basin, by monthly analysis of stomach contents of adult specimens (N= 460. The nymphs of chironomid midges represented the bulk of the diet throughout most of the year, although terrestrial insects became more abundant in the rainy season. Niche breadth also increased in the wet season. This species feeds mainly in the water column and benthos is not an important food source.

  17. Frecuencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual y factores relacionados en Pweto, República Democrática del Congo, 2004 Frequency of sexually transmitted infections and related factors in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de ulceración genital y exudado uretral en Pweto, República Democrática del Congo, así como analizar la asociación de las prevalencias estimadas, con la edad, el estado civil, la profesión y el número de parejas sexuales. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante encuesta, realizada a una muestra representativa de 106 varones de Pweto, de entre 15 y 65 años de edad, en mayo de 2004, con una precisión del 9,5%. Las preguntas sobre la presencia actual o antecedentes de ulceración y exudado fueron autoinformadas y referidas al último año a partir del día de la encuesta. Para el estudio de las asociaciones, se calculó la odds ratio (OR cruda y posteriormente la OR ajustada mediante una regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: La prevalencia fue del 39,6% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 30-49 para el exudado uretral y del 33% (IC del 95%, 24-42 para la ulceración genital. Independientemente de la edad, el número de parejas sexuales durante el último año y el estado civil, los militares fueron identificados como un grupo de riesgo. El análisis multivariante nos muestra una OR ajustada de 3,25 (IC del 95%, 1,10-9,95; p Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of genital ulcer and urethral discharge in Pweto, Democratic Republic of Congo, and to analyze the association between the estimated prevalence and age, marital status, profession, and number of sexual partners. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study through a survey conducted in May 2004 in a representative sample of 106 men in Pweto aged between 15 and 65 years old, with a precision of 9.5%. Questionnaire items about current or previous ulceration and urethral discharge where self-reported and referred to the previous year as of the date of the survey. To study the associations, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence was 39

  18. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaymin C; Taylor, Steve M; Juliao, Patricia C; Parobek, Christian M; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations.

  19. Ecologic Features of Plague Outbreak Areas, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shako, Jean-Christophe; Gaudart, Jean; Sudre, Bertrand; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Shamamba, Stomy Karhemere Bi; Diatta, Georges; Davoust, Bernard; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Piarroux, Renaud; Piarroux, Martine

    2018-01-01

    During 2004–2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared 54% of plague cases worldwide. Using national data, we characterized the epidemiology of human plague in DRC for this period. All 4,630 suspected human plague cases and 349 deaths recorded in DRC came from Orientale Province. Pneumonic plague cases (8.8% of total) occurred during 2 major outbreaks in mining camps in the equatorial forest, and some limited outbreaks occurred in the Ituri highlands. Epidemics originated in 5 health zones clustered in Ituri, where sporadic bubonic cases were recorded throughout every year. Classification and regression tree characterized this cluster by the dominance of ecosystem 40 (mountain tropical climate). In conclusion, a small, stable, endemic focus of plague in the highlands of the Ituri tropical region persisted, acting as a source of outbreaks in DRC. PMID:29350136

  20. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic and political instability since the late 1980s and 1990s, when a civil war led to the collapse of the Zairian state and there were civil wars in neighbouri...

  1. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  2. Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ... Learn more about what drives DRC's urban violence and how it is linked to poverty ... ​Youth violence and the shift of land disputes from rural communities into ...

  3. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  4. Sistema interactivo como objeto virtual de aprendizaje aplicado a las técnicas de comunicación en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo Interactive system as virtual learning object applied to the skils of communication in distant communities of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Rolando Anaguano Jiménez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene la descripción del producto final del proyecto 'Sistema interactivo como objeto virtual de aprendizaje aplicado a las técnicas de comunicación en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo.', diseñado a la medida y basado en los requerimientos específicos del usuario final (Misioneros de la Consolata radicados en ese país. Este producto consiste en un prototipo de software orientado por los procesos del ciclo de vida del mismo (Planificación, análisis de requerimientos, diseño, desarrollo e implementación, realizado para aplicar las estrategias postuladas por la teoría de aprendizaje mixto (Blended Learning; las cuales se centran en la combinación de sesiones presenciales con actividades virtuales.This article is the result of the research project: 'Interactive System as a Virtual Learning Object Applied Communication Techniques in Distant Communities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo,' customized and based on the final user's specific requirements (Missionaries of the Consolata living in this country. The system is a prototype of software oriented by the processes of the cycle of life (planning, analysis of requirements, design, development and implementation, performed to apply strategies established by the Theory of Blended Learning, which uses face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning, and self-paced learning.

  5. Producing Woodfuel for Urban Centers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Path Out of Poverty for Rural Households?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with good potential for climate change mitigation. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the sector employs over 300,000 people for the supply of Kinshasa alone, but the benefits to the poor are often unknown. This paper analyzes the contribution of

  6. Illegibility as a state effect : The limits of governing teacher identification in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, C.O.

    2018-01-01

    State administrations rely on knowledge about its employees in order to ensure transparent payroll management. This thesis investigates the political economy and social dynamics around such knowledge by focusing on public school teachers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). After a calamitous

  7. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the

  8. La República Democrática del Congo y la misión de paz de las Naciones Unidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Robayo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La República Democrática del Congo ha estado sumida en un conflicto armado durante los últimos años que ha generado consecuencias desastrosas para la población civil y la institucionalidad del Estado congolés. Debido a esta crisis multiforme que ha creado una amenaza contra la paz y la seguridad internacionales, la necesidad de intervención supranacional fue indispensable, lo que dio como resultado la operación de mantenimiento de paz más grande de toda la historia, con aproximadamente veinte mil efectivos en territorio de la RDC, bajo el nombre de la MONUC. Aunque el panorama de la nación debía mejorar con la Misión de Paz, la situación empeoró la crisis humanitaria de los congoleses, dejando consecuencias nefastas e inaceptables como balance de las operaciones auspiciadas por las Naciones Unidas, que debe ser declarada internacionalmente responsable por la violación de los derechos humanos y el derecho internacional humanitario.

  9. Characterizing pediatric surgical capacity in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Sarah B; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bigabwa, Richard; Rothstein, David H

    2018-03-01

    Characterize pediatric surgical capacity in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to identify areas of potential improvement. The Pediatric Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PediPIPES) survey was used in two representative eastern DRC provinces to assess existing surgical infrastructure and capacity. We compared our results to previously published reports from other sub-Saharan African countries. Fourteen hospitals in the eastern DRC and 37 in 19 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries were compared. The average PediPIPES index for the DRC was 7.7 compared to 13.5 for SSAs. The greatest disparities existed in the areas of personnel and infrastructure. Running water was reportedly available to 57.1% of the hospitals in the DRC, and the majority of hospitals (78.6%) were dependent on generators and solar panels for electricity. Only two hospitals in the DRC (14.3%) reported a pediatric surgeon equivalent on staff, compared to 86.5% of facilities sampled in SSA reporting ≥ 1 pediatric surgeon. Significant barriers in personnel, infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies impede the provision of adequate surgical care to children. Further work is needed to assess allocation and utilization of existing resources, and to enhance training of personnel with specific attention to pediatric surgery.

  10. Beyond the silence: sexual violence in eastern DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Keralis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual violence laws introduced in DRC in 2006 have had only limited impact. A much louder condemnation of rape and a far more proactive approach to prevention are urgently needed.

  11. A modelling approach to estimate carbon emissions from D.R.C. deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdovski, Nicolas; Poulter, Benjamin; Defourny, Pierre; Moreau, Inès; Maignan, Fabienne; Ciais, Philippe; Verhegghen, Astrid; Kibambe Lubamba, Jean-Paul; Jungers, Quentin; De Weirdt, Marjolein; Verbeeck, Hans; MacBean, Natasha; Peylin, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    With its 1.8 million squared kilometres, the Congo basin dense forest represents the second largest contiguous forest of the world. These extensive forest ecosystems play a significant role in the regulation of global climate by their potential carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage. Under a stable climate, the vegetation, assumed to be at the equilibrium, is known to present neutral emissions over a year with seasonal variations. However, modifications in temperatures, precipitations, CO2 atmospheric concentrations have the potential to modify this balance leading to higher or lower biomass storage. In addition, deforestation and forest degradation have played a significant role over the past several decades and are expected to become increasingly important in the future. Here, we quantify the relative effects of deforestation and 21st century climate change on carbon emissions in Congo Basin over the next three decades (2005-2035). Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using a series of moderate resolution (10 km) vegetation maps merged with spatially explicit deforestation projections and developed to work with a prognostic carbon cycle model. The inversion of the deforestation model allowed hindcast land-use patterns back to 1800 by using land cover change rates based on the HYDE database. Simulations were made over the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using the ORCHIDEE dynamic global vegetation model with climate forcing from the CMIP5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for the HadGEM2. Two simulations were made, a reference simulation with land cover fixed at 2005 and a land cover change simulation with changing climate and CO2, to quantify the net land cover change emissions and climate emissions directly. Because of the relatively high resolution of the model simulations, the spatial patterns of human-driven carbon losses can be tracked in the context of climate change, providing information for mitigation and vulnerability

  12. Village Stability Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Special Operations Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    effects .8 In addition to these deaths, the UN reports 2.9 million 7 The eleven nations: DRC, Republic of Congo , Uganda, Rwanda , Burundi, Angola, Namibia...Lakes region of Central Africa on land that is easy to exploit but difficult to control. Since the 1994 genocide in Rwanda , which prompted massive...incumbent Hutu government in neighboring Rwanda initiated a genocide of the Tutsi population. The Tutsi Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) capitalized on the

  13. Violence against sex workers by police and military in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombeni, Alphonse Mihigo; Crago, Anna Louise

    2008-12-01

    Sex workers in the Sud-Kivu district of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are regularly subjected to sexual and other forms of violence. In this article, based on a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Alphonse Mihigo Ombeni and Anna Louise Crago describe the negative impacts of this violence on the sex workers' health and working conditions. Many have become HIV-positive.

  14. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised controlled…

  15. Microbiologic and Clinical Features of Salmonella Species Isolated From Bacteremic Children in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Nyarukweba, Deo Z.; Ndeba, Prudence M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The morbidity of Salmonella bloodstream infections is unacceptably high in Africa. In 2000, the WHO Global Salmonella-Surveillance (GSS) program was founded to reduce the health burden of foodborne diseases. The incorporation, in 2002, of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC......) in this program allowed the improvement of laboratory capacities. In this retrospective study, we describe the first signs of impact the GSS program has had in DRC in the management of bacteremia. Methods: Between 2002 and 2006, we evaluated, in one pediatric hospital, the microbiologic and clinical features...

  16. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  17. The Congo Trap: MONUSCO Islands of Stability in the Sea of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 2014 was a hopeful year for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. The M23 movement had been defeated in military operations in which one of the last peacekeeping experiments, the UN Force Intervention Brigade, had played a decisive role. A third UN stabilization plan, the ‘islands of stability’ was proposed to continue the stabilization of a country considered in a post-conflict phase. However, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs has almost tripled in the country since 2007. This article will argue that DRC is still immersed into an old social conflict that existed before the Congo Wars and the roots of which are not being addressed. It will argue that the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO and the ‘islands of stability’ strategy can address some of the secondary causes of the Congo conflict, such as its internationalization, the presence in DRC of foreign armed groups or the ‘blood minerals’, but cannot address its primary causes: land struggles, an old cycle of violence and the fragmentation of the Congolese society and political elite that is jeopardizing the restoration of the state authority. The huge dimensions of each of these factors make the Congo conflict ‘one of the most complex and intricate environments ever faced by a peacekeeping mission’, for which MONUSCO’s mandate, resources and stabilization strategy do not seem powerful enough. When the UN organized the 2006 elections legitimized a ‘spoiler state’, the bottleneck of all the reforms needed to stabilize the country. The UN fell thus into a trap and became part of the conflict. Lessons learned should be taken for future UN operations.

  18. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  19. The state of emergency care in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the second largest country on the African continent with a population of over 70 million. It is also a major crossroad through Africa as it borders nine countries. Unfortunately, the DRC has experienced recurrent political and social instability throughout its history and active fighting is still prevalent today. At least two decades of conflict have devastated the civilian population and collapsed healthcare infrastructure. Life expectancy is low and government expenditure on health per capita remains one of the lowest in the world. Emergency Medicine has not been established as a specialty in the DRC. While the vast majority of hospitals have emergency rooms or salle des urgences, this designation has no agreed upon format and is rarely staffed by doctors or nurses trained in emergency care. Presenting complaints include general and obstetric surgical emergencies as well as respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses. Most patients present late, in advanced stages of disease or with extreme morbidity, so mortality is high. Epidemics include HIV, cholera, measles, meningitis and other diarrhoeal and respiratory illnesses. Lack of training, lack of equipment and fee-for-service are cited as barriers to care. Pre-hospital care is also not an established specialty. New initiatives to improve emergency care include training Congolese physicians in emergency medicine residencies and medic ranger training within national parks.

  20. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included

  1. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  2. Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Lutte contre la violence, l'inégalité et la criminalité à Mbujimayi, en République démocratique du Congo. Comme bon nombre de villes de la République démocratique du Congo, Mbujimayi connaît une croissance de l'inégalité, de la violence et de la crimina. Voir davantageLutte contre la violence, ...

  3. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  4. Sistema interactivo de aprendizaje como elemento de apoyo a los procesos de sustentabilidad y educación inclusiva, aplicado en comunidades lejanas de la República Democrática del Congo Interactive learning system as a support in processes of sustainability and inclusive education, applied in distant communities of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Rolando Anaguano Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente es un artículo de reflexión, el cual resalta la importancia de los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje como estrategia de apoyo a los lineamientos actuales de las Naciones Unidas, relacionados con los procesos de sustentabilidad global y educación inclusiva. Contiene la reflexión y descripción, de una investigación realizada por dos integrantes del grupo ARKADIUS del programa en Ingeniería de Sistemas de la Universidad de Medellín, cuyo objetivo general consistió en diseñar un sistema interactivo de aprendizaje para La República Democrática del Congo - África. Metodológicamente fue una investigación de tipo aplicativo-experimental la cual generó un prototipo de software diseñado a la medida para apoyar las estrategias postuladas por la teoría de aprendizaje mixto (B-Learning. El modelo pedagógico sugerido, las herramientas tecnológicas utilizadas y la movilización de un equipo investigativo internacional interdisciplinario constituyen igualmente, un aporte a los procesos de internacionalización y proyección social de la educación.This document is a reflection, which highlights the importance of the virtual learning environments as strategy to support the current tendencies of the United Nations, related to the processes of global sustainability and inclusive education. It contains the reflection and description of a research carried out by two members of the ARKADIUS research group of Computer Science Engineering program of Universidad de Medellín; which general target consisted of designing an interactive learning system for the Democratic Republic of Congo - Africa. Methodologically it was an applicative-experimental research, which generated a prototype of software tailored to support the strategies stated by the theory of Blended Learning. The pedagogic model suggested, technological tools used, and the mobilization of an international and interdisciplinary research team, can be considered as a

  5. REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

    2014-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

  6. La violencia sexual en Kivu Sur, Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Abordar la violencia sexual y por motivos de género en la República Democrática del Congo (RDC) requerirá más recursos y coordinación. Un sistema judicial débil o inexistente disuade a las sobrevivientes de denunciar a sus agresores. El número de agresiones sigue aumentando y los perpetradores quedan impunes.

  7. Antiretroviral treatment program retention among HIV-infected children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ditekemena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where the antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A review of medical records of HIV-infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%-90.8% at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%-87.6% at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%-82.8% at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%-78.5% at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. CONCLUSIONS: Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS.

  8. Accelerated thermal and radiative ageing of hydrogenated NBR for DRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, G.; Notingher, P.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerated thermal and gamma radiation ageing of HNBR carbon black-T80 has been studied by measuring the residual deformation under constant deflection -- DRC, in air, using a relevant equation for the relaxation phenomena. The residual deformation under constant deflection during the process of accelerated ageing is increasing but the structure of polymer answers in the proper manner to the mechanical stress. The degradation equations were obtained, using Alfrey model for the relaxation polymer subject to compression and an Arrhenius dependence for the chemical reaction rate. The inverted relaxation time for the thermal degradation is depending on the chemical reaction rate and the dose rate of gamma radiation

  9. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  10. The UN’s moral responsibility in the ‘spill-over’ of genocide from Rwanda to the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kovras, I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in how societies and states should address past wrongdoing. Despite attention to issues of responsibility and moral reparation, however, institutional (moral) responsibility remains relatively unstudied. To this end, the article critically evaluates the UN’s moral responsibility in the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II, namely the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It argues that the UN Security Council should be hel...

  11. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  12. 'They have embraced a different behaviour': transactional sex and family dynamics in eastern Congo's conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Beth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009-2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women's relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

  13. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    cover (potential or human-induced). First, we show simulations over the whole Congo basin at a 0.5° spatial resolution. Then, we present high-resolution simulations (1 km) carried out over different areas of the Congo basin, notably the DRC part of the WWF Lake Tele - Lake Tumba Landscape. Studied in the BIOSERF project, this area is characterized by a forest-savannah mosaic but also by swamp and flooded forest. In addition, forward transient projections of the model driven with the outputs of about thirty global climate models (GCMs) from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) will permit to outline the likely response of carbon pools to changing climate over the Congo basin during the 21th century.

  14. Country Presentation Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwata, P.K.; SAKI, A.; KAZADI, J.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive minerals, precious metals and nuclear materials is generally expanded practice in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The phenomenon took place early in 1990 and amplified from 1998. The main causes of this practice are political instability that led to general poverty among population and the lack of legal framework governing the exploitation of minerals. Nuclear Illicit trafficking in Congo concerns radioactive mineral sand precious metals in eastern and southern parts of the country. The unfavorable political environment that took place in Congo in the 1990s resulted in local manpower and mine workers immigrating to neighboring countries. A great fraction of these new jobless started exploiting abandoned mines residues searching for Cu, Co and Au for survival. First cases of illicit exploitation of uranium minerals were reported very soon after rock sliding that occurred in 2004 on Shinkolobwe site in Katanga region. This uncontrolled mineral exploitation got worse when several mining companies were licensed by GECAMINES company to explore, exploit, purchase minerals from individuals and export raw materials and concentrates.

  15. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  16. L’optimisation juridique du paiement pour services environnementaux en faveur de la préservation des services environnementaux : le cas du Cameroun et de la République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise-Pascal Ntirumenyerwa Mihigo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study starts from a hypothesis on the coherence and compatibility of the legal instruments in force in Cameroon and in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC with the optimization of payment for environmental services (PES and the preservation of environmental services. This study has employed a legal approach and interviews in order to investigate whether there is coherence and compatibility or not between the two variables of this hypothesis: (1 the legal instruments in force in Cameroon and in the DRC and (2 the optimization of PES and the preservation of environmental services. This study consists of three parts. The first part deals with the theoretical framework of PES and the place of PES in the legal order. In this first part, the definition of an optimal PES, the indicators of an optimal PES and the categories of legal frameworks on PES have been revealed. These are the fundamental elements to conduct a systematic analysis in the second and third parts. Based on these fundamental elements, the study analyses the legal instru- ments from international, regional (Africa and domestic (Cameroon and the DRC levels and investigates through field research two PES projects, one in Cameroon called “PES comminatory project” and another in the DRC called “REDD CBFF-Luki” respectively in the second and the third parts. From the analysis of these legal instruments and the investigation of these two PES projects, it has become apparent that there is a lack of coherence and compatibility between the legal instruments and these two PES projects in Cameroon and in the DRC, and the optimization of PES and the preservation of environmental services in the Congo Basin in general, especially in these two States. Useful recommendations have been made to eradicate these shortcomings. Key words: payment for environmental services, environmental services, Congo Basin

  17. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  18. Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Mary M; Chitale, Rohit; Burns, Cara C; Iber, Jane; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Chen, Qi; Van Koko, Djo-Roy; Ewetola, Raimi; Riziki, Yogolelo; Kavunga-Membo, Hugo; Dah, Cheikh; Andriamihantanirina, Rija

    2018-03-16

    The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence. This process occurs during extensive person-to-person transmission in populations with low immunity or after extended replication in the intestines of immune-deficient persons following vaccination (1-6). During 2017 (as of March 8, 2018), 25 VDPV cases were reported in three provinces in DRC: in Tanganyika province, an emergence with one VDPV2 case (pending final classification) in Kabalo health zone and an emergence with one ambiguous VDPV type 1 (aVDPV1) case in Ankoro health zone; in Maniema province, an emergence with two cVDPV2 cases; and in Haut Lomami province, an emergence with 20 cVDPV2 cases that originated in Haut Lomami province and later spread to Tanganyika province (hereafter referred to as the Haut Lomami outbreak area) and an emergence with one aVDPV type 2 (aVDPV2) case in Lwamba health zone (Table 1) (Figure) (6). Outbreak response supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted during June-December 2017 (Table 2) (6). Because of limitations in surveillance and suboptimal SIA quality and geographic scope, cVDPV2 circulation is likely continuing in 2018, requiring additional SIAs. DRC health officials and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners are increasing human and financial resources to improve all aspects of outbreak response.

  19. Sexual violence toward children and youth in war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. METHODS: Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs and adult patients. FINDINGS: 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p72 hours after the assault was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007. Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006. Nine (2.9% pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34. INTERPRETATION: World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

  20. Human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: disease distribution and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbala, Crispin; Simarro, Pere P; Cecchi, Giuliano; Paone, Massimo; Franco, José R; Kande Betu Ku Mesu, Victor; Makabuza, Jacquies; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Chansy, Shampa; Priotto, Gerardo; Mattioli, Raffaele C; Jannin, Jean G

    2015-06-06

    For the past three decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been the country reporting the highest number of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). In 2012, DRC continued to bear the heaviest burden of gambiense HAT, accounting for 84 % of all cases reported at the continental level (i.e., 5,968/7,106). This paper reviews the status of sleeping sickness in DRC between 2000 and 2012, with a focus on spatio-temporal patterns. Epidemiological trends at the national and provincial level are presented. The number of HAT cases reported yearly from DRC decreased by 65 % from 2000 to 2012, i.e., from 16,951 to 5,968. At the provincial level a more complex picture emerges. Whilst HAT control in the Equateur province has had a spectacular impact on the number of cases (97 % reduction), the disease has proved more difficult to tackle in other provinces, most notably in Bandundu and Kasai, where, despite substantial progress, HAT remains entrenched. HAT prevalence presents its highest values in the northern part of the Province Orientale, where a number of constraints hinder surveillance and control. Significant coordinated efforts by the National Sleeping Sickness Control Programme and the World Health Organization in data collection, reporting, management and mapping, culminating in the Atlas of HAT, have enabled HAT distribution and risk in DRC to be known with more accuracy than ever before. Over 18,000 locations of epidemiological interest have been geo-referenced (average accuracy ≈ 1.7 km), corresponding to 93.6 % of reported cases (period 2000-2012). The population at risk of contracting sleeping sickness has been calculated for two five-year periods (2003-2007 and 2008-2012), resulting in estimates of 33 and 37 million people respectively. The progressive decrease in HAT cases reported since 2000 in DRC is likely to reflect a real decline in disease incidence. If this result is to be sustained, and if further progress is to be made

  1. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  2. L'approche « promotion de la santé », une alternative stratégique pour la santé des adolescents en République démocratique du Congo ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a review of the possibilities of improving HIV/AIDS prevention and reproductive health of teenagers and adolescents in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This approach was based on compilation of institutional, political, legislative and national strategy data. The document review was completed by information collected from 15 key informants and by direct observation of the work of peer educators and community workers, allowing evaluation of the possibilities of deve...

  3. Proyecto de prevención de las enfermedades diarreicas en la comunidad rural de Kasenga, República Democrática del Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Rodríguez, Laura

    2013-01-01

    El número de casos de enfermedades relacionadas con el agua, concretamente de enfermedades diarreicas, en los países en desarrollo aumenta cada día, siendo una de las principales causas de mortalidad en estas zonas del planeta, especialmente entre los menores de cinco años. La ausencia de saneamiento, de acceso a agua potable o de higiene son factores determinantes en la aparición y transmisión de estas enfermedades, que en algunos contextos llegan a considerarse como episodios habituales...

  4. From research to field action: example of the fight against cholera in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piarroux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the country in the world which reported the highest number of cholera cases to WHO from 2002 to 2007 (128 936 cases out of a worldwide 902 071 cases. We, therefore, implemented research work which intends to understand the epidemiology of cholera in the DRC and to ensure improvements in the strategy to fight against cholera. This broad study enabled us to accurately determine the cholera epidemic’s mechanisms on different scales; to identify the source zones of the disease, and the groups of populations acting as vectors of the spread. It was then possible to demonstrate the role of “sanctuary”, played by some suburbs of lakeside cities. A collaborative network, including several scientific institutions in Europe and in the DRC, local and national government administrations in the field of public health and sanitation, international agencies, NGOs and private foundations, was progressively set up. Following the conclusions of our epidemiological studies, a drastic change of strategy was proposed: the limited curative approach on the one hand, the few existing water/sanitation programs on the other hand, have been merged in a global approach involving a larger scale water and sanitation infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, hygiene awareness and medical surveys targeting a few focus areas playing a central role in the epidemics. In conclusion, by better targeting intervention zones, one can gather human and technical resources previously scattered on the vast territory of the DRC. The strategy presented here revives the hope to eliminate cholera in the DRC.La République Démocratique du Congo (RDC est le pays qui a déclaré le plus grand nombre de cas de choléra à l’OMS entre 2002 et 2007 (128 936 cas sur un nombre total de 902 071 de cas dans le monde. Face à cette situation, nous avons mis en œuvre un travail de recherche qui vise à comprendre l’épidémiologie du

  5. Unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other risk factors for intimate partner violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Ntenda, Peter A M; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-07

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world; however, few studies have focused on this issue. In this study, we assessed the interrelationship among intimate partner violence (IPV), unintended pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other sociodemographic factors in the DRC. Our analyses were based on data from the DRC demographic and health survey, conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. We constructed generalized estimating equation models to analyze the data from a sample of 5,120 married women. Our results showed that having a husband or partner who exhibited controlling behaviors, women who justified wife-beating, having a mother who had experienced IPV, and having a husband or partner who consumed alcohol were positively associated with IPV, whereas decision-making autonomy among women was negatively associated with IPV. In the community, the proportion of women who had experienced IPV and that of those who had completed secondary or higher education were positively and negatively associated with any IPV type, respectively. In addition, emotional IPV and any IPV type were positively associated with pregnancy loss. Our results indicate the necessity of implementing programs targeting gender equality at both individual and community levels.

  6. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  7. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p early child neurodevelopment and temperament. Children exposed to lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels <10 μg/dl, suggesting the need for preventive and intervention measures to reduce lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  8. Looking closer at the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna; Jiang, Wenran

    2011-01-01

    An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran.......An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran....

  9. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  10. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  11. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS Y FUNCIONALES DEL ALMIDÓN NATIVO DE ÑAME CONGO ( Dioscorea bulbifera L. PARA PREDECIR SUS POSIBLES USOS TECNOLÓGICOS I EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF NATIVE STARCH OF CONGO YAM ( Dioscorea bulbifera L. TO PREDICT ITS POSSIBLE TECHNOLOGICAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoska Meaño Correa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, the starches are mostly obtained from corn, potato, yuca and rice. Nonetheless, there are other sources for starch production and local consumption whose potential could be exploited, seeking alternatives to increase the added value to local agricultural products. Question arose about to evaluate chemical and functional properties of native starch from congo yam in order to predict its possible uses. With this purpose, bulbs of congo yam were collected in the town of Santa Ana of Anzoategui state, Venezuela, and starch was extracted from them for evaluating the yield, purity, chemical composition, amylose content, gel clarity, swelling power and solubility. The starch yield was 7.44%, and its purity was 99.29%. The chemical composition (on dry basis was of 11.29% moisture, 0.29% protein, 0.21% fat, 0.21% ash and 0.0047% phosphorus. The average content of amylose and amylopectin was 30.63 and 69.37%, respectively. As to the functional properties of starchits swelling power had a maximum of 49.05 g gel/g of starch at 95°C, clear gel formation with a transmittance rate of 91 % and a solubility that increases as the temperature rises. These results indicate that the yam congo is a source of starch with advantageous properties, a high amylose content, a clear gel with high swelling power

  13. Identification of Dengue and Chikungunya Cases Among Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Abbate, Jessica L; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Nsio-Mbeta, Justus; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Becquart, Pierre; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-16

    For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong, Rift Valley fever, Zika, and YFV. The average age of patients was 22.1 years. We reported 16 cases (3.5%; confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-5.2) of dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) and 2 cases (0.4%; CI: 0.0-1.0) of Chikungunya. Three patients were co-infected with the two serotypes of dengue virus. Three cases of dengue were found in early July 2010 from the city of Titule (Oriental province) during a laboratory-confirmed outbreak of yellow fever, suggesting simultaneous circulation of dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study showed that dengue and Chikungunya viruses are potential causes of acute febrile jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider dengue and Chikungunya diagnosis in the integrated disease surveillance and response program in the DRC. A prospective study is necessary to establish the epidemiology of these diseases.

  14. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukavina, A; Potapov, P V; Turubanova, S A; Hansen, M C; Stehman, S V; Baccini, A; Goetz, S J; Laporte, N T; Houghton, R A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000–2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr −1 ) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr −1 ) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC. (letter)

  15. Dorstenia luamensis (Moraceae, a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae, D. luamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN.

  16. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  17. Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies Among Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Vivian H; Doshi, Reena H; Mukadi, Patrick; Higgins, Stephen G; Hoff, Nicole A; Bwaka, Ado; Mwamba, Guillaume Ngoie; Okitolonda, Emile; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2018-01-01

    While generally mild in children, rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccination is not yet available as a part of routine immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the burden of infection is unknown. In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey, a serosurvey was carried out to assess population immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases. Dry blood spot samples collected from children 6-59 months of age were processed using the Dynex Technologies Multiplier FLEX chemiluminescent immunoassay platform (Dynex Technologies, Chantilly, VA). Among the 7195 6- to 59-month-old children, 33% were positive and <1% indeterminate for rubella antibodies in weighted analyses. Seroprevalence was positively associated with age of the child and province, with seropositivity highest in Bandundu (53%) and lowest in Kasai-Oriental (20%). In multivariate analyses, serologic evidence of infection was associated with age of the mother and child, socioeconomic status and geographic location. Rubella infection is prevalent among children in the DRC, and while most seroconversion occurs in young children, a significant proportion of children remain at risk and may enter reproductive age susceptible to rubella infection. While not currently in place, implementation of a surveillance program will provide improved estimates of both rubella virus circulation and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome. Such information will play an important role in future policy decisions, vaccine delivery strategies and may provide a basis upon which the effectiveness of rubella antigen introduction may be assessed.

  18. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  19. Creators of private health care businesses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: profile and sources of start-up funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chand, Masud; Disashi, Tumba G

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Jury 2010 to explore the creation of private health care businesses in Mbuji Mayi, the capital city of the Eastern Kasai Province (EKP), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The survey yielded 68 responses. The results indicated that the entrepreneurs were predominantly Congolese men with backgrounds in the health services field who had raised their start-up capital mostly from personal savings or from friends and family. Their businesses, which were mostly in the form of sole proprietorships, were likely to be located in areas underserved by government-owned medical facilities.

  20. Awareness and Perceptions of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Among Women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Muanda, Mbadu; Garcia, Mélissa; Matawa, Grace

    2017-09-01

    Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives. After facilitators explained emergency contraceptive pills' mechanism of action and other characteristics, participants were asked about the potential benefits and risks of making the method more widely available. Transcripts were analyzed using an iterative approach. Women reported employing a wide range of postcoital contraceptive behaviors, albeit often using inappropriate products, and generally agreed that emergency contraceptive pills seemed to be a potentially effective solution to their family planning needs. Perceived benefits and limitations of the method were almost always framed in reference to other, better-known contraceptives, and women expressed strong preferences for pharmacy-based provision that aligned with their usual behaviors for obtaining contraceptives. Participants were reluctant to see the method available for free. Emergency contraceptive pills have the potential to address gaps in the family planning method mix in the DRC. Assessing whether women have incomplete or erroneous information about family planning methods can provide better understanding of women's contraceptive choices in low-income countries.

  1. Polio immunity and the impact of mass immunization campaigns in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-09

    In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative

  3. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-12-23

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception-medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and

  4. Heath Sector Network Governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-12-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However, the role of these interactions in creating a governance network in the health sector has been underexplored. Using data from 18 months of qualitative field research, this study aimed to explore governance networks in DRC's health sector, examining how multiple stakeholders work to manage the health system and how the resulting governance network has been relevant for the state-building process. The findings demonstrate that the health sector in South Kivu is emerging as an arena of networked governance based on active partnerships between state institutions and non-state actors. Interactions between state and non-state actors account for the persistence of the health sector in a setting characterized by state weakness. However, networked governance does not function optimally, because, although non-state interventions fill the void where the state falls short, the DRC state has faced the challenge of interacting with partners with fragmented and horizontally competing agendas. Although weak, the shadow of state authority is present in the arena of stakeholders' interactions, as the state plays a determining role by providing a regulatory framework. Overall, the findings show that the interactive engagement of non-state actors contributes to improving institutional capacity through these actors' engagement with state institutions for health system management and institutional development. However, although networked health sector governance does contribute to state capacity, it is difficult to assess the real influence of these interactions on the state-building process in a context of critical fragility, where coordination and alignment have been problematic. © The

  5. [Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazira, L; Coulibaly, T; Mayenga, M; Ncharre, C; Yogolelo, R; Mbule, A; Moudzeo, H; Lwamba, P; Mulumba, A W; Cabore, J

    2015-10-01

    According to the WHO records of 2013, the incidence of poliomyelitis was reduced by more than 99%, the number of endemic countries decreased from 125 in 1988 to 3 in 2013 and over 10 million cases were prevented from poliomyelitis thanks to the intensive use of Oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus strains (cVDPV), causing serious epidemics like the wild poliovirus, is a major challenge on the final straight towards the goal of eradication and OPV cessation. This paper describes the cVDPVoutbreak that occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from November 2011 to April 2012. All children under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and confirmed presence of cVDPV in the stool samples were included. Thirty (30) children, all from the administrative territories of Bukama and Malemba Nkulu in the Katanga Province (south-east DRC), were reported. The virus responsible was the cVDPV type 2 (0.7% -3.5% divergent from the reference Sabin 2 strain) in 29 children (97%) and the ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus strain (0.7% divergent) was confirmed in one case (3%), a boy seventeen months old and already vaccinated four times with OPV. Twentyfive children (83%) were protected by any of the routine EPI vaccines and 3 children (10%) had never received any dose of OPV. In reaction, DRC has conducted five local campaigns over a period of 10 months (from January to October 2012) and the epidemic was stopped after the second round performed in March 2012. As elsewhere in similar conditions, low immunization coverage, poor sanitation conditions and the stop of the use of OPV2 have favoured the emergence of the third cVDPV epidemic in DRC. The implementation of the Strategic Plan for Polio eradication and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018 will prevent the emergence of cVDPV and set up the conditions for a coordinated OPV phase out.

  6. Who is Responsible for Instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Sidorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the problem of military-political instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo experiencing continued armed conflict for a long time. Dozens of illegal armed groups both Congolese and foreign origin continue to destabilize situation in the eastern part of the country causing humanitarian disasters. Due to governmental weakness, economic backwardness, chronical lack of finance resources, interethnic conflicts, all-round and widely spread corruption of the authorities, the Congolese government at the moment is not able to overcome scores of problems including the problem of security. Assistanceprovided to the DRC by itspartnerssuch as, first of all, the former metropolitan country Belgium, as well as the USA, Great Britain, the Europe Union and China works only in favourof these country-donors. They are attracted by rich Congolese natural resources which the DRC remaining one of the poorest countries in the world cannot turn to advantage to the full extent because of its economic backwardness. In exchange for so-calleddevelopment programmes, expensive strategic raw material (such as coltan, wolfram, casseterit, cooper, gold, niobium, and other is being extracted and exported from the country, in addition, often on the inequivalent basis. This is taking place for the reason that numerous mines and open-cast mines are being controlled by different illegal armed groups and not by the central government. Therefore, it turns out that in the context of a military-political crisis, for so-called partners it is more beneficial to pursue their own interests. Furthermore, western ideologists arouse "separatism-oriented" theories similar to "balkanization", in other words, a breakdown of this giant country into several independent states. The Congolese are tremulous to this issue, they try to counter such approachs and defend the territorial integrity of the DRC. However, it is not an easy task. The impediment is unsettled

  7. Patterns of Congenital Malformations and Barriers to Care in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available An increase of congenital anomalies in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has been reported. Congenital malformations (CMs are not uncommon among newborns and, if left untreated, can contribute to increased neonate morbidity and mortality.Medical records of all individuals admitted with a diagnosed CM to HEAL Africa Teaching Hospital (Goma, DRC from 2002 to 2014 (n=1301 were reviewed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics to summarize chart records, and inferential statistics to investigate significant barriers to earlier treatment.Since 2012, the number of patients treated each year for CMs has increased by over 200% compared to the average annual number of cases treated from 2002-2011. Though delayed presentation of patients to HEAL Hospital was very obvious, with an average age of 8.2 years. We find that patient age has been significantly decreasing (p=0.037 over time. The average distance separating patients from HEAL Hospital was 178 km, with approximately one third living 350 km or further from the treatment center. Distance is the most significant (p=3.33x10(-6 barrier to earlier treatment. When controlling for an interaction between gender and the use of mercy funds, we also find that female patients are at a significant (p=1.04x10(-3 disadvantage to undergo earlier corrective surgery. This disadvantage is further illustrated by our finding that 89% of women and girls, and over 81% of all patients, required mercy funds to cover the cost of surgery in 2014. Lastly, the mortality rate for surgery was low and averaged less than 1.0%.Despite a formal end to the war in 2009, and an overall increase in individuals undergoing corrective surgery, distance, poverty, and gender are still massive barriers to CM care at HEAL Hospital, Goma, DRC. We find that patients have been successfully treated earlier by HEAL, although the average age of CM correction in 2014 (4.9 years is still above average for Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus

  8. Seismic hazard in the DRC and Western Rift Valley of Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic approach was used to assess the seismic hazard in Democratic Republic of Congo and surrounding areas. Seismic hazard maps were prepared using a 90-year catalogue compiled for homogeneous Ms magnitudes; the attenuation relations...

  9. Psychological Fitness - Experiences from UN Military Peace Enforcement Operations in the DRC April 2003 - January 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isberg, Jan

    2006-01-01

    .... However, uncontrolled armed groups and local forces, foreign rebel groups and some dissident elements within the Congolese National Army, all mainly located in Eastern Congo, did not accept the Peace Agreement...

