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Sample records for del co2 espirado

  1. SIMULACIÓN DEL ESPECTRO EPR DEL RADICAL CO2-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Enrique Carvajal Taborda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La  dosimetría EPR se basa en el hecho de que las radiaciones ionizantes interaccionan con el tejido mineralizado, en este caso es esmalte dental y tejido óseo, generan los radicales CO2- estables a temperatura ambiente y de larga vida cuya concentración depende de la dosis recibida. La cuantificación de estos radicales libres se hace por EPR, cuyo espectro característico consta de dos líneas, una muy intensa y otra de menor intensidad. En este trabajo identificamos teóricamente estas dos líneas solucionando el Hamiltoniano de espín electrónico y  simulando el espectro experimental, encontramos que el espectro ERP del radical CO2- es producido por la interacción del espín del electrón desapareado con el campo magnético externo y que el radical CO2- está ubicado en una simetría local axial.

  2. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  3. CO2NET: Red Europea del Dióxido de Carbono

    OpenAIRE

    A.Arenillas

    2006-01-01

    CO2NET es una red temática Europea constituida por distintas Instituciones, entros de Investigación y Desarrollo y empresas involucradas en tecnologías para la itigación del CO2. Entre sus actividades se encuentra facilitar la colaboración entre sus miembros en el marco de proyectos europeos sobre captura y almacenamiento de CO2.

  4. CO2NET: Red Europea del Dióxido de Carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arenillas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2NET es una red temática Europea constituida por distintas Instituciones, entros de Investigación y Desarrollo y empresas involucradas en tecnologías para la itigación del CO2. Entre sus actividades se encuentra facilitar la colaboración entre sus miembros en el marco de proyectos europeos sobre captura y almacenamiento de CO2.

  5. CO2 como refrigerante: del pasado al futuro CO2 as refrigerant: from the past to future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Belman Flores

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En años recientes y debido a la problemática que ha originado el calentamiento mundial, en el campo de la refrigeración y climatización se ha incrementado el interés por utilizar refrigerantes naturales e hidrocarburos con bajo potencial de calentamiento mundial, este es el caso de la utilización del CO2 como fluido frigorígeno que ha sido visto como una alter­nativa adecuada a los actuales refrigerantes en la comunidad científica. Hoy en día, el CO2 cada vez está retomando presencia en el campo de la refrigeración y climatización a nivel internacional, así pues, el presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de dar a conocer su potencial como refrigerante natural, las causas por las cuales este fluido fue relevado momentánea­mente por refrigerantes clorofluorocarbonados y su renacer en pleno siglo XXI. Además, se plantea su aplicación en la generación de frío en nuestro país mediante la tecnología de compresión de vapor basado en ciclo transcrítico.  In recent years, and due to problems resulting from global warming, interest has grown in the fields of refrigeration and air conditioning, specifically regarding the use of natural refrigerants and hydrocarbons with low potential for global warming. Such is the case of the use of CO2 as a cold fluid, which has been considered in the scientific community as an adequate alternative to common refrigerants. Nowadays, the use of CO2 in the areas of refrigeration and air conditioning has been recognized at international levels. Therefore, this work aims to show its potential as a natural refrigerant, the causes why this fluid was temporarily replaced by chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, and its reappearance in the XXI century. It also proposes the use of CO2 in air conditioning in our country by using vapor compression technology, based on the transcritical cycle.

  6. Aplicaciones del laser de CO2 en odontologia

    OpenAIRE

    García Ortiz de Zárate, Fernando; España Tost, A. J. (Antonio Jesús); Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2004-01-01

    La incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías en las ciencias de la salud es, hoy en día, una realidad, ante la cual los profesionales sanitarios deben estar preparados. La tecnología láser ofrece numerosas ventajas en casi la totalidad de las especialidades odontológicas. De la amplia gama de láseres disponibles, el láser de CO2 destaca por sus aplicaciones en el ámbito de la cirugía bucal, especialmente en la cirugía de los tejidos blandos, aunque su uso también ha sido estudiado en otras disc...

  7. Estudios preeliminares de compuestos del ciclo del CO2 en algunas áreas costeras de la plataforma cubana

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, J.F.; García, I; Esponda, S.C.; López, D.; Alburquerque, O. C.; M. Martínez; García, R.; Blanco, M.; García, N

    2009-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar los contenidos de los compuestos del ciclo del carbono se muestrearon las zonas de la plataforma marina cubana Golfo de Batabanó, Golfo de Guanahacabibes y el cuerpo de agua Bahía Honda en septiembre de 2005, y en marzo de 2009, la zona litoral del municipio Playa de Ciudad de La Habana. Los parámetros estudiados fueron pH, alcalinidad total, alcalinidad al carbonato, dióxido de carbono total, dióxido de carbono disuelto, presión parcial de CO2, y contenidos de bicarbona...

  8. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2 es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un aumento en la temperatura del aire incrementará también la cantidad de vapor de agua en la atmósfera, añadiendo con esto más "fuego" al fenómeno señalado.

  9. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  10. Flujos de CO2 del suelo en una dehesa del centro peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos tiempos se han incrementado las iniciativas para proteger y aumentar el uso sostenible de las dehesas españolas, buscando una gestión eficiente del sistema que permita alcanzar el equilibrio entre los bienes medioambientales, socioeconómicos y los servicios, incluyendo el papel que juegan estos sistemas como reservorios de carbono. Con objeto de mejorar nuestros conocimientos sobre los flujos de carbono en estos sistemas, se ha investigado la influencia de la cubierta arbórea, ...