  10. The Clones of 'Mr Kurtz': Violence, War and Plunder in the DRC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clones of 'Mr Kurtz': Violence, War and Plunder in the DRC. Mwesiga Baregu. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2002 7(2): 11-38). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v7i2.27329 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  11. Bendamustine and rituximab (BR) versus dexamethasone, rituximab, and cyclophosphamide (DRC) in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludo, Jonas; Abeykoon, Jithma P; Shreders, Amanda; Ansell, Stephen M; Kumar, Shaji; Ailawadhi, Sikander; King, Rebecca L; Koehler, Amber B; Reeder, Craig B; Buadi, Francis K; Dispenzieri, Angela; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Witzig, Thomas E; Go, Ronald S; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Kourelis, Taxiarchis; Warsame, Rahma; Leung, Nelson; Habermann, Thomas M; Hayman, Suzanne; Lin, Yi; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Gertz, Morie A; Kapoor, Prashant

    2018-04-03

    The treatment approaches for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) are largely based upon information from single-arm phase II trials, without comparative data. We compared the efficacy of two commonly used regimens in routine practice (bendamustine-rituximab (BR) and dexamethasone, rituximab plus cyclophosphamide (DRC)) and evaluated their activity with respect to the patients' MYD88 L265P mutation status. Of 160 consecutive patients, 60 received BR (43 with relapsed/refractory WM) and 100 received DRC (50 had relapsed/refractory WM). In the treatment-naïve setting, overall response rate (ORR) was 93% with BR versus 96% with DRC (p = 0.55). Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) with BR and DRC was 88 and 61%, respectively (p = 0.07). In salvage setting, ORR was 95% with BR versus 87% with DRC, p = 0.45; median PFS with BR was 58 versus 32 months with DRC (2-year PFS was 66 versus 53%; p = 0.08). Median disease-specific survival was not reached with BR versus 166 months with DRC (p = 0.51). The time-to-event endpoints and depth of response were independent of the MYD88 mutation status. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events of both regimens were comparable. A trend for longer PFS was observed with BR although the regimens have comparable toxicities. The activity of BR and DRC appears to be unaffected by patients' MYD88 mutation status.

  12. Dr.C. Guillermo Amaro Ivonet: modelo de profesional entregado al ejercicio de la pediatría en Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Peña Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se mencionan importantes aspectos de la vida y obra del Dr.C. Guillermo Amaro Ivonet; personalidad científica consagrada a la asistencia médica de la población infantil. La influencia de este ilustre pediatra en la formación de los médicos de niños de Santiago de Cuba ha sido encomiable. Su querida ciudad natal y su patria toda, se enorgullecen de haber podido contar con su prodigiosa sapiencia, caballerosidad, humanismo, ética profesional y ayuda médica para los más débiles, por más de 50 años

  13. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  14. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. Methods This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013–14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Results Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother’s age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother’s BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother’s education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Conclusions Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address

  15. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveledi Blandine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC and family planning (FP. Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive. Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1 providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2 improving supply management systems; 3 providing comprehensive competency

  16. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  18. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.

  19. High Prevalence and Diversity of Hepatitis Viruses in Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ngwaka-Matsung, Nadine; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Onanga, Richard; Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Gerber, Athenaïs; Abbate, Jessica L; Mwamba, Dieudonné; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Becquart, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D (HDV), and hepatitis E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis B core protein [HBc] IgM, respectively), HCV, and HDV. Viral loads and genotypes were determined for HBV and HVD. Viral hepatitis serological markers were diagnosed in 218 (43.7%) patients. The seroprevalences were 16.7% for HAV, 24.6% for HBV, 2.3% for HCV, and 10.4% for HEV, and 26.1% of HBV-positive patients were also infected with HDV. Median viral loads were 4.19 × 10 5 IU/ml for HBV (range, 769 to 9.82 × 10 9 IU/ml) and 1.4 × 10 6 IU/ml for HDV (range, 3.1 × 10 2 to 2.9 × 10 8 IU/ml). Genotypes A, E, and D of HBV and genotype 1 of HDV were detected. These high hepatitis prevalence rates highlight the necessity to include screening for hepatitis viruses in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. Copyright © 2017 Makiala-Mandanda et al.

  20. Beyond the hype? The response to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Douma, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has witnessed a high prevalence of sexual violence since the wars of the mid-1990s. The huge response to it commenced around the turn of the century, but turned to 'hype' towards 2010. The paper defines 'hypes' as phenomena characterised by a media frenzy, eagerness by non-governmental organisations, and pragmatic local responses. Interviews and analyses conducted in 2011 revealed misuse of services and misrepresentation at different levels. The paper goes on to review medical and legal assistance and to provide evidence of incremental improvements in the response since 2012. It has become better coordinated, with more engagement by the DRC government, more community-oriented, and has incorporated a broader notion of gender-based violence. Nonetheless, concern remains about its impact and its continued dependence on international resources. There is apprehension too about social reactions to the problems of corruption and impunity, seemingly adding to the confusion surrounding gender relations in the country. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  1. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Its Association among Mothers of under 5 Children in Kwango District, DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sarita; Lee, Tae Ho; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-04-25

    The benefit of the breastfeeding has been well-established. In comparison to partial breast feeding, exclusive breastfeeding has even more benefits. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in order to better target public health interventions in this community towards healthier infant nutrition and address child mortality in this population. A cross-sectional survey among 1145 random households was conducted in the Kwango district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during 2 November 2015 to 13 November 2015. Women of reproductive age from 15-49 years and having less than 5 years old child were selected for the study. Chi-squared test and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS. A major finding of this study is 49.2% of the mothers are exclusively breastfeeding their children, and marital status, literacy, place of delivery, knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and access to radio are the key indicators for exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding rate is almost equivalent to the national prevalence rate for the DRC. Providing adequate knowledge to raise awareness of exclusive breast feeding and increase involvement of health care providers in enhancing knowledge through antenatal care and during delivery and postnatal care will be the best approaches to increase exclusive breastfeeding practice.

  3. Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Its Association among Mothers of under 5 Children in Kwango District, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Dhakal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of the breastfeeding has been well-established. In comparison to partial breast feeding, exclusive breastfeeding has even more benefits. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in order to better target public health interventions in this community towards healthier infant nutrition and address child mortality in this population. A cross-sectional survey among 1145 random households was conducted in the Kwango district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC during 2 November 2015 to 13 November 2015. Women of reproductive age from 15–49 years and having less than 5 years old child were selected for the study. Chi-squared test and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS. A major finding of this study is 49.2% of the mothers are exclusively breastfeeding their children, and marital status, literacy, place of delivery, knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and access to radio are the key indicators for exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding rate is almost equivalent to the national prevalence rate for the DRC. Providing adequate knowledge to raise awareness of exclusive breast feeding and increase involvement of health care providers in enhancing knowledge through antenatal care and during delivery and postnatal care will be the best approaches to increase exclusive breastfeeding practice.

  4. [Knowledge of the general population about hypertension and diabetes mellitus in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchunga, P B; Malanda, B; Mweze, M C; Dupont, B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kabinda, J M; Buysschaert, M

    2012-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country in a post-conflict period, high priority cannot be given to non-communicable diseases other than to emergencies. This certainly involves inadequacy in raising awareness for prevention of these diseases. To evaluate the level of knowledge of the Congolese general population on hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Responses to a questionnaire from 3% of the general population aged 15 and older in the city of Bukavu and two rural areas: Hombo and Walungu (South Kivu, eastern DRC), recruited after stratification by ward in the city of Bukavu and a group of prone villages were expected. The questions focused on identification, testing, causes, complications and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the 7770 respondents, screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus affected only 14.9% and 7.3% of subjects respectively. Knowledge of these two conditions was generally low in the general population, although better in the subgroups of patients and those with higher socioeconomic level (Pknowledge (Pknowledge about hypertension and diabetes mellitus and their testing in South Kivu is low. It is imperative that the Congolese government includes non-communicable diseases in its priorities of the millennium. Similarly, the WHO should actively contribute to screening for them in low-income countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellety Emmanuel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance employed wherever feasible.

  6. The association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment during ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Hall, Brian J; Joosse, Petra

    2013-03-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has suffered from a bloody conflict for more than a decade. More than 5,400,000 people died from war-related causes since 1998 and exposure to violence was wide-spread. This study investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on perceived health and physical and social functioning, filling an important gap in the current literature. Data were collected from a sample of 93 adults living in Bunia, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Structured in-person interviews included the PTSD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Additional questions were included to assess social resources. Study recruitment was balanced to achieve equal representation of both sexes and each quarter of town. Forty percent met symptom criteria for probable PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported poor perceived general health and had high disability scores compared to those without PTSD. Of the three PTSD symptom clusters, hyperarousal was most strongly associated with disability. Individuals with PTSD were significantly more emotionally affected by their health problems than those without PTSD (85% versus 41%), had more difficulties in activities involving social contact (54% versus 16%) and in doing their daily work (54% versus 20%). The impact of war-related violence on mental health is severe in the DRC. Psychosocial interventions developed in conflict areas might be best targeted primarily to supporting social functioning and reducing hyperarousal. Implications for clinical treatment and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stigma Among Survivors of Sexual Violence in Congo: Scale Development and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sarah McIvor; Robinette, Katie L; Bolton, Paul; Cetinoglu, Talita; Murray, Laura K; Annan, Jeannie; Bass, Judith K

    2018-02-01

    Stigma related to sexual violence (SV) is associated with many negative physical and social outcomes. We sought to create a contextually relevant measure of SV-related stigma for women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and assess itspsychometrics and validity. Using baseline screening data from two randomized controlled trials of services for female SV survivors in Eastern DRC ( n = 1,184), we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the measurement model. Cronbach's alphas and Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) statistics were used to evaluate internal consistency. Logistic and linear regressions of the stigma measures with related constructs were used to assess construct validity. Two distinct but related scales were developed based on factor analyses: a four-item scale of discrimination-related stigma (i.e., enacted stigma) and an eight-item scale of combined perceived and internalized stigma (i.e., felt stigma). Both scales showed good internal consistency (KR-20 = .68; α = .86). A higher felt stigma score was associated with significant increases in combined depression and anxiety and trauma symptoms, as well as functional impairment ( p < .001). Having a child as a result of SV was associated with both significantly higher enacted and felt stigma ( p < .001). Neither SV stigma scale was associated with medical care seeking. To address harmful ramifications of stigma among SV survivors, locally relevant quantitative measures are necessary to understand the nature and severity of stigma they experience. Our process of scale creation and evaluation can serve as an example for developing locally relevant SV-related stigma measures.

  8. Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity—insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Objective: Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Method: In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview. Results: A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions: The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants.

  9. Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Osadebe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human monkeypox (MPX occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases.Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014 from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses. A total of 333 laboratory-confirmed MPX cases, 383 laboratory-confirmed VZV cases, and 36 cases that were determined to not be either MPX or VZV were included in the analyses. Significant (p<0.05 differences between laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases were noted for several signs/symptoms including key rash characteristics. Both surveillance case definitions had high sensitivity and low specificities for individuals that had suspected MPX virus infections. Using 12 signs/symptoms with high sensitivity and/or specificity values, a receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that models for MPX cases that had the presence of 'fever before rash' plus at least 7 or 8 of the 12 signs/symptoms demonstrated a more balanced performance between sensitivity and specificity.Laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases presented with many of the same signs and symptoms, and the analysis here emphasized the utility of including 12 specific signs/symptoms when investigating MPX cases. In order to document and detect endemic human MPX cases, a surveillance case definition with more specificity is needed for accurate case detection. In the absence of a more specific case definition, continued emphasis on confirmatory laboratory-based diagnostics is warranted.

  10. Not only a man's world: Women's involvement in artisanal mining in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.R.; Cuvelier, J.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal mining is a key source of livelihood in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, an area mostly known for its chronic instability and violent conflict. Although men make up the majority of the artisanal mining population, mining is also central in the livelihoods of many girls

  11. What’s Sexual Violence Got to do with the Economy? The case of the DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cruz (Serena); H.M. Hintjens (Helen)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this paper, Serena Cruz and Helen Hintjens propose that in the Democratic Republic of Congo the unholy alliance of economic interests, forced labour, sexual predation, and killings that King Leopold of Belgium established from 1884 onwards resulted in structures of predatory,

  12. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-01-01

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013–14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014–2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  13. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-03-21

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013-14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014-2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  14. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Christina; Garfinkel, Danielle; Thanel, Katherine; Esch, Keith; Workalemahu, Endale; Anyanti, Jennifer; Mpanya, Godéfroid; Binanga, Arsène; Pope, Jen; Longfield, Kim; Bertrand, Jane; Shaw, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price. Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice. There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of decisions around

  15. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Riley

    Full Text Available An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice.In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price.Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice.There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of

  16. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Danielle; Thanel, Katherine; Esch, Keith; Workalemahu, Endale; Anyanti, Jennifer; Mpanya, Godéfroid; Binanga, Arsène; Pope, Jen; Longfield, Kim; Bertrand, Jane; Shaw, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Background An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector’s role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. Methods In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price. Findings Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice. Discussion There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector’s role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private

  17. The Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group of the eastern Congo Basin: An example of perennial lacustrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Alexis; Blanpied, Christian; Delvaux, Damien

    2017-08-01

    The intracratonic Congo Basin, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is the largest sedimentary basin of Africa. The Jurassic strata outcrop along its eastern margin, south of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville). In the last century, the Upper Jurassic Stanleyville Group was described as a lacustrine series containing a thin basal marine limestone designed as the ;Lime Fine; beds. Since the proposal of this early model, the depositional environment of the Stanleyville Group, and especially the possible marine incursion, has been debated, but without re-examining the existing cores, outcrop samples and historical fossils from the type location near Kisangani that are available at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (MRAC/KMMA, Tervuren, Belgium). In order to refine the former sedimentology, a series of nine exploration cores drilled in the Kisangani sub-basin have been described. This study aims at integrating sedimentary facies in existing sedimentary models and to discuss the hypothesis of the presence of Kimmeridgian marine deposits along the Congo River near Kisangani, a region which lies in the middle of the African continent. Eight facies have been identified, which permit a reinterpretation of the depositional environment and paleogeography of the Stanleyville Group. The base of the Stanleyville Group is interpreted to represent a conglomeratic fluvial succession, which filled an inherited Triassic paleotopography. Above these conglomerates, a transition to a typically lacustrine system is interpreted, which includes: (1) a basal profundal, sublittoral (brown to dark fine-grained siltstones with microbial carbonates, i.e., the ;Lime Fine; beds) and littoral lacustrine series; covered by (2) a sublittoral to profundal interval (brown to dark organic-rich, fine-grained siltstones), which corresponds to the maximum extent of the paleo-lake; and, finally (3) a shallow lacustrine series (greenish calcareous siltstones and sandstones with red siltstones

  18. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Russell A.; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B.; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M.; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four—Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—harbor 65% of the world’s primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  19. A qualitative analysis of psychosocial outcomes among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Mullen, Colleen; Rouhani, Shada; Kuwert, Philipp; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Burkhardt, Gillian; Onyango, Monica; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and has potentially devastating psychosocial consequences. Previous studies have reported on sexual violence and its impact on the mental health of survivors, but there are few studies conducted among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). Women with SVRPs may be at greater risk of complex psychosocial outcomes, including social stigmatization. This study aimed to describe psychosocial outcomes among this subgroup of sexual violence survivors in order to inform future interventions. A mixed methods study was conducted in Bukavu, DRC in 2012 among adult women who self-reported an SVRP and either (1) were currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group) or (2) had terminated an SVRP (termination group). This manuscript presents qualitative findings from the mixed methods study. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and a proportion engaged in semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted by trained female interviewers. Thematic content analysis was conducted and key themes were identified. In total, 55 women were interviewed, of whom 38 were in the parenting group and 17 in the termination group. Women with SVRPs experienced a myriad of emotional responses as they navigated their social environments following the SVRPs. Negative reactions, including social stigmatization and/or social rejection, toward women with SVRPs and toward children born from SVRPs were important influences on psychological well-being. Women expressed both internalized emotionality intertwined with externalized experiences in the social environment. Many women demonstrated resilience, or what could be termed post-traumatic growth, identifying avenues of agency to advance the social conditions for women. The findings from the qualitative study, and in particular, the respondents' needs and suggested strategies, may be useful to inform future research, programs, and

  20. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Mittermeier, Russell A; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nekaris, K A I; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B; Maisels, Fiona; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Bicca-Marques, Julio; Fuentes, Agustin; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Oliveira, Leonardo; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Talebi, Mauricio; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  1. Association of sexual violence and human rights violations with physical and mental health in territories of the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirsten; Scott, Jennifer; Rughita, Bigy; Kisielewski, Michael; Asher, Jana; Ong, Ricardo; Lawry, Lynn

    2010-08-04

    Studies from the Eastern Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have provided anecdotal reports of sexual violence. This study offers a population-based assessment of the prevalence of sexual violence and human rights abuses in specific territories within Eastern DRC. To assess the prevalence of and correlations with sexual violence and human rights violations on residents of specific territories of Eastern DRC including information on basic needs, health care access, and physical and mental health. A cross-sectional, population-based, cluster survey of 998 adults aged 18 years or older using structured interviews and questionnaires, conducted over a 4-week period in March 2010. Sexual violence prevalence and characteristics, symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), human rights abuses, and physical and mental health needs among Congolese adults in specific territories of Eastern DRC. Of the 1005 households surveyed 998 households participated, yielding a response rate of 98.9%. Rates of reported sexual violence were 39.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.2%-47.2%; n = 224/586) among women and 23.6% (95% CI, 17.3%-29.9%; n = 107/399) among men. Women reported to have perpetrated conflict-related sexual violence in 41.1% (95% CI, 25.6%-56.6%; n = 54/148) of female cases and 10.0% (95% CI, 1.5%-18.4%; n = 8/66) of male cases. Sixty-seven percent (95% CI, 59.0%-74.5%; n = 615/998) of households reported incidents of conflict-related human rights abuses. Forty-one percent (95% CI, 35.3%-45.8%; n = 374/991) of the represented adult population met symptom criteria for MDD and 50.1% (95% CI, 43.8%-56.3%; n = 470/989) for PTSD. Self-reported sexual violence and other human rights violations were prevalent in specific territories of Eastern DRC and were associated with physical and mental health outcomes.

  2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emadi Koochak H

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was first described in the Crimea in 1944 and then in 1956 in congo. CCHF is a viral hemorrhagic fever of the Nairovirus group that belongs to Bunyaviridae family virus. It is transmitted to human by tick bite. The most efficient and common tick that is the vectors of CCHF is a member of the Hyalomma genus which infected many mammals such as livestock, this tick is the main reservoire of virus in nature. Humans also become infected with CCHF virus by direct contact with blood or other infected tissues from livestock or human patients (nosocomial infection. Disease has been found in saharic Africa, Eastern Europe, Pakistan, India and Middle East (specially Iran and Iraq. This disease recently spread in Iran so in 1999 to 2001 at least 222 suspected case(81 definite case reported that led to the death of 15 of 81 cases. It is estimated that 30 percent of the country's cattle are contaminated with this virus."nIn humans, after a short incubation period it appears suddenly with fever, chills, myalgia and GI symptoms followed by severe bleeding and DIC that led to death .If the patient improved, has a long {2-4 weeks convalescence period. Disease diagnosed by clinical manifestations, serologic tests, viral culture and PCR and its specific treatment is oral ribavirin for 10 days, for prevention of disease personal protective measures from tick bite, spraying poison of mews to reduce of ticks crowd, isolation of patients and dis-infection of contaminated personal equipments that who suffering from CCHF is recommended.

  3. [The "health promotion" approach, a strategic alternative to teenagers' health in the Democratic Republic of Congo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a review of the possibilities of improving HIV/AIDS prevention and reproductive health of teenagers and adolescents in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This approach was based on compilation of institutional, political, legislative and national strategy data. The document review was completed by information collected from 15 key informants and by direct observation of the work of peer educators and community workers, allowing evaluation of the possibilities of development of the priority domains of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in young adolescents. Health promotion interventions for adolescents are globally ensured institutionally by three specialized programmes of the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with numerous national and international partners. Organized operationally outside of the primary health care circuit, strategic actions are more specifically directed towards acquisition of knowledge than individual skills by means of IEC (information, education and communication) and (BCC) (behaviour change communication) approaches, but with disappointing results. Although traces of these five priority domains of the Ottawa Charter are perceptible in the national response to the health problems of adolescents, the work of the various actors is not coordinated and organized in compliance with health promotion guidelines. The training of health workers appears to be a major determinant to structure this response around a dynamic federating the actions of all stakeholders to orient them towards the options of the health promotion approach.

  4. A model for analysis, systemic planning and strategic synthesis for health science teaching in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a vision for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levêque Alain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of training human resources in health is a real concern in public health in Central Africa. What can be changed in order to train more competent health professionals? This is of utmost importance in primary health care. Methods Taking into account the level of training of secondary-level nurses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, a systemic approach, based on the PRECEDE PROCEED model of analysis, led to a better understanding of the educational determinants and of the factors favourable to a better match between training in health sciences and the expected competences of the health professionals. This article must be read on two complementary levels: one reading, focused on the methodological process, should allow our findings to be transferred to other problems (adaptation of a health promotion model to the educational sphere. The other reading, revolving around the specific theme and results, should provide a frame of reference and specific avenues for action to improve human resources in the health field (using the results of its application in health science teaching in the DRC. Results The results show that it is important to start this training with a global and integrated approach shared by all the actors. The strategies of action entail the need for an approach taking into account all the aspects, i.e. sociological, educational, medical and public health. Conclusions The analysis of the results shows that one cannot bring any change without integrated strategies of action and a multidisciplinary approach that includes all the complex determinants of health behaviour, and to do it within the organization of local structures and institutions in the ministry of health in the DRC.

  5. A model for analysis, systemic planning and strategic synthesis for health science teaching in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a vision for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Florence; Kahombo, Gérard; Bapitani, Josué; Garant, Michèle; Coppieters, Yves; Levêque, Alain; Piette, Danielle

    2004-12-07

    BACKGROUND: The problem of training human resources in health is a real concern in public health in Central Africa. What can be changed in order to train more competent health professionals? This is of utmost importance in primary health care. METHODS: Taking into account the level of training of secondary-level nurses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a systemic approach, based on the PRECEDE PROCEED model of analysis, led to a better understanding of the educational determinants and of the factors favourable to a better match between training in health sciences and the expected competences of the health professionals. This article must be read on two complementary levels: one reading, focused on the methodological process, should allow our findings to be transferred to other problems (adaptation of a health promotion model to the educational sphere). The other reading, revolving around the specific theme and results, should provide a frame of reference and specific avenues for action to improve human resources in the health field (using the results of its application in health science teaching in the DRC). RESULTS: The results show that it is important to start this training with a global and integrated approach shared by all the actors. The strategies of action entail the need for an approach taking into account all the aspects, i.e. sociological, educational, medical and public health. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the results shows that one cannot bring any change without integrated strategies of action and a multidisciplinary approach that includes all the complex determinants of health behaviour, and to do it within the organization of local structures and institutions in the ministry of health in the DRC.

  6. Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cary; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Kibendelwa, Zacharie Tsongo; Brooks, Hannah; Zheng, Xiaonan; Hawkes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness. We examined the associations between variables using multivariable logistic regression analysis, chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation, as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three out of the 647 (19%) children in the study tested positive for malaria. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with a lower risk of malaria in their children. The prevalence of malaria in children of mothers with no education, primary school, and beyond primary was 41/138 (30%), 41/241 (17%), and 39/262 (15%), respectively (p = 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the effect of a child's age and study site, the following remained significant predictors of malaria antigenemia: maternal education, number of children under five per household, and HIV serostatus. Higher maternal education, through several putative causal pathways, was associated with lower malaria prevalence among children in the DRC. Our findings suggest that maternal education might be an effective 'social vaccine' against malaria in the DRC and globally.

  7. Stigma modifies the association between social support and mental health among sexual violence survivors in the Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Karin; Murray, Sarah M; Hall, Brian J; Annan, Jeannie; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judy

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to further understanding of the relationship between social support, internalized and perceived stigma, and mental health among women who experienced sexual violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Drawing from baseline survey data collected in eastern DRC, researchers conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis using data from 744 participants. Regression and moderation analyses were conducted to examine associations between social support variables, felt stigma, and depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional support seeking and felt stigma were positively associated with increased symptom severity across all three mental health variables. Stigma modified associations between emotional support seeking and depression (t = -2.49, p = .013), anxiety (t = -3.08, p = .002), and PTSD (t = -2.94, p = .003). Increased frequency of emotional support seeking was associated with higher mental health symptoms of anxiety and PTSD among women experiencing all levels of stigma. Enhancing understanding of social support and stigma may inform research and intervention among Congolese forced migrant populations across circumstances and geographic locations. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  8. Individual and household characteristics of persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sites with varying endemicities in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Levitz, Lauren; Thwai, Kyaw L; Parr, Jonathan B; Goel, Varun; Janko, Mark; Tshefu, Antoinette; Emch, Michael; Meshnick, Steven R; Carrel, Margaret

    2017-11-09

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites. Across seven sites, 242 households and 1591 individuals are participating in the study. Results of the enrollment questionnaire, rapid diagnostic tests and PCR testing of dried blood spots are presented. Overall malaria prevalence in the study cohort is high, 27% by rapid diagnostic test and 31% by polymerase chain reaction, and malaria prevalence is highly varied across very small geographic distances. Malaria prevalence is highest in children aged 6-15. While the majority of households own bed nets, bed net usage is less than 50%. The study cohort will provide an understanding of how malaria persists in populations that have varying environmental exposures, varying community-level malaria, and varying access to malaria control efforts.

  9. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  10. Peacekeeping in the Congo, 1999-2001: Success or Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    War. President Nelson Mandela was the chairman of the South African Development Community (SADC) in the summer of 1998 when the war broke out in the...DRC. President Mandela attempted to use his influence to bring peace to the region. On 3 September 1998, after high-level SADC meetings, President... Mandela announced the community’s support for the military interventions by its member states in the DRC conflict. President Mandela and his

  11. Demographics and care-seeking behaviors of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan A; Scott, Jennifer A; Leaning, Jennifer; Kelly, Jocelyn T; Joyce, Nina R; Mukwege, Denis; Vanrooyen, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the use of sexual violence. In spite of the brutality of these crimes, the experiences of women affected by sexual violence in Eastern DRC remain poorly characterized. This analysis aimed to (1) provide detailed demographics of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital; (2) examine how demographic factors might impact patterns of sexual violence; and (3) describe care-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors. The demographics and care-seeking behavior of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu Province were described from a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital (2004-2008). A total of 4311 records were reviewed. The mean age of survivors was 35 years. Most women (53%) were married, self-identified with the Bashi tribe (65%), and reported agriculture as their livelihood (74%). The mean time delay between sexual assault and seeking care was 10.4 months. Five reasons were identified to help explain the lengthy delays to seeking care: waiting for physical symptoms to develop or worsen before seeking medical attention, lack of means to access medical care, concerns that family would find out about the sexual assault, stigma surrounding sexual violence, and being abducted into sexual slavery for prolonged periods of time. Many sexual assault survivors have very delayed presentations to medical attention. Promoting timely access of medical care may best be facilitated by reducing stigma and by educating women about the benefits of early medical care, even in the absence of injuries or symptoms.

  12. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of different measles vaccination strategies for children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Reena H; Eckhoff, Philip; Cheng, Alvan; Hoff, Nicole A; Mukadi, Patrick; Shidi, Calixte; Gerber, Sue; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Muyembe-Tafum, Jean-Jacques; Kominski, Gerald F; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-27

    One of the goals of the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan is the reduction in global measles mortality, with high measles vaccination coverage as one of its core components. While measles mortality has been reduced more than 79%, the disease remains a major cause of childhood vaccine preventable disease burden globally. Measles immunization requires a two-dose schedule and only countries with strong, stable immunization programs can rely on routine services to deliver the second dose. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), weak health infrastructure and lack of provision of the second dose of measles vaccine necessitates the use of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to administer the second dose. We modeled three vaccination strategies using an age-structured SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model to simulate natural measles dynamics along with the effect of immunization. We compared the cost-effectiveness of two different strategies for the second dose of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV) to one dose of MCV through routine immunization services over a 15-year time period for a hypothetical birth cohort of 3 million children. Compared to strategy 1 (MCV1 only), strategy 2 (MCV2 by SIA) would prevent a total of 5,808,750 measles cases, 156,836 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $199 million. Compared to strategy 1, strategy 3 (MCV2 by RI) would prevent a total of 13,232,250 measles cases, 166,475 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $408 million. Vaccination recommendations should be tailored to each country, offering a framework where countries can adapt to local epidemiological and economical circumstances in the context of other health priorities. Our results reflect the synergistic effect of two doses of MCV and demonstrate that the most cost-effective approach to measles vaccination in DRC is to incorporate the second dose of MCV in the RI schedule provided that high enough coverage can be achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Health care seeking and financial behaviours of the elderly during wartime in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prosper Lutala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health and social services utilisation is seen to be more closely related to age than to other socio-demographic characteristics. Many health problems are known to increase with age and this demographic trend may lead to an increase in the absolute number of health conditions in this population. However, questions are still emerging as to how the elderly seek care in response to their needs in the context of a war-torn region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of the elderly in seeking care during a time of conflict. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the health district Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, using a multistage sampling of 500 senior citizens. Eight trained field-workers were deployed in the field where they administered a structured questionnaire. Results: The public health sector was well known and preferred by 186 participants (37.2%, but only used by 16 (3.2% participants. Financial support received by the elderly came from their own relatives and fellow believers in 33.5% and 20.2% of cases, respectively. Almost 71% of monetary support is the result of begging and unknown sources – there is no government involvement whatsoever. Much of the external support that the elderly receive involves support in the form of food. Disease expenses remain a main concern of the elderly themselves. Conclusion: Government support for the elderly in the DRC is non-existent. There is an overuse of private sector and traditional medicine, despite the preference indicated for the public health sector. As a recommendation, a general increase in income-related activities could contribute to alleviating the health state of the elderly in a war situation. Further studies might explore in future the contribution of those results on the health of elders.

  14. Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jacqueline; Valverde, Olaf; Mahoudeau, Claude; Yun, Oliver; Chappuis, François

    2011-05-26

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT. In 2007, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) began screening for HAT in the Haut-Uélé and Bas-Uélé districts of Orientale Province in northeastern DRC, an area of high prevalence affected by armed conflict. Through early 2009, HAT prevalence rate of 3.4% was found, reaching 10% in some villages. More than 46,000 patients were screened and 1,570 treated for HAT during this time. In March 2009, two treatment centres were forced to close due to insecurity, disrupting patient treatment, follow-up, and transmission-control efforts. One project was reopened in December 2009 when the security situation improved, and another in late 2010 based on concerns that population displacement might reactivate historic foci. In all of 2010, 770 patients were treated at these sites, despite a limited geographical range of action for the mobile teams. In conflict settings where HAT is prevalent, targeted medical interventions are needed to provide care to the patients caught in these areas. Strategies of integrating care into existing health systems may be unfeasible since such infrastructure is often absent in resource-poor contexts. HAT care in conflict areas must balance logistical and medical capacity

  15. Operations for Suspected Neoplasms in a Resource-Limited Setting: Experience and Challenges in the Eastern Democratic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bake, Jacques Fadhili; Bigabwa, Richard; Rothstein, David H; Cairo, Sarah B

    2018-07-01

    Surgery is an essential component of a functional health system, with surgical conditions accounting for nearly 11-15% of world disability. While communicable diseases continue to burden low- and low-middle-income countries, non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on malignancies in low- and middle-income countries, specifically in Africa, suggest a higher mortality compared to other regions of the world, a difference partially explained by limited availability of screening and early detection systems as well as poorer access to treatment. To evaluate the diagnosed tumor burden in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and review literature on existing and suspected barriers to accessing appropriate oncologic care. This is a retrospective study carried out at Healthcare, Education, community Action, and Leadership development Africa, a 197-bed tertiary referral hospital, in the Province of North Kivu, along the eastern border of the DRC from 2012 to 2015. Patient charts were reviewed for diagnoses of presumed malignancy with biopsy results. A total of 252 cases of suspected cancer were reviewed during the study period; 39.7% were men. The average age of patients was 43 years. Amongst adult patients, the most common presenting condition involved breast lesions with 5.8% diagnosis of fibrocystic breast changes and 2.9% invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. 37.3% of female patients had lesions involving the cervix or uterus. The most common diagnosis amongst male adults was prostate disease (16.7% of men). For pediatric patients, the most common diagnoses involved bone and/or cartilage (27.3%) followed by skin and soft tissue lesions (20.0%). All patients underwent surgical resection of lesions; some patients were advised to travel out of country for chemotherapy and radiation for which follow-up data are unavailable. Adequate and timely treatment of malignancy in the DRC

  16. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP. The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96, which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality

  17. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matendo, Richard; Engmann, Cyril; Ditekemena, John; Gado, Justin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Kinoshita, Rinko; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moore, Janet; Wallace, Dennis; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Bose, Carl

    2011-08-04

    In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs. This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no demonstrable effect on early

  18. Task shifting in the management of hypertension in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulebo, Aimée M; Kaba, Didine K; Atake, Silvestre E-H; Mapatano, Mala A; Mafuta, Eric M; Mampunza, Julien M; Coppieters, Yves

    2017-12-04

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized by a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and a high proportion of uncontrolled HTN, which is indicative of poor HTN management. Effective management of HTN in the African region is challenging due to limited resources, particularly human resources for health. To address the shortage of health workers, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends task shifting for better disease management and treatment. Although task shifting from doctors to nurses is being implemented in the DRC, there are no studies, to the best of our knowledge, that document the association between task shifting and HTN control. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between task shifting and HTN control in Kinshasa, DRC. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kinshasa from December 2015 to January 2016 in five general referral hospitals (GRHs) and nine health centers (HCs). A total of 260 hypertensive patients participated in the study. Sociodemographic, clinical, health care costs and perceived health care quality assessment data were collected using a structured questionnaire. To examine the association between task shifting and HTN control, we assessed differences between GRH and HC patients using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Almost half the patients were female (53.1%), patients' mean age was 59.5 ± 11.4 years. Over three-fourths of patients had uncontrolled HTN. There was no significant difference in the proportion of GRH and HC patients with uncontrolled HTN (76.2% vs 77.7%, p = 0.771). Uncontrolled HTN was associated with co-morbidity (OR = 10.3; 95% CI: 3.8-28.3) and the type of antihypertensive drug used (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.3-16.1). The mean healthcare costs in the GRHs were significantly higher than costs in the HCs (US$ 34.2 ± US$3.34 versus US$ 7.7 ± US$ 0.6, respectively). Uncontrolled HTN was not associated with the type of health facility. This finding suggests that the

  19. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-06-27

    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services ( P facilities were less likely than private facilities to have high-quality services ( P =.02). Among all 1,555 facilities surveyed, 14% had at least 3 types of methods available at the time of the survey; the most widely available methods were male condoms, combined oral

  20. Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT. Discussion In 2007, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF began screening for HAT in the Haut-Uélé and Bas-Uélé districts of Orientale Province in northeastern DRC, an area of high prevalence affected by armed conflict. Through early 2009, HAT prevalence rate of 3.4% was found, reaching 10% in some villages. More than 46,000 patients were screened and 1,570 treated for HAT during this time. In March 2009, two treatment centres were forced to close due to insecurity, disrupting patient treatment, follow-up, and transmission-control efforts. One project was reopened in December 2009 when the security situation improved, and another in late 2010 based on concerns that population displacement might reactivate historic foci. In all of 2010, 770 patients were treated at these sites, despite a limited geographical range of action for the mobile teams. Summary In conflict settings where HAT is prevalent, targeted medical interventions are needed to provide care to the patients caught in these areas. Strategies of integrating care into existing health systems may be unfeasible since such infrastructure is often absent in resource-poor contexts. HAT care in

  1. Democratic Republic of Congo Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Aterido, Reyes; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Merotto, Dino; Petracco, Carly; Sanchez-Reaza, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo is not creating sufficient jobs for its young and rapidly growing workforce. Although the Congolese economy has experienced fast growth and poverty has declined, further reducing poverty will require more dynamic job creation and continued reductions in fertility rates. The current youth bulge and potential demographic dividend will open a un...

  2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.

  3. Job satisfaction and its relationship with organisational commitment: A Democratic Republic of Congo organisational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Mitonga-Monga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The modern workplace, which is characterised by increasing turbulence and debilitating uncertainty, has led to renewed focus on whether employees experience satisfaction and how they commit themselves to the organisation. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the nature of the relationship between employees’ levels of job satisfaction (JS and organisational commitment (OC in a public railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Motivation for the study: Although previous researchers have found evidence of the relationship between JS and OC in Western countries, there seems to be a paucity of research on the relationship between JS and OC in a developing country context such as that of the DRC. The results could make a valuable contribution to the current literature debate on these two constructs (JS and OC and possibly employees’ intention to stay in their present organisation. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used employing the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Organisational Commitment Scale. The sample (n = 839 comprised permanently employed staff. Correlations and regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that employees’ JS related positively to their level of OC and that JS predicted OC. Practical and managerial implications: The results should also have interesting implications for top management and human resource practitioners. They could use this information to study how organisational psychological attachment is fostered in order to potentially master other organisational dynamics. The information could also be used to create positive working conditions with a view to reinforcing OC. JS manifested as a critical driver of OC, which could result in superior business performance. Management could use the results to create a working environment that actively fosters satisfaction and boosts employees’ level of

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of Disclosure Patterns among Women with Sexual Violence-Related Pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Monica Adhiambo Onyango

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1 to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP disclosure; 2 to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3 to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants. In South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, two sub-groups of sexual violence survivors completed qualitative interviews, those currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group, N = 38 and those who had terminated an SVRP (termination group, N = 17. The findings show that a majority of SVRPs were conceived when participants were held in sexual captivity for prolonged periods of time. The SVRPs were disclosed to friends, family members, other sexual violence survivors, community members, spouses, health care providers, or perpetrators. The confidants were most often chosen because they were perceived by the participants as being discreet, trusted, and supportive. The confidants often provided advice about continuing or terminating the SVRP. Trust and discretion are the most important factors determining to whom women with SVRPs disclose their pregnancies. The vital role of confidants in giving support after disclosure cannot be overlooked. Providing opportunities for survivors to safely disclose their SVRPs, including to health care providers, is a necessary first step in allowing them to access safe and comprehensive post-assault care and services.

  5. Monitoring Forest Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in the Congo Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC) and its partners (OFAC, USAID, EC-JRC, OSFAC, WWF, WRI, WCS, GOFC-GOLD, START, UN-FAO) organized an international conference on "Monitoring of Carbon stocks and fluxes in the Congo Basin" in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, 2-4 February 2010. The conference brought together leading international specialists to discuss approaches for quantifying stocks and flows of carbon in tropical forests of the Congo Basin. The conference provided a unique op...