  11. Tratamiento del rinofima con láser de CO2: Presentación de un caso Treatment of rhinophyma with CO2 laser: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cebrián Carretero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El rinofima es una alteración cutánea de la región nasal que produce problemas estéticos importantes. Describimos nuestra experiencia en un caso de rinofima avanzado y su resolución por medio de una técnica sencilla. Material y métodos. Previa desinfección cutánea se realizó anestesia infiltrativa y bloqueo troncular de nervios infraorbitarios y etmoidales. A continuación se realizó la resección de casi todo el espesor cutáneo con un láser de CO2 Lumenis Sharplan conservando la dermis profunda para permitir la curación por segunda intención. Posteriormente se aplicó vaselina y se realizaron curas y lavados diarios. El paciente fue dado de alta al día siguiente de la intervención. Resultados. Los resultados estéticos fueron muy buenos. El dolor postoperatorio fue controlado con analgesia habitual. En la primera semana se objetivaba un buen grado de cicatrización. A los 2 meses la reepitelización fue completa y ya no se observaban costras ni eritema. Conclusión. La utilización del láser de CO2 en el tratamiento del rinofima avanzado logra unos excelentes resultados estéticos con una morbilidad y riesgo operatorio mínimos.Introduction. Rhinophyma is a skin alteration of the nasal region that causes considerable aesthetic problems. We describe our experience with a case of advanced rhinophyma and its resolution by means of a simple technique. Materials and methods. The skin area was disinfected beforehand, anaesthesia infiltration and the infraorbital and ethmoidal nerve trunks were blocked. Then, using a Lumenis Sharplan CO2 laser almost the complete skin thickness was resected while preserving the deep dermis layer so as to allow second intention healing. Later, Vaseline was applied and the area was treated daily. The patient was discharged the day after the intervention. Results. The aesthetic results were very good. Postoperative pain was controlled with standard analgesics. Adequate healing was

  12. Efecto del CO2 en la atmósfera de almacenamiento del fruto sobre la calidad del aceite de oliva

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    García, J. María

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruits (Olea europaea, cv. "Picual" were stored at 5°C and four different atmospheres (% CO2/% O2/%N2: 0/21/78; 5/20/75; 10/19/71 and 20/17/63. At 5°C the enrichment of the fruit storage atmosphere with concentrations of CO2 above 5% resulted in a linear increase of the acidity of extracted oils after 60 days of fruit storage time. This fact showed a strong relationship with the appearance of fruit decay. Simple refrigeration of fruits at 5°C for 60 days was sufficient to maintain the commercial quality of "virgin extra" in oil extracted from them. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 5°C in CO2 enriched atmospheres showed lower peroxide index and UV absorbance (270 nm, but developed off-flavor. Therefore, > 5% CO2 concentrations in storage atmosphere of olive fruits for oil production at 5°C must be avoided.Se han conservado aceitunas (Olea europaea, cv. "Picual", destinadas a la producción de aceite, con refrigeración a 5°C y cuatro diferentes atmósferas (% CO2/%O2/%N2: 0/21/78; 5/20/75; 10/19/71 y 20/17/63. A 5°C, el aumento del grado de acidez experimentado por los aceites extraídos después de 60 días de almacenamiento del fruto fue proporcional al enriquecimiento de la atmósfera de conservación del citado fruto con una concentración igual o superior al 5% de CO2. Este hecho tuvo una relación estrecha con la incidencia de podredumbre. La simple refrigeración a 5°C de la aceituna fue suficiente para retener durante 60 días en el aceite extraído la categoría comercial de "virgen extra". Los aceites obtenidos de frutos almacenados a 5°C en atmósferas enriquecidas con CO2 presentaron menores índices de peróxidos y absorbancia ultravioleta (270 nm, pero presentaron, así mismo, olores y sabores extraños. En consecuencia, a 5°C deben ser evitadas las concentraciones de CO2 iguales o superiores al 5% en la atmósfera de conservación de las aceitunas destinadas a la producción de aceite.

  13. Aplicación del láser de CO2 en pacientes con dermatochálasis Use of CO2 laser in patients with dermatochalasis

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    Yoandre Michel Carrazana Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de la dermatochálasis con láser de CO2. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo en 54 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Oculoplastia del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" de enero a noviembre de 2007. Se analizaron las variables: edad, sexo, color de la piel, localización y resultado quirúrgico. Resultados: el 72,2 % de los pacientes perteneció al sexo femenino y el 44,4 % del total, se encontraron entre los 60 y 69 años de edad. El color de la piel que predominó en 72,2 % fue el blanco. La dermatochálasis en 70,4 % de los pacientes se diagnosticó en el párpado superior, en 44,4 % de operados se realizó exéresis de piel más miectomía selectiva. El 4,6 % presentó complicaciones posquirúrgicas y de estas, el 60,0 % correspondió a la dehiscencia de la sutura. Conclusiones: predominó, el grupo de 60 a 69 años de edad, sexo femenino y color de la piel blanco. El párpado superior resultó el más afectado y la técnica quirúrgica más utilizada fue la exéresis de piel más miectomía selectiva. La complicación de mayor frecuencia fue la dehiscencia de sutura; no obstante estas fueron mínimas, lo que aseguró la validez del método aplicado.Objective: to describe the results of surgical treatment with CO2 laser dermatochalasis. Methods: a prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study of 54 patients, who were treated at the Oculoplasty service from January to November 2007, was carried out. The following variables were used: age, sex, race, location and surgical outcome. Results: females accounted for 72.2 % of patients whereas 60-69 age group represented 44.4% of the total number. Caucasians were predominant in 72.2 % of patients; dermatochalasis was diagnosed in the upper eyelids of 70.4% of cases whereas skin excision plus selective myectomy were performed in 44.4% of them. The postsurgical complications

  14. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2) es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un ...

  15. Funcionamiento e importancia del sistema bicarbonato/CO2 en la regulación del pH sanguíneo

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Mendoza Medellín

    2008-01-01

    La vida depende de que se mantenga la concentración de hidrogeniones del líquido extracelular y por lo tanto su pH, dentro de un intervalo muy estrecho. El amortiguador compuesto por bicarbonato y CO2 tiene características químicas que sugieren una escasa utilidad para amortiguar los cambios en la [H+] debidos al metabolismo normal o a patologías que alteran el equilibrio ácido-básico. Sin embargo, dicho sistema es el más importante del líquido extracelular y en gran medida es gracias a él qu...