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  7. Investigation of an isolated case of human Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever in Central Uganda, 2015

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    Stephen Balinandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most geographically widespread tick-borne viral infection. Outbreaks of CCHF in sub-Saharan Africa are largely undetected and thus under-reported. On November 9, 2015, the National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory at the Uganda Virus Research Institute received an alert for a suspect VHF case in a 33-year-old male who presented with VHF compatible signs and symptoms at Mengo Hospital in Kampala. Methods: A blood sample from the suspect patient was tested by RT-PCR for CCHF and found positive. Serological testing on sequential blood specimens collected from this patient showed increasing anti-CCHFV IgM antibody titers, confirming recent infection. Repeat sampling of the confirmed case post recovery showed high titers for anti-CCHFV-specific IgG. An epidemiological outbreak investigation was initiated following the initial RT-PCR positive detection to identify any additional suspect cases. Results: Only a single acute case of CCHF was detected from this outbreak. No additional acute CCHF cases were identified following field investigations. Environmental investigations collected 53 tick samples, with only 1, a Boophilus decoloratus, having detectable CCHFV RNA by RT-PCR. Full-length genomic sequencing on a viral isolate from the index human case showed the virus to be related to the DRC (Africa 2 lineage. Conclusions: This is the fourth confirmed CCHF outbreak in Uganda within 2 years after more than 50 years of no reported human CCHF cases in this country. Our investigations reaffirm the endemicity of CCHFV in Uganda, and show that exposure to ticks poses a significant risk for human infection. These findings also reflect the importance of having an established national VHF surveillance system and diagnostic capacity in a developing country like Uganda, in order to identify the first cases of VHF outbreaks and rapidly respond to reduce secondary cases. Additional efforts should focus on

  8. Localised transmission hotspots of a typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Engy; Bergh, Rafael Van Den; D'hondt, Rob; Kuma-Kuma, Donat; Weggheleire, Anja De; Baudot, Yves; Lambert, Vincent; Hunter, Paul; Zachariah, Rony; Maes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In a semi-urban setting in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this study aims to understand the dynamic of a typhoid fever (TF) outbreak and to assess: a) the existence of hot spots for TF transmission and b) the difference between typhoid cases identified within those hot spots and the general population in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, sanitation practice, and sources of drinking water. This was a retrospective analysis of TF outbreaks in 2011 in Kikwit, DRC using microbiological analysis of water sources and a structured interview questionnaire. There were a total of 1430 reported TF cases. The outbreak's epidemic curve shows earliest and highest peak attack rates (AR) in three military camps located in Kikwit (Ebeya 3.2%; Ngubu 3.0%; and Nsinga 2.2%) compared to an average peak AR of 0.6% in other affected areas. A total 320 cases from the military camps and the high burden health areas were interviewed. Typhoid cases in the military camps shared a latrine with more than one family (P<0.02). All tap water sources in both the military camps and general population were found to be highly contaminated with faecal coliforms. The role of military camps in Kikwit as early hotspots of TF transmission was likely associated with lower sanitary and hygiene conditions. The proximity of camps to the general population might have been responsible for disseminating TF to the general population. Mapping of cases during an outbreak could be crucial to identify hot spots for transmission and institute corrective measures.

  9. Local perceptions of cholera and anticipated vaccine acceptance in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In regions where access to clean water and the provision of a sanitary infrastructure has not been sustainable, cholera continues to pose an important public health burden. Although oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are effective means to complement classical cholera control efforts, still relatively little is known about their acceptability in targeted communities. Clarification of vaccine acceptability prior to the introduction of a new vaccine provides important information for future policy and planning. Methods In a cross-sectional study in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), local perceptions of cholera and anticipated acceptance of an OCV were investigated. A random sample of 360 unaffected adults from a rural town and a remote fishing island was interviewed in 2010. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of key informants and focus-group discussions provided contextual information. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance were assessed with logistic regression. Results Most respondents perceived contaminated water (63%) and food (61%) as main causes of cholera. Vaccines (28%), health education (18%) and the provision of clean water (15%) were considered the most effective measures of cholera control. Anticipated vaccine acceptance reached 97% if an OCV would be provided for free. Cholera-specific knowledge of hygiene and self-help in form of praying for healing were positively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance if costs of USD 5 were assumed. Conversely, respondents who feared negative social implications of cholera were less likely to anticipate acceptance of OCVs. These fears were especially prominent among respondents who generated their income through fishing. With an increase of assumed costs to USD 10.5, fear of financial constraints was negatively associated with anticipated vaccine acceptance as well. Conclusions Results suggest a high motivation to use an OCV as long as it seems affordable. The

  10. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Friis, Carsten; Zankari, Ea; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Price, Lance B; Rahmani, Maral; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Fashae, Kayode; Vandenberg, Olivier; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-10-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is an invasive and phylogenetically distinct lineage present in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the presence of S. Typhimurium ST313 from patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. Eighteen S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, six of the isolates were characterized by whole genome sequence typing (WGST). The presence of a putative virulence determinant was examined in 177 Salmonella isolates belonging to 57 different serovars. All S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates harbored resistant genes encoded by blaTEM1b, catA1, strA/B, sul1, and dfrA1. Additionally, aac(6')1aa gene was detected. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic relationships among Congolese and Nigerian isolates from both blood and stool. Comparative genomic analyses identified a putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and S. Dublin. We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Comparative genomics showed an interesting putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and invasive S. Dublin.

  11. Cholera in the Lake Kivu region (DRC): Integrating remote sensing and spatially explicit epidemiological modeling

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    Finger, Flavio; Knox, Allyn; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Bompangue, Didier; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Mathematical models of cholera dynamics can not only help in identifying environmental drivers and processes that influence disease transmission, but may also represent valuable tools for the prediction of the epidemiological patterns in time and space as well as for the allocation of health care resources. Cholera outbreaks have been reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since the 1970s. They have been ravaging the shore of Lake Kivu in the east of the country repeatedly during the last decades. Here we employ a spatially explicit, inhomogeneous Markov chain model to describe cholera incidence in eight health zones on the shore of the lake. Remotely sensed data sets of chlorophyll a concentration in the lake, precipitation and indices of global climate anomalies are used as environmental drivers in addition to baseline seasonality. The effect of human mobility is also modelled mechanistically. We test several models on a multiyear data set of reported cholera cases. The best fourteen models, accounting for different environmental drivers, and selected using the Akaike information criterion, are formally compared via proper cross validation. Among these, the one accounting for seasonality, El Niño Southern Oscillation, precipitation and human mobility outperforms the others in cross validation. Some drivers (such as human mobility and rainfall) are retained only by a few models, possibly indicating that the mechanisms through which they influence cholera dynamics in the area will have to be investigated further.

  12. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

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    Patou Masika Musumari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57% were food insecure, and 188 (20.9% were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38-3.09. We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15-3.32 and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11-0.83 odds of non-adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Y-chromosomal variation in Sub-Saharan Africa: insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippo, Cesare; Barbieri, Chiara; Whitten, Mark; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen Drofn; Bostoen, Koen; Nyambe, Terry; Beyer, Klaus; Schreiber, Henning; de Knijff, Peter; Luiselli, Donata; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Technological and cultural innovations, as well as climate changes, are thought to have influenced the diffusion of major language phyla in sub-Saharan Africa. The most widespread and the richest in diversity is the Niger-Congo phylum, thought to have originated in West Africa ~10,000 years ago. The expansion of Bantu languages (a family within the Niger-Congo phylum) ~5,000 years ago represents a major event in the past demography of the continent. Many previous studies on Y chromosomal variation in Africa associated the Bantu expansion with haplogroup E1b1a (and sometimes its sub-lineage E1b1a7). However, the distribution of these two lineages extends far beyond the area occupied nowadays by Bantu speaking people, raising questions on the actual genetic structure behind this expansion. To address these issues, we directly genotyped 31 biallelic markers and 12 microsatellites on the Y chromosome in 1195 individuals of African ancestry focusing on areas that were previously poorly characterized (Botswana, Burkina Faso, D.R.C, and Zambia). With the inclusion of published data, we analyzed 2736 individuals from 26 groups representing all linguistic phyla and covering a large portion of Sub-Saharan Africa. Within the Niger-Congo phylum, we ascertain for the first time differences in haplogroup composition between Bantu and non-Bantu groups via two markers (U174 and U175) on the background of haplogroup E1b1a (and E1b1a7), which were directly genotyped in our samples and for which genotypes were inferred from published data using Linear Discriminant Analysis on STR haplotypes. No reduction in STR diversity levels was found across the Bantu groups, suggesting the absence of serial founder effects. In addition, the homogeneity of haplogroup composition and pattern of haplotype sharing between Western and Eastern Bantu groups suggest that their expansion throughout Sub-Saharan Africa reflects a rapid spread followed by backward and forward migrations. Overall, we found

  14. Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement

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    Janet McKnight

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It remains to be seen whether the past few months will mark a genuine turning point in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, as the rebel faction March 23 Movement (M23 announced the end of its 20-month insurgency against the government on 5 November 2013. News of the rebel group’s surrender following its political and military defeat signals an important moment of hope and renewed prospects of peace and stability in a region prone to protracted armed conflict. However, long-term stability in the country and in the region will require a multi-faceted process consisting of comprehensive accountability for human rights violations that have been committed by all parties to the conflict. In this article, I will first lay out the historical context of the fighting and the root causes of conflict present long before M23’s entrance onto the scene as a splintered rebel faction so as to understand M23’s place within the country’s history of protracted violence. Next, I will explain the violations of international humanitarian and human rights law committed by all possible parties, including rebel and government groups, as well as individual criminal responsibility and corporate liability. Lastly, I will chart the pathways of criminal and social accountability at various levels of international and domestic justice systems to see how the DRC may continue to build long-term local stability in the eastern parts of the country by addressing the question of accountability for international crimes. This brief analysis aims to provide a broader understanding of a complex conflict beyond the defeat and disarmament of M23, albeit a key group in a region of contentious cross-border conflict.

  15. Trachoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of 46 Baseline Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilangalanga, Janvier; Ndjemba, Jean Marie; Uvon, Pitchouna A; Kibangala, Felix M; Mwandulo, Jean-Lebone Safari B; Mavula, Nicaise; Ndombe, Martin; Kazadi, Junior; Limbaka, Henry; Cohn, Daniel; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Kabore, Achille; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Bio, Amadou Alfa; Kadri, Boubacar; Bakhtiari, Ana; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-08-29

    Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones. A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used in each Health Zone, whereby 25 villages (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were sampled. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and adults aged ≥15 years) were examined for trachoma by GTMP-certified graders; households were assessed for access to WASH. A total of 32,758 households were surveyed, and 141,853 participants (98.2% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Health Zone-level TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds ranged from 1.9-41.6%. Among people aged ≥15 years, trichiasis prevalences ranged from 0.02-5.1% (95% CI 3.3-6.8). TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was ≥5% in 30 Health Zones, while trichiasis prevalence was ≥0.2% in 37 Health Zones. Trachoma is a public health problem in 39 of 46 Health Zones surveyed. To meet elimination targets, 37 Health Zones require expanded trichiasis surgery services while 30 health zones require antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement interventions. Survey data suggest that trachoma is widespread: further surveys are warranted.

  16. The social context of severe child malnutrition: a qualitative household case study from a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Hatløy, Anne; Andersen, Peter; Mapatano, Mala; Van den Broeck, Jan; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-05-19

    The magnitude of child malnutrition including severe child malnutrition is especially high in the rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo (the DRC). The aim of this qualitative study is to describe the social context of malnutrition in a rural part of the DRC and explore how some households succeed in ensuring that their children are well-nourished while others do not. This study is based on participant observation, key informant interviews, group discussions and in-depth interviews with four households with malnourished children and four with well-nourished children. We apply social field theory to link individual child nutritional outcomes to processes at local level and to the wider socio-economic environment. We identified four social fields that have implications for food security and child nutritional outcomes: 1) household size and composition which determined vulnerability to child malnutrition, 2) inter-household cooperation in the form of 'gbisa work party' which buffered scarcity of labour in peak seasons and facilitated capital accumulation, 3) the village associated with usufruct rights to land, and 4) the local NGO providing access to agricultural support, clean drinking water and health care. Households that participated in inter-household cooperation were able to improve food and nutrition security. Children living in households with high pressure on productive members were at danger of food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutrition interventions need to involve local institutions for inter-household cooperation and address the problem of social inequalities in service provision. They should have special focus on households with few resources in the form of land, labour and capital.

  17. One size fits all? Standardised provision of care for survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerlie Loko Roka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. RESULTS: In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48% and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13-17, while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20-35, and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%. Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95% coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. CONCLUSION: This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context

  18. One size fits all? Standardised provision of care for survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loko Roka, Jerlie; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Au, Sokhieng; De Plecker, Eva; Zachariah, Rony; Manzi, Marcel; Lambert, Vincent; Abi-Aad, Elias; Nanan-N'Zeth, Kassi; Nzuya, Serge; Omba, Brigitte; Shako, Charly; MuishaBaroki, Derick; Basimuoneye, Jean Paul; Moke, Didier Amudiandroy; Lampaert, Emmanuel; Masangu, Lucien; De Weggheleire, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu) and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé). A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48%) and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13-17)), while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20-35)), and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%). Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95%) coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context-specific sexual violence programmes.

  19. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  20. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  1. Variability of soil properties within large termite mounds in South Katanga, DRC - origins and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Boeckx, Pascal; Baert, Geert; Mees, Florias; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1). With an average height of 5.05 m and diameter of 14.88 m, these are some of the largest biogenic structures in the world. The mound material is known to differ considerably from the surrounding Ferralsols. Specifically, mound material exhibits a finer texture, higher CEC and exchangeable basic cation content, lower organic matter content, and an accumulation of phosphorous, nitrate and secondary carbonates. However, as demonstrated by the present study, these soil properties are far from uniform within the volume of the mound. The termites' nesting and foraging activity, combined with pedogenic processes over extended periods of time, generates a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions in different parts of the mound. Analysis of samples taken along a cross-section of a large active mound allowed generating contour plots, thus visualizing the variability of soil properties within the mound. The central columns of three other mounds were sampled to confirm apparent trends. The contour plots show that the mounds comprise four functional zones: (i) the active nest, found at the top; (ii) an accumulation zone , in more central parts of the mound; (iii) a dense inactive zone, surrounding the accumulation zone and consisting of accumulated erosion products from former active nests; and (iv) the outer mantle, characterized by intense varied biological activity and by a well-developed soil structure. Intermittent leaching plays a key role in explaining these patterns. Using radiocarbon dating, we found that some of these mounds are at least 2000 years old. Their current size and shape is likely the result of successive stages of erosion and rebuilding, in the course of alternating periods of mound abandonment and recolonization. Over time, termite foraging combined with limited leaching

  2. Hobbes y el Congo: marcos, violencia local e intervención internacional | Hobbes and the Congo: Frames,Local Violence, and International Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine AUTESSERRE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué los constructores internacionales de la paz no toman en consideración las causas locales de los procesos de paz que fallan? A través del presente artículo demuestro cómo las agendas locales jugaron entonces un rol decisivo en fomentar la violencia a nivel local, regional y nacional. Sin embargo, la existencia de un marco de construcción de la paz posbélica configuraba la visión internacional de la violencia y de la intervención de tal manera que la resolución del conflicto local era considerada como irrelevante e ilegitima. Este marco incluyó enseguida cuatro elementos fundamentales: los actores internacionales etiquetaron la situación en Congo de “postconflicto”; estos mismos actores creyeron que la violencia constituía un componente innato en la sociedad congolesa y, por lo tanto, aceptable incluso en tiempos de paz; conceptualizaron la intervención internacional como un asunto exclusivo de la esferas nacional e internacional; y consideraron la celebración de elecciones, en lugar de la resolución del conflicto local, como una herramienta viable, apropiada y efectiva para la construcción del estado y de la paz. Este marco, al autorizar y justificar prácticas y políticas específicas mientras impedía otras, en particular la resolución de conflictos locales, acabó condenando en última instancia los esfuerzos para la construcción de la paz. Para concluir, sostengo que el análisis de los marcos discursivos es un enfoque fructífero para intentar resolver los puzles de los fracasos internacionales en la construcción de la paz que se dan, también, más allá de las fronteras del Congo.Why do international peacebuilders fail to address the local causes of peace process failures? In this article,I demonstrate that local agendas played a decisive role in sustaining local, national, and regional violence. However, a postcon?ict peacebuilding frame shaped the international understanding of violence and intervention

  3. Using Program Data to Improve Access to Family Planning and Enhance the Method Mix in Conflict-Affected Areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Wheeler, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Unmet need for family planning in the conflict-affected area of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported to be as high as 38%, and women in such conflict settings are often the most at risk for maternal mortality. The International Rescue Committee implements the Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies program in 3 provinces of eastern DRC to provide women and couples access to family planning, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). This article presents routine program data from June 2011 through December 2013 from 2 health zones as well as results from a qualitative assessment of family planning clients and of male and female non-users, conducted in 2013. It then describes how these findings were used to make program adjustments to improve access to family planning services and client informed choice and assesses the effects of the program design changes on family planning uptake and method mix using routine program data from January 2014 through December 2016. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,985 clients adopted family planning, with an average 14 clients adopting a method per facility, per month. The method mix remained stable during this period, with implants dominating at 48%. Barriers to uptake identified from the qualitative research were both supply- and demand-related, including misconceptions about certain modern contraceptive methods on the part of providers, users, and other community members. The program implemented several program changes based on the assessment findings, including clinical coaching and supportive supervision to improve provider skills and attitudes, introduction of immediate postpartum insertion of the intrauterine device (IUD) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and behavior change communication campaigns to raise awareness about family planning. After these program changes, the mean number of clients adopting modern family planning per facility, per month

  4. Using Program Data to Improve Access to Family Planning and Enhance the Method Mix in Conflict-Affected Areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Wheeler, Erin

    2018-03-21

    Unmet need for family planning in the conflict-affected area of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported to be as high as 38%, and women in such conflict settings are often the most at risk for maternal mortality. The International Rescue Committee implements the Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies program in 3 provinces of eastern DRC to provide women and couples access to family planning, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). This article presents routine program data from June 2011 through December 2013 from 2 health zones as well as results from a qualitative assessment of family planning clients and of male and female non-users, conducted in 2013. It then describes how these findings were used to make program adjustments to improve access to family planning services and client informed choice and assesses the effects of the program design changes on family planning uptake and method mix using routine program data from January 2014 through December 2016. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,985 clients adopted family planning, with an average 14 clients adopting a method per facility, per month. The method mix remained stable during this period, with implants dominating at 48%. Barriers to uptake identified from the qualitative research were both supply- and demand-related, including misconceptions about certain modern contraceptive methods on the part of providers, users, and other community members. The program implemented several program changes based on the assessment findings, including clinical coaching and supportive supervision to improve provider skills and attitudes, introduction of immediate postpartum insertion of the intrauterine device (IUD) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and behavior change communication campaigns to raise awareness about family planning. After these program changes, the mean number of clients adopting modern family planning per facility, per month

  5. Molecular identification of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in malaria infected women who received intermittent preventive treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Emrah; Bateko, Jean Paul; Imir, Turgut; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2018-01-09

    Point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes which confer resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) occur at increasing rates. The present study aimed to identify Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutations in P. falciparum isolates recovered from women who received two doses of SP during pregnancy in Bandundu, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A total of 48 women with confirmed P. falciparum infection were enrolled in the study. Finger-prick blood samples that were collected on filter paper at the time of delivery were used for DNA isolation. Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were amplified by a nested PCR protocol. DNA sequencing was performed on both strands, and the point mutations were analysed. All of the 48 (100.0%) P. falciparum isolates carried at least one polymorphism in both genes. The wild-type haplotypes of Pfdhfr (CNCSI [C50, N51, C59, S108, I164]) and Pfdhps (SAKAA [S436, A437, K540, A581, A613]) were not observed in the study. In Pfdhfr, N51I (85.4%), C59R (60.4%), and S108N (100.0%) polymorphisms were detected. Triple mutation (CIRNI) (mutant amino acids are underlined) was the most prevalent (47.9%) Pfdhfr haplotype. In the study, all P. falciparum isolates (100.0%) harboured the A437G allele in Pfdhps gene. Also, K540E and A581G polymorphisms were observed in one (2.1%) isolate. Single mutant haplotype (SGKAA) was detected in 97.9% of the isolates. Mutant Pfdhfr and Pfdhps allele combinations revealed quintuple (CICNI-SGEGA; 2.1%), quadruple (CIRNI-SGKAA; 47.9%), triple (CICNI-SGKAA; 35.4%, CNRNI-SGKAA; 12.5%), and double (CNCNI-SGKAA; 2.1%) haplotypes. In the study, the rate of SGEGA haplotype was low (2.1%). Although K540E and A581G alleles are more common in Eastern Africa, a distinct lineage of SGEGA is also present in the DRC, which is located in Central Africa. This haplotype is associated with decreased efficacy of SP in pregnant women and infants, therefore, it should be carefully

  6. Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  7. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...

  8. Decolorisation of Congo Red by Aeromonas hydrophila Under Microaerophilic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gizawy, S.; Refae, R.A.; Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O.M.; Hamed, H.

    2009-01-01

    Among 22 local bacterial isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Bolti fish showed a remarkable ability to decolorize congo red under microaerophilic conditions (98.8% in 48 hrs) without prior adaptation. The bacterium had the ability to grow and decolorized high concentrations of congo red which varied from 50 to 1000 mg/l , the decolorisation was irrelevant to bacterial growth. The strain was capable of decolorizing congo red under a wide range of temperatures (20-40 degree C), ph (3-8), NaCl (0-200 mg/l) and also had the ability to decolorized mono, di and poly azo dyes. This bacterium is notable in its ability to decolorized the diazo congo red under extreme conditions of temperature, ph, salinity and high dye concentrations which makes it suitable for decolorisation under extreme industrial conditions

  9. The Congo crisis, the United Nations, and Zimbabwean nationalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations moved swiftly in response to Lumumba's immediate request for assistance .... of apathy towards the white man in Africa and a strong desire to rid .... such actions would legitimatise the intervention of the Congo government in.

  10. Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai; K, Vignesh; J, Sangeetha

    2011-10-01

    Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l) in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red.

  11. Mycoremediation of Congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Bhattacharya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red.

  12. Congo red and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Petrea; Anisimov, Sergey V; Popovic, Natalija

    2007-01-01

    Congo red is a commonly used histological dye for amyloid detection. The specificity of this staining results from Congo red's affinity for binding to fibril proteins enriched in beta-sheet conformation. Unexpectedly, recent investigations indicate that the dye also possesses the capacity to interfere with processes of protein misfolding and aggregation, stabilizing native protein monomers or partially folded intermediates, while reducing concentration of more toxic protein oligomers. Inhibitory effects of Congo red upon amyloid toxicity may also range from blockade of channel formation and interference with glycosaminoglycans binding or immune functions, to the modulation of gene expression. Particularly, Congo red exhibits ameliorative effect in models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases. Another interesting application of Congo red analogues is the development of imaging probes. Based on their small molecular size and penetrability through blood-brain barrier, Congo red congeners can be used for both antemortem and in vivo visualization and quantification of brain amyloids. Therefore, understanding mechanisms involved in dye-amyloidal fibril binding and inhibition of aggregation will provide instructive guides for the design of future compounds, potentially useful for monitoring and treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Analysis of whole human blood for Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, and Mn by ICP-DRC-MS for biomonitoring and acute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deanna R; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Tevis, Denise S; Franklin, Melanie; Mullinix, Neva J; Wallon, Kristen L; Derrick Quarles, C; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    We improved our inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) whole blood method [1] for determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) by including manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and expanding the calibration range of all analytes. The method is validated on a PerkinElmer (PE) ELAN® DRC II ICP-MS (ICP-DRC-MS) and uses the Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology to attenuate interfering background ion signals via ion-molecule reactions. Methane gas (CH 4 ) eliminates background signal from 40 Ar 2 + to permit determination of 80 Se + , and oxygen gas (O 2 ) eliminates several polyatomic interferences (e.g. 40 Ar 15 N + , 54 Fe 1 H + ) on 55 Mn + . Hg sensitivity in DRC mode is a factor of two higher than vented mode when measured under the same DRC conditions as Mn due to collisional focusing of the ion beam. To compensate for the expanded method's longer analysis time (due to DRC mode pause delays), we implemented an SC4-FAST autosampler (ESI Scientific, Omaha, NE), which vacuum loads the sample onto a loop, to keep the sample-to-sample measurement time to less than 5min, allowing for preparation and analysis of 60 samples in an 8-h work shift. The longer analysis time also resulted in faster breakdown of the hydrocarbon oil in the interface roughing pump. The replacement of the standard roughing pump with a pump using a fluorinated lubricant, Fomblin®, extended the time between pump maintenance. We optimized the diluent and rinse solution components to reduce carryover from high concentration samples and prevent the formation of precipitates. We performed a robust calculation to determine the following limits of detection (LOD) in whole blood: 0.07µgdL -1 for Pb, 0.10µgL -1 for Cd, 0.28μgL -1 for Hg, 0.99µgL -1 for Mn, and 24.5µgL -1 for Se. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndjinga Julie K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most prominent disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2006 to combat the disease. However, the success of this bed net campaign depends on sufficient bed net use in all age groups. This study was designed to examine the factors affecting bed net use in villages outside of Kinshasa. Methods Two villages along the Congo River, totalling 142 households with 640 residents, were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. The interview determined the number, ages, and sexes of family members; the education level of the family head; the number, colour, and type of nets owned; and the number of nets used in the previous night. The size of house was also measured, and numbers of rooms and beds were recorded. These variables were examined to reveal important factors that affect bed net use. Results A total of 469 nets were counted, and nearly all nets were white LLINs. Of these nets, 229 (48.8% nets were used by 284 (44.4% residents. Bed nets were used by over 90% of children 5 to 15 years of age, whereas less than 50% of the residents in other age groups used bed nets. The important variables affecting bed net use were numbers of beds and rooms in the house and the education level of the family head of household. Conclusion Education was the most important factor affecting bed net use in the villages outside Kinshasa. Development of an educational programme, particularly one directed toward parents, is necessary to reduce misconceptions and increase prevalence of bed net use among all age groups.

  15. Geospatial and age-related patterns of Taenia solium taeniasis in the rural health zone of Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Kanobana, Kirezi; Lukanu, Philippe; Abatih, Emmanuel; Baloji, Sylvain; Linsuke, Sylvie; Praet, Nicolas; Kapinga, Serge; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Wendy; Gabriel, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium infections are mostly endemic in less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Knowledge on patterns of infections in both human and pig is crucial to design effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of taeniasis in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in the prospect of upcoming control activities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24 villages of the health zone of Kimpese, Bas Congo Province. Individual and household characteristics, including geographical coordinates were recorded. Stool samples were collected from willing participants and analyzed using the copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) for the detection of taeniasis. Blood samples were collected from pigs and analyzed using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA) to detect porcine cysticercosis. Logistic regression and multilevel analysis were applied to identify risk factors. Global clustering and spatial correlation of taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were assessed using K functions. Local clusters of both infections were identified using the Kulldorff's scan statistic. A total of 4751 participants above 5 years of age (median: 23 years; IQR: 11-41) were included. The overall proportion of taeniasis positivity was 23.4% (95% CI: 22.2-24.6), ranging from 1 to 60% between villages, with a significant between-household variance of 2.43 (SE=0.29, pTaeniasis was significantly associated with age (ptaeniasis (ptaeniasis in the study area. The role of age in taeniasis patterns and significant spatial clusters of both taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were evidenced, though no spatial correlation was found between human and pig infections. Urgent control activities are needed for this endemic area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Annual economic growth, buoyed by high global commodity prices , has topped 5% in most recent years. DRC also receives high levels of international...Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, and Zambia . 2 Feingold interview on CNN International, November 5, 2013; transcript via...foreign aid responses to the conflict in the east (e.g., P.L. 109-456); • Restricting certain types of bilateral aid and arms transfers to countries

  17. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7% experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed.

  18. Mapping the above and belowground biomass in three landscapes in Cameroon, Rwanda and DRC: pilot cases in REDD+ pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufo Kankeu, R.

    2017-12-01

    A number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches and despite their comparison there is still a gap. To fill this gap there is a need to provide accurate maps based on the field data on all types of land use and land cover. Based on the field data from plots established in three pilot projects around Virunga National park in Rwanda, Tri-national Sangha landscape in Cameroon and lac Télé-Lac Tumba landscape in DRC, this paper intend to analyse the relationship between land use change and biomass and present the variability through biomass/carbon maps. The above and belowground biomass was calculated from 95 nested plots of 20 meters radius. The value of biomass/carbon per plot were thus used to elaborate carbon maps of each study site. In the same the way the correlation between the land use and underground and above ground carbon stock were analysed using geographically weighted regression. These data have been joint with classified Spot 5 image and aggregated to come out will acceptable result. Results show that there is a strong relationship between land use in various project sites and the carbon stock related, the change of a forest cover directly impact on carbon stock/biomass.in the same way carbon map realized base on field data and IDW, Kriging or spline module show an idea on the carbon distribution but the maps are not accurate giving the distance between plots,

  19. Radiation degradation of Congo Red in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongjuan; Wang Min; Yang Ruiyuan; Wang Wenfeng; Shen Zhongqun; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    About one-half of the dyes used in textile industry are azo dyes, and as a consequence a lot of azo dyes are released into the environment with industrial wastewater. Because of complex structures of the dyes, biological, physical and chemical treatments of dye effluents are inefficient. In this study, radiation degradation of Congo Red in aqueous solutions was investigated in different reaction systems. Both pulsed radiolysis and laser flash photolysis experiments were carried out for better understandings of degradation mechanisms involved in the treatments. Congo Red solutions saturated by air, N 2 O, O 2 , N 2 O or N 2 and added with tert-butanol were irradiated to 0-14.8 kGy. The absorption spectra, degradation efficiency, TOC (total organic carbon) removal and pH changes of the solutions were investigated. The main radiolytic products from Congo Red samples irradiated in steady-state were determined by HPLC-MS. And probable reaction mechanisms were proposed. Effects of primary species from water radiolysis, such as e aq - , . OH and . O 2 . /HO 2 . on the degradation behavior of the dye were discussed. Below 5 kGy in γ-rays irradiation, the bleaching efficiency of Congo Red was (N 2 +tert-butanol) >O 2 >air>N 2 O>N 2 . Complete degradation of Congo Red was observed at 4.0, 5.5 and 10.2 kGy irradiation of the aqueous solutions saturated by N 2 with tert-butanol added, O 2 and N 2 O, respectively. With just oxidative or reductive species, highly conjugated part of Congo Red molecules could be destroyed. While oxidative species produced from water radiolysis could oxidize the Congo Red more effectively, making the dye to break into fatty acids and CO 2 finally. In the solution saturated with N 2 and air, the primary active species were both of oxidative and reductive and the highly conjugated part of Congo Red molecules could not be destroyed completely up to 14.8 kGy of γ-ray irradiation. It was more difficult to achieve high TOC removal in comparison with

  20. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  1. Congo crimean hemorrhagic fever in balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, A.B.; Shaikh, M.; Khan, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To observe the pattern and mortality of Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Balochistan. Two hundred and twenty-six febrile patients with bleeding of sudden onset, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, vomiting, red eyes, flushed face, red throat and petechiae on the palate of both sexes were screened for CCHF over a period of 10 years. Clinical criteria for initial diagnosis directed the subsequent diagnostic work-up. The ages of these patients ranged from 7 years to 74 years. Sixty-three percent of these patients were positive for CCHF. Males were 68% of the total patients. Over the years, CCHF showed a gradual increase ranging from 43% to 80%. Total mortality was 15%, all being secondary cases. Death was not observed in primary CCHF cases. In this study, suspicion of viral hemorrhagic fever was raised in 62% cases at the time of admission and the patients were immediately isolated, noninvasive procedures were instigated and barrier nursing was implemented. None of the family and hospital staff members who had close contact with the patient became ill, while those who were not suspected initially (38%) infected the health care workers and the family members. Although CCHF is rare, this study stresses the need for proper health facilities in Pakistan and to include VHF (viral hemorrhagic fevers) in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever with hemorrhagic tendencies of sudden onset. (author)

  2. Quantification of DNA repair capacity (DRC) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals from natural high background radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Seshadri, M.

    2011-01-01

    Human populations residing in the coastal areas of Kerala from Neendakara in south to Purakkad in north receive high level natural background radiation primarily due to the presence of thorium ( 232 Th) in the monazite containing beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the health effects of natural high level radiation on humans. Earlier studies from our laboratory in newborns for incidence of congenital malformations, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations failed to show any significant health or biological effects due to high level natural radiation exposure. The current study used alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay due to its sensitivity, speed, flexibility and low cost. Biological effects of low level natural radiation was studied by assessing individual's DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), which is essential for maintaining the genome integrity. DNA damage was estimated in terms of DNA strand breaks per million base pairs (SB/106 bp). In our earlier study using comet assay, DNA SBs increased with age in subjects from normal background radiation area (NBRA). However, significant inverse correlation was observed in subjects from high background radiation area (HBRA). Further, spontaneous DNA SBs in elderly subjects (? 41 years) from HBRA was significantly lower compared to the subjects from NBRA. The present study was carried out in 90 healthy adult male subjects of which, 63 subjects belonged to HBRA and 27 subjects from NBRA. The annual effective dose in HBRA subjects was 5.87 ± 4.17 mSv year-1 (Mean ± S.D., range 1.07-17.41) and in NBRA subjects was ? 1mSv year-1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from these individuals were irradiated with 4Gy of 60 Co gamma rays (1.4Gy/minute, Low dose irradiator 2000, BRIT, India) and DNA repair was assessed at 30 minutes. As the results were not normally distributed, the data were log transformed to normalize variance. Regression analysis was carried out to determine the relative

  3. Chemical composition of the mineral waters of the Congo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Lobo, K.K.; Tshisumpa, M.; Wembo, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been applied to river Congo waters for a global monitoring of trace element contents. 15 elements Ag, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples collected at 2 sites along the river Congo. Results are compared with those observed in other river waters collected in Kinshasa and elsewhere and for compliance with the international quality standards elaborated by the Who, USA and SSRU. The waters of river Congo have been found less mineralized than those of river Niger. They are of the same order of magnitude than those observed in some local rivers such as Ndjili, Lubudi, Funa, Tshangu and Tshenke.

  4. Community-based maternal, newborn, and child health surveillance: perceptions and attitudes of local stakeholders towards using mobile phone by village health volunteers in the Kenge Health Zone, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diese, Mulamba; Kalonji, Albert; Izale, Bibiche; Villeneuve, Susie; Kintaudi, Ngoma Miezi; Clarysse, Guy; Ngongo, Ngashi; Ntambue, Abel Mukengeshayi

    2018-03-05

    In early 2016, we implemented a community-based maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) surveillance using mobile phones to collect, analyze, and use data by village health volunteers (VHV) in Kenge Health Zone (KHZ), in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of households, attitudes of community health volunteers, and opinions of nurses in Health center and administrative authorities towards the use of mobile phones for MNCH surveillance in the rural KHZ in the DRC. We used mixed methods combining phenomenological and descriptive cross-sectional study. Between 3 and 24 March 2016, we collected the data through focus group discussions (FGD) with households, and structured interviews with VHV, local health and administrative authority, and nurses to explore the perceptions on MNCH surveillance using mobile phone. Data from the FGD and interviews  were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques and descriptive statistics respectively. Health issues and services for under-five children were well known by community; however, beliefs and cultural norms contributed to the practices of seeking behavior for households. Mobile phones were perceived as devices that render quick services for people who needed help; and the community's attitudes towards the mobile phone use for collection of data, analysis, and use activities were good. Although some of community members did not see a direct linkage between this surveillance approach and health benefits, majority believed that there would be better MNCH services with the use of mobile phone. In addition, VHV will benefit from free healthcare for households and some material benefits and training. The best time to undertake these activities were in the afternoon with mother of the child, being the best respondent at the household. Health issues and services for under-five children are well known and MNCH surveillance using mobile phone by VHV in which the

  5. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkamba, Dalau; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Kilonga, Arlette Mavila; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Berrueta, Amanda Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Garcia-Elorrio, Ezequiel; Tshefu, Antoniette K; Chomba, Elwyn; Buekens, Pierre M; Belizan, Maria

    2017-08-14

    The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".

  6. [Emerging diseases. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljić-Kapulica, Nada

    2004-01-01

    Recognized for many years in central Asia and Eastern Europe, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe zoonotic disease which affects people coming into contact with livestock or ticks. The range of the CCHF virus is now known to extend form central Asia to India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and to most of Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. CCHF virus is a member of the Bunyavirus family, and is classified as a Nairovirus. After an incubation period of approximately 3 to 6 days the abrupt onset of acute febrile illness occurs. The first symptoms are similar to severe influenza and include fever, headache, severe back and abdominal pain. The hemorrhagic fever manifestations occur after several days of illnesses and include petechial rash, ecchymoses, hematemmesis, and melenna. Cases typically present with some form of hepatitis. The mortality rate is 10-50% in different outbreaks with deaths typically occurring during the second week of illness. The genus Hyalomma of ixodid ticks is the most important vector of the CCHF virus. Vertebrates including birds and small animals provide excellent amplifier hosts of both the virus and the tick. The virus can be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals and from person to person. Early diagnosis is possible in special laboratories using antigen detection by imunofluorescence or ELISA tests or molecular methods as PCR and antibody detection. Tick control measures need to be emphasized and utilized to prevent CCHF. This includes spraying camp sites, clothing and danger areas with acaricides or repellent. Strict isolation of patients with CCHF and a focus on barrier nursing would help to prevent nosocomial spread. Presently the vaccine is a dangerous mouse brain-derived version. Future development of a vaccine would help to prevent human infection.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on the Congo Basin Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Franssen, W.; Jans, W.W.P.; Kruijt, B.; Supit, I.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents analyses of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on water for agriculture and hydropower, forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage and impacts of climate variability and change on future economic development. To quantify the impacts of future climate we developed a

  8. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Bulgaria and Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mertens, M.; Schuster, I.; Sas, M. A.; Vatansever, Z.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Güven, E.; Deniz, A.; Georgiev, G.; Peshev, R.; Groschup, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2016), s. 619-623 ISSN 1530-3667 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: CCHFV * domestic animals * ELISA * epidemiology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  9. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is associated with a high mortality rate in the Black Sea region of Turkey, has received increasing attention. Objective: In this study, the epidemiological features, clinical and laboratory findings, treatments, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with CCHF ...