  16. Emisiones de CO2 en hogares urbanos. El caso del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La intensificación de la actividad humana en el ámbito productivo y el quehacer cotidiano ha generado un aumento significativo en la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero, conduciendo al cambio climático o calentamiento global; este fenómeno de origen antropogénico ha sido estudiado desde diversas perspectivas, entre ellas el análisis con enfoque microsocial. Atendiendo a ello, en este trabajo se estudian los principales determinantes del consumo de energía en los hogares y se estima un proxy del volumen de emisiones de dióxido de carbono asociado, usando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares para el Distrito Federal.

  17. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

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    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  18. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  19. Funcionamiento e importancia del sistema bicarbonato/CO2 en la regulación del pH sanguíneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Mendoza Medellín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La vida depende de que se mantenga la concentración de hidrogeniones del líquido extracelular y por lo tanto su pH, dentro de un intervalo muy estrecho. El amortiguador compuesto por bicarbonato y CO2 tiene características químicas que sugieren una escasa utilidad para amortiguar los cambios en la [H+] debidos al metabolismo normal o a patologías que alteran el equilibrio ácido-básico. Sin embargo, dicho sistema es el más importante del líquido extracelular y en gran medida es gracias a él que se preserva la homeostasis ácido-básica. La funcionalidad del sistema se debe a la capacidad de los riñones y los pulmones para modular las concentraciones de bicarbonato y dióxido de carbono, respectivamente, de manera que se compensan las alteraciones primarias de tales componentes debidas a patologías de origen respiratorio o metabólico

  20. La tributación en España de la renta derivada del comercio de derechos de emisión de CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Salassa Boix, Rodolfo Rubén

    2011-01-01

    La presente tesis estudia la tributación de la renta derivada del comercio de derechos de emisión de CO2. Este mercado fue implantado por el Protocolo de Kioto para facilitar el cumplimiento de sus objetivos ambientales y constituye un fenómeno jurídico-comercial hasta ahora desconocido que, como tal, tiene sus consecuencias tributarias. El trabajo propone una solución a la compleja cuestión de la tributación de los derechos de emisión de CO2, ya que la normativa vigente resulta insuficien...

  1. Innovaciones en el desarrollo del catalizador para la captura de CO2 en la síntesis de DME

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Herrero, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado está englobado dentro de un proyecto de investigación cuyo objetivo general es la valorización de CO2 a través de la síntesis directa de dimetil éter. Por ello este trabajo se ha centrado en el desarrollo de un catalizador para potenciar la transformación de CO2en DME.

  2. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...... Naturfredningsforening’s lokalkomité for Lyngby blev en del af samarbejdet for at få borgerne i kommunen involveret i arbejdet med at udvikle strategier for reduktion af CO2. Siden sommeren 2007 har Videnskabsbutikken DTU, Lyngby-Taarbæk kommune og Danmarks Naturfredningsforening i Lyngby-Taarbæk samarbejdet om analyse...... og innovation i forhold til CO2-strategier....

  3. CARACTERIZACION DEL BALANCE DE CARBONO: EL CASO DE LA FRUTICULTURA CHILENA DE EXPORTACION Y POSIBILI DADES DE MITIGAR LAS EMISIONES DE CO2

    OpenAIRE

    WALBAUM, ANTHONY WYLIE

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto fue formulado como respuesta a la creciente presión impuesta por los mercados del hemisferio norte, en especial de los países europeos, a las importaciones de fruta fresca como una forma de reducir las emisiones de gases de efectos invernadero (GEIs), particularmente las de CO2. De hecho, el tema de las “millas alimentarias” es básicamente un intento por sustituir los alimentos producidos en ultramar por alimentos producidos localmente con el objeto de evitar las...

  4. El bioclima humano en urbes del sur de México para condiciones de duplicación de CO2 atmosférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Tejeda Martínez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del concepto de temperatura efectiva (TE, se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano de ocho ciudades importantes del sur de México, obtenido de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulación general para el caso de una duplicación en la concentración atmosférica global de CO2. Los resultados se ilustran con gráficas de las condiciones de confort actuales y futuras para el sur del país. Se encontró que, pese a los procesos de aclimatación, se intensificarán las sensaciones cálidas debido al efecto invernadero. Combinando lo anterior con proyecciones conservadoras del incremento de la población para la segunda mitad del siglo XXI, se estima que las ciudades de clima cálido quintuplicarán las necesidades de enfriamiento para obtener el confort de sus habitantes.

  5. El bioclima humano en urbes del sur de México para condiciones de duplicación de CO2 atmosférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Tejeda Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available . A partir del concepto de temperatura efectiva (TE, se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano de ocho ciudades importantes del sur de México, obtenido de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulación general para el caso de una duplicación en la concentración atmosférica global de CO2. Los resultados se ilustran con gráficas de las condiciones de confort actuales y futuras para el sur del país. Se encontró que, pese a los procesos de aclimatación, se intensificarán las sensaciones cálidas debido al efecto invernadero. Combinando lo anterior con proyecciones conservadoras del incremento de la población para la segunda mitad del siglo XXI, se estima que las ciudades de clima cálido quintuplicarán las necesidades de enfriamiento para obtener el confort de sus habitantes.