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Medetov, Zhumagul B.; Kyraubayev, Kakimzhan B.; Bumburidi, Yekaterina; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; MacNeil, Adam; Bayserkin, Baurzhan S.; Ospanov, Kenes S.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) surveillance data from southern Kazakhstan during 2009–2010 and found both spatial and temporal association between reported tick bites and CCHF cases. Public health measures should center on preventing tick bites, increasing awareness of CCHF signs and symptoms, and adopting hospital infection control practices. PMID:22469505

  13. Changing governance arrangements: NTFP value chains in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2017-01-01

    As forest products from Cameroon and DR Congo are commercialised, a value chain is created from harvesters, processors, and retailers to
    consumers worldwide. In contrast to dominant narratives focusing on regulations and customs, these chains are actually governed by dynamic,
    multiple

  14. Phonology and Morphology of Mambay (Niger-Congo, Adamawa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonby, Erik John

    2008-01-01

    Mambay is an Adamawa (Niger-Congo) language spoken by 15,000 people in Chad and Cameroon. The study opens with historical and linguistic background. A phonological inventory of the language is then presented and distribution patterns are examined. Some striking phenomena include a profoundly

  15. Sorption behavior of congo red on different plant leaves (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Mirza, M.L.; Zafar, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of different plant leaves (Bougainvillaea Glabra and Citrus Sinensis) for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated and was comparable for both the leaves through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of weight and time at room temperature. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was also determined and compared. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of Congo red on plant leaves powder. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model. The uptake of Congo red was also studied with the variation of temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The results indicate that the plant leaves of Bougainvilia Glabra and Citrus Sinensis are efficient adsorbents for Congo red dye from aqueous solutions and can be used for wastewater management. (author)

  16. Association between pregnancy at enrollment into HIV care and loss to care among women in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jonathan; Edmonds, Andrew; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Anastos, Kathryn; Lelo, Patricia; Behets, Frieda; Yotebieng, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    Loss to care is high among asymptomatic HIV-infected women initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. However, whether pregnancy itself plays a role in the high loss to care rate is uncertain. We compared loss to care over seven years between pregnant and non-pregnant women at enrollment into HIV care in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of all ART-naive women aged 15-45 initiating HIV care at two large clinics in Kinshasa, DRC, from 2007-2013. Pregnancy status was recorded at care enrollment. Patients were classified as having no follow-up if they did not return to care after the initial enrollment visit. Among those with at least one follow-up visit after enrollment, we classified patients as lost to care if more than 365 days had passed since their last clinic visit. We used logistic regression to model the association between pregnancy status and no follow-up, and Cox proportional hazards regression to model the association between pregnancy status and time to loss to care. Of 2175 women included in the analysis, 1497 (68.8%) were pregnant at enrollment. Compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were less likely to be over 35 years of age (19.1% vs. 31.9%, p<0.0001) and less likely to be in WHO stage III or IV (9.0% vs. 26.3%, p<0.0001). Among pregnant women, 106 (7.1%) were not seen after enrollment, versus 25 (3.7%) non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio 2.01, 95% CI 1.24-3.24). Of the 2,044 women with at least one follow-up visit, 46.5% of pregnant women and 46.7% of non-pregnant women were lost to care by 5 years; hazards of loss to care were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant women (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26). In this large cohort of HIV-infected women, patients pregnant at care enrollment were more likely to never return for follow-up. Among those who attended at least one follow-up visit, loss to care was not different between pregnant and

  17. Opportunities for Hydrologic Research in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E., II; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; Spencer, R. G.; O'Loughlin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and find that there are historic data, ongoing measurement recording efforts, and important model results. Annual rainfall is ~2000 mm/yr along an east-west trend, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. While some studies show rain gauges at specific locations with declines in P greater than 10% from 1960 to 1990, other studies suggest that basin wide decreases from 1951 to 1993 are modest at 4.5% or that the trend is minimal. Studies during the 1950s using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential ET varies little across the basin at a 1100 mm/yr to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data has been collected at 100s of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Discharge of the Congo River at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during 1960-1970 in comparison to background values of the previous decades and of today. There does not appear to be a long-term discharge trend over the century of record. Satellite altimetry measurements collected during high and low flows show that the Cuvette Centrale wetland water levels are consistently 0.5m to 3m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about 1m whereas the Congo is typically less than 15m deep everywhere upstream of Kinshasa. The wetlands do not appear to be marked by sizable channels such that the flows are diffusive. CO2 and CH4 evasion from the Congo waters directly to the atmosphere are estimated at 1.6 to 3.2 Tg/yr for CH4 from the Cuvette wetland waters and 105 to 204 g C/m2/yr for CO2 from waters of the Oubangui River. Using these published results, we suggest seven hypotheses that may lead to important water and carbon cycle discoveries. These hypotheses focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how those waters leave the wetland; on river discharge generated by historic

  18. Determination of (90)Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, J; Boulyga, S F; Galler, P; Stingeder, G; Prohaska, T

    2008-11-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of (90)Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of (90)Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than (90)Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by (90)Zr(+) ions by a factor of more than 10(7): (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from (88)Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10(-9). Detection limits of 4 fg g(-1) (0.02 Bq g(-1)) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 microg g(-1) Sr and 50 ng g(-1) Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g(-1) soil (1 Bq g(-1) soil) was determined. (90)Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66+/-0.27, 13.48+/-0.68 and 12.9+/-1.5 pg g(-1) corresponding to specific activities of 23.7+/-1.3, 68.6+/-3.5 and 65.6+/-7.8 Bq g(-1), respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level (90)Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g(-1).

  19. Determination of 90Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G.; Prohaska, T.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of 90 Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of 90 Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than 90 Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by 90 Zr + ions by a factor of more than 10 7 : (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from 88 Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10 -9 . Detection limits of 4 fg g -1 (0.02 Bq g -1 ) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 μg g -1 Sr and 50 ng g -1 Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g -1 soil (1 Bq g -1 soil) was determined. 90 Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 ± 0.27, 13.48 ± 0.68 and 12.9 ± 1.5 pg g -1 corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 ± 1.3, 68.6 ± 3.5 and 65.6 ± 7.8 Bq g -1 , respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level 90 Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g -1

  20. Determination of {sup 90}Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Prohaska, T. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.prohaska@boku.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of {sup 90}Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than {sup 90}Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by {sup 90}Zr{sup +} ions by a factor of more than 10{sup 7}: (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from {sup 88}Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10{sup -9}. Detection limits of 4 fg g{sup -1} (0.02 Bq g{sup -1}) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sr and 50 ng g{sup -1} Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g{sup -1} soil (1 Bq g{sup -1} soil) was determined. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 {+-} 0.27, 13.48 {+-} 0.68 and 12.9 {+-} 1.5 pg g{sup -1} corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 {+-} 1.3, 68.6 {+-} 3.5 and 65.6 {+-} 7.8 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level {sup 90}Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g{sup -1}.

  1. Analyzing the microfoundations of human violence in the DRC - intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and the prediction of appetitive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Roos; Banholzer, Lilli; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland

    2013-05-17

    Civil wars are characterized by intense forms of violence, such as torture, maiming and rape. Political scientists suggest that this form of political violence is fostered through the provision of particular intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to combatants. In the field of psychology, the perpetration of this kind of cruelty is observed to be positively linked to appetitive aggression. Over time, combatants start to enjoy the fights and even the perpetration of atrocities. In this study, we examine how receiving rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) influence the level of appetitive aggression exhibited by former combatants. We surveyed 95 former combatants in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Linear regression analyses reveal that intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards are linked to the former combatants' Appetitive Aggression score. However, this relationship is partly determined by the way in which combatants are recruited: While abducted combatants seem to react more strongly to extrinsic rewards, the score of those that joined voluntarily is primarily determined by intrinsic rewards. We conclude that receiving rewards influence the level of appetitive aggression. However, which type of rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) is of most importance is determined by the way combatants are recruited.

  2. Analyzing the microfoundations of human violence in the DRC - intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and the prediction of appetitive aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Civil wars are characterized by intense forms of violence, such as torture, maiming and rape. Political scientists suggest that this form of political violence is fostered through the provision of particular intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to combatants. In the field of psychology, the perpetration of this kind of cruelty is observed to be positively linked to appetitive aggression. Over time, combatants start to enjoy the fights and even the perpetration of atrocities. In this study, we examine how receiving rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) influence the level of appetitive aggression exhibited by former combatants. Method We surveyed 95 former combatants in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Results Linear regression analyses reveal that intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards are linked to the former combatants’ Appetitive Aggression score. However, this relationship is partly determined by the way in which combatants are recruited: While abducted combatants seem to react more strongly to extrinsic rewards, the score of those that joined voluntarily is primarily determined by intrinsic rewards. Conclusions We conclude that receiving rewards influence the level of appetitive aggression. However, which type of rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) is of most importance is determined by the way combatants are recruited. PMID:23683122

  3. Water level fluctuations in the Congo basin derived from ENVISAT satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, M.; da Silva, J. S.; Calmant, Stéphane; Robinet, V.; Linguet, L.; Seyler, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    In the Congo Basin, the elevated vulnerability of food security and the water supply implies that sustainable development strategies must incorporate the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes. However, the lack of observational hydro-climatic data over the past decades strongly limits the number of studies investigating the effects of climate change in the Congo Basin. We present the largest altimetry-based dataset of water levels ever constituted over the entire Congo Basin. This...

  4. Congo Basin precipitation: Assessing seasonality, regional interactions, and sources of moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ellen L. E.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Li, Harry; Collins, Owen; Vettoretti, Guido; Noone, David

    2017-07-01

    Precipitation in the Congo Basin was examined using a version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM) with water tagging capability. Using regionally defined water tracers, or tags, the moisture contribution from different source regions to Congo Basin precipitation was investigated. We found that the Indian Ocean and evaporation from the Congo Basin were the dominant moisture sources and that the Atlantic Ocean was a comparatively small source of moisture. In both rainy seasons the southwestern Indian Ocean contributed about 21% of the moisture, while the recycling ratio for moisture from the Congo Basin was about 25%. Near the surface, a great deal of moisture is transported from the Atlantic into the Congo Basin, but much of this moisture is recirculated back over the Atlantic in the lower troposphere. Although the southwestern Indian Ocean is a major source of Indian Ocean moisture, it is not associated with the bulk of the variability in precipitation over the Congo Basin. In wet years, more of the precipitation in the Congo Basin is derived from Indian Ocean moisture, but the spatial distribution of the dominant sources is shifted, reflecting changes in the midtropospheric circulation over the Indian Ocean. During wet years there is increased transport of moisture from the equatorial and eastern Indian Ocean. Our results suggest that reliably capturing the linkages between the large-scale circulation patterns over the Indian Ocean and the local circulation over the Congo Basin is critical for future projections of Congo Basin precipitation.

  5. Therapeutic management of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Martín-Quirós, Alejandro; Trigo, Elena; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arsuaga, Marta; Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; Arribas, José Ramón

    2017-06-29

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Photoluminescence study of Congo red molecules under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.P.; Zhang, Z.M.; Ding, Z.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-induced changes on fluorescence spectra of Congo red molecules were examined up to 8.7 GPa using a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The spectra changes are demonstrated to be sensitive to the pressure and solvent conditions. At hydrostatic pressure and with a solvent used as a pressure transmitting medium the fluorescence spectra show increase of intensity with elevated pressure up to about 2.3 GPa and then drop at higher pressures. For Congo red crystal under quasi-hydrostatic condition without solvent the fluorescence intensity decreases monotonically and the lower energy band becomes dominant with the pressure increasing. The three vibronic bands show red shifts with increase of pressure

  7. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  8. Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-29

    ethnic Hutu extremists who fled to Congo from Rwanda after helping to carry out the 1994 genocide there; “Mai Mai,” a term that broadly refers to a... Rwanda , Uganda, Angola, and South Africa. U.S. policymakers, including in Congress, continue to debate the relative effectiveness of various policy tools...institutions and the military progressively deteriorated, while regional civil conflicts and the genocide in neighboring Rwanda spilled over the border

  9. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Hewson, R

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but a serious threat to humans. Human infections begin with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with a case fatality rate of 2-50%. Although the ...... in Iran and neighboring countries and provide evidence of over 5000 confirmed cases of CCHF in a single period/season....

  10. Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai.; K, Vignesh.; J, Sangeetha.

    2011-01-01

    Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was t...

  11. Possible sexual transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of family transmission of laboratory-confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF among spouses are reported. These spouses had sexual contact at the end of the incubation period or during the early stage of the mild form of CCHF, without any hemorrhagic symptoms in the first infected spouse. This report demonstrates that sexual contact may represent a real risk of CCHF transmission, even if the patient only experiences mild symptoms.

  12. Going for the play: Structural interpretation in offshore Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, N.; Philip, P. (GECO-PRAKLA Exploration Services, Woking (United Kingdom)); Walter, S. (ARK Geophysics Ltd., Milton Keynes, (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Looking for new hydrocarbons in frontier areas, geologists and geophysicists use very trick in the book: plate tectonics, magnetic and gravity data, plain old geological horse sense and lots of seismic data. An interpretation team is followed, as they pick their way through a seismic survey shot in offshore Congo, Africa, searching for those areas (the plays) that show the greatest promise. 17 figs., 9 refs.

  13. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%), with the fields (18.4%) and the forest (14.3%) also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3%) and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) was also common (21.5%). Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85). Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33). Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a predominance of gang rape

  14. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipton Robert I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%, with the fields (18.4% and the forest (14.3% also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3% and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS was also common (21.5%. Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85. Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99. Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33. Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a

  15. Assessment of pathogenic bacteria in water and sediment from a water reservoir under tropical conditions (Lake Ma Vallée), Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Tshibanda, Joseph B; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess potential human health risks presented by pathogenic bacteria in a protected multi-use lake-reservoir (Lake Ma Vallée) located in west of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Water and surface sediments from several points of the Lake were collected during summer. Microbial analysis was performed for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus (ENT), Pseudomonas species and heterotrophic plate counts. PCR amplification was performed for the confirmation of E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from samples. The results reveal low concentration of bacteria in water column of the lake, the bacterial quantification results observed in this study for the water column were below the recommended limits, according to WHO and the European Directive 2006/7/CE, for bathing water. However, high concentration of bacteria was observed in the sediment samples; the values of 2.65 × 10(3), 6.35 × 10(3), 3.27 × 10(3) and 3.60 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) of dry sediment for E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and heterotrophic plate counts, respectively. The results of this study indicate that sediments of the Lake Ma Vallée can constitute a reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms which can persist in the lake. Possible resuspension of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens would affect water quality and may increase health risks to the population during recreational activities. Our results indicate that the microbial sediment analysis provides complementary and important information for assessing sanitary quality of surface water under tropical conditions.

  16. Burden of malaria is higher among children in an internal displacement camp compared to a neighbouring village in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchuk, Rhianna; Paul, Makelele Katsuva Jean; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T

    2016-08-25

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), violent conflict has caused the displacement of millions of people into camps where they are exposed to poor living conditions and high rates of infectious diseases. Malaria, in particular, is a major cause of mortality in children under five; however, the burden of disease in displacement camps has not previously been described. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed. First, prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum antigenemia was measured in a random sample of 200 children living in a displacement camp and 200 children from a nearby village (control group). Second, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was measured in a study of 100 children from the displacement camp and 100 children from the control village presenting to the same health clinic with fever. All participants were tested for P. falciparum with a rapid diagnostic test and additional demographic data, clinical characteristics, and malaria risk factors were determined using a parental questionnaire. In the community survey, children living in the displacement camp had a higher prevalence of P. falciparum infection (17 %) than controls (7.5 %) (OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.3-4.1; P = 0.0095). In the clinic-based survey, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was higher among children from the displacement camp (78 %) than controls (39 %) (OR 5.5; 95 % CI 3.0-10.3; P displacement camp than control village in both surveys. Statistically significant differences in household wealth, maternal education, and exposure to community violence were also found. Population displacement due to violent conflict appears to be a risk factor for malaria, a major cause of child mortality. Children living in displacement camps are a relatively understudied population, but have a high burden of malaria, despite control programmes focused on bed net distribution.

  17. Les déterminants de la demande de soins prénataux en République démocratique du Congo: Approche par données de comptage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Nanfosso

    2013-09-01

    proposer un discours adapté, encourager l’éducation des femmes et leur accès à l’information écrite que véhiculent les journaux, et développer des mutuelles de santé pour le plus grand nombre.   The determinants of demand for prenatal care in the Democratic Republic of Congo:Counting data approach Background: In the overall context of the Millennium Development Goals (two of which are concerned with the health of the mother and child, the issue of women’s health in general and of mothers in particular is an important element in the fight against poverty. Although international institutions dealing with this issue recommend at least four antenatal visits during pregnancy, it is observed that only 47% of mothers comply with this in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This failure justifies a focus on the factors explaining the demand for prenatal care in this country, especially since there is no study on this subject in the DRC. Objectives: The purpose of this study is therefore to identify and analyse through a general approach the main factors that determine the demand for prenatal health care in the DRC. Method: The method we use for this purpose is based on counting data. In addition to the Poisson and negative binomial model, quintile regression is developed to examine the heterogeneity of demand for prenatal care. The data used are those of the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2007 in the country. Results: The results indicate that the relevant factors influencing the demand for prenatal care in the DRC are education, religion, health and past abortions, continuing reading of newspapers, and membership in a mutual health scheme. Conclusion: The results may help to develop better policy incentives and support for mothers. Poor households should receive more attention. Awareness strategies should be concerned with the religion of mothers in order to propose a suitable speech to encourage the education of women and increase their access to

  18. Más allá del silencio: violencia sexual en el este de la RDC

    OpenAIRE

    Keralis, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Las leyes de violencia sexual introducidas en 2006 en la República Democrática del Congo tuvieron un impacto limitado. Se necesita urgentemente una condena más tajante de las violaciones y un enfoque de la prevención mucho más proactivo.

  19. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Batista, Bruno; Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Andrade Nunes, Juliana; Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina de; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 μL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 μL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 μg L -1 of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for 75 As, 114 Cd, 59 Co, 51 Cr, 63 Cu 55 Mn, 208 Pb, 82 Se, 205 Tl, 51 V, and 64 Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L -1 , respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  20. Multi-element analysis of urine using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS — A practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brodzka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The method for the determination of As, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb (toxic elements and Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (essential elements in human urine by the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (quadrupole ICP-MS DRCe Elan, Perkin Elmer with the dynamic reaction cell (DRC was developed. Materials and Methods: The method has been applied for multi-element analysis of the urine of 16 non-exposed healthy volunteers and 27 workers employed in a copper smelter. The analysis was conducted after initial 10-fold dilution of the urine samples with 0,1% nitric acid. Rhodium was used as an internal standard. The method validation parameters such as detection limit, sensitivity, precision were described for all elements. Accuracy of the method was checked by the regular use of certified reference materials ClinCheck®-Control Urine (Recipe as well as by participation of the laboratory in the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS. Results: The detection limits (DL 3s of the applied method were 0.025, 0.007, 0.002, 0.004, 0.004, 0.086, 0.037, 0.009, 0.016, 0.008, 0.064 (μg/l for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in urine, respectively. For each element linearity with correlation coefficient of at least 0.999 was determined. Spectral interferences from some of the ions were removed using DRC-e with addition of alternative gas: methane for cobalt, copper, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel and rhodium, and oxygen for arsenic. Conclusions: The developed method allows to determine simultaneously eleven elements in the urine with low detection limits, high sensitivity and good accuracy. Moreover, the method is appropriate for the assessment of both environmental and occupational exposure.

  1. Consuming democracy : local agencies and liberal peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J de M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on liberal peace building in the DRC. The thesis takes a critical approach which emphasises local agencies and their engagements with liberal peace building. However, it seeks to bring this critique back to the institutions with which liberal peace building is preoccupied, by

  2. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zivcec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  3. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA no rastreio de comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC pré-dialítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise de Andrade Paraizo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: Indivíduos com doença renal crônica (DRC têm grande risco de desenvolver comprometimento cognitivo (CC, inicialmente leve (CCL, passível de identificação, mas ainda subdiagnosticado e subtratado. O Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA vem sendo indicado para rastreio de CCL na DRC. Objetivo: Avaliar o CCL em indivíduos com DRC pré-dialítica. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado em 72 indivíduos, não idosos, com DRC nos estágios pré-dialíticos. A avaliação neuropsicológica incluiu: o teste de cognição global MoCA; o teste do relógio (TDR; o Digit Span ordem direta (DOD e inversa (DOI; o teste de fluência verbal (FV, fonêmica (FAS e semântica (animais; o punho-borda-mão (PBM; e de memória 10 figuras. Resultados: A média de idade dos participantes foi de 56,74 ± 7,63 anos, com predominância de homens (55,6%, com escolaridade ≥ 4 anos (84,3%, a maioria com DRC 1, 2 e 3a e 3b (67,6%, hipertensa (93,1% e diabética (52,1%. O CC (MoCA ≤ 24 foi observado em 73,6% dos usuários. Não encontramos associação das variáveis demográficas e clínicas com CC, mas tendência de associação com a idade (p = 0,07, com a escolaridade (p = 0,06 e com o DM (0,06. Os testes de função executiva, TDR, DOI e PBM, isoladamente, apresentaram boa sensibilidade e valor preditivo negativo comparados ao MoCA para a identificação de CC e, em conjunto, foram capazes de predizer o resultado do MoCA. Conclusão: O CCL é frequente em usuários não idosos com DRC pré-dialítica. O TDR, DOI e PBM associados são equivalentes ao MoCA na identificação do CC nessa população, sugerindo comprometimento de funções executivas.

  4. El cómic como fuente histórica : el falso testimonio de Tintín en el Congo Belga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gual Boronat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A través del estudio de la obra Tintin au Congo del dibujante belga Hergé, tratamos de probar la capacidad del cómic para ser utilizado como fuente histórica. La actual definición de fuente puede englobarlo perfectamente pero es necesaria una demostración práctica. Tras contextualizar dicha historieta pasamos a realizar una lectura atenta de la misma, así como de sus aspectos más polémicos, para a continuación describir el proceso de trabajo del propio Hergé y las influencias de su entorno. Por último, entraremos a debatir cuál es el origen de la historieta como medio y cuál es el método de análisis a la hora de interrogarla históricamente.Through the study of the Belgian cartoonist Hergé's work Tintin au Congo we try to test the ability of comics to be used as a historical source. The current source definition can cover it very well but requires a practical demonstration. After we contextualize this story we make a careful reading of it and of its most controversial features, then we describe the process of Hergé's own work and the influences of their environment. Finally we enter into a discussion about which is the origin of comics as a medium and which is the method of analysis when questioning historically.

  5. Rapid Contraceptive Uptake and Changing Method Mix With High Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Crisis-Affected Populations in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Jesse; Noznesky, Elizabeth; Curry, Dora Ward; Galavotti, Christine; Hwang, Shuyuan; Rodriguez, Mariela

    2016-08-11

    The global health community has recognized that expanding the contraceptive method mix is a programmatic imperative since (1) one-third of unintended pregnancies are due to method failure or discontinuation, and (2) the addition of a new method to the existing mix tends to increase total contraceptive use. Since July 2011, CARE has been implementing the Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative to increase the availability, quality, and use of contraception, with a particular focus on highly effective and long-acting reversible methods-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants-in crisis-affected settings in Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This initiative supports government health systems at primary and referral levels to provide a wide range of contraceptive services to people affected by conflict and/or displacement. Before the initiative, long-acting reversible methods were either unknown or unavailable in the intervention areas. However, as soon as trained providers were in place, we noted a dramatic and sustained increase in new users of all contraceptive methods, especially implants, with total new clients reaching 82,855, or 32% of the estimated number of women of reproductive age in the respective catchment areas in both countries, at the end of the fourth year. Demand for implants was very strong in the first 6 months after provider training. During this time, implants consistently accounted for more than 50% of the method mix, reaching as high as 89% in Chad and 74% in DRC. To ensure that all clients were getting the contraceptive method of their choice, we conducted a series of discussions and sought feedback from different stakeholders in order to modify program strategies. Key program modifications included more focused communication in mass media, community, and interpersonal channels about the benefits of IUDs while reinforcing the wide range of methods available and refresher training for

  6. Reaction of congo red in water after irradiation by pulsed intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Kondo, Hironobu; Sasaki, Toru; Harada, Nob.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Imada, Go

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of congo red, a well-known toxic azo dye, occurred after irradiation by a pulsed intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). An aquation of congo red was irradiated by PIREB (2 MeV, 0.36 kA, 140 ns). After PIREB irradiation, the solution was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that congo red underwent a reaction (77% conversion after five shots of PIREB irradiation) and the hydroxylated compounds of the dye were observed as reaction products. (author)

  7. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  8. Optimization of LC-DRC-ICP-MS for the speciation of selenotrisulfides with simultaneous detection of sulfur and selenium as oxides combined with determination of elemental and isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturup, S.; Bendahl, L.; Gammelgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    A LC-DRC-ICP-MS method for the simultaneous detection of selenium and Sulfur in the selenotrisulfides selenocysteineglutathione (Cys-Se-SG) and selenodiglutathione (GS-Se-SG) is described. Both sulfur and selenium are reacted with oxygen in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and detected as oxides....... The selenotrisulfides were separated applying a 30 rnin gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method with a formic acid/methanol eluent. The detection limits for sulfur (as (SO+)-S-32-O-16) and selenium (as (SeO+)-Se-80-O-16) in the chromatographic system were 4.0 and 0.2 mu g L-1 (100 and 5 ng in absolute mass units...

  9. [Population planning unit is developed in the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouali, C; Poukouta, P

    1989-01-01

    This article is an update on the demographic situation in the Congo and the institutionalization of a population unit in The Ministry of Plan. From 1974-84 the population increased 44.9% going from 1,319,790 to 1,912,429 at a growth rate of 3.48% and possibly doubling in 20 years (2005). However, the major transformation has been the growth of the urban areas over the rural. From 1974-84 the rural population went from 819,430 to 934,849 while the urban population went from 500,360 in 1974 to 977,580 in 1984. The growth rate of the rural areas was 1.22% while that for the urban was 6.38% Infant mortality rate stands at 73/1000; life expectancy is 46.9 for men and 50.0 for women. The average fertility rate is 6. This demographic situation with the inherent problems of the rapidly growing urbanization of the 2 principal cities, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, has led to problems in health services and high morbidity and mortality rates. The Government has created 3 national organizations to coordinate population activities in the country: 1) The National Council on Population, (1988) an interministerial council, presided over by the Prime Minister, that defines and formulates national population policies as integral components to the country's socioeconomic development plans; 2) The National Commission on Population (CONAPO), headed by the Minister of Plan, Finance and Economics as the administrative organ of The National Council on Population, and responsible for the technical and evaluation activities of The National Council on Population; and 3) The Population Planning Unit headed by the Director of Human Resources in the Ministry of Plan responsible for identifying, formulating and evaluating population policies in the Congo. These institutions were created as a result of the 1974 Bucharest Conference and the 1984 Arusha Conference were population and development were considered integral components, and of results of 2 censuses and population surveys highlighting

  10. Congo Basin rainfall climatology: can we believe the climate models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Richard; James, Rachel; Pearce, Helen; Pokam, Wilfried M; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran

    2013-01-01

    The Congo Basin is one of three key convective regions on the planet which, during the transition seasons, dominates global tropical rainfall. There is little agreement as to the distribution and quantity of rainfall across the basin with datasets differing by an order of magnitude in some seasons. The location of maximum rainfall is in the far eastern sector of the basin in some datasets but the far western edge of the basin in others during March to May. There is no consistent pattern to this rainfall distribution in satellite or model datasets. Resolving these differences is difficult without ground-based data. Moisture flux nevertheless emerges as a useful variable with which to study these differences. Climate models with weak (strong) or even divergent moisture flux over the basin are dry (wet). The paper suggests an approach, via a targeted field campaign, for generating useful climate information with which to confront rainfall products and climate models.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  12. Second International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; Bente, Dennis A; Bray, Mike; Burt, Felicity; Hewson, Roger; Korukluoglu, Gülay; Mirazimi, Ali; Weber, Friedemann; Papa, Anna

    2018-02-01

    The Second International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) was held in Thessaloniki, Greece, from September 10-13, 2017, and brought together international public health professionals, clinicians, ecologists, and basic laboratory researchers. Nearly 100 participants, representing 24 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO), were in attendance. Meeting sessions covered the epidemiology of CCHF in humans; ticks and virus-tick interactions; wild and domestic animal hosts; molecular virology; taxonomic classification; pathogenesis and animal models; clinical aspects and diagnosis; clinical management and clinical trials; and disease prevention in humans. The concluding session focused on recent WHO recommendations for public health measures and future research. This report summarizes lectures by the invited speakers and highlights advances in the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Kosova : a fatal case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Lul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. The authors report a fatal case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF observed in a patient from Kosova. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Late diagnosis decreased the efficacy of treatment and patient died due to severe complications of infection.

  14. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    ravaged by a brutal armed conflict. In comparison to the three past presidents, Joseph Kabila has managed to restore political stability and calm to much...DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region

  15. NGO management and health care financing approaches in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkzeul, D; Lynch, C A

    2006-01-01

    The role of cost-sharing in health care is a crucial, yet contentious issue. In conflict situations, cost-sharing becomes even more controversial as health and other institutions are failing. In such situations, NGOs manage health programmes which aim to aid populations in crisis and improve or at least sustain a deteriorating health system. This study looks at the issue of cost-sharing in the wider context of utilization rates and management approaches of three NGOs in the chronic, high-mortality crisis of the eastern DRC. Approaches to increase access to health care were found to exist, yet cost-recovery, even on the basis of maximum utilization rates, would only partially sustain the health system in the eastern DRC. Factors external to the direct management of NGO health programs, such as the wider economic and security situation, local management structures, and international donor policies, need to be taken into account for establishing more integrated management and financing approaches.

  16. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D

    2001-01-01

    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  17. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approximately 3.7 million km^2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approximately 40,200 cms annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3 degree x 3 degree regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 km^3, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research also highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  18. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  19. ADSORPSI CONGO RED PADA HUMIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI TANAH HUTAN DAMAR BATURRADEN PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Congo red is one of dyes-stuff in textile industry wastwater. If it is thrown directly without waste management process, the dyes could pollute environtment, especially soil. Humin has OH phenolic and carboxylic functional group which can interacted with congo red. The aim of this study is recognize humin characteristic from the soil of Baturraden resin forest, determine the adsorption capacity and isotherm adsorption pattern of congo red by humin from the soil of Baturraden resin forest. Humin in this study is isolated from the soil of Baturraden resin forest. soil cleared of gravel and dirt, then it extracted by using NaOH of nitrogen atmosphere and purified to applies mixture HCl:HF. Humin that is obtained is used to be interacted with dyes with various contact time, various of pH and concentration of congo red so that the adsorption capacities and isotherm adsorption pattern can be obtained. Result of the study showed that the humin has water content 34.92 %, dust content 8.64 %, total acidity 475 cmol/Kg, carboxylic rate 272.5 cmol/Kg, and OH Phenolic rate 202.5 cmol/Kg. The optimum contact time of congo red adsorption by humin is 40 minutes, with optimum pH is 7, adsorption capacities 57.14 mg/g and isotherm adsorption pattern of congo red by humin is follow the pattern of Langmuir isotherm adsorption.

  20. The influence of Congo River discharges in the surface and deep layers of the Gulf of Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Vangriesheim, A.; Pierre, C.; Aminot, A.; Metzl, N.; Baurand, François; Caprais, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The main feature of the Congo-Angola margin in the Gulf of Guinea is the Congo (ex-Zaire) deep-sea fan composed of a submarine canyon directly connected to the Congo River, a channel and a [sediment] lobe area. During the multi-disciplinary programme called BIOZAIRE conducted by Ifremer from 2000 to 2005, two CTD-O2 sections with discrete water column samples were performed (BIOZAIRE3 cruise: 2003-2004) to study the influence of the Congo River discharges, both in the surface layer and in the...

  1. Brief Report: Decentralizing ART Supply for Stable HIV Patients to Community-Based Distribution Centers: Program Outcomes From an Urban Context in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Florian; Kalenga, Lucien; Lukela, Jean; Salumu, Freddy; Diallo, Ibrahim; Nico, Elena; Lampart, Emmanuel; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Shah, Safieh; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zachariah, Rony; Van Griensven, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision for stable patients with HIV congests health services in resource-limited countries. We assessed outcomes and risk factors for attrition after decentralization to community-based ART refill centers among 2603 patients with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Death, loss to follow-up, and transfer out were 0.3%, 9.0%, and 0.7%, respectively, at 24 months. Overall attrition was 5.66/100 person-years. Patients with >3 years on ART, >500 cluster of differentiation type-4 count, body mass index >18.5, and receiving nevirapine but not stavudine showed reduced attrition. ART refill centers are a promising task-shifting model in low-prevalence urban settings with high levels of stigma and poor ART coverage.

  2. Mortality rates above emergency threshold in population affected by conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012-April 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Isidro Carrión Martín

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs, access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012-April 2013. In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2-1.7 and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3-2.5. The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4-42.9. Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2-75.4. Non Food Items (NFI ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1-79.7 at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3-36.5 of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period.

  3. Mortality Rates above Emergency Threshold in Population Affected by Conflict in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, July 2012–April 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión Martín, Antonio Isidro; Bil, Karla; Salumu, Papy; Baabo, Dominique; Singh, Jatinder; Kik, Corry; Lenglet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The area of Walikale in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, is intensely affected by conflict and population displacement. Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) returned to provide primary healthcare in July 2012. To better understand the impact of the ongoing conflict and displacement on the population, a retrospective mortality survey was conducted in April 2013. A two-stage randomized cluster survey using 31 clusters of 21 households was conducted. Heads of households provided information on their household make-up, ownership of non-food items (NFIs), access to healthcare and information on deaths and occurrence of self-reported disease in the household during the recall period. The recall period was of 325 days (July 2012–April 2013). In total, 173 deaths were reported during the recall period. The crude mortality rate (CMR) was of 1.4/10,000 persons/day (CI95%: 1.2–1.7) and the under-five- mortality rate (U5MR) of 1.9/10,000 persons per day (CI95%: 1.3–2.5). The most frequently reported cause of death was fever/malaria 34.1% (CI95%: 25.4–42.9). Thirteen deaths were due to intentional violence. Over 70% of all households had been displaced at some time during the recall period. Out of households with someone sick in the last two weeks, 63.8% sought health care; the main reason not to seek health care was the lack of money (n = 134, 63.8%, CI95%: 52.2–75.4). Non Food Items (NFI) ownership was low: 69.0% (CI95%: 53.1–79.7) at least one 10 liter jerry can, 30.1% (CI95%: 24.3–36.5) of households with visible soap available and 1.6 bednets per household. The results from this survey in Walikale clearly illustrate the impact that ongoing conflict and displacement are having on the population in this part of DRC. The gravity of their health status was highlighted by a CMR that was well above the emergency threshold of 1 person/10,000/day and an U5MR that approaches the 2 children/10,000/day threshold for the recall period. PMID:25233090

  4. Initiating NTD programs targeting schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in two provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Establishment of baseline prevalence for mass drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Achille; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Tougoue, Jean Jacques; Mupoyi, Sylvain; Ndombe, Martin; Shannon, Scott; Ottesen, Eric A; Mukunda, Faustin; Awaca, Naomi

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB). Parasitological surveys were conducted from April to May 2015 in twenty-six selected sampling units (schools) for baseline mapping in six HZs: Fifty school children (25 females and 25 males) aged 9-15 years were randomly selected per sampling unit. A total of 1300 samples (urine and stool) were examined using haematuria dipsticks, parasite-egg filtration and the point-of-care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for urine samples and the Kato-Katz technique for stool specimens. Three species of schistosomes (S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum) and three groups of STH (hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris) were detected at variable prevalence and intensity among the schools, the HZs and the provinces. In Bandundu, no SCH was detected by either Kato-Katz or the POC-CCA technique, despite a high prevalence of STH with 68% and 80% at Kiri and Pendjua HZs, respectively. In Maniema, intestinal schistosomiasis was detected by both Kato-Katz and POC-CCA with an average prevalence by Kato-Katz of 32.8% and by POC-CCA of 42.1%. Comparative studies confirmed the greater sensitivity (and operational feasibility) of the POC-CCA test on urine compared to Kato-Katz examination of stool for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis even in areas of comparatively light infections. STH was widely distributed and present in all HZs with a mean prevalence (95% CI) of 59.62% (46.00-65.00%). The

  5. The start-up phase of the national satellite forest monitoring systems for DRC and PNG: a joint venture between FAO and INPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD Team Forestry Department

    2011-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme, a partnership between UNEP, FAO and UNDP, assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. Designed collaboratively by a broad range of stakeholders, national UN-REDD Programmes are informed by the technical expertise of FAO, UNDP and UNEP. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV)of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism, also following the COP 16 decisions in Cancun last year. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost-effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the start-up phase for DRC and Papua New Guinea (PNG) in this capacity building effort is the

  6. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Dana R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis. At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. Methods At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a representative survey of 2,078 households in accordance with MEASURE DHS protocols, and performed ethnographic interviews and focus groups with key informants and vulnerable subpopulations. Modelling proximate determinates of fertility, we evaluated how the introduction of contraceptives and/or extended periods of breastfeeding could reduce the TFR. Results Over half of all women reported an unmet need for spacing or limiting births, and nearly 70% named a specific modern method of contraception they would prefer to use; pills (25.4% and injectables (26.5% were most desired. We predicted that an increased length of breastfeeding (from 10 to 21 months or an increase in contraceptive prevalence (from 1% to 30%, or a combination of both could reduce TFR on Idjwi to 6, the average desired number of children. Increasing contraceptive prevalence to 15% could reduce unmet need for contraception by 8%. Conclusions To meet women’s need and desire for fertility control, we recommend adding family planning services at health centers with NGO support, pursuing a community health worker program, promoting extended breastfeeding, and implementing programs to end sexual- and gender-based violence toward women.

  7. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangila, Junior R; Lufuluabo, Jean; Ibalanky, Axel L; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel A; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-02

    In areas of high malaria transmission, Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is characterized by malaria-related anaemia, placental malaria and does not always result in clinical symptoms. This situation is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection, its relation with anaemia as well as the most cost-effective technique for its diagnosis in healthy pregnant women living in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In a cross-sectional study design, information on socio-demographic characteristics and cost data were collected in healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care consultations. Plasmodium falciparum infection was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was also determined. In total, 332 pregnant women were enrolled. RDT and microscopy data were available for all the blood samples and 166 samples were analysed by PCR. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection using microscopy, RDTs and PCR, were respectively 21.6%, 27.4% and 29.5%. Taking PCR as a reference, RDTs had a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 94.9% to diagnose asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. The corresponding values for microscopy were 67.3% and 97.4%. The prevalence of anaemia was 61.1% and asymptomatic malaria increased five times the odds (p anaemia. RDTs were more cost-effective compared to microscopy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 63.47 per microscopy adequately diagnosed case. These alarming results emphasize the need to actively diagnose and treat asymptomatic malaria infection during all antenatal care visits. Moreover, in DRC, malaria and anaemia control efforts should be strengthened by promoting the use of insecticide-treated nets, intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron and folic acid supplements.

  8. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  9. The road towards sustainable control of schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Pre-assessment of staff performance and material resources in endemic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Linsuke

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Though knowledge on schistosomiasis among health staff appears sufficient, substantial efforts still must be made to improve the availability of diagnostic tools and treatment in the health facilities in DRC.

  10. Water Level Fluctuations in the Congo Basin Derived from ENVISAT Satellite Altimetry

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    Mélanie Becker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Congo Basin, the elevated vulnerability of food security and the water supply implies that sustainable development strategies must incorporate the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes. However, the lack of observational hydro-climatic data over the past decades strongly limits the number of studies investigating the effects of climate change in the Congo Basin. We present the largest altimetry-based dataset of water levels ever constituted over the entire Congo Basin. This dataset of water levels illuminates the hydrological regimes of various tributaries of the Congo River. A total of 140 water level time series are extracted using ENVISAT altimetry over the period of 2003 to 2009. To improve the understanding of the physical phenomena dominating the region, we perform a K-means cluster analysis of the altimeter-derived river level height variations to identify groups of hydrologically similar catchments. This analysis reveals nine distinct hydrological regions. The proposed regionalization scheme is validated and therefore considered reliable for estimating monthly water level variations in the Congo Basin. This result confirms the potential of satellite altimetry in monitoring spatio-temporal water level variations as a promising and unprecedented means for improved representation of the hydrologic characteristics in large ungauged river basins.

  11. Investigation on the rapid degradation of congo red catalyzed by activated carbon powder under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohong; Shan Yabo; Wang Jun; Ling Hongjie; Zang Shuliang; Gao Wei; Zhao Zhe; Zhang Huachun

    2007-01-01

    Azo dyestuff-congo red in aqueous solution can be degraded rapidly under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon powder. The results showed that the degradation ratio could reach 87.79% for 25 mL total volume with 50 mg/L congo red and 2.0 g/L activated carbon powder under 1.5 min microwave irradiation. Furthermore, within the same irradiation time, congo red could be degraded fully by increasing addition amount (e.g. 3.6 g/L) of activated carbon powder and the degradation ratio was up to 96.49%. Otherwise, with the same addition amount, congo red also could be degraded completely by prolonging irradiation time (e.g. 2.5 min) and the degradation ratio was up to 97.88%. In addition, the influences of microwave irradiation time, initial concentration of congo red, addition amount and used times of activated carbon powder as well as solution acidity on the degradation were discussed in details adopting UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, ion chromatography, high phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TOC analysis technologies. Here, the method using activated carbon powder as catalyst under microwave irradiation shows many advantages including high degradation ratios, short reaction time, low costs, no intermediates and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it may be fit for dealing with various azo dyestuff wastewaters on a large scale

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Tick-Host-Virus Interactions

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    Anna Papa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs. The introduction of salivary gland secretions into the host cells is the major route via which CCHFV enters the host. Following an initial amplification at the site of inoculation, the virus is spread to the target organs. Apoptosis is induced via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Genetic factors and immune status of the host may affect the release of cytokines which play a major role in disease progression and outcome. It is expected that the use of new technology of metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will lead to improved understanding of CCHFV-host interactions and identify potential targets for blocking the CCHFV transmission.

  13. Brucellosis in Patients with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Fazilet Duygu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a fatal zoonotic viral disease caused by infection with a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus. In this study, we investigated the incidence of brucellosis in patients diag­nosed with CCHF.Methods: Overall, 169 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of CCHF were included in 2011 in To­kat/ Turkey. Immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and/or PCR results were used in the laboratory diagnosis of CCHF, while plate and standard tube agglutination (STA tests were used to diagnose brucellosis.Results: Overall, 120 patients (79% with positive PCR tests were diagnosed with CCHF. Five (4.16% were also diag­nosed with brucellosis based on the positive plate and STA test results. Four patients (2.36% had negative CCHF PCR and positive STA test results.Conclusion: Brucellosis and CCHF can mimic each other and that all patients with CCHF or brucellosis should be screened for both conditions.

  14. [Hypertensive emergencies at the University Hospital Center in Brazzaville, Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenga, Mbolla B F; Gombet, T R; Mahoungou, Guimbi K C; Otiobanda, G F; Ossou, Nguiet P M; Ikama, M S; Kimbally-Kaky, G; Etitiele, F

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study conducted in the emergency department of the University Hospital Center in Brazzaville, Congo was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypertensive emergencies. With a total of 76 patients admitted during the study period, the prevalence of hypertensive emergency was 4%. The sex ratio was 1 and mean patient age was 57.3 years (range, 30 to 80 years). Risk factors included obesity in 62 cases (81.6%), history of hypertension in 65 (85.5%) and low socioeconomic level in 58 (76.3%). Mean delay for consultation was 50 hours (range, 1 to 240 hours). The disease underlying the hypertensive emergency was stroke with 38 cases (50%), heart failure in 20 (26.3%), hypertensive encephalopathy in 11 (14.4%), malignant hypertension in 9 (11.8%), and renal failure in 10 (13.1%). The mean length of emergency treatment was 14.7 hours (range, 5 to 48 hours). Eight deaths (10.5%) occurred during hospitalization in the emergency department.

  15. Hepatitis in Patients with Crimean –Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Batool Sharifi-Mood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease and causing approximately 30% fatality rate. Recent studies have been reported that hepatitis in CCHF patients is with high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis in the CCHF cases and also detect the mortality rate among patients with hepatitis. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in patients with CCHF who were hospitalized in Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan between Oct 2009 to Feb 2012. Liver function tests including aminotransferase enzymes and prothrombin time and mortality rate were evaluated. Results: Among 53 patients with CCHF, hepatitis was seen in 19 patients (45%. Nine patients died (21%. All dead patients had a serum aminotransaminase level ≥10 times the upper normal limit. Conclusion: Our study showed that hepatitis is prevalent in CCHF patients and a serum aminotransaminase level ≥5 times the upper normal limit (UNL is a risk factor for severe disease and high mortality.

  16. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Sulyok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.

  17. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley–Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and “other vegetables” [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1] and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1

  18. The Ritual "Play of the Congos" of North-Central Panama: Its Sociolinguistic Implications. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Luz Graciela

    An excerpt from the "Play of the Congos," given in Congo, Spanish, and English, exemplifies the sociolinguistic features of the combined play and ritual language used by the Afro-Hispanic population in the Caribbean region of the Costa Abajo in north-central Panama. The sociolinguistic norms are an important part of the "regulation…

  19. Four new species of deep water agglutinated foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene of the Congo Fan (offshore Angola)

    OpenAIRE

    Kender, S.; Kaminski, M. A.; Jones, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Four new species of deep-water agglutinated benthic foraminifera are described from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Congo Fan, offshore Angola. Scherochorella congoensis n.sp., Paratrochamminoides goroyskiformis n.sp., Haplophragmoides nauticus n.sp. and Portatrochammina profunda n.sp. all occur in deep-sea turbiditic shales and sands from the distal section of the Congo Fan.

  20. Perception des adolescents et jeunes en matière de santé sexuelle et reproductive, République Démocratique du Congo.

    OpenAIRE

    Vodiena, Gabriel Nsakala; Coppieters, Yves; Lapika, Bruno Dimonfu; Kalambayi, Patrick Kayembe; Gomis, Dominique; Piette, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents and young people have specific concerns about issues related to sexual and reproductive health. The purpose of this study, conducted in an urban setting of the DRC, was to identify the needs and perceptions of adolescents and young people in the area of sexual and reproductive health with a view to informing policy. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups conducted in three cities of the DRC (Kinshasa, Goma and Matadi). The study focused on adoles...

  1. Prevención de la mortalidad materna: Un ejemplo de intervención comunitaria en salud en el Congo Prevencion of Maternal Mortality: an example on community intervention in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el año 2005, la Organización Mundial de la Salud llamó la atención de la comunidad médica internacional sobre la crisis sanitaria invisible que provocan las muertes maternas en los países más pobres del mundo. Tras el lema "Cada madre y cada niño contarán" del informe mundial de la salud, se reconoce la mortalidad materna como un gran problema de salud pública internacional y de derechos humanos. Objetivo: Aumentar el número de partos institucionalizados mediante una investigación-acción con el objetivo de disminuir indirectamente la mortalidad materna. Métodos: Un ensayo comunitario, de metodología cualitativa-cuantitativa, realizada en Pweto (República Democrática del Congo entre 2002 y 2004. Mediante un abordaje etnográfico se obtuvieron las claves determinantes de la baja proporción de partos instititucionalizados desde la perspectiva de las mujeres y se instauró un programa de intervención. La efectividad del programa se mensuró mediante el test de la T de student, comparando los partos atendidos en las estructuras sanitarias antes y después de la intervención. Resultados: La diferencias observadas tras la intervención, con un aumento de 1279 partos, son estadísticamente significativas (T:-12,062 con 28 g.l., pIntroduction: The WHO "World Health Report 2005" calls attention to the international medical community about the invisible health crisis causing the maternal deaths in the poorest countries of the world. Under the slogan "Make every mother and child count", the maternal mortality was recognised as a huge international public health and human rights problem. Objective: Increase the number of institutional deliveries trough an action research, with the objective to reduce indirectly maternal mortality. Methods: A qualitative-quantitative community trial was conducted in Pweto (Democratic Republic of Congo from 2002 to 2004. An intensive ethnographic research was done to obtain the key

  2. "The co-authors of pregnancy": leveraging men's sense of responsibility and other factors for male involvement in antenatal services in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michelle M; Ditekemena, John; Loando, Aimé; Ilunga, Vicky; Temmerman, Marleen; Fwamba, Franck

    2017-12-06

    Despite efforts to improve male involvement (MI), few male partners typically attend antenatal care (ANC). MI in ANC and interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the HIV-positive mother and her child. This study aimed to explore factors influencing partner attendance and highlight interventions with potential to improve MI within a Congolese context. This was an exploratory, qualitative study conducted in two urban and two semi-urban catchment areas of Kinshasa, DRC in June-September 2016. Two women-only and two men-only focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; participants were recruited from ANC clinics and surrounding communities. Key informants purposively selected from health facility leadership and central government were also interviewed. Guide topics included MI barriers and facilitators, experiences with couples' ANC attendance and perceptions of MI interventions and how to improve them. Data from FGDs and interviews were analyzed to determine three interventions that best addressed the identified MI facilitators and barriers. These interventions were explored further through dialogues held with representatives from community organizations. This study included 17 female and 18 male FGD participants, 3 key informants and 21 community dialogue participants. Receipt of clinic staff advice was the most commonly-reported factor facilitating male attendance. No time off work was the most commonly-reported barrier. Only men identified responsibility, referring to themselves as "authors of the pregnancy," and wanting to be tested for HIV as facilitators. The most promising interventions perceived by FGD and interview participants were male partner invitation letters, couple- and male-friendly improvements to ANC, and expert peer-to-peer outreach. Community dialogue participants provided further detail on these approaches, such as invitation letter content and counseling messages targeting men attending

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following oral treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kinshasa DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesche David

    2011-02-01

    in the DRC. Although DHA AUC during pregnancy and postpartum were similar, the AUC for the pregnant group was less than the non-pregnant controls. The findings of this study suggest that additional studies on the pharmacokinetics of AS in pregnant women are needed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00538382

  4. Optical properties of amyloid stained by Congo red: history and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Alexander J; Brewer, Douglas B

    2009-04-01

    Amyloid stained by Congo red has striking optical properties that generally have been poorly described and inadequately explained, although they can be understood from principles of physical optics. Molecules of Congo red are orientated on amyloid fibrils, and so the dye becomes dichroic and birefringent. The birefringence varies with wavelength in accordance with a fundamental property of all light-transmitting materials called anomalous dispersion of the refractive index around an absorption peak. The combination of this and absorption of light, with modification by any additional birefringence in the optical system, explains the various colours that can be seen in Congo red-stained amyloid between crossed polariser and analyser, and also when the polariser and analyser are progressively uncrossed. These are called anomalous colours.

  5. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Zankari, Ea

    2013-01-01

    We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Com...

  6. Anatomie de la Corruption en République Démocratique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila Tedika, Oasis

    2013-01-01

    This article analysis a nature of corruption in Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows, with arguments, on the one hand the deserved reputation for a highly corrupt country, that one reads regularly in different collations on corruption and says to the complexity and depth of the corruption. The basis of the systemic side of corruption in this country. Cet article a pour objectif de décortiquer la nature de la corruption en République démocratique du Congo. Il démontre, avec arguments, d’une ...

  7. Effective Removal of Congo Red by Triarrhena Biochar Loading with TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite of pyrolytic Triarrhena biochar loading with TiO2 nanoparticles has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite shows a well-developed hollow mesoporous and macropore structure as characterized by XRD, BET, and SEM. When used as an absorbent to remove Congo red from aqueous solution, it was found that as-prepared composite performed better absorption capacity than single biochar or TiO2. The results suggest that biochar loading with TiO2 could be promisingly implemented as an environmentally friendly and inexpensive adsorbent for Congo red removal from wastewater.

  8. Les pratiques de terrain en situation de tensions sociales et de guerre civile au Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Kouvouama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Évoquer mes pratiques de terrain en situation de tensions sociales et de guerre civile au Congo-Brazzaville suppose un véritable travail critique sur le présent d’une société qui est à la fois ce monde social renfermant une pluralité des microcosmes sociaux et le champ de mes expériences de vie, d’action et de réflexion. J’ai été tenté – comme si cela allait de soi – de recourir à la méthode d’observation participante par immersion dans l’univers social où l’on est à la fois sujet et objet. J’avais conscience de cette double contrainte épistémologique et sociale dans la démarche réflexive et critique de socio-anthropologue selon laquelle le terrain d’objectivation participante est également celui de l’expérimentation sociale. Dans un premier temps, les recherches et enquêtes de terrain ont été menées, de 1990 à 1994, sur les « mouvements associatifs religieux et laïcs d'entraide sociale dans la société urbaine brazzavilloise (Congo ». Dans un second temps, de 1995 à 1998, les recherches ont été effectuées sur le mouvement matsouaniste dans le contexte paradoxal, du processus de démocratisation et de guerres civiles, en partenariat au sein d’une équipe de l’ORSTOM et du CNRS, sur le thème « Citadins et religions à Brazzaville». Cette construction scientifique du rapport au temps historique et la recherche sous tension en terrain « miné » m’ont permis d’une part, de comprendrece que travailler veut dire sur le présent et le quotidien dans des temporalités guerrières ; d’autre part, de voir également comment se sont construites les identités individuelles et collectives à travers différents processus de décomposition et de recomposition des situations urbaines.Field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-BrazzavilleReferring to my own field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-Brazzaville entails a

  9. A crimean - congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in northern balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ali, N.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, predictors of fatal outcome (PFO), and management effects of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients during an outbreak in Northern Balochistan. Patients presenting with a fever of less than 2 weeks duration and bleeding manifestations were included. Clinical history was recorded and patients were placed on oral ribavirin, and hematological support. Diagnosis was established by PCR for CCHF or detection of CCHF specific IgM and IgG. Eighty-four patients were received, 34 (40.5%) were suspected of suffering from classical CCHF. All 34 (100%) patients presented with a history of fever and bleeding (epistaxis, gum bleeding, melena or haematuria). Mean platelet count was 30 x 109/L and mean ALT (alanine transferase) was 288 U/L. Among fatal cases, the mean platelet count was 18.4 x 10 9/L and ALT was 781 units/L. PCR for CCHF viral RNA performed on 10 patients was positive in 3 (30%) patients. CCHF specific IgM and IgG was positive in 17.6% (6/34). Four patients were brought in moribund condition and expired before treatment could be started, 4 patients expired during treatment and 76.5% (26/34) were cured. The overall mortality was 23.5% (8/34). Main predictors of fatal outcome were ALT z 150 units/L, activated partial thromboplastin time(aPT) z 60 seconds, prothrombin time (PT) z 34 seconds, aspartate transferase (AST) z 200 units/L, platelets o 20 x 109/L, and fibrinogen o 110 mg/dL. In this series of CCHF occurring in Northern parts of Balochistan, gastrointestinal tract bleeding was the worst prognostic factor associated with fatal outcome. Providing education to healthcare workers and at risk populations, hematological support, antiviral drugs, and barrier nursing may help reduce mortality. (author)

  10. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non- human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay.Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper.Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus.Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus,Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease.

  11. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  12. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  13. PIG FARMING AT KINSHASA IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    IKEYA, Kazunobu

    2015-01-01

    Pig farming has been gaining attention in recent years in African countries south of the Sahara as a source of urban farmers’ cash income. This study was undertaken to explain what types of pigs are raised, how and where they are raised, and how pork is distributed in Kinshasa of the DRC . The results indicated that six households had begun pig farming in the past 14 years, two of which had nonetheless lost their pigs to disease. All of the pig farmers surveyed raised their animals in pigpens...

  14. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  15. Commitment to a Lady’s First WIN : Banking Innovation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Awiti Owuor

    2011-01-01

    Doing business is challenging in the Democratic Republic of Congo and presents opportunities for innovative approaches to banking, especially for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) - and particularly for women entrepreneurs. But it is getting easier, thanks to innovating banking. This SmartLesson reviews some of the early lessons learned from the ongoing implementation of a Women...

  16. Congo, de missie en de literatuur: Over David van Reybrouck, J. G. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the travel books written by Lieve Joris and Bart Castelein and the play Missie (Mission) written by David van Reybrouck (2007) sketched a positive and nostalgic image of the missionary. Keywords: Dutch (post)colonial literature, Congo, missionaries, colonialism. Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Vol. 46 (1) 2009: pp. 123- ...

  17. Les effets du changement climatique dans le bassin du Congo : la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... Dans le bassin du fleuve Congo, plus de 80 % des habitants vivent exclusivement de l'agriculture, de la pêche, de l'élevage et de la cueillette, qui sont des activités largement tributaires du climat.

  18. Mapping monkeypox transmission risk through time and space in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Damon, Inger K.; Karem, Kevin L.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Malekani, Jean; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Formenty, Pierre; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox is a major public health concern in the Congo Basin area, with changing patterns of human case occurrences reported in recent years. Whether this trend results from better surveillance and detection methods, reduced proportions of vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated human populations, or changing environmental conditions remains unclear. Our objective is to examine potential correlations between environment and transmission of monkeypox events in the Congo Basin. We created ecological niche models based on human cases reported in the Congo Basin by the World Health Organization at the end of the smallpox eradication campaign, in relation to remotely-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets from the same time period. These models predicted independent spatial subsets of monkeypox occurrences with high confidence; models were then projected onto parallel environmental datasets for the 2000s to create present-day monkeypox suitability maps. Recent trends in human monkeypox infection are associated with broad environmental changes across the Congo Basin. Our results demonstrate that ecological niche models provide useful tools for identification of areas suitable for transmission, even for poorly-known diseases like monkeypox.

  19. A model to predict when a cholera outbreak might hit the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, as many as 600,000 people in 58 countries contracted cholera, with thousands succumbing to the disease. In most countries, cholera is rare. In others, like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, cholera is an endemic threat, always lurking in the background waiting for the right set of conditions to spark an outbreak.

  20. A case report of crimean congo hemorrhagic Fever in ostriches in iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moradi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce...

  1. Governing Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: actors, discourses and institutions for adaptation and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Governing Congo Basin Forests in a Changing Climate: Actors, Discourses and Institutions for Adaptation and Mitigation

    OA Somorin

    Abstract

    The thesis deals with the central question of the governance processes of making

  2. Les écoles au Congo belge en 1924. Le rapport De Jonghe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enseignement au Congo, exprimé dans le projet de 1922, De Jonghe a entrepris un voyage de reconnaissance en 1924. Une nouvelle version du Projet paraissait en 1925 et la version définitive est approuvée en 1928 et publiée en 1929.

  3. To Tip or Not to Tip: The Case of the Congo Basin Rainforest Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, S.; Bednar, J. E.; Fath, B. D.; Winter, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The future response of the Congo basin rainforest, the second largest tropical carbon reservoir, to climate change is still under debate. Different Climate projections exist stating increase and decrease in rainfall and different changes in rainfall patterns. Within this study we assess all options of climate change possibilities to define the climatic thresholds of Congo basin rainforest stability and assess the limiting conditions for rainforest persistence. We use field data from 199 research plots from the Western Congo basin to calibrate and validate a complex BioGeoChemistry model (BGC-MAN) and assess model performance against an array of possible future climates. Next, we analyze the reasons for the occurrence of tipping points, their spatial and temporal probability of occurrence, will present effects of hysteresis and derive probabilistic spatial-temporal resilience landscapes for the region. Additionally, we will analyze attractors of forest growth dynamics and assess common linear measures for early warning signals of sudden shifts in system dynamics for their robustness in the context of the Congo Basin case, and introduce the correlation integral as a nonlinear measure of risk assessment.

  4. Enhanced adsorptive degradation of Congo red in aqueous solutions using polyaniline/Fe0 composite nanofibers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhaumik, M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple approach was described for the fabrication of composite nanofibers (CNFs) of polyaniline/Fe0 (PANI/Fe0) using a template-free method for the reductive degradation and removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The PANI...

  5. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their

  6. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal

  7. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic

  8. Profiling climate change vulnerability of forest indigenous communities in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkem, J.N.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Idinoba, M.E.; Bele, Y.M.; Sonwa, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The livelihood strategies of indigenous communities in the Congo Basin are inseparable from the forests, following their use of forest ecosystem goods and services (FEGS). Climate change is expected to exert impacts on the forest and its ability to provide FEGS. Thus, human livelihoods that depend

  9. Leopard-men of the Congo in literature and popular imagination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Anyoto leopard-men, a society from eastern Congo, operated between approximately 1890 and 1935. Until now the history of the leopard-men has inspired representations of Central Africa as a barbaric and disorderly place, and the idea that a secret association of men attacked innocent people and ate their limbs ...

  10. Gestion des espaces publics au Congo-Brazzaville: le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of public spaces in Congo-Brazzaville is at the heart of municipal political debates. At the level of public transport, the management of public spaces remains above all in the hands of the mayor's office and municipal councillors. The agreements between these authorities and the contractors running public ...

  11. Managing (Fiscally) Resource Windfalls : Exploring Policy Options for the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Moreira, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    How should resource-dependent countries respond (fiscally) to resource price volatility? This note studies what determines revenue allocation between a "spend today" strategy and a "save now-spend tomorrow" approach in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It uses a three-sector model in which public infrastructure investment has tangible benefits for private production and inve...

  12. Statistics of Deep Convection in the Congo Basin Derived From High-Resolution Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B.; Stier, P.; Kipling, Z.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Taylor, S.

    2016-12-01

    Convection transports moisture, momentum, heat and aerosols through the troposphere, and so the temporal variability of convection is a major driver of global weather and climate. The Congo basin is home to some of the most intense convective activity on the planet and is under strong seasonal influence of biomass burning aerosol. However, deep convection in the Congo basin remains under studied compared to other regions of tropical storm systems, especially when compared to the neighbouring, relatively well-understood West African climate system. We use the WRF model to perform a high-resolution, cloud-system resolving simulation to investigate convective storm systems in the Congo. Our setup pushes the boundaries of current computational resources, using a 1 km grid length over a domain covering millions of square kilometres and for a time period of one month. This allows us to draw statistical conclusions on the nature of the simulated storm systems. Comparing data from satellite observations and the model enables us to quantify the diurnal variability of deep convection in the Congo basin. This approach allows us to evaluate our simulations despite the lack of in-situ observational data. This provides a more comprehensive analysis of the diurnal cycle than has previously been shown. Further, we show that high-resolution convection-permitting simulations performed over near-seasonal timescales can be used in conjunction with satellite observations as an effective tool to evaluate new convection parameterisations.

  13. Gender implications of forest product value chains in the Congo basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; Schure, J.M.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndoye, O.; Awono, A.; Iponga, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Activities and roles in value chains of forest products in the Congo Basin are highly gendered, varying with the product's characteristics, the segment of the chain and customary regulations and norms. High-value products are primarily male-harvested when customary rules govern tenure and access,

  14. "New Education" for the Congo? The Indigenist Approach, New Education and Prescriptive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank; Vinck, Honoré

    2015-01-01

    This article responds to a question put forward approximately a decade ago by the history of education research group at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Did the child-centred ideas of New Education, as promoted by Ovide Decroly, influence the education policy in the former Belgian colony of Congo? Naturally, ideas were circulating that could…

  15. Medical Orders: Catholic and Protestant Missionary Medicine in the Belgian Congo 1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhieng Au

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of religious missions and the provisioning of western medical care in the region that was known as the Congo Free State and later the Belgian Congo reveals the complicated dynamics between competing religious missions vis à vis the Belgian colonial state. This essay highlights divisions between identities and purposes of different religious groups in medical care provisioning, focusing on the divide between the Catholic and Protestant churches. Because most Protestant missions in the Congo were American or British, the medical care provided by the Protestant church was outside of, and sometimes at odds with, the Belgian colonial state until the 1920s. In contrast, the Catholic Church served in an auxiliary role in the colonial state’s medical infrastructure. This was not an ideal situation, leading Catholic leaders to attempt to rework the church’s role in medical provisioning. Ultimately, mission, medicine, and empire were not always comfortable bedfellows. Medische Orders: katholieke en protestantse missiegeneeskunde in de Belgische Congo 1880-1940De geschiedenis van de religieuze missies en het voorzien in westerse medische gezondheidszorg in de Congo Vrijstaat – later de Belgische Congo – onthult de ingewikkelde dynamiek tussen de concurrerende religieuze missies vis à vis de Belgische koloniale staat. Dit artikel belicht verschillende religieuze groepen die medische zorg verleenden in deze regio en hun verdeeldheid inzake identiteiten en doelen. Hierbij wordt vooral gefocust op de tweedracht tussen de katholieke en protestantse kerk. Omdat de meeste protestantse missies die in de Congo gevestigd waren uit Amerika of Engeland kwamen, werd de medische zorg die zij verstrekten vaak buiten de Belgische koloniale staat om geleverd en leefden staat en protestantse kerk tot in de jaren 1920 soms op gespannen voet met elkaar. Dit staat in sterk contrast tot de katholieke kerk die wat betreft medische infrastructuur juist een

  16. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, S.; Nosheen, S.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  17. Drug use in the management of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi Y; Burri, Christian; Nzolo, Didier B; Engo, Aline B; Lula, Yves N; Mampunza, Samuel M; Nsibu, Célestin N; Mesia, Gauthier K; Kayembe, Jean-Marie N; Likwela, Joris L; Kintaudi, Leon M; Tona, Gaston L

    2018-05-03

    Malaria the first causes of death from parasitic infection worldwide. Interventions to reduce the burden of malaria have produced a tremendous drop in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, progress is slower in DRC, which shares with Nigeria 39% of deaths related to malaria globally. Inappropriate use of drugs may be one of the factors of this below-average performance. The aim of this study was to describe the use of drugs in the management of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in DRC. A drug use study was carried out in DRC from January to March 2014. In each of the former 11 provinces of DRC, one Rural Health Centre, one Urban Health Centre and one General Hospital were selected. In each of them, 100 patient's files containing prescription of anti-malarials from January to December 2013 were randomly selected. Among them, all of the files with diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria were included in this study. Prescribed anti-malarials, co-prescribed drugs and their indications were collected. Descriptive analyses were performed. A total of 2300 files out of 3300 (69.7%) concerned uncomplicated malaria and were included in analysis. Malaria treatment was initiated after a positive RDT or microscopy in 51.5% of cases, upon suspicion without requesting biological confirmation in 37% and despite negative results in 11%. Twenty-nine (29) different treatment regimens were used. The drugs recommended by the National Malaria Control Programme were used in 54.3% of cases (artesunate-amodiaquine 37.4% or artemether-lumefantrine 16.9%). The second most used anti-malarial was quinine (32.4%). Apart from anti-malarials, an average of 3.1 drugs per patient were prescribed, among which antibiotics (67.9%), analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) (all abbreviations to be explicated on first use) (70.6%), vitamins (29.1%), anaemia drugs, including blood transfusion (9.1%) and corticosteroids (5.7%), In 51.4% of cases there was no indication for

  18. Production of animal protein in the Congo Basin, a challenge for the future of people and wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Nassim; Hornick, Jean-Luc; Ruppol, Patrick; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Leroy, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Protein needs are considerable in the Congo Basin, a vast territory dominated by forest and inhabited by tens of millions of people. Whereas over 85% of the DRC’s population of the Basin live in the forest, the situation is different in other countries where the majority is urban (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo and Gabon). This paper presents several achievements of the Centre for Tropical Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine in Kinshasa (CAVTK), which aims since 2001 to conduct pil...

  19. Linking plant functional traits and forest carbon stocks in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Lewis, Simon; Huygens, Dries; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the amount of carbon stored in tropical forests represent crucial baseline data for recent climate change mitigation policies. Such data are needed to quantify possible emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation, and to evaluate the potential of these forests to act as carbon sinks. Currently, only rough estimates of the carbon stocks for Central African tropical forests are available due to a lack of field data, and little is known about the response of these stocks to climate change. We present the first ground-based carbon stock data for the central Congo Basin in Yangambi, D. R. Congo, based on data of 20 inventory plots of 1 ha covering different forest types. We found an average aboveground carbon stock of 163 ± 19 Mg C ha-1 for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than the stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. Commonly studied drivers for variations of carbon stocks include climatic and edaphic factors, but detailed trait-based studies are lacking. We identified a significant difference in height-diameter relations across the Congo Basin as a driver for spatial differences in carbon stocks. The study of a more detailed interaction of the environment and the available tree species pool as drivers for differences in carbon storage could have large implications. The effect of the species pool on carbon storage can be large since species differ in their ability to sequester carbon, and the collective functional characteristics of plant communities could be a major driver of carbon accumulation. The use of a trait-based approach shows high potential for identifying and quantifying carbon stocks as an ecosystem service. We test for associations between functional trait values and carbon storage across multiple regrowth and old-growth forests types in the Yangambi study area, with soil properties and climate similar for all plots. A selection of traits associated with carbon dynamics is made

  20. Electromagnetic evidence of high angle convergence between the Congo and Kalahari cratons in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, D. T.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Webb, S. J.; Share, P.

    2010-12-01

    The southern African tectonic fabric is made up of a number Archean cratons flanked by Proterozoic and younger mobile belts, all with distinctly different but related geological evolutions. The cratonic margins and some intra-cratonic domain boundaries have played major roles in the tectonics of Africa by focusing ascending magmas and localising cycles of extension and rifting. Of these cratons the southern extent of the Congo craton is one of the least-constrained tectonic boundaries in the African tectonic architecture and knowledge of its geometry is crucial for understanding geological process of formation and deformation prevailing in the Archean and later. In this work, which forms a component of the hugely successful Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), we present the first-ever lithospheric electrical resistivity image of the southern boundary of the enigmatic Congo craton and the Neoproterozoic Damara-Ghanzi-Chobe (DGC) orogenic belt on its flanks. The DGC belt is highly complex and records the transpressive collision between the Congo to the north and Kalahari craton to the south. Magnetotelluric data were collected along a profile crossing all three of these tectonic blocks. The two-dimensional resistivity models resulting from inverting the distortion-corrected responses along the profiles all indicate significant lateral variations in the crust and upper mantle structure along and across strike from the younger DGC orogen to the older adjacent craton. The Moho depth in the DGC is mapped at 40 km by active seismic methods, and is also well constrained by S-wave receiver function models. The Damara belt lithosphere, although generally more conductive and significantly thinner (approximately 150 km) than the adjacent Congo and Kalahari cratons, exhibits upper crustal resistive features interpreted to be caused by igneous intrusions emplaced during the Gondwanan Pan-African magmatic event. The thinned lithosphere is consistent with a 50 m

  1. Evolution and estimated age of the C5 Lukala carbonate-evaporite ramp complex in the Lower Congo region (Democratic Republic of Congo): New perspectives in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpomdor, F.; Van Vliet, N.; Devleeschouwer, X.; Tack, L.; Préat, A.

    2018-01-01

    New detailed lithological, sedimentological, chemostratigraphic data were obtained from exploration drilling samples on the C5 carbonate-dominated formation of the Neoproterozoic Lukala Subgroup (former Schisto-Calcaire Subgroup) from the West Congo Belt (WCB) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This formation records the last post-Marinoan sea-level events that occurred in the whole basin, followed by the development of the Araçuaï-West Congo Orogen between 630 and 560 Ma. The C5 Formation consists of back-reef lagoonal and peritidal/sabkha cycles of ∼2.0 m in thickness, that record a short-time marine regression, rapidly flooded by a marine transgression with deposition of organic-rich argillaceous carbonates or shales under dysoxia and anoxia conditions. These dysoxic/anoxic waters were rapidly followed by a regional-scale marine transgression, favouring mixing with well-oxygenated waters, and the development of benthic Tonian to Cambro-Ordovician Obruchevella parva-type 'seagrasses' in the nearshore zones of the lagoons. New δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic data in the C5 Formation of the Lukala Subgroup are used in the frame of a correlation with the Sete Lagoas Formation in Brazil. Relatively comparable negative to positive δ13C excursions point to marine flooding of the whole basin and allow extension of the debatable Late Ediacaran age of the uppermost Sete Lagoas and C5 formations. Sr isotope ;blind dating; failed due to low Sr concentration related to a dolomitization event close 540 Ma. Several tentative datings of the C5 Formation converge to a Late Ediacaran age ranging between 575 and 540 Ma. As the overlying Mpioka folded Subgroup, the C5 series suffered the Pan African deformation, dated at 566 ± 42 Ma. Unlike the previously generally accepted interpretation, our data suggests that the Mpioka Subgroup was deposited in the Early Cambrian.

  2. [Governance of tertiary referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a critical interpretive synthesis of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemere, H; Kahindo, J B; Ribesse, N; Macq, J

    2013-01-01

    Because hospitals are complex enterprises requiring adaptive systems, it is appropriate to apply the theory and terminology of governance or even better adaptive governance to the interpretation of their management. This study focused on understanding hospital governance in Logo, Bunia, and Katana, three hospitals in two regions of the eastern DRC, which has been characterized by intermittent armed conflict since 1996. In such a context of war and continuous insecurity, how can governance be interpreted for hospitals required to adapt to a constantly changing environment to be able to continue to provide health care? A critical interpretive synthesis of the literature, identified by searching for keywords related to governance. The concepts of governance, adaptive governance, performance, leadership, and complex adaptive system concepts are defined. The interpretation of the concepts helps us to better understand (1) the hospital as a complex adaptive system, (2) the governance of tertiary referral hospitals, (3) analysis of hospital performance, and (4) leadership for good governance of these hospitals. The interpretation of these concepts raises several questions about their application to the eastern DRC. Conclusion. This critical interpretive synthesis opens the door to a new way of exploring tertiary hospitals and their governance in the eastern DRC.

  3. CONDITIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN THE AGRICULTURE OF CONGO REPUBLIC*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Andrzejczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa is employed in agriculture. Nevertheless, the productivity of the sector is relatively low in comparison with other regions of the world. Based on convergence theory, technology transfer can enhance growth. However, the effective transfer of technology requires a certain absorption capacity from the recipient. Based on the qualitative research on cassava production in Congo Brazzaville, we identified key factors that influence the transfer process. These factors have been divided into four key areas: market, institutions, technology, and social capability. Cassava production value chain in Ignie region served as a case study for the evaluation of technology transfer absorptive capacity in Congo agriculture. We learned that the lack of agro-technical education, shortages in infrastructure, unavailability of business services, and market structure are among the main barriers of the intensification of technology use in agriculture.

  4. Gravity Data Interpretation in the Northern Edge of the Congo Craton, South-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Derek Fairhead

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in the southern Cameroon are interpreted to better understand the organization of underlying structuresthroughout the northern edge of the Congo craton. The Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are characterized by an elongated trending trending negative gravity anomaly which correspond to a collapsed structure associated with a granitic intrusion beneath the cente center of the region r of the region of the region and limited by fault systems. �e applied 3�D gravity modelling and inversion in order to obtain the 3D density structure of the area. Our result demonstrated that observed gravity anomalies in the region are associated to tectonic structures in the subsurface. The resulting model agrees with the hypothesis of the existence of a major continental collision zone between the Congo Craton and the Pan�African belt. The presence of deep granulites structures in the northern part of the region expresses a continental collision.

  5. Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Anion Exchange Membrane (EBTAC): Adsorption Kinetics and Themodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Akhtar, Shahbaz; Zafar, Shagufta; Shaheen, Aqeela; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Luque, Rafael; ur Rehman, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of anionic dye congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions using an anion exchange membrane (EBTAC) has been investigated at room temperature. The effect of several factors including contact time, membrane dosage, ionic strength and temperature were studied. Kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order, liquid film diffusion and Elovich models as well as Bangham and modified freundlich Equations, were employed to evaluate the experimental results. Parameters such as adsorption capacities, rate constant and related correlation coefficients for every model were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of CR on anion exchange membranes followed pseudo-second-order Kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters, namely changes in Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) were calculated for the adsorption of congo red, indicating an exothermic process. PMID:28793430

  6. [Synthesis and Study on Adsorption Property of Congo Red Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanospheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zi-qiang; Chen, Fu-bin; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Zuo-long; Yang, Chun-yan; Zhang, Zhu-jun

    2015-07-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer nanospheres (MIP) were prepared with Congo red as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker, azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator, and acetonitrile as the porogen by precipitation polymerization. The morphology of MIP was characterized by SEM and TEM which showed that the diameter of MIP was nanometer grade (90 nm) and the shape was homogeneous. The specific surface area and pore volumes of MIP and NIP were examined through Brunauer-Emett-Teller method of nitrogen adsorption experiments. Then, the adsorption and selective recognition ability of MIPs were evaluated using the equilibrium rebinding experiments. The results indicated that the prepared MIP showed a good selectivity recognition ability to its template. It concluded that MIP could be employed as an effective material for removing Congo red from waste water.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Adsorption Capability of CdO Microstructure for Congo Red from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tadjarodi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium oxide rhombus-shaped nanostructure was synthesized using hydrothermal process followed by heating treatment. Clearly, X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrated the formation of CdO crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that the obtained rhombus-like structure is composed of nanoparticles with the average size of 29 nm. In addition, we evaluated adsorption of organic dye i.e. Congo red from water using the prepared CdO rhombus like microstructure. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to record the adsorption behavior. It was found that the removal process is performed via electrostatic absorption mechanism. The maximum adsorption capacity of CdO rhombus structures (0.01 g for Congo Red (CR in the concentration range (5-50 mg L-1 studied, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 ˚C and neutral pH, was found to be 41.20 mg g−1 .

  8. Understory vegetation in fast-growing tree plantations on savanna soils in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Loumeto, J.J.; Huttel, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may catalyze the regeneration of natural forest biodiversity was tested through studies of floristic diversity and structure in fast-growing tree plantations in the Congo. Study sites included experimental and industrial plantations on poor sandy coastal soils near Pointe-Noire, and experimental plantations on clay soils near Loudima. The effects of plantations species, plantation age (in 6- to 20-year-old eucalypt stands), disturbance due to herbicide use...

  9. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Alkhurma (Alkhumra) Virus in Ticks in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Fahmy, Nermeen T; Watany, Noha; Zayed, Alia; Mohamed, Abro; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Rollin, Pierre E; Dueger, Erica L

    2016-10-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Alkhumra virus, not previously reported in Djibouti, were detected among 141 (infection rate = 15.7 per 100, 95% CI: 13.4-18.1) tick pools from 81 (37%) cattle and 2 (infection rate = 0.2 per 100, 95% CI: 0.0-0.7) tick pools from 2 (1%) cattle, respectively, collected at an abattoir in 2010 and 2011.

  10. A proposed drainage evolution model for Central Africa—Did the Congo flow east?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Sub-Saharan biodiversity requires knowing the history of the region's paleo-ecosystems. As water is essential for sustaining of life, the evolving geometry of river basins often have influence on local speciation. With this in mind, we analyse drainage patterns in Central and East Africa. Evidence from marine fossils suggests the Congo Basin was submerged for much of the Cretaceous, and after being uplifted drained eastwards through a paleo-Congo river towards the Indian Ocean. Two remnant peneplains in the Congo Basin are interpreted as evidence that this basin was tectonically stable on at least two occasions in the past. The lower peneplain is interpreted as the base level of the drainage pattern that had its outlet in Tanzania, at the present Rufiji Delta that was once over 500 km wide. The Luangwa, today a tributary of the Zambezi river, was a part of this drainage network. This pattern was subsequently disrupted by uplift associated with the East African Rifting in the Oligocene-Eocene (30-40 Ma). The resulting landlocked system was captured in the Miocene (5-15 Ma) by short rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean, producing the drainage pattern of Central Africa seen today.

  11. Land Water Storage within the Congo Basin Inferred from GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2006-01-01

    GRACE satellite gravity data is used to estimate terrestrial (surface plus ground) water storage within the Congo Basin in Africa for the period of April, 2002 - May, 2006. These estimates exhibit significant seasonal (30 +/- 6 mm of equivalent water thickness) and long-term trends, the latter yielding a total loss of approximately 280 km(exp 3) of water over the 50-month span of data. We also combine GRACE and precipitation data set (CMAP, TRMM) to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Congo Basin. We find that the seasonal water storage tends to saturate for anomalies greater than 30-44 mm of equivalent water thickness. Furthermore, precipitation contributed roughly three times the peak water storage after anomalously rainy seasons, in early 2003 and 2005, implying an approximately 60-70% loss from runoff and evapotranspiration. Finally, a comparison of residual land water storage (monthly estimates minus best-fitting trends) in the Congo and Amazon Basins shows an anticorrelation, in agreement with the 'see-saw' variability inferred by others from runoff data.

  12. Satellite-based estimates of surface water dynamics in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Papa, F.; Frappart, F.; Alsdorf, D.; Calmant, S.; da Silva, J. Santos; Prigent, C.; Seyler, F.