  6. Efecto del 100 % de CO2 en la textura de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. almacenadas en congelación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available l lomo de atún rojo se comercializa congelado, proceso que favorece su endurecimiento y más durante el almacenamiento. El Empacado en Atmósfera Modificada es una alternativa para incrementar la vida útil de productos alimenticios en el almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas. Se ha recomendado la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 para el lomo atún almacenado en refrigeración, sin embargo se busca una vida útil de meses para su comercialización. Por ello se planteó evaluar el efecto de la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 sobre la textura de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo, congeladas, durante su almacenamiento a -10 y -18 ºC. Las rebanadas individuales de lomo de atún rojo procesadas según Medina-Bracamonte et al. (2014 se empacaron en atmósfera de 100 % de CO2. Se aplicó un Análisis del Perfil de Textura a 0, 15, 30, 54 y 111 días de almacenamiento a cubos de 1 cm3 de las rebanadas, descongeladas y a temperatura ambiental, con un analizador de textura con un émbolo de 75 mm de diámetro, previamente calibrado con una celda de 5 kg y usando el software Texture Expert Exceed, versión 2.54. La atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 a -10 ºC redujo significativamente (p < 0,05 la dureza y masticabilidad de las rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo, y a -18 ºC fue el tratamiento que mostró menor incremento de la cohesividad.

  7. Acción del CO2 sobre un cemento porland III. Estudio por difracción de rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treviño-Vázquez, Fernando

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available En un artículo anterior (1 se dio cuenta de los trabajos realizados sobre la influencia que ejerce el CO2 puro en las características químicas, físicas y fisicomecánicas de un cemento portland (P-450 fabricado por la industria española, habiendo probado que tanto el cemento anhidro como el hidratado experimentan una modificación en la composición química que afecta, en grado distinto, a las propiedades físicas y fisicomecánicas estudiadas. Posteriormente, en otro trabajo (2, se expusieron los resultados obtenidos en el estudio efectuado por espectroscopia infrarroja, con el fin de conocer las modificaciones estructurales que han sufrido los compuestos del cemento anhidro e hidratado cuando se someten a la acción del CO2 puro; estudio que, por otra parte, se ha completado haciendo uso de la difracción de rayos X, cuyos resultados se incluyen en la presente publicación.

  8. Aplicación del rayo láser de CO2 para soldar laminas de acero bajo carbono // Application of the ray laser of CO2 to weld sheets of steel low carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Martínez D

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que el rayo láser enfocado es un modo de energía calorífico de alta densidad y de diámetro pequeño, se logra con ello unaalta relación profundidad / ancho del cordón de soldadura, y se facilita el proceso de soldadura de láminas muy delgadas, lo cualdifícilmente se logra con los procesos comunes de soldadura. Esta técnica también presenta la ventaja de que fácilmente se puedeautomatizar, produciendo soldaduras de alta precisión con baja contaminación.El trabajo consiste en realizar una investigación sobre el proceso de soldadura de láminas delgadas utilizando un láser de CO2 de bajapotencia en modo continuo, enfocando el láser con una lente de ZnSe y empleando argón industrial para controlar la atmósferaalrededor de la región tratada y evitar la oxidación. Para realizar el proceso, se diseño un dispositivo para' desplazar la muestra a 45ocon respecto a la trayectoria del rayo láser en forma precisa; la soldadura se realizó a tope y sin aporte de material.El trabajo se realizó sobre láminas de acero de bajo carbón de calibre 24 y 26. Las muestras soldadas fueron sometidas a: ensayo detracción, análisis visual, análisis metalográfico y pruebas de microdureza. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que se puede realizarfácilmente el proceso, mediante el control de las variables más importantes, de tal manera que una vez establecidas, el operador nonecesita una gran experiencia en el manejo de esta técnica para realizar el proceso con alta calidad. Los análisis realizados confirmanque mediante esta técnica es posible obtener cordones de soldadura uniformes, con buenas propiedades mecánicas.Palabras claves: Soldadura, láser._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractBecause the ray focused laser is a heating energy way of high density and of small diameter, it is achieved with it a high relationshipdepth / wide of the welding cord, and the process of welding of

  9. Laser en odontología. Efecto térmico del láser de CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sosa, Sonia; Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP-Araraquara,; Berbert, Fabio; Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP-Araraquara,; Ramalho, Lizeti; Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Estadual Paulista UNESP-Araraquara,

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas láseres han sido utilizados en el campo de la cirugía maxilo-facial con muchas ventajas, especialmente por el efecto coagulador anti-hemorrágico, que facilita el trabajo del cirujano y los beneficios post-quirúrgicos para el paciente. En la actualidad, los láseres han revolucionada las terapias de tratamiento.

  10. Utilization of high CO2 content formation gas for steam and electricity generation; Aprovechamiento del gas de formacion con alto contenido de CO2 para generacion de vapor y electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagomez, Paul; Lamino, Marcelo; Jacome, Jose; Pastor, Santiago [EcuadorTLC, Quito (Ecuador). Grupo PETROBRAS

    2008-07-01

    Ecuador TLC SA, as part of the PETROBRAS Group, respecting its mission to act safe, cost-effectiveness, social and environmental responsibility, currently operates an oil production project in the Ecuatorian Amazon, known as Block 18. In Block 18, the process of gas burning is response for launch approximately 10 MMSCF of the gas associated with 77% CO2 in the environment. For this reason it was built a centralized power generation plants (PGE), of 17.38 MW, taking advantage of the gas with 77% CO2 from boilers to burn it, using it as a source of heat in a combined cycle steam turbines, generating electricity. This project is environmentally efficient with reduced emissions of CO2 and as reducing fuel costs to zero. The results of CO2 reduction is a corporate goal of PETROBRAS and this project will contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by approximately 400,000 Ton over the life of the project.