    2018-04-01

    In the Congo River Basin (CRB), due to the lack of contemporary in situ observations, there is a limited understanding of the large-scale variability of its present-day hydrologic components and their link with climate. In this context, remote sensing observations provide a unique opportunity to better characterize those dynamics. Analyzing the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) time series, we first show that surface water extent (SWE) exhibits marked seasonal patterns, well distributed along the major rivers and their tributaries, and with two annual maxima located: i) in the lakes region of the Lwalaba sub-basin and ii) in the "Cuvette Centrale", including Tumba and Mai-Ndombe Lakes. At an interannual time scale, we show that SWE variability is influenced by ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole events. We then estimate water level maps and surface water storage (SWS) in floodplains, lakes, rivers and wetlands of the CRB, over the period 2003-2007, using a multi-satellite approach, which combines the GIEMS dataset with the water level measurements derived from the ENVISAT altimeter heights. The mean annual variation in SWS in the CRB is 81 ± 24 km3 and contributes to 19 ± 5% of the annual variations of GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (33 ± 7% in the Middle Congo). It represents also ∼6 ± 2% of the annual water volume that flows from the Congo River into the Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics for Adsorption of Congo Red by Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jib [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Batch experiment studies were carried out for adsorption of congo red using granular activated carbon with various parameters such as activated carbon dose, pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium experimental data are fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubin-Radushkevich isotherm equations. From Freundlich's separation factor (1/n) estimated, adsorption could be employed as effective treatment method for adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution. Base on Temkin constant (B) and Dubinin-Radushkevich constant (E), this adsorption process is physical adsorption. Adsorption kinetics has been tested using pseudo-first order and pseudo second order models. The results followed pseudo second order model with good correlation. Adsorption process of congo red on granular activated carbon was endothermic (ΔH=42.036 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by decrease in Gibbs free energy (ΔG=-2.414 to -4.596 kJ/mol) with increasing adsorption temperature.

  14. Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics for Adsorption of Congo Red by Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jib

    2015-01-01

    Batch experiment studies were carried out for adsorption of congo red using granular activated carbon with various parameters such as activated carbon dose, pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium experimental data are fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubin-Radushkevich isotherm equations. From Freundlich's separation factor (1/n) estimated, adsorption could be employed as effective treatment method for adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution. Base on Temkin constant (B) and Dubinin-Radushkevich constant (E), this adsorption process is physical adsorption. Adsorption kinetics has been tested using pseudo-first order and pseudo second order models. The results followed pseudo second order model with good correlation. Adsorption process of congo red on granular activated carbon was endothermic (ΔH=42.036 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by decrease in Gibbs free energy (ΔG=-2.414 to -4.596 kJ/mol) with increasing adsorption temperature

  15. Synthesis of Magnesium Ferrites for the Adsorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution Using Batch Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdawati, E.; Darsef, D.

    2018-04-01

    A sol gel method with citric acid as an anionic surfactant was used to fabricate nano magnesium ferrites (MgFe2O4) under different calcination temperatures for 2h, respectively. The microstructure and surface morphology of magnesium ferrite powder were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and BET. The results of this study are useful for adsorption Congo red. The results showed that increasing solution pH and extending contact time are favorable for improving adsorption efficiency. with initial Congo red concentration of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm models with a maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) of 65.1 mg/g and 0.090 L/mg, respectively. The adsorption kinetic agrees well with pseudo second order model with the pseudo second rate constants (K2) of 0.0468 and0.00189 g/mg/min for solutions with initial congo red of 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively

  16. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  17. High Resolution Modelling of the Congo River's Multi-Threaded Main Stem Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A. B.; Trigg, M.; Tshimanga, R.; Neal, J. C.; Borman, D.; Smith, M. W.; Bola, G.; Kabuya, P.; Mushie, C. A.; Tschumbu, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a summer 2017 field campaign by members of the Congo River users Hydraulics and Morphology (CRuHM) project, and a subsequent reach-scale hydraulic modelling study on the Congo's main stem. Sonar bathymetry, ADCP transects, and water surface elevation data have been collected along the Congo's heavily multi-threaded middle reach, which exhibits complex in-channel hydraulic processes that are not well understood. To model the entire basin's hydrodynamics, these in-channel hydraulic processes must be parameterised since it is not computationally feasible to represent them explicitly. Furthermore, recent research suggests that relative to other large global rivers, in-channel flows on the Congo represent a relatively large proportion of total flow through the river-floodplain system. We therefore regard sufficient representation of in-channel hydraulic processes as a Congo River hydrodynamic research priority. To enable explicit representation of in-channel hydraulics, we develop a reach-scale (70 km), high resolution hydraulic model. Simulation of flow through individual channel threads provides new information on flow depths and velocities, and will be used to inform the parameterisation of a broader basin-scale hydrodynamic model. The basin-scale model will ultimately be used to investigate floodplain fluxes, flood wave attenuation, and the impact of future hydrological change scenarios on basin hydrodynamics. This presentation will focus on the methodology we use to develop a reach-scale bathymetric DEM. The bathymetry of only a small proportion of channel threads can realistically be captured, necessitating some estimation of the bathymetry of channels not surveyed. We explore different approaches to this bathymetry estimation, and the extent to which it influences hydraulic model predictions. The CRuHM project is a consortium comprising the Universities of Kinshasa, Rhodes, Dar es Salaam, Bristol, and Leeds, and is funded by Royal

  18. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Low Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatraya Jirekar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seed husk powder has been investigated as low cost adsorbent for the removal of hazardous chemicals like Congo Red (CR dye from aqueous solution. Various parameters such as effect of contact time, initial CR dye concentration, adsorbent dose, effect of pH, zero-point pH were studied. Batch adsorption technique was employed to optimize the process parameter. The result indicated that, the percentage adsorption of Congo Red increased with increase in contact time, dose of adsorbent and initial concentration of Congo Red and decreased with addition of salt. The adsorption of Congo Red was 78% at the optimum pH of 6. Adsorption equilibrium was found to be reached in 24 h for 5 to 25 g/50 mL Congo red concentrations. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were found to provide an excellent fitting of the adsorption data.  The adsorption of CR follows Second order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameter (δGo showed that it was an exothermic process. This adsorbent was found to be effective and economically attractive. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.834

  19. Effect of pH, Dosage and Concentration on the Adsorption of Congo Red onto Untreated and Treated Aluminium Dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria Mohamad Zulfika, Hazielim B.; Baini, Rubiyah; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The adsorption of congo red onto aluminium dross was studied in batch process. The objective of this study is to adsorption capacity between untreated and treated aluminium dross in the removal of congo red. Aluminium dross was leached with 250 ml of 1% of NaOH and and precipitated with 30% H2O2. The treated aluminium dross being calcined at 600°C for 3 hours. The surface area for untreated and treated aluminium dross was 10.06 m2/g and 79.80 m2/g respectively. Then the adsorption process was carried out on an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for 4 hours. In the effect of pH, it was found that untreated removes more congo red compared to the treated while in the effect of concentration solution and dosage of adsorbent, treated aluminium dross removes more congo red. In conclusion, this adsorbent was found to be effective and economically viable in the removal of congo red in waste water treatment.

  20. Un guide colonial. Le Guide du Voyageur au Congo belge et au Ruanda-Urundi A colonial guidebook. Travel guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le Guide, qui a connu cinq éditions pendant les dix dernières années du Congo belge, est un archétype du guide colonial. L’article rappelle d’abord la naissance du tourisme en Afrique centrale et ses caractéristiques. Fasciné longtemps par les mythes des Monts de la Lune et des sources du Nil, le tourisme congolais est, au départ, essentiellement élitiste, orienté surtout vers la grande chasse sportive. Gorilles de montagne, ascensions du Ruwenzori, danseurs Tutsi, Parc National Albert, pêcheurs wagenia deviennent les icônes d’un tourisme attiré en ordre principal par le Kivu, les Grands Lacs, Stanleyville et secondairement le Katanga. Le premier guide, édité par Vicicongo, en 1934, s’intitule d’ailleurs Congo-Nil. Tous ces mythes et ces décors se retrouvent dans quelques grands films américains d’aventure du début des années 50.L’article décrit ensuite la genèse du Guide, ses caractéristiques générales, son plan, son contenu. Beaucoup d’informations générales, pas de véritables circuits mais plutôt des itinéraires routiers. Produit par les services officiels d’information de la Colonie, le Guide a, parmi ses objectifs, de montrer la persistance et les résultats de l’action civilisatrice de la Belgique. Il affirme que le Congo n’est pas un pays d’art ni d’histoire et accorde donc une part prépondérante au milieu naturel. Il fournit une image tronquée de son histoire et exprime sur ses habitants les préjugés de l’époque.L’article se termine par quelques réflexions sur les tentatives d’un reporter d’une chaîne de télévision et d’un photographe d’utiliser le Guide de 1958 pour parcourir le pays un demi-siècle plus tard.The Travel Guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, of which five editions were released during the last ten years of Belgian Congo, is an archetypal colonial guide.The paper first highlights the emergence and the features of tourism in Central Africa

  1. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  2. Annual Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    uncertainty and partial diplomatic isolation resulting from the forcible removal of President Manuel Zelaya from power last June. Newly elected...situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the year ahead will remain particularly difficult and resistant to resolution. Despite...recent setbacks for some rebel forces in Eastern Congo and improved relations between the DRC and Rwanda, the eastern Congo remains a regional

  3. Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    isolation resulting from the forcible removal of President Manuel Zelaya from power last June. Newly elected President Porfirio Lobo will have to...Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the year ahead will remain particularly difficult and resistant to resolution. Despite recent setbacks for...some rebel forces in Eastern Congo and improved relations between the DRC and Rwanda, the eastern Congo remains a regional political, security, and

  4. Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraka, Vito; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Nag, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the dispersal and origin of sulfadoxine resistance lineages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo compared with East African.......3 and 7.7 kb) flanking the Pfdhps gene were assayed. Evolutionary analysis revealed a shared origin of Pfdhps haplotypes in East Africa, with a distinct population clustering in DR Congo. Furthermore, in Tanzania there was an independent distinct origin of Pfdhps SGEGA resistant haplotype. In Uganda...... and Tanzania, gene flow patterns contribute to the dispersal and shared origin of parasites carrying double- and triple-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes associated with poor outcomes of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy using SP (IPTp-SP). However, the origins of the Pfdhps haplotypes in DR Congo...

  5. Study of risk of pollution by the heavy metals of the water and fishes of the Congo river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuakashikila, M.; Mbuyi, K.M.; Kabwe, C.; Malumba, M.; Kapembo, L.; Lusamba, N.; Lundemba, S.; Barutti, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to conduct property this study, we have chosen to evaluate cadmium and lead concentration in Congo River water and un three species of fishes (Oreochromis niloticus nilotucus, Schilbe mystus and Campylomormyrus). These fishes have been collected from three sites in Congo River during the time from August to November 2009. Sample analysis (water and fishes) revealed that cadmium and concentration were lower then world heath organization (Who) acceptable standards. The campulomormyrus species present the highest lead concentration of all studied species and further mose this concentration has been found in Kinsuka. This could be justified by the position Kinsuka site which is the down stream section compared to Kinkole and Maluku position in Congo River. Therefor harmful effects are not expected in short time, however they are dangerous in long time because these metals are both toxic and cumulative, may damage concerned organs

  6. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  7. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  8. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of southern Cameroon (Ntem group, Congo craton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rchameni, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the crustal evolution of the NW margin of the Congo craton using structural, petrography, isotopic, geochemical and geochronological studies of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of the Ntem group of southern Cameroon. The synthesis of these studies allows to propose a diapir-type gravity model linked with the genesis of granitoids to explain the geodynamical evolution of this part of the craton during the Archean. A convergence model with the collision of the Congo and Sao-Francisco cratons and with crust thickening followed by a relaxation phase is proposed for the palaeo-Proterozoic. (J.S.)

  9. Relative Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Methanotrophs at the Oxic?Anoxic Interface of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Sandrine; Moalic, Yann; Gautey, S?bastien; Lesongeur, Fran?oise; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Sitting at ∼5,000 m water depth on the Congo-Angola margin and ∼760 km offshore of the West African coast, the recent lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan receives large amounts of fluvial sediments (3–5% organic carbon). This organic-rich sedimentation area harbors habitats with chemosynthetic communities similar to those of cold seeps. In this study, we investigated relative abundance, diversity and distribution of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) communities at the oxic–anoxic in...

  10. Etude bactériologique et biochimique du miel vendu au marché central de Bukavu (Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological and Biochemical Study of Honey Sold at Bukavu (Congo Central Market. The honey sold in the central market of Bukavu (Congo is produced by traditional bee keepers. This article deals with a bacteriological and biochemical study of this product in order to determine its contamination and pollution levels. Results indicated a contamination of faecal origin (presence of enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli. The bacteriological tests showed the presence of bacteria fermenting glucose, thus altering the quality of the honey. The latter is therefore inappropriate for consumption and constitutes a danger for the health of humans.

  11. Severe Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever presented with massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage that recovered without antiviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis with up to 50% mortality in humans caused by CCHF virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The geographical distribution of CCHF cases corresponds closely with the distribution of principle tick vectors...... that is species of Hyaloma. The disease presents with non-specific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious haemorrhagic syndrome that, soon after, a full blown multi organ failure may develop with prominent features of liver damage and bleeding diathesis. The authors present a case of a 39-year-old man...

  12. Inspiration fuels space research in Congo. Combating malnutrition with Spirulina, the green protein source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Congo, around 43% of all children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition. The result is a high infant mortality rate./ Researchers from the Belgian Nuclear research Center SCK•CEN started working on the cultivation of spirulina, a type of algae rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for combating chronic malnutrition in children. This Inspiration project is the first in a series and signals the ambition of SCK•CEN to contribute towards a balanced and sustainable world.

  13. Isolation and whole-genome sequencing of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Pappa, Styliani; Melidou, Ageliki; Giadinis, Nektarios D

    2018-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-01-01

    In Senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. In two areas where numerous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolations were obtained from Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. CCHF antibodies were detected by ELISA in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (Lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. The virus was isolated from H. m. rufipes nymphs collected on a hornbill. The role of wild ground-feeding birds in CCHF virus ecology in West Africa is discussed.

  15. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of other meat (from the wild, such as fish and caterpillars, or from domestic sources, such as beef, chicken, pork, goat and mutton) among children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results show that urban and rural households consume more meat from the wild than from domestic...... monkeys), probably because rural households tend to consume the less marketable species or the smaller animals. We show that despite the tendency towards more urbanized population profiles and increased livelihood opportunities away from forest and farms, wildlife harvest remains a critical component...

  16. Uranium concentrations in the phosphates of Congo related to marin and continental mineral authigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giresse, P.; N'Landou, J. de Dieu; Wiber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the Maastrichtian phosphates of Tchivoula (Congo), uanium, for the most part fixed and tetravalent in marine apatites in there after mobilized and occasionally concentrates during the course of successive stages of dissolution, recrystallization (secondary apatite) or authigenesis (ferro-aluminous phosphates, autunite and torbernite). Very high levels near the top of the deposit appear to be related to the percolation of uraniferous solutions from Ypresian phosphatic beds which are no longer present. In the marine Tertiary phosphates of Djeno, diagenesis is less advanced; radial changes in uranium concentration on the scale of individual coprolites of selacians can be observed and are related to the loss of P 2 O 5 [fr

  17. Report of the first case of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Qazvin Province (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Nikoonejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever is a potentially fatal disease that is reported from Asia, Africa and Europe. In May, 2016 a 42 year-old female is admitted to Buali-Sina hospital with epistaxis and within a few hours got loss of consciousness and shock. The patient was put on supportive care and oral Ribavirin. From the sixth admission day, the general condition of the patient improved and on the eleventh day she was discharged without an important sequela. Consequently, it is necessary to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of all patients presented with fever and acute bleeding diathesis.

  18. Advocacy Narratives and Celebrity Engagement: the Case of Ben Affleck in Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2018-01-01

    shape human rights narratives by selecting issues and interacting with dominant framings. This hypothesis is tested through a discourse analysis of professional entertainer Ben Affleck’s spoken and written texts along with organizational materials covering the establishment of the Eastern Congo...... Initiative. The study explains how the ability for celebrities to contend with narratives reflects elite practices in human rights advocacy.......Global celebrities are increasingly important in human rights--promoting causes, raising awareness, and interacting with decision-makers—as communicators to mass and elite audiences. Deepening the literature on transnational advocacy and North-South relations, this article argues that celebrities...

  19. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the ...

  20. Living with epilepsy in Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo): epidemiology, risk factors and treatment gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba Bora, Béatrice; Lez, Didier Malamba; Luwa, Daniel Okitundu; Baguma, Marcellin Bugeme; Katumbay, Désiré Tshala; Kalula, Tharcisse Kayembe; Mesu'a Kabwa, Pierre Luabeya

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common of serious neurological disorders, yet despite considerable efforts, good access to medication, appropriate social and societal acceptance and acceptable quality of life (QoL) are difficult to achieve especially in developing countries. It is estimated that over 500,000 people suffer from epilepsy in the DRC. There is no report, in our knowledge on the epilepsy in Lubumbashi. A descriptive study was undertaken in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy who presented at the CNPJG outpatient clinic in Lubumbashi over a 12 months period. A 64-item questionnaire was used to collect information from the patients. Case records were reviewed and relevant demographic, social, professional, medical history, medical condition data were extracted. Among 3,540 patients who presented to a neuropsychiatric clinic run by the Fracarita charity over a 1-year period, 423 (11.9%) were identified as having epilepsy, and 179 were subsequently included in the survey after they (or their parent/guardian) provided informed consent and completed an EEG investigation. Data were collected using a standardized, 64-item questionnaire. Epilepsy had negative impact on the lives of individuals with the condition; 40.8% had either no education or had completed primary education only, 38.0% were unemployed and the majority (64.6%; n = 113) were unmarried or divorced. Family history of epilepsy (first or second degree) was present in 23.5% of cases. Other reported factors that could potentially precipitate epilepsy included obstetric and perinatal factors (15.1%) and central nervous system infections during infancy (8.4%). Consumption of alcohol or recreational drugs accounted for 10.6%. The treatment gap was above 67% and the delay between first seizure and first consultation was 15 months. When asked to describe their condition, or its cause, 55.3% of participants (or their families) considered epilepsy to be of spiritual/ religious origin, while 25.1% had

  1. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  2. Effect of Diffusion on Discoloration of Congo Red by Alginate Entrapped Turnip (Brassica rapa Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic discoloration of the diazo dye, Congo red (CR, by immobilized plant peroxidase from turnip “Brassica rapa” is investigated. Partially purified turnip peroxidase (TP was immobilized by entrapment in spherical particles of calcium alginate and was assayed for the discoloration of aqueous CR solution. Experimental data revealed that pH, reaction time, temperature, colorant, and H2O2 concentration play a significant role in dye degradation. Maximum CR removal was found at pH 2.0, constant temperature of 40°C in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, and 180 mg/L of CR. More than 94% of CR was removed by alginate immobilized TP after 1 h of incubation in a batch process under optimal conditions. About 74% removal efficiency was retained after four recycles. Diffusional limitations in alginate beads such as effectiveness factor η, Thiele modulus Φ, and effective diffusion coefficients (De of Congo red were predicted assuming a first-order biodegradation kinetic. Results showed that intraparticle diffusion resistance has a significant effect on the CR biodegradation rate.

  3. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  5. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Jodi S; Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Steinberg, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. (paper)

  6. Adsorption of Congo red dye onto antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Harby, Nouf F; Ibrahim, Shaimaa M A; Mohamed, Nadia A

    2017-11-01

    Adsorption capacity of three antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels for Congo red dye removal from its aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time in this work. These hydrogels were prepared by reacting chitosan with various amounts of terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate cross-linker. The effect of the hydrogel structural variations and several dye adsorption processing parameters to achieve the best adsorption capacity were investigated. The hydrogels' structural variations were obtained by varying their terephthaloyl thiourea moieties content. The processing variables included initial concentration of the dye solution, temperature and time of exposure to the dye. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption processes were better fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation, respectively. On the basis of the Langmuir analysis Congo red dye gave the maximum sorption capacity of 44.248 mg/g. The results obtained confirmed that the sorption phenomena are most likely to be controlled by chemisorption process. The adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous according to the calculated results of adsorption thermodynamics.

  7. Removal of toxic Congo red dye from water employing low-cost coconut residual fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K C; Naik, Aduja; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-05-01

    The coconut residual fiber (CRF) is the major byproduct obtained during production of virgin coconut oil. Its application as a biosorbent for adsorption of Congo red was investigated. The CRF was subjected to different pretreatments, namely, pressure cooking, hexane treatment, acid treatment and their combinations. The pretreatment of CRF with the combination of hexane, acid, and pressure cooking resulted in the highest degree of adsorption. The equilibrium data were analyzed and found to fit best to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG 0 kJ mol -1 ), standard enthalpy (ΔH 0 , kJ mol -1 ) and standard entropy (ΔS 0 , kJ mol -1 K -1 ) of the systems were calculated by using the Langmuir constant. The ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 were found to be 16.51 kJ mol -1 , -19.39 kJ mol -1 and -0.12 kJ mol -1 K -1 , respectively, at 300 K. These thermodynamic parameters suggest the present adsorption process to be non-spontaneous and exothermic. The adsorption process was observed to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggest that CRF has potential to be a biosorbent for the removal of hazardous material (Congo red dye) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 128.94 mg g -1 at 300 K.

  8. Adsorptive removal of congo red and sunset yellow dyes from water systems by lady finger stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Ayub, R.; Rehman, R.; Zahid, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In this research work two anionic dyes, i.e. Congo Red and Sunset Yellow were removed successfully from aqueous media by Lady Finger stem in batch mode. Operational conditions optimization showed that agitation speed and particle size did not affect much in adsorption of these dyes; but contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and temperature of system effects the adsorption rate. Optimized conditions of adsorption for Congo Red dye were: 40 minute contact time, 8.0 pH, 0.5 g adsorbent dose, 40-60 microns mesh sized particles, 150 rpm agitation speed and 50 degree C temperature. Whereas for Sunset Yellow optimized conditions were: 30 minute contact time, 2.0 pH, 2.5 g adsorbent dose, 20-40 microns mesh sized particles, 50 rpm agitation speed and 30 degree C temperature. Suitability of equilibrium data was modulated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models and found that both physisorption and chemisorption processes play important role in adsorption of these dyes by Lady Finger stem. The results demonstrated that Lady Finger stem can be efficiently employed on larger scale wastewater treatment. (author)

  9. The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verhegghen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2 optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1 satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1 of the other.

  10. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Kazadi Lukusa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females. Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality.

  11. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S.; Nolte, Christoph; Steinberg, Jessica; Agrawal, Arun

    2014-04-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

  12. A new test of amyloidisis screening with 123 radioiodine congo red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, A.; Herremann, G.; Coornaert, S.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Bardy, A.; Bismut, F.; Baillet, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to find a simple and reliable alternative to multiple and repetitive biopsies required for diagnosing amyloidosis which would also serve to evaluate the outcome of treatment. The old Congo red test which is based on the disappearance of the indicator from the blood was abandoned because it gave inconsistent and late results. Instead, Congo red was labeled with the iodogen method using 123-iodine. The evaluation method we would like to propose is based on 24-hour imaging over the heart, the liver and the kidneys. In 12 normal subjects and 10 patients with non-amyloid cardiomyopathies the exponential response curve recorded was found to have an identical slope. Patients with amyloidosis, by contrast, showed a biphasic kinetic pattern with e sup(-Λt) and I-e sup(-Λt) on account of the trapping of the indicator (25 subjects with bioptically verified diagnoses). False negative results were absent, but in patients without amyloidosis a positive response was at times seen in one organ, e.g. the liver in patients with steatosis or the heart in patients with severe heart failure. (Author)

  13. Meeting report: First International Conference on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Weber, Friedemann; Hewson, Roger; Weidmann, Manfred; Koksal, Iftihar; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tick-borne disease of humans, occurring from western China to the Balkans in Eurasia and south throughout the length of Africa. Its incidence has increased over the past decade, particularly in Turkey and Iran, and the disease has also emerged in India. Research has been hindered by limited laboratory capacity in many regions where the disease is prevalent, indicating the need for collaboration between investigators in endemic countries and those with greater scientific resources. In an effort to increase such collaboration, the First International Conference on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever was held in Thessaloniki, Greece, from February 13 to 14, 2015. This meeting followed the conclusion of an EU-supported Collaborative Project under the Health Cooperation Work Programme of the 7th Framework Programme (Grant agreement No. 260427). It is expected to be the first in a series of meetings that will bring together researchers from around the world to exchange knowledge and experience on various aspects of CCHF. This report summarizes major presentations by the invited speakers at the First International Conference on CCHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashakidze, E; Mikadze, I

    2015-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks or by direct contact with the blood of infected humans or domestic animals. The most common clinical signs of CCHF are fever, nausea, headache, diarrhea, myalgia, petechial rash, and bleeding. CCHF is a severe disease in humans with a fatality rate up to 15-85%. This study was undertaken to determine the predictors of fatality among patients with CCHF based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings. 34 patients were enrolled in the study, aged 4 to 77; 17 - male and 17 female. 3 of them were fatal cases. All of them were from Shua Kartli: Khashuri, Gori and Kaspi districts, involved in farming/handling livestock and the history of tick bite was present in most of patients. Evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics of this cases showed that the female to male ratio was nearly similar. The disease is common in the rural areas of the region, mostly in the actively working age group and almost all patients were farmers. The results of our study show that the most cardinal clinical and laboratory features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever are - acute beginning of disease, high fever, intoxication and hemorrhagic symptoms, thrombocytopenia, high level of aminotransferases and creatine. Predictors of fatality are: an altered mental status, in early stage of disease dramatic decreased thrombocytes count and significantly high level of aspartate aminotransferase, also longer the mean prothrombin time and INR.

  15. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of - Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsuke, S.; Nundu, S.; Mupoyi, R.; Mukele, R.; Mukunda, F.; Kabongo, M.M.; Inocencio da Luz, R.; Van Geertruyden, J.P.; Van Sprundel, M.; Boelaert, M.; Polman, K.; Lutumba, P.

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An

  16. Spatial patterns and morphology of termite (Macrotermes falciger) mounds in the upper Katanga, D.R. Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujinya, B.B.; Adam, M.Y.O.; Mees, F.; Bogaert, J.; Vranken, I.; Erens, H.; Baert, G.; Ngongo, M.; Ranst, van E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds in the peri-urban zone of Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo. Spatial patterns of mounds were assessed using high-resolution satellite images for 24 plots of variable size (3 to 27 ha). Soil

  17. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Central Africa - DR of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Central Africa, comprising Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, was derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Central Africa (SOTERCAF ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based

  18. Diplomatie de Léopold II face aux puissances coloniales en Afrique. Contribution à l'histoire diplomatique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Baenda Fimbo, Zacharie

    2011-01-01

    Cet article essaie d'analyser les stratégies diplomatiques du roi Léopold II face aux grandes puissances de l'époque lors du partage du continent africains. Ces stratégies lui ont permis de gagner la Congo au centre de l'Afrique. Peer reviewed

  19. Towards an assessment of on-farm niches for improved forages in Sud-Kivu, DR Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Birthe K.; Muhimuzi, Fabrice L.; Bacigale, Samy B.; Wimba, Benjamin M.M.; Chiuri, Wanjiku L.; Amzati, Gaston S.; Maass, Brigitte L.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of livestock feed is a persistent constraint to productivity for mixed crop-livestock farming in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. To assess on-farm niches of improved forages, demonstration trials and participatory on-farm research were conducted in four

  20. Conservation Education and Environmental Communication in Great Ape Re-Introduction Projects: Two Cases from the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Barbara J.; Wall, John E.; Kaya, J. A. Placide

    2012-01-01

    Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and…

  1. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and

  2. Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some

  3. Water Storage Changes using Floodplain Bathymetry from InSAR and satellite altimetry in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, T.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive wetlands and swamps expand along the Congo River and its tributaries. These wetlands store water and attenuate flood wave during high water season. Substantial dissolved and solid substances are also transported with the water flux, influencing geochemical environment and biogeochemistry processes both in the wetlands and the river. To understand the role of the wetlands in partitioning the surface water and the accompanied material movement, water storage change is one of the most fundamental observations. The water flow through the wetlands is complex, affected by topography, vegetation resistance, and hydraulic variations. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been successfully used to map relative water level changes in the vegetated wetlands with high spatial resolution. By examining interferograms generated from ALOS PALSAR along the middle reach of the Congo River floodplain, we found greater water level changes near the Congo mainstem. Integrated analysis of InSAR and Envisat altimetry data has shown that proximal floodplain with higher water level change has lower elevation during dry season. This indicates that the spatial variation of water level change in the Congo floodplain is mostly controlled by floodplain bathymetry. A method based on water level and bathymetry model is proposed to estimate water storage change. The bathymetry model is composed of (1) elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river and (2) floodplain bathymetry slope. We first constructed the floodplain bathymetry by selecting an Envisat altimetry profile during low water season to estimate elevation at the intersection of the floodplain and the river. Floodplain bathymetry slope was estimated using InSAR measurements. It is expected that our new method can estimate water storage change with higher temporal resolution corresponding to altimeter's repeat cycle. In addition, given the multi-decadal archive of satellite altimetry measurements

  4. Velocity mapping in the Lower Congo River: a first look at the unique bathymetry and hydrodynamics of Bulu Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Oberg, Kevin A.; Gardiner, Ned; Shelton, John

    2009-01-01

    The lower Congo River is one of the deepest, most powerful, and most biologically diverse stretches of river on Earth. The river’s 270 m decent from Malebo Pool though the gorges of the Crystal Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean (498 km downstream) is riddled with rapids, cataracts, and deep pools. Much of the lower Congo is a mystery from a hydraulics perspective. However, this stretch of the river is a hotbed for biologists who are documenting evolution in action within the diverse, but isolated, fish populations. Biologists theorize that isolation of fish populations within the lower Congo is due to barriers presented by flow structure and bathymetry. To investigate this theory, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and American Museum of Natural History teamed up with an expedition crew from National Geographic in 2008 to map flow velocity and bathymetry within target reaches in the lower Congo River using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and echo sounders. Simultaneous biological and water quality sampling was also completed. This paper presents some preliminary results from this expedition, specifically with regard to the velocity structure andbathymetry. Results show that the flow in the bedrock controlled Bulu reach of the lower Congo is highly energetic. Turbulent and secondary flow structures can span the full depth of flow (up to 165 m), while coherent bank-to-bank cross-channel flow structures are absent. Regions of flow separation near the banks are isolated from one another and from the opposite bank by high shear, high velocity zones with depth-averaged flow velocities that can exceed 4 m/s.

  5. Angola: source rock control for Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza Basin petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwood, R. [Fina Exploration Ltd, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of petroleum occurrence and provenance for the 1000 km West African Atlantic Margin from Cabinda to mid-Angola. Over this margin the Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza provinces cumulatively account for reserves of c. 6 gigabarrels oil recoverable (GBOR). These are dominantly reservoired in Pinda carbonate traps of the former basin. However, with production from a range of aggradational wedge, carbonate platform and pre-salt reservoirs, a diversity in oil character presupposes complex hydrocarbon habitats charged by multiple sourcing. Each of these two major Atlantic margin salt basins constitutes a different, source rock driven, hydrocarbon habitat. As classic passive margin pull-apart basins, Early Cretaceous initiated rift events (Pre-rift, Syn-rift I, II, etc.) evolved into the drift phase opening of the southern Atlantic. A striking feature of this progression was widespread evaporite deposition of the Aptian Loeme salt. This separates two distinct sedimentary and tectonic domains of the Pre- and Post-Salt. The core Lower Congo Coastal habitat is dominated by the Pre-Salt Bucomazi Formation sourced 'poly' petroleum system. These lacustrine, often super-rich, sediments reveal considerable organofacies variation between their basin fill (Syn-rift I) and sheet drape (Syn-rift II) development, accounting for the compositional diversity in their progenic petroleums. Of crucial impact is a cognate diversity in their kerogen kinetic behaviour. This controls the conditions and timing of generation and realization of charge potential. With the Lower Congo Coastal habitat extending southwards towards the Ambriz Spur, the Bucomazi facies proper appears restricted to the northern and deeper proto-lake trend. Over the more weakly subsident margins such troughs host inferior sheet drape potential. Elswhere, Upper Cretaceous-Palaeogene marine clastic Iabe Formation sourced petroleum systems are hydrocarbon productive

  6. Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Greta C; Lewis, Simon L; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Page, Susan E; Bocko, Yannick E; Ifo, Suspense A

    2017-02-02

    Peatlands are carbon-rich ecosystems that cover just three per cent of Earth's land surface, but store one-third of soil carbon. Peat soils are formed by the build-up of partially decomposed organic matter under waterlogged anoxic conditions. Most peat is found in cool climatic regions where unimpeded decomposition is slower, but deposits are also found under some tropical swamp forests. Here we present field measurements from one of the world's most extensive regions of swamp forest, the Cuvette Centrale depression in the central Congo Basin. We find extensive peat deposits beneath the swamp forest vegetation (peat defined as material with an organic matter content of at least 65 per cent to a depth of at least 0.3 metres). Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat began accumulating from about 10,600 years ago, coincident with the onset of more humid conditions in central Africa at the beginning of the Holocene. The peatlands occupy large interfluvial basins, and seem to be largely rain-fed and ombrotrophic-like (of low nutrient status) systems. Although the peat layer is relatively shallow (with a maximum depth of 5.9 metres and a median depth of 2.0 metres), by combining in situ and remotely sensed data, we estimate the area of peat to be approximately 145,500 square kilometres (95 per cent confidence interval of 131,900-156,400 square kilometres), making the Cuvette Centrale the most extensive peatland complex in the tropics. This area is more than five times the maximum possible area reported for the Congo Basin in a recent synthesis of pantropical peat extent. We estimate that the peatlands store approximately 30.6 petagrams (30.6 × 10 15  grams) of carbon belowground (95 per cent confidence interval of 6.3-46.8 petagrams of carbon)-a quantity that is similar to the above-ground carbon stocks of the tropical forests of the entire Congo Basin. Our result for the Cuvette Centrale increases the best estimate of global tropical peatland carbon stocks by

  7. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants from the Democratic Republic of Congo: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memvanga, Patrick B; Tona, Gaston L; Mesia, Gauthier K; Lusakibanza, Mariano M; Cimanga, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic disease and the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For the management of this disease, a large Congolese population recourses to traditional medicinal plants. To date the efficacy and safety of many of these plants have been validated scientifically in rodent malaria models. In order to generate scientific evidence of traditional remedies used in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the management of malaria, and show the potential of Congolese plants as a major source of antimalarial drugs, this review highlights the antiplasmodial and toxicological properties of the Congolese antimalarial plants investigated during the period of 1999-2014. In doing so, a useful resource for further complementary investigations is presented. Furthermore, this review may pave the way for the research and development of several available and affordable antimalarial phytomedicines. In order to get information on the different studies, a Google Scholar and PubMed literature search was performed using keywords (malaria, Congolese, medicinal plants, antiplasmodial/antimalarial activity, and toxicity). Data from non-indexed journals, Master and Doctoral dissertations were also collected. Approximately 120 extracts and fractions obtained from Congolese medicinal plants showed pronounced or good antiplasmodial activity. A number of compounds with interesting antiplasmodial properties were also isolated and identified. Some of these compounds constituted new scaffolds for the synthesis of promising antimalarial drugs. Interestingly, most of these extracts and compounds possessed high selective activity against Plasmodium parasites compared to mammalian cells. The efficacy and safety of several plant-derived products was confirmed in mice, and a good correlation was observed between in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. The formulation of several plant-derived products also led to some clinical trials

  8. The effect of Congo River freshwater discharge on Eastern Equatorial Atlantic climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materia, Stefano [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, Silvio; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Terray, Laurent [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA1875 CERFACS/CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2012-11-15

    The surface ocean explains a considerable part of the inter-annual Tropical Atlantic variability. The present work makes use of observational datasets to investigate the effect of freshwater flow on sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Guinea. In particular, the Congo River discharges a huge amount of freshwater into the ocean, affecting SSS in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EEA) and stratifying the surface layers. The hypothesis is that an excess of river runoff emphasize stratification, influencing the ocean temperature. In fact, our findings show that SSTs in the Gulf of Guinea are warmer in summers following an anomalously high Congo spring discharge. Vice versa, when the river discharges low freshwater, a cold anomaly appears in the Gulf. The response of SST is not linear: temperature anomalies are considerable and long-lasting in the event of large freshwater flow, while in dry years they are less remarkable, although still significant. An excess of freshwater seems able to form a barrier layer, which inhibits vertical mixing and the entrainment of the cold thermocline water into the surface. Other processes may contribute to SST variability, among which the net input of atmospheric freshwater falling over EEA. Likewise the case of continental runoff from Congo River, warm anomalies occur after anomalously rainy seasons and low temperatures follow dry seasons, confirming the effect of freshwater on SST. However, the two sources of freshwater anomaly are not in phase, so that it is possible to split between atypical SST following continental freshwater anomalies and rainfall anomalies. Also, variations in air-sea fluxes can produce heating and cooling of the Gulf of Guinea. Nevertheless, atypical SSTs cannot be ascribed to fluxes, since the temperature variation induced by them is not sufficient to explain the SST anomalies appearing in the Gulf after anomalous peak discharges. The interaction processes between river runoff, sea

  9. Aliphatic hydrocarbons and triterpenes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjanelle, Laurence; Rivière, Béatrice; Pinturier, Laurence; Khripounoff, Alexis; Baudin, François; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Hydrocarbons were analyzed in sediments from the Congo River deep-sea fan, from the Congo River, and in sinking particles collected by sediment traps 40 m above the sediment. Studied sites encompassed three lobes of decreasing age of formation along the canyon: sites A, F and C and a another lobe system, disconnected from the active channel since 4 ka, Site E. Terrestrial long-chain odd n-alkanes were dominant in all sediments of the lobe system. Unsaturated terpenoids sourced by higher plants, such as gammacerene, lupene, ursene and oleanene, were also detected. At site C, characterized by high accumulation rates (10-20 cm yr-1), the organic matter spends less time in the oxic layer than at other sites and high phytadiene concentrations 10-17 μg gOC-1) evidenced recent terrestrial and phytoplanktonic remains reworked in anaerobic conditions. In these sediments, organic carbon-normalized concentrations of terrestrial alkanes and terpenoids were several fold higher than in the lobe sediments with lower accumulation rates (sites A and F), arguing for a more rapid degradation of terrestrial hydrocarbons than bulk organic carbon in the first steps of pre-diagenesis. Ample variations in the contributions of biomarkers from higher plants, ferns, bacteria and angiosperms, indicate an heterogeneous contribution of the soil and vegetation detritus delivered to the Congo lobe sediments. Lower concentrations in terrestrial hydrocarbons at site E, 45 km away from the active canyon, indicated that river particles are still admixed to the dominant marine organic matter. Diploptene and hop-7(21)-ene have a dual origin, from terrestrial and marine microorganisms. Scatter in their relationship to gammacerene argues for a contribution of marine microorganisms, in addition to soils-sourced microorganisms. The close distribution patterns of diploptene, hop-21-ene, hop-7(21)ene and neohop-13(18)-ene is in line with the hypothesis of sequential clay-catalyzed isomerisation of bacterial

  10. A Holistic, Person-Centred Care Model for Victims of Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of Congo: The Panzi Hospital One-Stop Centre Model of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mukwege

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Denis Mukwege and Marie Berg describe the One Stop Centre at Panzi Hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that provides care for girls and women who have been raped in combination with extreme bodily harm.