  11. Geoquímica de las aguas termales con CO2 del SE de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Vallejo, M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermalism of the south-east peninsular Alpine zone has been studied under different points of view, such as the geological control, the definition and systematising of its chemistry types and base temperatures, among others, showing always its notable development and its connection with geothermal anomalies of regional character. One of the problems that seems to carry important genetic implications, as well as implications for the utilisation of this water, is the content in carbon dioxide. Twenty-seven physicalchemical parameters in twenty-two water points on a fifty inventory have been studied. High temperatures were recorded for almost all the sampling points, varying between 20 and 41°C. The waters have conductivity between 771 and 5,030 μS cm-1 and increased to the east of the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín. In general, the concentration in bicarbonate was high, between 3 and 30 meq/l. The waters present high PC02, being arrived to measure values over 1.17 atmospheres and whose spatial variations are related to the proximity to the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín, the one which establishes a threshold between different thickness of the crust. Chemical equilibrium modelling shows that the waters are oversaturated in dolomite, in general saturated in calcite, and undersaturated in gypsum. The high content in CO2, besides the process of dedolomititation caused by the addition of S04~ to the system, helps the formation of travertines in many of the studied points. Isotopic studies show that δ13C values are in the range -S.I to -3.1‰, and reveals that there is an insignificant CO2 supply of deep origin The hydrothermal system of this zone is related to the proposed «C02 Alpine Belt», associated here with a series of grabens with seismic and neotectonic activities.El hidrotermalismo de las zonas alpinas peninsulares ha sido estudiado bajo diferentes puntos de vista, como son

  12. Impacto energético y emisiones de CO2 del edificio con soluciones alternativas de fachada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Burke, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work uses a simplified life cycle analysis (LCA methodology to explore the impact reduction potential in the design phase in terms of primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions for a given building using several façade solutions. This is achieved through a review of several design criteria (wall characteristics, insulation level, reposition rate and component durability and their combinations, and analizing how they relate to the selected impacts for the production and use stages in the building life cycle. Results show that both emissions and energy embedded into the building materials or the building process are of great relevance and impact of emissions is comparable to those due to the use stage. This work concludes that, for a given building, a significant impact reduction on the selected impact indicators can be achieved by a careful selection of building solutions and durability strategies (through maintenance or refurbishment in the design phase.El artículo emplea una simplificación de la metodología del análisis de ciclo de vida (ACV para explorar en fase de proyecto el potencial de reducción de impactos, en términos de energía primaria y emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, para diferentes soluciones de fachada y estrategias de durabilidad. Se evalúan a nivel de edificio varias alternativas de diseño de una fachada tipo (configuración del muro, aislamiento, frecuencia de reposición y durabilidad y se analiza su repercusión en los impactos seleccionados para las etapas de producción y uso del edificio. Se concluye la importancia de la energía y emisiones incorporadas a los materiales y procesos de construcción en los impactos totales, siendo las emisiones en esas fases comparables a las de la fase de uso. Se concluye la posibilidad de reducir significativamente los impactos mediante una selección cuidadosa de los criterios de diseño y estrategias apropiadas de durabilidad, mantenimiento y rehabilitación.

  13. APLICACIÓN DE LA METODOLOGÍA DE SUPERFICIE DE RESPUESTA EN UN PROCESO DE ABSORCIÓN DEL CO2 DE UN BIOGÁS EN UNA SOLUCIÓN ALCALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN DAVID MUÑOZ SIERRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se empleó un diseño factorial 23 ampliado a central compuesto para investigar los efectos de las variables relación [CO3=/HCO3], presión inicial del gas y temperatura del sistema gas-líquido, en el proceso de absorción de CO2 en una solución alcalina de carbonato-bicarbonato de sodio, utilizando un biogás simulado como mezcla gaseosa problema. Se encontró una significante influencia de la relación de concentración en el proceso de remoción del dióxido de carbono, obteniéndose un modelo de superficie de respuesta de segundo orden validado estadísticamente mediante análisis de varianza, el cual explica cerca del 98.41% de la variabilidad del cambio del porcentaje (v/v de CO2 en el biogás simulado. Se logró una máxima remoción de CO2 del 62.86% para un tiempo de contacto de sesenta minutos.

  14. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  15. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  16. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  17. Estudio del comportamiento isotópico del sistema CO2(gas - C02(aq, HC03-, CO32- (25º C, abierto, en condiciones de saturación de C02(gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the isotopic fractionation of the system CO2(gas - C02(aq, HC03-, CO32- at 25° C and in open system conditions, has been monitored following Δg_DIC factor between C02(g in solution and total carbon in solution (DIC, as a function of time. Saturation in CO2(gas has been reached by addition of HCl to a NaHC03 (0.5 M, 600 mL solution, according to two procedures which allowed the system to interact differently with the open atmosphere. Chemical and isotopic behaviour of the system has been followed to establish the isotopic equilibrium. The pH value does not stabilizes and strong oscillations in the ” factor are provoked by acidifying the solution and stirring it continuously. One can reach a lesser pH value variation and also lesser oscillations in the ” factor by a rapid acidifying with no stirring after this process. Isotopic equilibrium within the system is attained after 75 minutes. Values for ”13Cg-DIC varied between -9.0 ± 0.1 and -10.8 ± 0.2 and for ”18Cg-DIC between 2.0 ± 0.2 and 3.33 ± 0.17, for the first and second procedures respectively.En este trabajo se estudia la evolución del fraccionamiento isotópico del sistema CO2(gas - C02(aq, HC03-, CO32- a 25° C, en sistema abierto, mediante el seguimiento del factor ”g_DIC entre las distintas especies carbonatadas en solución, C02(g en solución y carbono total en solución (DIC, en función del tiempo. Una solución de NaHC03 (0,5 M, 600 mL se ha saturado en CO2(gas por adición de HCl siguiendo dos procedimientos que permiten distinta interacción del sistema con el exterior. Se ha seguido el comportamiento químico e isotópico del sistema una vez acabado el proceso de acidificación, para evaluar el tiempo que tarda la solución en alcanzar equilibrio isotópico. Se observa que si la solución se desgasifica lentamente, el pH no se estabiliza y se producen fuertes variaciones en el factor ”. Sin embargo, si la desgasificación es brusca y no se