  11. New data on the morphology and distribution of the enigmatic Schouteden's sun snake, Helophis schoutedeni (de Witte, 1922) from the Congo Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Z. T.; Gvoždík, Václav; Meirte, D.; Collet, M.; Pauwels, O. S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3755, č. 1 (2014), s. 96-100 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Helophis * morphology * distribution * Congo Basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  12. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  13. A Holistic, Person-Centred Care Model for Victims of Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of Congo: The Panzi Hospital One-Stop Centre Model of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Berg, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Denis Mukwege and Marie Berg describe the One Stop Centre at Panzi Hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that provides care for girls and women who have been raped in combination with extreme bodily harm.

  14. Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia; Coldiron, Matthew E; Nicholas, Sarala; Llosa, Augusto E; Mouniaman-Nara, Isabelle; Ngala, Joseph; Grais, Rebecca F; Porten, Klaudia

    2014-10-23

    A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy. Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength. Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

  15. Petroleum and gas economy in Arab Countries, in Angola, Congo and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, exploration and production. In OPEC countries, petroleum production has increased of 1% at a level of 24.77 millions barrels per day. Petroleum exploration or oil field development are going on at Ras al Khaima and Oum al Qaiwain (Arab Union Emirates), Gachsaran and Parsi (Iran) and Masilia (Yemen). In Tunisia, Union Texas Petroleum (Houston) has obtained a license for the exploration of Ramla oil field. In 1993, for the first, world wide petroleum demand will be reduce of 150000 barrels per day since 1983. In Congo, Sofresid Petrole Gaz has obtained a contract for the building of the bridge of two offshore platforms on N'Kossa oil field. In Nigeria, Offshore Pipelines Inc. (Houston) will build offshore structures for North Apoi and Okubie oil fields

  16. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Mills, James N.; Krebs, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of Ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near Kikwit, Samples were collected from...... 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to Ebola (subtype Zaire) virus: All tests were negative, and attempts to isolate Ebola virus were unsuccessful. The investigation was hampered by a lack of information beyond the daily activities of the primary case, a lack of information...... on Ebola virus ecology, which precluded the detailed study of select groups of animals, and sample-size limitations for rare species, The epidemiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suggests that humans have only intermittent contact with the virus, which complicates selection of target species. Further study...

  17. Seroepidemiological study of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, P; Maltezou, H C; Haidich, A-B; Papa, A

    2012-02-01

    To estimate endemic areas for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Greece, a country-wide seroepidemiological study was conducted, and 1611 human sera were prospectively collected along with data regarding possible risk factors for acquisition of infection, and tested for CCHF virus IgG antibodies by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 4.2%, with significant differences among prefectures, ranging from 0 to 27.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that slaughtering and agricultural activities were significant risk factors for CCHFV seropositivity. The significantly high seroprevalence in specific prefectures, together with the extremely low number of CCHF cases, suggest that this phenomenon might be strain-related. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Target Gutahuka: The UN’s Strategic Information Intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature and impacts of two information intervention radio programmes broadcast on Radio Okapi—the radio service of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A matched randomization technique was used to assign Rwandan Hutus and Congolese autochthons in South Kivu to listen to either of the two programmes within their naturalistic contexts for 13 months. At the end of the treatment, participants’ perceptions of barriers to peace; descriptive and prescriptive interventions; victimhood and villainity; opportunities for personal development and civic engagement; and knowledge of repatriation processes were assessed in 16 focus groups across four contexts. The study concludes that international media intervention programmes that provide robust information and a platform for objective analyses within a multiple narrative and participatory framework can enhance greater engagement with nascent democratic reforms, positive perception of long term opportunities for personal development and empathy with the ethnic Other.

  19. Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients.

  20. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  1. Reported 5 cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Fars province in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a viral hemorrhagic disease and a zoonosis disease that has been developed in people who deal with animals such as cattle and butchers. The diagnosis of CCHF is performed by detection of human antibodies (IgG and IgM against CCHF virus. Five Patients with CCHF occurred in Fath Abad’s village (in Fars province in the summer of 2011. All patients were men and aged 25-46 years old. Three patients were farmer and two other ones were butchers. The samples were sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses and Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers (Pasteur Institute of Iran in Tehran. The result of laboratory test for all patients was positive. None of the patients had died. Since the CCHF is rare, present study was aimed to assess the causes of the disease’s epidemic and clinical and laboratory symptoms stones.

  2. Spatial cluster analysis of human cases of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever reported in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tariq; Younus, Muhammad; Muhammad, Sayyad Aun

    2015-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease that has been reported in almost all geographic regions in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to identify spatial clusters of human cases of CCHF reported in country. Kulldorff's spatial scan statisitc, Anselin's Local Moran's I and Getis Ord Gi* tests were applied on data (i.e. number of laboratory confirmed cases reported from each district during year 2013). The analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high CCHF incidence in the uplands of Balochistan province near it border with Afghanistan. The cluster comprised the following districts: Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Loralai, Quetta, Sibi, Chagai, and Mastung. Another cluster was detected in Punjab and included Rawalpindi district and a part of Islamabad. We provide empirical evidence of spatial clustering of human CCHF cases in the country. The districts in the clusters should be given priority in surveillance, control programs, and further research.

  3. [Socio-entomologic survey in human trypanosomiasis focus of Yamba (Peoples Republic of Congo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, J P; Malonga, J R

    1985-01-01

    A study carried out at villagers level in a focus infected by human trypanosomiasis (Yamba, Bouenza region, Congo, Mikengue ethnic group) revealed that modern medicin is recognized by them as the sole possibility to treat the sleeping sickness. The witch doctor, if he cannot transmit the sickness, is perfectly able to aggravate it. He is considered as the responsible for any fatal issue. Tsetse flies are charged of transmitting the sickness as well as other biting insects (black flies, ceratopogonidae). The elders give an historical role to pigs in spreading the sickness. Villagers seem very determined to assume themselves fighting against the tsetse fly by trapping, but impregnation of traps by an insecticide got some problems (technical know-how, equipment) which have been solved by a new model of trap designed by the ORSTOM Center in Brazzaville.

  4. Biosafety standards for working with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Manfred; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Bino, Silvia; Bouloy, Michelle; Burt, Felicity; Chinikar, Sadegh; Christova, Iva; Dedushaj, Isuf; El-Sanousi, Ahmed; Elaldi, Nazif; Hewson, Roger; Hufert, Frank T; Humolli, Isme; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Korukluoglu, Gülay; Lyssen, Pieter; Mirazimi, Ali; Neyts, Johan; Niedrig, Matthias; Ozkul, Aykut; Papa, Anna; Paweska, Janusz; Sall, Amadou A; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Swanepoel, Robert; Uyar, Yavuz; Weber, Friedemann; Zeller, Herve

    2016-11-01

    In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus, CCHF virus (CCHFV), is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level (CL)-4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL)-2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100 000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the tests required to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the countries affected. Downgrading of CCHFV research work from CL-4, BSL-4 to CL-3, BSL-3 should also be considered.

  5. Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive ΔH o value of 13.613 kJ/mol.

  6. User Satisfaction with Family Planning Services in Government Health Centres in the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndziessi, Gilbert; Bintsene-Mpika, Gickelle; Bileckot, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Patient satisfaction is considered an indicator of quality of care. This study aimed to assess the degree of clients' satisfaction with family planning (FP) services in government health centers in Congo. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 635 clients nested in 27 health facilities were included in the analysis. Satisfaction was defined as "having a good perception of provider technical skills, being satisfied with the service organization and having a general positive appreciation of FP services. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15. Among 635 clients, 57% perceived lack of technical competence in providers, 88% perceived good organization in FP services and 77% declared having general positive appreciation of FP services. Global level of client satisfaction was 42%. In conclusion client satisfaction with FP service was low and strengthening health workers technical competence is crucial. But, as the quality is multidimensional, other aspects especially significant funding investment and quality-assurance interventions must be taken into account.

  7. Removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions using a halloysite-magnetite-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, F; Bonetto, L R; Crespo, Janaina S; Giovanela, M

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption has been considered as one of the most effective methods to remove dyes from aqueous solutions due to its ease of operation, high efficiency and wide adaptability. In view of all these aspects, this study aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a halloysite-magnetite-based composite in the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of stirring rate, pH, initial dye concentration and contact time were investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model, and equilibrium was well represented by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm. The thermodynamic data showed that dye adsorption onto the composite was spontaneous and endothermic and occurred by physisorption. Finally, the composite could also be regenerated at least four times by calcination and was shown to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of this dye.

  8. Graphene oxide/ferroferric oxide/polyethylenimine nanocomposites for Congo red adsorption from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Mao, Changming; Sui, Ning; Liu, Manhong; Yu, William W

    2017-04-01

    Graphene oxide/ferroferric oxide/polyethylenimine (GO/Fe 3 O 4 /PEI) nanocomposites were synthesized by an in situ growth of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles on GO sheets, and then modified by PEI. The GO/Fe 3 O 4 /PEI nanocomposites showed extremely high removal efficiency for anionic dye Congo Red (CR) due to the positively charged PEI molecules (methylene blue was also tested but with low adsorption capacity due to its cationic property). The CR removal capacity was 574.7 mg g -1 , higher than most of reported results. The adsorption kinetics could be well described by a pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, GO/Fe 3 O 4 /PEI nanocomposites could be easily recycled by magnetic separation. The removal efficiency remained above 70% after five cycles.

  9. La pénurie alimentaire dans la région de la Sangha (Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba, M.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Food Deficiency in the Sangha Region - Congo. The problem of food shortage in Sangha region is accompanied by alarming paradoxes. The region offers extremely favorable conditions for the development of agriculture : equatorial climate with abundance of rains and sun, a lot of uncultivated areas, a lot rivers, etc. Despite these advantages, food crops production is insignificant in the light of the very high infant mortality in the area 17.5 % (6, a death rate which is often bound with malnutrition. Contrary to what is commonly admitted, this food shortage is caused neither by natural obstacles nor by a certain passivity or immobility among peasants but by bad agricultural politic in the region. This article investigates these paradoxes and suggests in the same way a frame of analyses and orientations which could help overcome the regions savers food shortage.

  10. Surveillance and laboratory detection system of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Goya, M M; Shirzadi, M R

    2008-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or by contact with blood or tissues of infected livestock. In addition to zoonotic transmission, CCHFV can be ....... After two decades and observations of CCHF in some provinces of Iran, a CCHF surveillance and detection system was established in 1999, leading to a dramatically decreased mortality rate from 20% (year 2000) to 2% (year 2007)....... symptoms, the diagnosis of CCHF is based on the use of serological tests for the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and on the use of molecular tools such as RT-PCR. From 1970 to 1978, serological and epidemiological studies were performed in humans and in livestock of Iran...

  11. Reproductive and population dynamics parameters of Mbanza-Ngungu's local goat in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gasigwa Sabimana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the development of goat breeding in the Democratic Republic of Congo seem favorable. Knowledge of the characteristics of local goat farming by breeders is a very important factor to control and promote goat production. The objective of this study was to improve the productivity of Mbanza-Ngungu’s local goat by increasing the knowledge of its reproductive performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected by direct observation of the goats. These data were used to simulate reproductive and population dynamics parameters over a five-year period. The study showed the relevance of the model to simulate the reproduction traits of Mbanza-Ngungu’s goats and that it is useless to keep them beyond five years.

  12. The conditions for uranium concentration in the phosphates of Tchivoula, Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giresse, P.; N'Landou, J. de Dieu; Wiber, M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of deposition of marine phosphates in the Maastrichtian seas of the Congo do not appear capable alone of having produced the significant concentrations of uranium found. Diagenetic phenomena resulted in a mobilisation and a secondary concentration of uranium in the interior of recrystallized apatites. This secondary uranium may have been derived from the residual organic matrix in the deposit. Towards the top of the beds, hydrolysis of the apatites and authigenesis of crandallite, barrandite and ferruginous variscite led to uranium concentrations which are characteristic of alteration in a tropical climate. In contrast, wavellite, the final product of supergene alteration does not retain uranium. In the case of the Tchivoula deposits, the overlying Paleocene beds may have been the source of the uraniferous solutions' downslope movement which favored concentration in the underlying sediments. (orig.)

  13. The Banyamulenge of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A cultural community in the making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Rukundwa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the name Banyamulenge has become associated with a warrior group in Eastern Congo because of the role some of its community members played in the war against the Mobutu regime. Researchers have been intrigued by the political motivations which unfortunately do not cover the cultural aspects of this community. This article attempts to document the cultural heritage of the Banyamulenge community. Many of the practices and traditions have become obsolete. The article explains the Banyamulenge cultural way of living, and how the divine was traditionally revealed to them in the form of human deities. Burnt sacrifice was part of community worship. The article documents what has been learnt from elders about the oral tradition, the cultural and religious realities of the community.

  14. Pediatric pleural empyema: one of the management challenges in children of Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbi, Kibwe Alphonse; Kazadi, Valentin; Aissi, Louis-Marie; Katsuva, François Mbahewaka; Luboya, Numbi Oscar; Tshilolo, Léon; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2017-06-23

    Empyema is a serious complication characterized by purulent exudate and bacteria in the pleural space, which may progress to necrosis, cavitations or fistulas in the thoracic cavity. It remains a major challenge throughout low-income countries. Objectives were to emphasize the role of basic medical and radiologic approach and to resolve a severe lung complication when facilities are inadequate. A five-year-old female was referred with distress respiratory to the Emergency Unit of Monkole, a large public-private missionary hospital in Kinshasa, Congo. Chest X-ray showed a massive empyema that was resolved by immediate drainage and antibiotiocs. Results were rapid improvement and discharge after 3 weeks. A classic medical and imaging approach is a winning return in low-income countries. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, pleural effusion with compromising respiratory function can be managed by drainage and antibiotics.

  15. Determinants of participation in cavy marketing: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Simtowe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder supply chain participation remains low despite the potential welfare gains that would result from choosing a market-oriented production. Yet, studies on determinants of market participation for commodities with underdeveloped value chains are scanty. Employing a double-hurdle model, this paper examines factors determining households’ participation in cavy marketing among cavy farmers from Sud-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We find that wealthier households participated less in cavy marketing while those producing more cavies were more likely to participate in their marketing. Moreover, smaller households tended to sell more cavies, while households with other livestock sold fewer cavies. The findings underscore the significance of increasing the participation in the cavy supply chains by farmers through the promotion of appropriate husbandry practices that enhance cavy productivity and production and that enable farmers to participate in markets as sellers.

  16. Genomic Characterization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalomma Tick from Spain, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajimat, Maria N B; Rodriguez, Sergio E; Schuster, Isolde U E; Swetnam, Daniele M; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Habela, Miguel A; Negredo, Ana Isabel; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Barrett, Alan D T; Bente, Dennis A

    2017-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV). Ticks in the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs of CCHFV. In Spain, CCHFV was first detected in Hyalomma ticks from Cáceres in 2010. Subsequently, two autochthonous CCHF cases were reported in August 2016. In this study, we describe the characterization of the CCHFV genome directly from Hyalomma lusitanicum collected in Cáceres in 2014. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a close relationship with clade III strains from West Africa, with an estimated divergence time of 50 years. The results of this work suggest that CCHFV has been circulating in Spain for some time, and most likely originated from West Africa.

  17. Friction degradation and set-up effects in hard clays offshore Congo and Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliat, J.L.; Vergobbi, P.; Puech, A.

    1993-01-01

    Piles driven into stiff to hard clays encountered offshore Congo and Angola clearly show both clay-type effects which are (1) friction degradation, with very low driving resistances during continuous driving, and (2) set-up after driving interruptions. Both phenomena were studied by back-analysis of driving records, including results of pile driving monitoring. It allowed one to deduce the friction distribution along the piles during driving; show how the shaft friction at any depth reduces as the pile is driven further into the ground; and show that the shaft friction after driving delays can be close to the estimated static friction capacity of the piles. The SRD calculation method proposed by the authors takes the friction degradation effect into account, leading to improved pile drivability predictions. Four case histories are presented to illustrate the results obtained

  18. Environmental goods & services and rural livelihoods in the Congo and Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    alternatives exist. Evidence has also been provided on their ability to pull people out of poverty. However an array of conservation interventions have in the past attempted to bridge the gap in achieving poverty alleviation and conservation – two of the millenium’s top priorities. Conservation and development...... on livelihoods, poverty alleviation as well as in achieving conservation goals. In a collection of five papers spanning five years of research, the dissertation presents evidence on the livelihood effects of conservation and provides insights on various points of onsideration in the equitable and efficient...... design of future conservation interventions. The first three papers deal with the livelihood aspects of conservation interventions. Paper 1 presents a new method of characterising poverty groups in the Congo, using combined measures of assets and income, and importantly how they rely on the environmental...

  19. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-10-04

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  20. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  1. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates. We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1 of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas.

  2. Remotely Sensed Based Lake/Reservoir Routing in Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Lee, H.

    2017-12-01

    Lake and reservoir dynamics can influence local to regional water cycles but are often not well represented in hydrologic models. One challenge that limits their inclusion in models is the need for detailed storage-discharge behavior that can be further complicated in reservoirs where specific operation rules are employed. Here, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is combined with a remotely sensed based Reservoir Routing (RR) method and applied to the Congo River Basin. Given that topographic data are often continuous over the entire terrestrial surface (i.e., does not differentiate between land and open water), the HRR-RR model integrates topographic derived river networks and catchment boundaries (e.g., HydroSHEDs) with water boundary extents (e.g., Global Lakes and Wetlands Database) to develop the computational framework. The catchments bordering lakes and reservoirs are partitioned into water and land portions, where representative flowpath characteristics are determined and vertical water balance and lateral routings is performed separately on each partition based on applicable process models (e.g., open water evaporation vs. evapotranspiration). To enable reservoir routing, remotely sensed water surface elevations and extents are combined to determine the storage change time series. Based on the available time series, representative storage change patterns are determined. Lake/reservoir routing is performed by combining inflows from the HRR-RR model and the representative storage change patterns to determine outflows. In this study, a suite of storage change patterns derived from remotely sensed measurements are determined representative patterns for wet, dry and average conditions. The HRR-RR model dynamically selects and uses the optimal storage change pattern for the routing process based on these hydrologic conditions. The HRR-RR model results are presented to highlight the importance of lake attenuation/routing in the Congo Basin.

  3. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean-Congo

  4. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  5. Synthesis of 3D hierarchical porous iron oxides for adsorption of Congo red from dye wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhigang; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Qiuze; Li, Shengbiao; Qi, Qin; Zhu, Rongsun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bowknot-like precursor is obtained via poval-mediated precipitation reaction. • The growth mechanism of the hierarchical superstructure has been discussed. • Mesoporous iron oxide superstructures have been successfully synthesized. • The magnetic superstructures can adsorb CR from aqueous solution effectively. • The adsorption kinetics and isotherm processes are discussed. - Abstract: In this study, 3D hierarchical porous iron oxides were prepared by a precursor thermal conversion method and their adsorption properties for Congo red were reported. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron microscopy (EM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the 3D magnetic bowknot-like iron oxides were constructed by three-dimensional self-assembly of nanorods with porous nanostructures. The effect of experimental parameters including polymer concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and heat treatment atmosphere were studied. Bowknot-like α-Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 superstructures were obtained by the thermal transformation of the oxalate precursor under the various atmosphere. These porous iron oxide superstructures exhibited ferromagnetic property at room temperature. Adsorption of Congo red (CR) onto the as-prepared samples from aqueous solutions was investigated and discussed. The results indicated that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation model can better describe the adsorption kinetics of CR onto α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 , and Lagergren-first-order kinetic model is better fitted for the adsorption of CR onto Fe 3 O 4 . The hierarchically α-Fe 2 O 3 bowknots showed better adsorption ability for CR than Fe 3 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 superstructure

  6. Synthesis of 3D hierarchical porous iron oxides for adsorption of Congo red from dye wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhigang, E-mail: zjchemyue@126.com; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Qiuze; Li, Shengbiao; Qi, Qin; Zhu, Rongsun

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Bowknot-like precursor is obtained via poval-mediated precipitation reaction. • The growth mechanism of the hierarchical superstructure has been discussed. • Mesoporous iron oxide superstructures have been successfully synthesized. • The magnetic superstructures can adsorb CR from aqueous solution effectively. • The adsorption kinetics and isotherm processes are discussed. - Abstract: In this study, 3D hierarchical porous iron oxides were prepared by a precursor thermal conversion method and their adsorption properties for Congo red were reported. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron microscopy (EM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the 3D magnetic bowknot-like iron oxides were constructed by three-dimensional self-assembly of nanorods with porous nanostructures. The effect of experimental parameters including polymer concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and heat treatment atmosphere were studied. Bowknot-like α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} superstructures were obtained by the thermal transformation of the oxalate precursor under the various atmosphere. These porous iron oxide superstructures exhibited ferromagnetic property at room temperature. Adsorption of Congo red (CR) onto the as-prepared samples from aqueous solutions was investigated and discussed. The results indicated that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation model can better describe the adsorption kinetics of CR onto α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Lagergren-first-order kinetic model is better fitted for the adsorption of CR onto Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The hierarchically α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} bowknots showed better adsorption ability for CR than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} superstructure.

  7. The biogeochemistry of carbon across a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P. J.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Dinga, B. J.; Poulsen, J. R.; Hernes, P. J.; Fiske, G.; Salter, M. E.; Wang, Z. A.; Hoering, K. A.; Six, J.; Holmes, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC, pCO2), lignin biomarkers, and theoptical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured in a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin, with the aim of examining how vegetation cover and hydrology influences the composition and concentration of fluvial carbon (C). Three sampling campaigns (February 2010, November 2010, and August 2011) spanning 56 sites are compared by subbasin watershed land cover type (savannah, tropical forest, and swamp) and hydrologic regime (high, intermediate, and low). Land cover properties predominately controlled the amount and quality of DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and lignin phenol concentrations (∑8) exported in streams and rivers throughout the Congo Basin. Higher DIC concentrations and changing DOM composition (lower molecular weight, less aromatic C) during periods of low hydrologic flow indicated shifting rapid overland supply pathways in wet conditions to deeper groundwater inputs during drier periods. Lower DOC concentrations in forest and swamp subbasins were apparent with increasing catchment area, indicating enhanced DOC loss with extended water residence time. Surface water pCO2 in savannah and tropical forest catchments ranged between 2,600 and 11,922 µatm, with swamp regions exhibiting extremely high pCO2 (10,598-15,802 µatm), highlighting their potential as significant pathways for water-air efflux. Our data suggest that the quantity and quality of DOM exported to streams and rivers are largely driven by terrestrial ecosystem structure and that anthropogenic land use or climate change may impact fluvial C composition and reactivity, with ramifications for regional C budgets and future climate scenarios.

  8. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hajer M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Shamseldin I; Abdelaziz, Sanaa A; Haroun, Eltahir M; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2017-08-03

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. A total of 361 camels selected randomly from six localities were employed in the study. Sera sampled were tested for the presence of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CCHFV seropositivity was recorded in 77 out of 361 animals accounting for a prevalence rate of 21.3%. Age (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.72-7.79, p-value = 0.026); locality (OR = 5.85, CI = 1.81-18.83, p- value = 0.003), tick number (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.37-9.81, P-value 0.04); tick control (OR = 2.2, CI, 1.11-4.35, P-value = 0.023) and breed (OR = 6.60, CI = 2.38-18.36, P-value = 0.001) were recorded as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. The prevalence of CCHF is significantly high among camels in Khartoum State, Sudan. Age, breed, locality and tick control are considered as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. This study would be expected to reduce the impact on the livelihood of pastoral communities and ultimately avoid disease spread in human.

  9. [Precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in Pointe-Noire, Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukassa, D; N'Golet, A; Lingouala, L G; Eouani, M L; Samba, J B; Mambou, J V; Ompaligoli, S; Moukengue, L F; Taty-Pambou, E

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cytological profile and risk factors for intraepithelial precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in an urban community of Pointe-Noire, an industrialized seaport located in the southeast region of Congo-Brazzaville. A transverse study was carried out over a period of 18 months (January 2003 to July 2004) in the Center for the Study of Human and Animal Diseases (CSHAD) at the General Adolphe Sie Hospital in Pointe-Noire. A total of 1347 files of women benefiting from cervico-vaginal smears were included in the study. Testing was undertaken either at the request of the patient (voluntary screening) or at the request of a health care provider (physician, midwife or nurse) in relation with various gynecological problems. The relative frequency of intraepithelial lesions was estimated to be 15.36% including 9.17% of low-grade intraepithelial lesions (Ig IEL) and 6.19% of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (hg IEL). The mean age of patients with hg IEL was 42.25 years (range, 12 to 17). Study of the interval between actual age at the time of sample collection and age of first sexual relations showed that women presenting IEL had an interval of at least 20 years. This interval probably corresponds to the time necessary for the interaction between human papillomavirus (HPV) and epithelial cells of the uterine cervix to induce intraepithelial lesions that lead to development of cancer of the uterine cervix. Comparative analysis of the number of sexual partners between the group of women with normal smears and the group with smears showing hg IEL indicated a clear predominance of the mean number of partners in the latter group, i.e., 2 +/- 1,2 versus 5 +/- 1,8 (p cervix in the Kouilou department of Congo-Brazzaville. These data will serve as benchmarks and guidance for forthcoming screening campaigns for early detection of uterine cervix cancer.

  10. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation studies of gold nanoparticles against congo red and methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, C; Lakshmanan, A; Nagarajan, N S

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports, novel and greener method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using 5,7-dihydroxy-6-metoxy-3 ' ,4 ' methylenedioxyisoflavone (Dalspinin), isolated from the roots of Dalbergia coromandeliana was carried out for the first time. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The observed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 532nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum indicates the formation of gold nanoparticles. The powder XRD and SAED pattern for synthesized gold nanoparticles confirms crystalline nature. The HR-TEM images showed that the AuNPs formed were small in size, highly monodispersed and spherical in shape. The average particle sizes of the AuNPs are found to be ~10.5nm. The prepared AuNPs were found to be stable for more than 5months without any aggregation. The catalytic degradation studies of the synthesized AuNPs towards degradation of congo red and methyl orange, showed good catalytic in the complete degradation of both the dyes. The reduction catalyzed by gold nanoparticles followed the pseudo-first order kinetics, with a rate constant of 4.5×10 -3 s -1 (R 2 =0.9959) and 1.7×10 -3 s -1 (R 2 =0.9918) for congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO), respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  12. Congo, Brazzaville

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans ce contexte, elles intéressent généralement des aires assez larges et ne rapportent presque rien ...... ues. Forêt inondable. Forêt de terre ferme. Forêt marécageuse. A1. A2. B1. B2. C1. C2 ..... Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives,.

  13. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution by Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12; effect of SPB1 biosurfactant addition on biodecolorization potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was assessed for Congo Red bio-treatment potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of Congo Red contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at acidic and neutral pH value. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it could decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of Congo Red. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance Congo Red biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that Congo Red removal by this strain could be due to an adsorption phenomena. Germination potencies of tomato seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions showed the efficient biotreatment of the azo dye Congo Red especially with the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing the effective decolorization period; the biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide a highly efficient, inexpensive and time-saving procedure in the treatment of textile effluents.

  14. Sr-isotope stratigraphy and dating of Neo-proterozoic carbonates and glacials from the northern and western parts of the Congo Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poidevin, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous occurrences of Neo-proterozoic carbonate platforms and glacigenic litho-facies are present around the Congo craton. They are especially well developed on its western and northern borders, i.e. in the fore-lands of the West Congo and Oubanguides belts. Sr isotopic stratigraphy enables us to characterize the deposition age of some carbonate units from these two domains. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios of limestones from the late 'Haut Shiloango' (0.7068) and the 'Schisto-calcaire' (0.7075) of the West-Congo domain are of post-Sturtian and post-Marinoan ages, respectively. The Lenda carbonates (0.7066) from the Northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the limestones (0.7076) from the Bangui Basin, both in the Oubanguides fore-land, are of pre-Sturtian and post-Marinoan ages, respectively. These data associated with lithostratigraphic correlations allow us to ascribe the 'Bas Congo' lower mixtite (tillite) and the Akwokwo tillite (Lindian) to the Sturtian ice age. In the same way, the 'Bas Congo' upper mixtite (tillite) and the Bondo tillite (Bakouma Basin) are likely Marinoan in age. A new synthetic stratigraphy for these Neo-proterozoic domains is developed. (author)

  15. Contaminación fecal del Río Reventazón: período 1994 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta el nivel de contaminación fecal del río Reventazón-Parismina en cuatro estaciones de muestreo ubicadas a lo largo de su cauce de 145 Km a saber: El Congo, Turrialba, Siquirres y 500 metros antes de la desembocadura en los Canales de Tortuguero. Para determinar el grado de contaminación presente se realizaron 7 muestreos en 1994 y 11 en 1995 con una frecuencia mensual. Las variables analizadas fueron el Número más Probable por 100 mL de Coliformes fecales o termorresistentes (CF/10...

  16. 3D stratigraphic modeling of the Congo turbidite system since 210 ka: an investigation of factors controlling sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Dimitri; Picot, Marie; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Granjeon, Didier; Molliex, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The geometry and internal functioning of turbidite systems are relatively well-constrained today. However, the respective role of autogenic (topographic compensation, dynamics of turbidity currents…) and allogenic factors (tectonics, sea-level, climate) governing their architectural evolution is still under debate. The geometry of the Quaternary Congo Fan is characterized by successive sedimentary prograding/retrograding cycles bounded by upfan avulsions, reflecting a periodic control of sedimentation (Picot et al., 2016). Multi-proxy studies revealed a strong interplay between autogenic control and climate forcing as evidenced by changes in fluvial sediment supplies consistent with arid and humid periods in the Congo River Basin. In the light of these results, the aim of this study is to investigate the relative impact of internal and external forcing factors controlling, both in time and space, the formation and evolution of depocenters of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan since 210 ka. This work represents the first attempt to model in 3D the stratigraphic architecture of the Congo turbidite system using DionisosFlow (IFP-EN), a diffusion process-based software. It allows the simulation of sediment transport and the 3D geometry reproduction of sedimentary units based on physical processes such as sea level changes, tectonics, sediment supply and transport. According to the modeling results, the role of topographic compensation in the deep-sea fan geometry is secondary compared to climate changes in the drainage basin. It appears that a periodic variation of sediment discharge and water flow is necessary to simulate the timing and volume of prograding/retrograding sedimentary cycles and more particularly the upfan avulsion events. The best-fit simulations show that the overriding factor for such changes corresponds to the expansion of the vegetation cover in the catchment basin associated to the Milankovitch cycle of precession which controlled the West African Monsoon

  17. Organic carbon accumulation in modern sediments of the Angola basin influenced by the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, François; Martinez, Philippe; Dennielou, Bernard; Charlier, Karine; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Geochemical data (total organic carbon-TOC content, δ13Corg, C:N, Rock-Eval analyses) were obtained on 150 core tops from the Angola basin, with a special focus on the Congo deep-sea fan. Combined with the previously published data, the resulting dataset (322 stations) shows a good spatial and bathymetric representativeness. TOC content and δ13Corg maps of the Angola basin were generated using this enhanced dataset. The main difference in our map with previously published ones is the high terrestrial organic matter content observed downslope along the active turbidite channel of the Congo deep-sea fan till the distal lobe complex near 5000 m of water-depth. Interpretation of downslope trends in TOC content and organic matter composition indicates that lateral particle transport by turbidity currents is the primary mechanism controlling supply and burial of organic matter in the bathypelagic depths.

  18. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  19. Mapping Water Level Dynamics over Central Congo River Using PALSAR Images, Envisat Altimetry, and Landsat NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Tshimanga, R.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers and wetlands are very important for ecological habitats, and it plays a key role in providing a source of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). The floodplains ecosystems depend on the process between the vegetation and flood characteristics. The water level is a prerequisite to an understanding of terrestrial water storage and discharge. Despite the lack of in situ data over the Congo Basin, which is the world's third largest in size ( 3.7 million km2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge ( 40,500 m3 s-1 annual average between 1902 and 2015 in the main Brazzaville-Kinshasa gauging station), the surface water level dynamics in the wetlands have been successfully estimated using satellite altimetry, backscattering coefficients (σ0) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and, interferometric SAR technique. However, the water level estimation of the Congo River remains poorly quantified due to the sparse orbital spacing of radar altimeters. Hence, we essentially have limited information only over the sparsely distributed the so-called "virtual stations". The backscattering coefficients from SAR images have been successfully used to distinguish different vegetation types, to monitor flood conditions, and to access soil moistures over the wetlands. However, σ0 has not been used to measure the water level changes over the open river because of very week return signal due to specular scattering. In this study, we have discovered that changes in σ0 over the Congo River occur mainly due to the water level changes in the river with the existence of the water plants (macrophytes, emergent plants, and submersed plant), depending on the rising and falling stage inside the depression of the "Cuvette Centrale". We expand the finding into generating the multi-temporal water level maps over the Congo River using PALSAR σ0, Envisat altimetry, and Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. We also present preliminary estimates of the river

  20. Palynofacies reveal fresh terrestrial organic matter inputs in the terminal lobes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Johann; Stetten, Elsa; Baudin, François; Pruski, Audrey M.; Martinez, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The Congo deep-sea fan is directly connected to the Congo River by a unique submarine canyon. The Congo River delivers up to 2×1012gPOC/yr, a part of which is funnelled by the submarine canyon and feeds the deep-sea environments. The more distal part of the Congo deep-sea fan, the terminal lobe area, has a surface of 2500 km2 and is situated up to 800 km offshore at depths of 4750-5000 m. It is a remarkable place to study the fate and distribution of the organic matter transferred from the continent to the deep ocean via turbidity currents. Forty-two samples were analyzed from the terminal lobes, including sites from the active channel, one of its levees and an abandoned distal channel. Samples were collected using multitube cores and push-cores using a Victor 6000 ROV, which surveyed the dense chemosynthetic habitats that locally characterize the terminal lobes. Palynofacies reveal a remarkably well-preserved, dominantly terrestrial particulate organic matter assemblage, that has been transferred from the continent into the deep-sea by turbidity currents. Delicate plant structures, cuticle fragments and plant cellular material is often preserved, highlighting the efficiency of turbidity currents to transfer terrestrial organic matter to the sea-floor, where it is preserved. Moreover, the palynofacies data reveal a general sorting by density or buoyancy of the organic particles, as the turbulent currents escaped the active channel, feeding the levees and the more distal, abandoned channel area. Finally, in addition to aforementioned hydrodynamic factors controlling the organic matter accumulation, a secondary influence of chemosynthetic habitats on organic matter preservation is also apparent. Palynofacies is therefore a useful tool to record the distribution of organic matter in recent and ancient deep-sea fan environments, an important topic for both academic and petroleum studies.

  1. Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick May Mukonki

    2017-01-01

    KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined t...

  2. Non-fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever imported into the United Kingdom (ex Bulgaria), June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, S; Atkinson, B; Dowall, Sd; Pitman, Jk; Staplehurst, S; Busuttil, J; Simpson, Aj; Aarons, Ej; Petridou, C; Nijjar, M; Glover, S; Brooks, Tj; Hewson, R

    2014-07-31

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was diagnosed in a United Kingdom traveller who returned from Bulgaria in June 2014. The patient developed a moderately severe disease including fever, headaches and petechial rash. CCHF was diagnosed following identification of CCHF virus (CCHFV) RNA in a serum sample taken five days after symptom onset. Sequence analysis of the CCHFV genome showed that the virus clusters within the Europe 1 clade, which includes viruses from eastern Europe.

  3. L’incidence des infections nosocomiales urinaires et des sites opératoires dans la maternité de l’Hôpital Général de Référence de Katuba à Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuke, Hendrick Mbutshu; Kasamba, Eric; Mahuridi, Abdulu; Nlandu, Roger Ngatu; Narufumi, Suganuma; Mukengeshayi, Abel Ntambue; Malou, Vicky; Makoutode, Michel; Kaj, Françoise Malonga

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Les patients hospitalisés en Afrique intertropicale sont exposés à un risque des infections nosocomiales. La rareté des données publiées sur le sujet limite l’analyse descriptive de la situation. L’objectif de ce travail était de déterminer l’incidence, les germes en cause et les facteurs de risque des infections nosocomiales urinaires et des sites opératoires à la maternité de l’HGR Katuba de Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo(DRC). Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude descriptive longitudinale de la période allant du 1er octobre 2014 au 1er Janvier 2015. Notre population d’étude était constituée de 207 femmes ayant séjourné dans cette maternité. La collecte de données était réalisée d’une manière exhaustive. Résultats L’incidence de ces infections nosocomiales était de 15,5%. Les parturientes ayant passé plus de trois jours à l'hôpital avaient trois fois plus de risque de développer une infection nosocomiale (p = 0,003) tandis que celles qui ont eu un accouchement avec complication avaient quatre fois plus de risque de contracter une infection nosocomiale (p = 0,000). Escherichia coli était l'agent causal le plus isole (38,1%), suivi de Citrobacter freundii (23,8%), Acinobacter baumannii (18, 2%), Staphylococcus aureus (18,2%), Enterococcus feacalis (14,3%) et Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9,1%). L'ampicilline était l'antibiotique le plus prescrit auquel tous les microbes isoles ont été résistants. Conclusion Il faut améliorer des conditions d’hygiène hospitalière; mais aussi une étude ultérieure pour étudier la ressemblance entre les souches des germes de l’environnement et celles trouvés dans les liquides biologiques. PMID:29230259

  4. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena

  5. Urban violence and exclusion in the DRC

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    support, children from impoverished households, many of whom are uneducated, are adding to the ... The goal of this study was to identify the dynamic interplay among poverty/exclusion ... The lack of public lighting and access points to water exposes girls to .... work together to develop more inclusive economic and social.

  6. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  7. Small-scale production in the Congo basin of low-acid carotene-rich red palm oil

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    Silou Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The red palm oil consumed in the Congo basin come essentially from small-scale production from the dura or tenera varieties (the latter being a hybrid of dura and pisifera. These three varieties are endemic to the Congo basin. The tenera variety is characterized a thick pulp (about 50% of the nut from which 70–90% of oil (based on fresh pulp can be extracted. The dura variety has less pulp (30% of the nut by weight, and gives an oil yield of the same order of magnitude. The oil is extracted from the crushed pulp after a series of mixing steps in hot water at about 60 °C. When obtained from freshly harvested nuts (at most 3 days storage, this oil is rich in carotenoids (800–2600 ppm and polyphenols (5–13 mg/g, and presents low acid values (IA < 5 and peroxide values (IP < 10. Here we describe this traditional production process, widespread in the Congo basin, and suggest innovations that substantially increase the quantity of oil extracted and significantly improve the quality of the end product.

  8. Relative Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Methanotrophs at the Oxic–Anoxic Interface of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan

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    Laurent Toffin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sitting at ∼5,000 m water depth on the Congo-Angola margin and ∼760 km offshore of the West African coast, the recent lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan receives large amounts of fluvial sediments (3–5% organic carbon. This organic-rich sedimentation area harbors habitats with chemosynthetic communities similar to those of cold seeps. In this study, we investigated relative abundance, diversity and distribution of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB communities at the oxic–anoxic interface of sedimentary habitats by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative sequence analysis of particulate mono-oxygenase (pmoA genes. Our findings revealed that sedimentary habitats of the recent lobe complex hosted type I and type II MOB cells and comparisons of pmoA community compositions showed variations among the different organic-rich habitats. Furthermore, the pmoA lineages were taxonomically more diverse compared to methane seep environments and were related to those found at cold seeps. Surprisingly, MOB phylogenetic lineages typical of terrestrial environments were observed at such water depth. In contrast, MOB cells or pmoA sequences were not detected at the previous lobe complex that is disconnected from the Congo River inputs.