  18. Distensión colónica con bomba de CO2: Impacto en el disconfort del paciente en los estudios de colonoscopía virtual Colonic distention with CO2 insufflation: Impact on the patient's discomfort in virtual colonoscopy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carrascosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar el rol de la distensión colónica con CO2 y su influencia en el disconfort del paciente y en el tiempo de duración de la colonoscopía virtual en nuestra práctica diaria. Materiales y Métodos. Se estudiaron 200 pacientes, 50 insuflados con aire ambiental y 150 con CO2. Los estudios se realizaron con un equipo multidetector de 64 filas con cortes de 2 mm de espesor, 120 kV y 50 mAs. En todos los pacientes se efectuó una adquisición en decúbito supino y otra en prono. Se calculó el tiempo total del procedimiento en cada grupo y se utilizó una prueba "t de Student" para calcular las diferencias. Los pacientes completaron un cuestionario en referencia al grado de disconfort percibido. Se utilizó una escala de 0 a 3: 0- sin disconfort, 1- disconfort leve, 2- moderado y 3- severo. Se utilizó un test de proporciones para calcular las diferencias del grado de disconfort entre ambos grupos. Resultados. El tiempo total de los procedimientos fue de 30,5 minutos para los realizados con CO2 y 35,4 minutos para los efectuados con aire ambiental, con una diferencia de -4,9 min (p=0,0003. En la valoración del disconfort, en el grupo con insuflado con aire ambiental, el 44% de los pacientes manifestó un grado de disconfort moderado, mientras que en el grupo con CO2 el 76% manifestó ausencia de disconfort. Conclusiones. La colonoscopía virtual realizada con insuflación de CO2 permitió disminuir en forma parcial el tiempo total del examen y, de modo significativo, el disconfort durante y después del examen.Objectives. To analyze the role of colonic distention with CO2 and its influence on patients' discomfort and the duration of the virtual colonoscopy procedure in our daily practice. Materials and Methods. Two hundred patients were evaluated, 50 were insufflated using room air and 150 with CO2. The studies were performed with a 64-row CT scanner using 2-mm slice thickness, 120 kV and 50 mAs. In all patients, scans were

  19. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  20. CO2 laser modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  1. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  2. Wearable CO2 sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, Tanja; Fay, Cormac; Lau, King-Tong; Waite, Rhys; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    High concentrations of CO2 may develop particularly in the closed spaces during fires and can endanger the health of emergency personnel by causing serious physiological effects. The proposed prototype provides real-time continuous monitoring of CO2 in a wearable configuration sensing platform. A commercially available electrochemical CO2 sensor was selected due to its selectivity, sensitivity and low power demand. This was integrated onto an electronics platform that performed signal capture...

  3. Influencia del tiempo de explotación del Láser de CO2 y la cantidad de ventiladores del Sistema de Enfriamiento sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante a la salida del Sistema Láser SYNRAD 48-2. // The Influences of the time of exploitation of the Laser o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramirez Chi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En el diseño de un Sistema Láser para ser utilizado con fines médicos, un aspecto a tener en cuenta por su importancia es lagarantía de lograr un Sistema de Ventilación que implique mantener estable el flujo radiante de láser a la salida del equipodurante el período de explotación. En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC se han hechoinvestigaciones en estos equipos de Sistemas Láser con el objetivo de determinar en que medida influyen la cantidad deventiladores dispuestos sobre el flujo radiante del láser a la salida del equipo de Láser de CO2 y el tiempo de explotacióndel equipo sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante del láser de salida. Mediante la modelación, la simulación, el Diseño deExperimento y métodos estadísticos se determinó que el tiempo de explotación del equipo durante cada intervenciónmédica y la cantidad de ventiladores implican una influencia significativa sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante de salida.Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en el equipo de Láser de CO2 SYNRAD 48-2 y se empleó en la misma el programa decomputación para el Diseño de Experimentos Statgrafics-Plus.Palabras claves: Láser, flujo radiante.____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the design of a Laser System/s to be used with ends doctors, an aspect to keep in mind for its importance is the guaranteeof achieving a System of Ventilation that implies to maintain stable the radiant flow of exit of the Laser during the periodof exploitation. In the CENIC investigations have been made in these Laser System/s with the objective of determining inthat measured they influence the quantity of willing fans about the radiant flow of exit of the Laser of CO2 and the time ofexploitation of the Laser about the stability of the radiant flow of exit. By means of the modelación, the simulation, theDesign of Experiment and statistical methods were determined that the time of

  4. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  5. CO2 laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R E

    2001-07-01

    The CO2 Laser offers a variety of unique features in resurfacing facial photodamage and acne scarring. These include hemostasis, efficient removal of the epidermis in a single pass, thermally induced tissue tightening, and safe, predictable tissue interaction. Knowledge of these mechanisms will result in the capability of using the CO2 laser effectively and safely whether the goal is superficial or deep treatment.

  6. Evaluación de la corrosión del acero AISI-SAE 1020 en un ambiente multifásico de salmuera CO2-H2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Yesid Peña Ballesteros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La corrosión por CO2/H2S en la producción de gas y petróleo es una de las áreas de investigación más importantes, debido a la necesidad de evaluar la severidad de la corrosión, disminuir el riesgo de problemas en operación y además bajar los costos de producción. En Colombia, las investigaciones se orientan hacia la corrosión por CO2, a pesar de la existencia de trazas de H2S, que son un peligro potencial para los materiales de las líneas de transporte de hidrocarburos. En este artículo se analiza la experimentación y los resultados del acero expuesto a un sistema Salmuera/CO2/H2S en un cilindro rotatorio. En esta geometría se determinaron las velocidades de corrosión sobre el acero AISI 1020, así como los coeficientes de transferencia de masa y capas viscosas de las especies más representativas del sistema. Adicionalmente, se caracterizó la morfología de los productos de corrosión formados en estos ambientes. El estudio permitió concluir que las especies relacionadas con el CO2 (H2CO3 son las que influyen sobre el mecanismo de deterioro del acero AISI 1020, que está fuertemente influenciado por la variación de la velocidad, la temperatura y el pH.

  7. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  8. Análisis de la distribución de las emisiones de CO2 a nivel internacional mediante la adaptación del concepto y las medidas de polarización

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Duro Moreno; Emilio Padilla Rosa

    2007-01-01

    La medida de la polarización está ligada a la inestabilidad potencial —la aparición de grupos con intereses opuestos— generada por una situación de distribución específica. Esta investigación analiza la distribución internacional de las emisiones de CO2 per cápita a través de la adaptación del concepto y las medidas de polarización. La descripción agrupada más interesante que se deriva del análisis de polarización es la de dos grupos. Estos grupos coinciden ampliamente con los países del Anex...

  9. Análisis de las tasas sobre emisiones de CO2 en el sector del transporte como medida de alcanzar escenarios sostenibles

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Guzman Garcia, Luis Angel; Hoz Sánchez, Daniel de la; Shepherd, Simon

    2008-01-01

    En la reciente comunicación del “Libro Verde, Hacia una nueva cultura de la movilidad urbana” claramente se especifica que las ciudades europeas son todas diferentes, pero sin embargo se enfrentan a retos afines tratando de encontrar soluciones similares para hacer nuestras ciudades más sostenibles (COM (2007) 551). . Esto no es una tarea menor cuando en Europa más del 60% de la población vive en áreas urbanas y son responsables del 85% del PIB (COM (2007) 551, Eurostat). A lo largo de tod...

  10. Efecto del CO2 en la atmósfera de almacenamiento sobre la fisiología de la aceituna de molino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Martos, J. María

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruits (Olea europaea used for oil production were stored at 5 °C and four different atmospheres (%CO2/%O2/%N2: 0/21/78; 5/20/75; 10/19/71 and 20/17/63. At 5 °C the enrichment of the storage atmosphere with > 5% CO2 concentrations produced a proportional increase of the physiological disorder occurring in stored fruits. This occurrence had a strong relationship with the appearance of fruit decay. Simple refrigeration at 5 °C was sufficient to maintain the same degree of ripening of olive fruits for 60 days. However, a longer period of storage at 5 °C originated a remarkable incidence of chilling injuries in the fruits.Aceitunas (Olea europaea destinadas a la producción de aceite, se han conservado con refrigeración a 5 °C y en cuatro diferentes atmósferas (%CO2/%O2/%N2: 0/21/78; 5/20/75; 10/19/71 y 20/17/63. A 5 °C el enriquecimiento de la atmósfera de conservación con una concentración igual o superior al 5% de CO2 provocó un aumento proporcional de la incidencia de desórdenes fisiológicos. Esta incidencia tuvo una relación estrecha con la presencia de podredumbre en el fruto. La simple refrigeración a 5 °C permitió retener durante 60 días el grado de maduración de las aceitunas. Sin embargo, un periodo de almacenamiento más prolongado a 5 °C provocó en los frutos una notable incidencia de lesiones por frío.

  11. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  12. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  13. Aportaciones al estudio de la sostenibilidad bibliotecaria: las emisiones de CO2 del servicio de apertura de fin de semana de la biblioteca de la Universidad de Vigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Abraín Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca de la Universidad de Vigo y la Oficina de Medio Ambiente llevaron a cabo un estudio sobre los impactos ambientales del servicio de aperturas en fin de semana de la biblioteca central durante el período de exámenes extraordinarios de julio de 2013.El estudio pone de manifiesto que las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI asociadas a las aperturas provienen sobre todo del consumo de energía eléctrica del edificio y de los desplazamientos de los usuarios hasta la biblioteca. Asimismo propone una metodología de cálculo de la huella ecológica de este tipo de servicio con objeto de facilitar la toma en consideración de los criterios de sostenibilidad en la programación y organización de este tipo de servicio. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Escenarios de expansión eléctrica para México 2005-2015 con redistribución del ingreso y emisiones de CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alarco Tosoni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estiman y analizan las necesidades de expansión del sector eléctrico mexicano desde diferentes escenarios de crecimiento económico, incluyendo la posibilidad de que mejore la estructura de distribución del ingreso. A partir del desarrollo de un modelo, que en su vertiente macroeconómica se inspira en la tradición de M. Kalecki, se concluye que dicha mejora implicaría mayores retos, al elevar el consumo nacional de energía y, por tanto, las necesidades de expandir la producción de energéticos para evitar grandes desequilibrios en la balanza comercial de esos productos. Asimismo, exige diseñar e implantar un portafolio adicional de políticas que permitan hacer frente a las enormes emisiones de bióxido de carbono (CO2 que se podrían generar por el elevado nivel de actividad económica y consumo de energía.

  15. CO2 laser preionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work done during the reporting period of January 25, 1990 to January 24, 1991 is presented. A literature survey was conducted to identify the required parameters for effective preionization in TEA CO2 lasers and the methods and techniques for characterizing preionizers are reviewed. A numerical model of the LP-140 cavity was used to determine the cause of the transverse mode stability improvement obtained when the cavity was lengthened. The measurement of the voltage and current discharge pulses on the LP-140 were obtained and their subsequent analysis resulted in an explanation for the low efficiency of the laser. An assortment of items relating to the development of high-voltage power supplies is also provided. A program for analyzing the frequency chirp data files obtained with the HP time and frequency analyzer is included. A program to calculate the theoretical LIMP chirp is also included and a comparison between experiment and theory is made. A program for calculating the CO2 linewidth and its dependence on gas composition and pressure is presented. The program also calculates the number of axial modes under the FWHM of the line for a given resonator length. A graphical plot of the results is plotted.