  9. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Mahmud, T.; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, M.; Shafiq, U.

    2012-01-01

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  10. Characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamics of Congo Red bio sorption by activated sulfidogenic sludge from an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, K.; Lee, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the bio sorption of textile dye Congo Red on anaerobic activated sulfidogenic sludge were examined. The influence of different adsorption parameters such as p H, temperature, contact time and initial dye concentrations on the bio sorption capacity was also investigated. The sulfidogenic sludge showed a maximum bio sorption density of 238.90 mg dye/g cell for Congo Red at an initial dye concentration of 1,000 mg/L, p H 3.5 and 22 C, which is higher than that of many other adsorbents reported in the literature. The bio sorption processes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm and exhibited pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneous and exothermic nature of Congo Red bio sorption. The Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the dye interaction with the biomass. Scanning electron microscopy showed significant changes in the surface morphology of the sludge after dye bio sorption. These results showed that sulfidogenic sludge biomass is an attractive alternative low-cost bio sorbent for the removal of the dye from aqueous media.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo.

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    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3% and urban (734; 90.7% areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809 without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds.This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors.

  12. Adsorption behavior of direct red 80 and congo red onto activated carbon/surfactant: Process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaohui; Li, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Adsorptions of congo red and direct red 80 onto activated carbon/surfactant from aqueous solution were optimized. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) has been employed to analyze the effects of concentration of surfactant, temperature, pH, and initial concentration of the dye in the adsorption capacity. Their corresponding experimental data could be evaluated excellently by second order polynomial regression models and the two models were also examined based on the analysis of variance and t test statistics, respectively. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: Cs = 34.10 μM, T = 50 °C, pH = 3.5, and CCR = 160 mg/L for the congo red system, and Cs = 34.10 μM, T = 50 °C, pH = 6.1, and CDR80 = 110 mg/L for the direct red 80 system. And in these conditions, the measured experimental maximum adsorption capacities for the congo red and direct red 80 removals were 769.48 mg/g and 519.90 mg/g, which were consistent with their corresponding predicted values, with small relative errors of -2.81% and -0.67%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for the two dye adsorptions onto AC/DDAC were also investigated. The experimental data were fitted by four isotherm models, and Langmuir model presented the best fit. The kinetic studies indicated that the kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  13. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  14. Clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever on human

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    Siavash Hamzehpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a febrile and acute viral disease, and it is sporadic and epidemic in human societies, although it is special for animals (1. The disease was first identified in the Crimean Peninsula in the years 1945-1944 and was called the Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever. In 1956, the epidemic of the disease in the Congo also occurred, and due to the similarity of the disease agent, the combination of names of these two regions was used for naming the disease (2. The cause of this disease is a single-stranded viraemia virus from the genus Neurovirus and the Bunyaviridae family (3. One of the ways to transmit the disease is tick bites, and the hyaloma ticks are the most important constituent of the Crimean-Congo fever vein and the reservoir. In addition to transmitting the disease to vertebrates, due to a vertical and horizontal transmission, they transmit it to the next generation (4. Also, human contact with meat, blood and contaminated secretions of livestock in a livestock eradication period causes the transmission of the disease (5. Human to human transmission, which is more often seen as a hospital infection, is also a means of transmitting the disease (6. The incubation period after a tick bite is 1 to 3 days and a maximum of 9 days, and is slightly longer after contact with contaminated blood or tissue about 5-6 days, and finally 14 days (7. In the early stages of the disease, symptoms are sudden which include severe headaches, fever, chills, muscle pain, especially the back and leg muscles, neck stiffness, dizziness, reddening of the eyes, fear of light, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Then, a severe generalized muscle pain appears, mostly at the back and hamstring, and the patient complains of back pain and epigastric pain (8. In the examination of patients, facial flushing and chest thigtness, hyperemia of throat mucusand petechialsare common symptoms which draw attention. Hemorrhagic phenomena include melena

  15. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  16. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Duroch Françoise

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the

  17. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Augments mRNA Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Cheng, Erdong; Ganaie, Safder S; Mir, Mohammad A

    2017-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, causing severe illness with high mortality rates in humans. Here, we demonstrate that CCHFV nucleocapsid protein (CCHFV-NP) augments mRNA translation. CCHFV-NP binds to the viral mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) with high affinity. It facilitates the translation of reporter mRNA both in vivo and in vitro with the assistance of the viral mRNA 5' UTR. CCHFV-NP equally favors the translation of both capped and uncapped mRNAs, demonstrating the independence of this translation strategy on the 5' cap. Unlike the canonical host translation machinery, inhibition of eIF4F complex, an amalgam of three initiation factors, eIF4A, eIF4G, and eIF4E, by the chemical inhibitor 4E1RCat did not impact the CCHFV-NP-mediated translation mechanism. However, the proteolytic degradation of eIF4G alone by the human rhinovirus 2A protease abrogated this translation strategy. Our results demonstrate that eIF4F complex formation is not required but eIF4G plays a critical role in this translation mechanism. Our results suggest that CCHFV has adopted a unique translation mechanism to facilitate the translation of viral mRNAs in the host cell cytoplasm where cellular transcripts are competing for the same translation apparatus. IMPORTANCE Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, a highly contagious viral disease endemic to more than 30 countries, has limited treatment options. Our results demonstrate that NP favors the translation of a reporter mRNA harboring the viral mRNA 5' UTR. It is highly likely that CCHFV uses an NP-mediated translation strategy for the rapid synthesis of viral proteins during the course of infection. Shutdown of this translation mechanism might selectively impact viral protein synthesis, suggesting that an NP-mediated translation strategy is a target for therapeutic intervention against this viral disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  19. Ribavirin for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    G Gail

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever epidemics often occur in areas where health services are limited, and result in high case fatality rates. Besides intensive care, ribavirin is often recommended. A solid evidence base for the use of this drug will help justify assuring access to the drug in areas where epidemics are common. Methods We carried out a systematic review of observational and experimental studies of people with suspected or confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever that included comparisons between patients given ribavirin and those not. We extracted data on mortality, hospital stay, and adverse events. Risk of bias was assessed using a standard checklist, and data were presented in meta-analytical graphs, stratified by study design, and GRADE tables presented. The risk of bias was summarised using the GRADE method. Results 21 unique studies, including one randomised controlled trial of ribavirin, were included. Quality of the evidence was very low, with a Down and Black median score of 4 (maximum possible 33. Ribavirin treatment was not shown to be superior to no ribavirin treatment for mortality rate in a single RCT (RR: 1.13, 95%CI: 0.29 to 4.32, 136 participants, GRADE=low quality evidence; but ribavirin was associated with reduced mortality by 44% when compared to no ribavirin treatment in the pooled observational studies (RR: 0.56, 95%CI: 0.35 to 0.90, 955 participants; GRADE=very low quality evidence. Adverse events were more common with the ribavirin patients, but no severe adverse events were reported. No difference in length of hospital stay was reported. Conclusions No clear message of benefit is available from the current data on ribavirin as observational data are heavily confounded, and the one trial carried out has limited power. However, ribavirin could potentially have benefits in this condition and these results clearly indicate a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial in the context of good quality

  20. [Perception of pain by patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in North Kivu, DR Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Claire; Kambale, Alain; Paluku, Faustin; Kabuayi, Jean-Pierre; Boillot, François

    2010-01-01

    This operational research conducted among TB patients co-infected with HIV in North Kivu had three objectives: (i) to clarify the local perception of a certain type of pain (michi in the local language) in patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART); (ii) to identify the attitudes of health care personnel regarding the management of ART side effects; and (iii) to explore ways to improve the quality of life of patients on ART and provide them with pain relief. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with patients on ART and their medical care providers in district health centers of North-Kivu and at patients' homes. A semantic analysis of the term michi revealed a nosologic folk entity based on a naturalistic view of the body; the term michi is used to name: (i) the "roots" of plants or trees; (ii) channels (veins, arteries, but also nerves and tendons) in the body through which fluids (blood, water) and energy are conveyed; (iii) different types of acute pain, possibly located along these channels. The description (location, duration, and intensity) of the functional signs and the context of their occurrence (while taking Stavudine) confirmed the medical diagnosis of acute sensory neuropathies. Although a classic ART side effect, neuropathies are underdiagnosed by health workers who find it difficult to recognize signs of treatment toxicity in apparently trivial symptoms. Different reasons account for this: (i) healthcare staff have little time to spend with TB/HIV patients and thus provide inadequate management of functional symptoms; (ii) insufficient attention is paid to patients' acute pain, which is often perceived as "normal"; (iii) insufficient knowledge of ART side effects due to staff turnover higher than the frequency of training that programmes. The study was conducted as part of the DR Congo national programmes for TB and AIDS and led to the formulation of recommendations about improving, especially through training, the assessment of functional

  1. Various clinical conditions can mimic Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in pediatric patients in endemic regions

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    Soner S. Kara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease with high mortality. Many disorders can mimic CCHF. It is important to recognize the condition and to perform differential diagnosis in endemic countries. Twenty-one children aged 18 years or less with a preliminary diagnosis of CCHF were retrospectively evaluated. Real-time PCR and a confirmatory indirect immunofluorescence assay for negative results were performed. The diagnoses determined that 9 patients had (42.9% CCHF; 7 patients had (33.3% viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; 2 patients had (9.5% brucellosis; 1 patients had (4.7% periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA syndrome episode; 1 patient had (4.7% cerebral palsy, diabetes insipidus, acute gastroenteritis, and hypernatremic dehydration; and 1 patient had (4.7% cellulitis after a tick bite. The mean age of patients with CCHF was greater than that of the other patients (116.1 ± 53.6 vs. 94.1 ± 52.1 months, p = 0.02. Seventeen (81% of the children included had a history of tick bites, 2 (9.5% had a history of contact with a patient with CCHF, and 2 (9.5% had no exposure, but were living in an endemic region. Three patients had an underlying disorder: cerebral palsy and diabetes insipidus, epilepsy, or PFAPA. All of the children experienced fever. Other frequent symptoms were malaise, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, but none of these differed statistically between the patient groups. CCHF patients had a longer mean duration of symptoms (10.56 ± 1.42 vs. 6.75 ± 3.62 days, p = 0.008 and a longer mean length of hospitalization (8.00 ± 2.08 vs. 3.58 ± 1.56 days, p < 0.001 than the other patients. At laboratory examination, patients with CCHF had statistically significant lower leukocyte and platelet counts, more prolonged coagulation parameters, and greater AST, ALT, LDH, and CK levels than the other patients. No mortality or complications occurred

  2. First reported chikungunya fever outbreak in the republic of Congo, 2011.

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    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011.We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2% lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area. Amongst them, 37 (11.7% were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay, of whom 36 (97.3% had fever, 22 (66.7% myalgia and 32 (86.5% arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors, providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2% with sensitivity (78.6% and specificity (72.4% values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%, but the positive predictive value (45% indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1 demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis.We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and

  3. Challenges Towards Sustainable Peace and Security: in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the structural challenges facing the new government of the. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in its reconstruction and development programme for sustainable peace and security. It takes into account the DRC's strategic importance in the Central and Southern African region and the African ...

  4. Religious Networks in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With reference to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), religious groups wield enormous influence in the public space as providers of social services in a polity that has been characterised by years of misrule, declining state capacity and protracted conflict. The conflict in the DRC has deepened the imperative for ...

  5. The role of the heat shock protein Hsp12p in the dynamic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the addition of Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamrock, Vanessa J; Duval, Jérôme F L; Lindsey, George G; Gaboriaud, Fabien

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the electrohydrodynamic and nanomechanical characteristics of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, a wild-type (WT) strain and a strain overexpressing (OE) Hsp12p, in the presence and absence of hydrophobic Congo red compound. By combining these two advanced biophysical methods, we demonstrate that Hsp12p proteins are mostly located within a thin layer (c. 10 nm thick) positioned at the external side of the cell wall. However, this Hsp12p-enriched layer does not prevent Congo red from entering the cell wall and from interacting with the chitin therein. The entrance of Congo red within the cell wall is reflected in an increase of the turgor pressure for the OE strain and a decrease of that for the WT strain. It is shown that these opposite trends are consistent with significant modulations of the water content within the cell wall from/to the cytoplasm. These are the result of changes in the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance, as governed by the intertwined local concentration variations of Congo red and Hsp12p across the cell wall. In particular, the decrease of the turgor pressure in the case of WT strain upon addition of Congo red is shown to be consistent with an upregulation of Hsp12p in the close vicinity of the plasma membrane.

  6. Etiology and Outcome of Acute Renal Failure in Children in Congo-Brazzaville

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    Assounga Alain

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common problem in the Congo. This is a six-year retrospective study aiming at analyzing the etiology and the outcome of ARF at the Brazzaville′s University Hospital from 1989 through 1994. One hundred and five cases of ARF (0.99%, including 54 boys (51.4% and 51 girls (48.6%, out of 10,512 children admitted in the department of Pediatrics have been recorded. ARF represented 13.09% of the causes in 802 patients with renal disorder. The main etiologies of ARF included acute gastroenteritis with dehydration (25.7%, nephrotic syndrome (14.7%, sepsis (15.23%, malaria (12.38%, and acute glomerulonephritis (9.5%. Most cases were managed conservatively, while peritoneal dialysis (PD was used in eight cases (7.62%. The outcome of ARF was recovery in 50.5 %, death in 37 % and chronic renal failure in 12.5% of cases. Preventive measures may help in reducing the high mortality rate and the need for dialysis.

  7. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring and reporting attacks on education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, Cyril; van Boetzelaer, Elburg; Rojas, Lina; Richard, Kinyera; Karume, Gang; Nshombo, Marius; Roberts, Leslie; Boothby, Neil

    2018-04-01

    The United Nations' Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism is charged with documenting six grave violations against children in a time of conflict, including attacks on schools. Many of these incidents, however, remain unreported across the globe. This study explores whether or not a local knowledge base of education and child protection actors in North and South Kivu Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in Mogadishu, Somalia, could contribute to a more complete record of attacks on education in those areas. Hundreds of semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants across the three settings, and in total 432 attacks on education were documented. Purposive samples of these reports were verified and a large majority was confirmed. Local non-governmental organisations and education institutions were most knowledgeable about these incidents, but most never reported them to a monitoring authority. The study concludes that attack surveillance and response were largely insufficient, and recommends investing in mechanisms that utilise local knowledge to address these shortcomings. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. Awareness among butchers regarding crimean congo hemorrhagic fever in rawalpindi cantt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleeq, T.A.; Rahman, M.U.; Tariq, N.A.; Mashhadi, S.F.; Jamil, R.

    2016-01-01

    To study the awareness of butchers regarding Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in relation to their education level. Study Design: Cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Conducted from January to March 2015 in Qasaiee Chowk and Tench Bhatta markets of ward 5 of Rawalpindi cantt. Material and Methods: Sample size was calculated using G-Power sample size calculator at 95 percent confidence level with an effect size of 0.38. Ward 5 of Rawalpindi cantt was chosen through lottery method and all available professional butchers in the markets were interviewed with informed consent. A pre-tested 14 items closed ended questionnaire was used and interview was conducted by a well briefed team of medical students. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Results showed that only 14 (9.33 percent) butchers knew the name of CCHF. Out of these 10 (71.4 percent) had some form of formal education. All 14 of these had heard about CCHF from television proving it to be an important medium of information. However none of the 150 respondents took any preventive measure against CCHF. Conclusion: Our study concluded that the level of awareness regarding CCHF in butchers is very low and no preventive measures are taken by them. Also the level of education has a significant effect on the awareness. (author)

  10. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  11. Sexual violence-related fistulas in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsrud, Mathias; Sjøveian, Solbjørg; Luhiriri, Roger; Mukwege, Dennis

    2008-12-01

    To determine the magnitude of traumatic gynecologic fistulas caused by sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A retrospective analysis of hospital records from 604 consecutive patients who received treatment for gynecologic fistulas at Panzi Hospital between November 2005 and November 2007. Of the 604 patients, 24 (4%) reported that their fistulas had been caused by sexual violence; of these, 5 (0.8%) had developed fistulas as a direct result of forced penetration with foreign objects and/or gang rapes. Of the remaining patients, 6 had a fistula before they were raped, 9 developed iatrogenic fistulas following inappropriate instrumentation to manage rape-induced spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, or after abdominal hysterectomy, and 4 developed fistulas after prolonged and obstructed labor. Traumatic fistulas are rare compared to obstetric fistulas. Fistulas indirectly related to sexual violence are likely to be more common than those directly related. All fistulas resulting from sexual violence, whether direct or indirect, should be considered traumatic and special care should be given to these women.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Kosovo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Fajs

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a zoonotic agent that causes severe, life-threatening disease, with a case fatality rate of 10-50%. It is the most widespread tick-borne virus in the world, with cases reported in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. CCHFV is a genetically diverse virus. Its genetic diversity is often correlated to its geographical origin. Genetic variability of CCHFV was determined within few endemic areas, however limited data is available for Kosovo. Furthermore, there is little information about the spatiotemporal genetic changes of CCHFV in endemic areas. Kosovo is an important endemic area for CCHFV. Cases were reported each year and the case-fatality rate is significantly higher compared to nearby regions. In this study, we wanted to examine the genetic variability of CCHFV obtained directly from CCHF-confirmed patients, hospitalized in Kosovo from 1991 to 2013. We sequenced partial S segment CCHFV nucleotide sequences from 89 patients. Our results show that several viral variants are present in Kosovo and that the genetic diversity is high in relation to the studied area. We also show that variants are mostly uniformly distributed throughout Kosovo and that limited evolutionary changes have occurred in 22 years. Our results also suggest the presence of a new distinct lineage within the European CCHF phylogenetic clade. Our study provide the largest number of CCHFV nucleotide sequences from patients in 22 year span in one endemic area.

  13. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of knowledge about protection against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungormus, Z; Kiyak, E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate individuals' knowledge about protection against Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). This descriptive study was carried out among 478 persons, to whom a Family Health Center located within boundaries of Erzurum Metropolitan Municipality, provides health service. A questionnaire form developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. Seventy-one point eight percent of individuals who participated in the study stated they had knowledge about CCHF, 25.9% stated that region was risky in terms of being bitten by ticks, 61.3% stated they could recognize ticks and 56.1% stated that not all tick bites cause the disease. Seventy-seven point eight percent stated CCHF is a virulent disease, 33.1% stated it can be transmitted from human to human and 30.3% stated it can be transmitted from animals to humans. In terms of protection from tick bites, 45, 15.3 and 11.3% of individuals stated wearing clothes to cover the whole body, carefully inspecting the body, and not touching ticks with bare hands, respectively, were good methods. Ninety-two point one percent stated it is necessary to go to a healthcare organization immediately in case of tick bite, whereas 18% of individuals stated it is necessary to remove the tick with tweezers or forceps. The results of this study show most individuals are not well informed about methods for protecting against CCHF, for removing ticks and what precautions to take to protect against tick bites.

  15. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Treatment of aqueous wastes contaminated with Congo Red dye by electrochemical oxidation and ozonation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faouzi Elahmadi, Mohammed; Bensalah, Nasr; Gadri, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic aqueous wastes polluted with Congo Red (CR) have been treated by two advanced oxidation processes: electrochemical oxidation on boron doped diamond anodes (BDD-EO) and ozonation under alkaline conditions. For same concentrations, galvanostatic electrolyses have led to total COD and TOC removals but ozonation process can reach only 85% and 81% of COD and TOC removals, respectively. UV-vis qualitative analyses have shown different behaviors of CR molecules towards ozonation and electrochemical oxidation. Rapid discoloration has been observed during ozonation, whereas color persistence till the end of galvanostatic electrolyses has been seen during BDD-EO process. It seems that the oxidation mechanisms involved in the two processes are different: simultaneous destruction of azoic groups is suggested during ozonation process but consecutive destruction of these groups is proposed during BDD-EO. However, energetic study has evidenced that BDD-EO appears more efficient and more economic than ozonation in terms of TOC removals. These results have been explained by the fact that during BDD-EO, other strong oxidants electrogenerated from the electrolyte oxidation such as persulfates and direct-oxidation of CR and its byproducts on BDD anodes complement the hydroxyl radicals mediated oxidation to accomplish the total mineralization of organics.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of large termite mounds of the miombo woodland of Katanga, DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Hans; Boudin, Mathieu; Mees, Florias; Dumon, Mathijs; Mujinya, Basile; Van Strydonck, Mark; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1, ~5 m high, ~15 m in diameter). The time it takes for these mounds to attain this size is still largely unknown. In this study, the age of four of these mounds is determined by 14C-dating the acid-insoluble organic carbon fraction of samples taken along the central vertical axis of two active and two abandoned mounds. The age sequence in the active mounds is erratic, but the results for the abandoned mounds show a logical increase of 14C-age with depth. The ages measured at 50 cm above ground level were 2335 - 2119 cal yr BP for the large abandoned mound (630 cm high), and 796 - 684 cal yr BP for the small abandoned mound (320 cm high). Cold-water-extractable organic carbon (CWEOC) measurements combined with spectroscopic analysis revealed that the lower parts of the active mounds may have been contaminated with recent carbon that leached from the active nest. Nonetheless, this method appears to provide reliable age estimates of large, abandoned termite mounds, which are older than previously estimated. Furthermore, historical mound growth rates seem to correspond to past temperature changes, suggesting a relation between past environmental conditions and mound occupancy. Keywords : 14C, water-extractable carbon, low-temperature combustion

  18. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Bonney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan.The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  19. Removal of Congo Red and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Vermicompost-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Wu, Lin; Xian, Qiming; Shen, Fei; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2016-01-01

    Biochars, produced by pyrolyzing vermicompost at 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized and their ability to adsorb the dyes Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of biochars varied significantly based on the pyrolysis temperatures. Analysis of the data revealed that the aromaticity, polarity, specific surface area, pH, and ash content of the biochars increased gradually with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the cation exchange capacity, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The adsorption kinetics of CR and MB were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Both of Langmuir and Temkin model could be employed to describe the adsorption behaviors of CR and MB by these biochars. The biochars generated at higher pyrolysis temperature displayed higher CR adsorption capacities and lower MB adsorption capacities than those compared with the biochars generated at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The biochar generated at the higher pyrolytic temperature displayed the higher ability to adsorb CR owing to its promoted aromaticity, and the cation exchange is the key factor that positively affects adsorption of MB. PMID:27144922

  20. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks, Greece, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans mainly through the bite of infected ticks. In Greece, only one clinical case has been observed, in 2008, but the seroprevalence in humans is relatively high (4.2%). To have a first insight into the circulation of CCHFV in Greece, 2000 ticks collected from livestock during 2012-2014 were tested. CCHFV was detected in 36 of the 1290 (2.8%) tick pools (1-5 ticks per pool). Two genetic lineages were identified: Europe 1 and Europe 2. Most Europe 1 sequences were obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks, while most Europe 2 sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks. The number of collected Hyalomma marginatum ticks (the principal vector of CCHFV) was low (0.5% of ticks) and all were CCHFV negative. Since it is not known how efficient ticks of the Rhipicephalus genus are as vectors of the virus, laboratory studies will be required to explore the role of Rhipicephalus spp. ticks in CCHFV maintenance and transmission.

  1. Highly enhanced adsorption of Congo red by functionalized finger-citron-leaf-based porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hua; Fang, Yao-Yao; Dai, Wei; Ma, Na

    2018-01-01

    A novel high-performance porous carbon material, lanthanum(III)-doped finger-citron-leaf-based porous carbon (La/FPC), has been synthesized and used as an adsorbent for anion dye Congo red (CR). The La/FPC was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption performance of CR by the FPC and La/FPC composites with different contents of lanthanum(III) were evaluated in fixed-bed breakthrough experiments and batch tests at room temperature (298 K). The La/FPC had a high CR uptake capacity, which was superior to those previously reported for other adsorbents. The La/FPC sorbents can be easily regenerated using an ethanol elution technique, and after five cycles the reused La/FPC maintained about 98% of its original CR adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics of CR onto the lanthanum(III)-doped FPCs followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and fitted well with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. La/FPC is a promising adsorbent for the removal of the anionic dyes from wastewater.

  2. Bioremoval of the azo dye Congo Red by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Montes-Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2015-07-01

    Discharge of dye-containing wastewater by the textile industry can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bioremoval is an alternative to industrial processes for detoxifying water contaminated with dyes. In this work, active and inactive biomass of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was assayed for the ability to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. Through biosorption and biodegradation processes, Chlorella vulgaris was able to remove 83 and 58 % of dye at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 200 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model best described the experimental equilibrium data. The acute toxicity test (48 h) with two species of cladocerans indicated that the toxicity of the dye in the effluent was significantly decreased compared to the initial concentrations in the influent. Daphnia magna was the species less sensitive to dye (EC50 = 17.0 mg L(-1)), followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50 = 3.32 mg L(-1)). These results show that Chlorella vulgaris significantly reduced the dye concentration and toxicity. Therefore, this method may be a viable option for the treatment of this type of effluent.

  3. MIL-68 (In) nano-rods for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Na; Qian, Xin-Ye; Wang, Jian-Guo; Aslan, Hüsnü; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-09-01

    MIL-68 (In) nano-rods were prepared by a facile solvothermal synthesis using NaOAc as modulator agent at 100°C for 30 min. The BET test showed that the specific surface area and pore volume of MIL-68 (In) nanorods were 1252 m(2) g(-1) and 0.80 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The as-prepared MIL-68 (In) nanorods showed excellent adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from water. The maximum adsorption capacity of MIL-68 (In) nanorods toward CR reached 1204 mg g(-1), much higher than MIL-68 (In) microrods and most of the previously reported adsorbents. The adsorption process of CR by MIL-68 (In) nano-rods was investigated and found to be obeying the Langmuir adsorption model in addition to pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, the MIL-68 (In) nanorods showed an acceptable reusability after regeneration with ethanol. All information gives an indication that the as-prepared MIL-68 (In) nanorods show their potential as the adsorbent for highly efficient removal of CR in wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amputation of congo red dye from waste water using microwave induced grafted Luffa cylindrica cellulosic fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Shikha

    2014-10-13

    The present study deals with the surface modification of Luffa cylindrica fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate/acrylamide (MA/AAm) via microwave radiation without the use of initiator. Various reaction parameters effecting grafting yield were optimized and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. The grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber showed morphological transformations, thermal stability and chemical resistance. The adsorption potential of modified fiber was investigated using adsorption isotherms for hazardous congo red dye removal from aqueous system. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 17.39 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ΔH(0) (21.27 kJ/mol), entropy change, ΔS(0) (64.71 J/mol K) and free energy change, ΔG(0) (-139.52 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto burned root of Eichhornia crassipes biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye containing waste water. In this work, adsorption of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution on burned root of Eichhornia crassipes ( BREC) biomass was investigated. A series of batch experiments were performed utilizing BREC biomass to remove CR dye from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the BREC could remove up to 94.35 % of CR from waste water. The effects of operating parameters such as initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption of CR were analyzed using response surface methodology. The proposed quadratic model for central composite design fitted very well to the experimental data. Response surface plots were used to determine the interaction effects of main factors and optimum conditions of the process. The optimum adsorption conditions were found to be initial CR concentration = 5 mg/L-1, pH = 7, adsorbent dose = 0.125 g and contact time = 45 min. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations and the results indicated that the Freundlich isotherm showed a better fit for CR adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from Van't Hoff plot, confirming that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The high CR adsorptive removal ability and regeneration efficiency of this adsorbent suggest its applicability in industrial/household systems and data generated would help in further upscaling of the adsorption process.

  6. EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticle as a multifunctional adsorbent for Congo red dye from contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jitendra Kumar; Rath, Juhi; Dash, Priyabrat; Sahoo, Harekrushna

    2017-05-01

    The present work reports the applicability of magnetite iron nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) are prepared by chemical precipitation method in which Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt from aqueous solution were reacted in presence of ammonia solution. The surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticle was first coated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) by a salinization reaction and then linked with EDTA via reaction between -NH2 and -COOH to form well dispersed surface functionalised biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained EDTA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are characterized in terms of their morphological, XRD, BET surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The adsorption of CR on Fe3O4-APTES-EDTA nanocomposite corresponds well to the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model respectively. The adsorption processes for CR followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation using design of experiments: a review and example of the Congo red degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Vasilios A; Islam, Md Azharul; Stalikas, Constantine; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-03-15

    The use of chemometric methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) based on statistical design of experiments (DOEs) is becoming increasingly widespread in several sciences such as analytical chemistry, engineering and environmental chemistry. Applied catalysis, is certainly not the exception. It is clear that photocatalytic processes mated with chemometric experimental design play a crucial role in the ability of reaching the optimum of the catalytic reactions. The present article reviews the major applications of RSM in modern experimental design combined with photocatalytic degradation processes. Moreover, the theoretical principles and designs that enable to obtain a polynomial regression equation, which expresses the influence of process parameters on the response are thoroughly discussed. An original experimental work, the photocatalytic degradation of the dye Congo red (CR) using TiO(2) suspensions and H(2)O(2), in natural surface water (river water) is comprehensively described as a case study, in order to provide sufficient guidelines to deal with this subject, in a rational and integrated way. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc peroxide nanomaterial as an adsorbent for removal of Congo red dye from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sneha; Uppal, Himani; Yadav, Mohit; Bahadur, Nupur; Singh, Nahar

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, various natural byproducts, advanced metal oxide composites and photocatalysts have been reported for removal of dyes from water. Although these materials are useful for select applications, they have some limitations such as use at fixed temperature, ultra violet (UV) light and the need for sophisticated experimental set up. These materials can remove dyes up to a certain extent but require long time. To overcome these limitations, a promising adsorbent zinc peroxide (ZnO 2 ) nanomaterial has been developed for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. ZnO 2 is highly efficient even in the absence of sunlight to remove CR from contaminated water upto the permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States- Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The adsorbent has a specific property to adjust the pH of the test solution within 6.5-7.5 range irrespective of acidic or basic nature of water. The adsorption capacity of the material for CR dye was 208mgg -1 within 10min at 2-10pH range. The proposed material could be useful for the industries involved in water purification. The removal of CR has been confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The adsorption data followed a second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radio Frequency Underwater Discharge Operation and Its Application to Congo Red Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Liangliang; Zou Shuai; Shen Mingrong; Xin Yu

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) underwater discharge operation was performed for different liquid conductivities driven by different frequencies ranging from 13.56 MHz to 60 MHz, and its application to organic degradation was investigated. The RF underwater discharge was observed to be generated within the bubble at electrode surface formed by RF and plasma heating. It was shown that the sizes of the bubbles and plasmas increased as the driving frequency and the input power went up. The breakdown voltage decreased rapidly with the increase of the water conductivity and driving frequency. Comparative experiments of the UV-VIS absorbance spectra of Congo Red solution before and after discharge suggested effective degradation of the organic dye due to the active species generated during the discharge, such as ·OH, ·O, ·H, etc. revealed by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that higher exciting frequency and lower conductivity of the solution are more effective for organic degradation. With the combination of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) data, one possible degradation process was proposed and the main conceivable components and structures of the products were also presented.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite by its catalytic effect on the oxidation of congo red with bromate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Moldovan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel simple, sensitive and rapid kinetic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite is proposed. The method is based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of congo red (CR by potassium bromate in acidic solution. The oxidation reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of CR at a suitable λmax = 570 nm for the first 10–40 s from the start of the reaction. Under the optimum experimental conditions (sulfuric acid, 0.3 M; CR, 0.75Χ10-4 M; potassium bromate, 5Χ10-4 M and 25 oC, nitrite can be determined in the range of 0.015–0.75 µg mL−1 with the detection limit of 0.006 µg mL−1. The relative standard deviation of five replicate determination of 0.25 µg mL−1 nitrite was 2.5%. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of nitrite in spiked drinking water samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.1

  11. Leaching of a Cu-Co ore from Congo using sulphuric acidhydrogen peroxide leachants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cu-Co ore from Katinga Province, the Republic of Congo containing 1.5% Co and 1.6% Cu was tested to determine the leachability of Cu and Co using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures at different conditions. Without hydrogen peroxide, the maximum extraction of copper and cobalt were found to be ~80% and ~15%, respectively when the acid concentration was varied between 0.36 - 1.1M. When hydrogen peroxide was added (0.008-0.042M, Cu recovery was enhanced to ~90%. Recoveries of ~90% of Co could be achieved at 20ºC, using leachants consisting of 0.36M sulphuric acid and 0.025M hydrogen peroxide after 3 hours. The reaction time to reach 90% Co extraction was reduced to less than 2 hours at 30ºC. Stabcal modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams shows the importance of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. The decrease of solution potential (300-350 mV by adding hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by Eh measurements during the tests. The leaching follows the shrinking core model kinetics, where the rate constant is linearly dependent on hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0-0.025M and proportional to (1/r2 where r is the average radius of the mineral particles. The activation energy for the leaching process is 72.3 kJ/mol.

  12. Crystal structure study of a cobaltoan dolomite from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Natale Perchiazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A structural study has been undertaken on a cobaltoan dolomite, with chemical formula CaMg0.83Co0.17(CO32 (calcium magnesium cobalt dicarbonate, from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pale-pink euhedral cobaltoan dolomite was associated with kolwezite [(Cu1.33Co0.67(CO3(OH2] and cobaltoan malachite [(Cu,Co2(CO3(OH2]. A crystal with a Co:Mg ratio of 1:5.6 (SEM/EDAX measurement, twinned on (11 -2 0 was used for crystal structural refinement. The refinement of the structural model of Reeder & Wenk [Am. Mineral. (1983, 68, 769–776; Ca at site 3a with site symmetry -3; Mg site at site 3b with site symmetry -3; C at site 6c with site symmetry 3; O at site 18f with site symmetry 1] showed that Co is totally incorporated in the Mg site, with refined occupancy Mg0.83Co0.17, which compares with Mg0.85Co0.15 from chemical data. The Co substitution reflects in the expansion of the cell volume, with a pronounced increasing of the c cell parameter.

  13. [Determinants of survival in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, P Z; Mutombo, P B; Kayembe, P K; Kaba, D K; Mapatano, M A

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to identify factors associated with the survival of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. A historic cohort of HIV patients from two major hospitals in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) was followed from 2004 to 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the probability of survival as a function of time since inclusion into the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. The Cox regression model identified the determinants of survival since treatment induction. The median follow-up time was 3.56 years (IQR=2.22-5.39). The mortality rate was 40 deaths per 1000 person-years. Male gender (RR: 2.56; 95 %CI 1.66-4.83), advanced clinical stage (RR: 2.12; 95 %CI 1.15-3.90), low CD4 count (CD4 < 50) (RR: 2.05; 95 %CI : 1.22-3.45), anemia (RR: 3.95; 95 %CI 2.60-6.01), chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole (RR: 4.29, 95 % CI 2.69-6.86) and period of treatment initiation (2010-2011) (RR: 3.34; 95 %CI 1.24-8.98) were statistically associated with short survival. Initiation of treatment at an early stage of the disease with use of less toxic molecules and an increased surveillance especially of male patients are recommended to reduce mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013).

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    Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented. In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome. The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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    Claire A Quiner

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV, a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. We generated two indices to assess risk: Household Materials Index (HMI, a proxy for socioeconomic status of households and Risk Activity Index (RAI, which describes presumptive risk for animal-to-human transmission of MPXV. Based on participant self-reported activity patterns, we found that people in this population are more likely to visit the forest than a market to fulfill material needs, and that the reported occupation is limited in describing behavior of individuals may participate. Being bitten by rodents in the home was commonly reported, and this was significantly associated with a low HMI. The highest scoring RAI sub-groups were 'hunters' and males aged ≥ 18 years; however, several activities involving MPXV-implicated animals were distributed across all sub-groups. The current analysis may be useful in identifying at-risk groups and help to direct education, outreach and prevention efforts more efficiently.

  16. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

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    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  17. Efficient adsorptive removal of Congo red from aqueous solution by synthesized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8

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    Canlan Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dyes exposure in aquatic environment creates risks to human health and biota due to their intrinsic toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. In this work, a metal-organic frameworks materials, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8, was synthesized through hydrothermal reaction for the adsorptive removal of harmful Congo red (CR from aqueous solution. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of CR onto ZIF-8 was ultrahigh as 1250 mg g−1. Adsorption behaviors can be successfully fitted by the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm equation. Solution conditions (pH condition and the co-exist anions may influent the adsorption behaviors. The adsorption performance at various temperatures indicated the process was a spontaneous and endothermic adsorption reaction. The enhanced adsorption capacity was determined due to large surface area of ZIF-8 and the strong interactions between surface groups of ZIF-8 and CR molecules including the electrostatic interaction between external active sites Zn−OH on ZIF-8 -and −SO3 or –N=N– sites in CR molecule, and the π–π interaction.

  18. [Change management: An analysis of actors; perceptions about technical assistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Iyeti, Alain; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Technical assistance (TA) is a common component of health system strengthening interventions. This type of intervention is too often designed and evaluated according to a logic that fails to take into account social complexity. Actors' perceptions are one element of this complexity. This article presents a study conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo designed to identify perceptions concerning two types of technical support providers for health system strengthening: long-term technical assistants (agents of development agencies) and provincial technical advisors (agents of the Ministry of Health). Interviews were conducted with an innovative tool inspired by the principles of systems thinking. Interviewees were actors involved in a TA intervention in the province of Bandundu. Their expectations regarding TA providers were identified in terms of personal characteristics (knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills), roles, and styles of interaction for capacity building ("interventionist/ prescriptive axes"). Interviewees emphasized the importance of mutual learning and the quality of interactions, which depends on TA provider's interpersonal skills and mutual willingness. Perceptions of TA provider's characteristics tend to be similar, but several differences were observed concerning the expectations about the roles of TAs, and the style that should be adopted for capacity building. Ignoring these differences in expectations may be a threat to the effectiveness of TA.

  19. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  20. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Risk factors and control measures for the infection abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASLAM, SAADIA; LATIF, MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD; DAUD, MUHAMMAD; RAHMAN, ZIA UR; TABASSUM, BUSHRA; RIAZ, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL; KHAN, ANWAR; TARIQ, MUHAMMAD; HUSNAIN, TAYYAB

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a vector-borne viral disease, widely distributed in different regions of the world. The fever is caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus and Bunyaviridae family. The virus is clustered in seven genotypes, which are Africa-1, Africa-2, Africa-3, Europe-1, Europe-2, Asia-1 and Asia-2. The virus is highly pathogenic in nature, easily transmissible and has a high case fatality rate of 10–40%. The reservoir and vector of CCHFV are the ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Therefore, the circulation of this virus depends upon the distribution of the ticks. The virus can be transmitted from tick to animal, animal to human and human to human. The major symptoms include headache, high fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, hypotension and flushed face. As the disease progresses, severe symptoms start appearing, which include petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums and emesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen detection, serum neutralization and isolation of the virus by cell culture are the diagnostic techniques used for this viral infection. There is no specific antiviral therapy available thus far. However, ribavirin has been approved by the World Health Organization for the treatment of CCHFV infection. Awareness campaigns regarding the risk factors and control measures can aid in reducing the spread of this disease to a greater extent, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26870327