  16. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agustí-Panareda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate – Interim Implementation (MACC-II service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS. One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 satellite retrievals, as they

  17. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  18. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  19. Y después del CO2 ¿qué?: Una revisión de la construcción social del cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Páez García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de una revisión bibliográfica se muestra la evolución del discurso del cambio climático. En una primera sección se presentan textos que tienen relación con la divulgación de la teoría del calentamiento global antropogénico, destacando lo dicho por Al Gore, político, ecologista y empresario norteamericano cuyo liderazgo ha determinado la forma como se trata el problema. En una segunda sección se exponen cuestionamientos a esta teoría. Posteriormente se hace un análisis del discurso y una explicación del fenómeno del cambio climático como construcción social considerando los conceptos de revolución científica y episteme, este último para examinar su relación con el ecologismo. Se concluye señalando la necesidad de abrir el debate para disminuir las incertidumbres existentes.

  20. Análisis de la influencia del estado superficial en la energía absorbida en la interacción láser CO2 - Aluminio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Ibarzabal, L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work bead-on-plates tests have been performed with CO2 laser beam, on Al-Mg-Si and Al-Zn-Mg aluminium alloys with different surface treatments. Al-Mg-Si alloy has presented more energy absorbed and best surface finish. The surface treatment with paints has produced an increase of absorbed energy, but with an important porosity in the fusion zone. The increase of surface rugosity has produced an increase of absorbed energy. The chemical treatments previous at bead-on-plates test have produced an important increasing in absorbed energy, especially in Al-Mg-Si alloy.En este trabajo se han realizado ensayos de refusión, en dos aleaciones de aluminio, de los grupos Al-Mg-Si y Al-Zn-Mg, con diferentes tratamientos superficiales. La aleación del grupo Al-Mg-Si ha presentado una mayor absorción de energía y un mejor acabado superficial. Los tratamientos superficiales con pinturas, han conducido a un ligero aumento de la energía absorbida, pero han producido un aumento considerable de la porosidad. El aumento de la rugosidad superficial ha favorecido el aumento de la absorción de energía en las aleaciones estudiadas. El tratamiento químico previo a los ensayos de refusión ha conducido a un aumento de la penetración y de la energía absorbida, especialmente en la aleación del grupo Al-Mg-Si.

  1. Optimización del recorrido y de la potencia de un haz láser de CO2 en el tratamiento térmico de válvulas de motores diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobar, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model for the process of CO2 laser treatment of diesel engine exhaust valves is presented. The treatment consists on the remelting of a nickel based alloy which has been previously plasma sprayed on the valve seat. Such process can be well described by means of a transient heat transfer equation, even if some numerical method must be applied when both temperature dependent thermophysical properties and realistic geometry description of the workpiece are taken into account. For this work the Finite Element Method, within the framework of ANSYS®, was chosen, to solve that equation and this was done in the framework of ANSYS®. The use of the process parameters previously assessed during a the theoretical and experimental study of box shaped workpieces requires a fine tuning based on simulation in order to be sure that the treatment of the valve seat gets comparable results to that of the flat workpieces. Among the important conditions to be satisfied stands the need for the temperature map to be parallel to the valve seat surface and so have the same treated depth. Besides, as the beam describes a circular path, coming back to the starting position, the initial temperature at that point will be higher than for rest of the workpiece. Therefore the beam power has to be optimized in order to get adapted to this new situation. Phase transition is included in the model by using the right thermophysical properties and a correct estimation of the effective absorption coefficients in both phases. This work shows the advantages of the process modelling to support the optimization of laser surface treatment of complex geometry workpieces using the model validation performed in simpler workpieces.En este trabajo se modeliza el proceso de tratamiento de válvulas de motores diesel mediante láser de CO2. Este tratamiento consiste en la refusión de una aleación base níquel previamente proyectada por plasma sobre un asiento de v

  2. Entornos Agroambientales: Almacenes Naturales De Co2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Isidro Sánchez Leyva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos únicos eternos y la extinción de especies; contaminaciones atmosféricas, edáficas e hídricas; la ampliación del agujero de la capa de Ozono, etc. unido al mal uso de la tierra contribuyen al empobrecimiento de comunidades y naciones. Se evaluaron sistemas de cultivos múltiples como sumideros naturales o bancos de CO2. Y se intercalaron leguminosas por sus conocidos y probados beneficios y otras especies anuales en árboles y arbustos conducidos desde 1988-90 en el macizo montañoso Sagüa-Baracoa, Gran Tierra de Sabaneta, El Salvador y valle Guaso provincia Guantánamo; Calabaza de Sagüa de Tánamo y Mayarí, Holguín. Diseñándose 3 ó 4 réplicas según las variantes y laderas y utilizados rangos múltiples de Newman-Kell (P<1%. Para el cálculo de biomasa vegetal se aplicaron fórmulas midiéndose la necromasa bajo el arbolado y el C orgánico edáfico. Se determinó el valor o índice relativo de biomasa, el índice relativo de banco de CO2 y el potencial mínimo de retención del CO2 en el sistema según la edad del cultivo; observándose el suelo erosionado en el predio mediante simple fórmula propuesta. Se observaron formas ecológicas de labor y cultivo. La canavalia fue el cultivo más efectivo considerando la respuesta del C edáfico. Se tuvo en cuenta la productividad y el banco de CO2 por el efecto positivo de ambos factores sobre el medio y dada la relevancia creciente de la reducción de las emisiones de CO2, a la vez que se evita la sobre-explotación y la deforestación. Se significó la necesidad de fajas interarboladas en monocultivos anuales.

  3. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim......The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  4. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  5. Influencia de la cantidad de O2 adicionado al CO2 en el gas de protección sobre la microestructura del metal depositado en uniones soldadas de bordes rectos en aceros de bajo contenido de carbono con el proceso GMAW Influence of O2 content, added to CO2 in the shielding gas, on the microstructure of deposited metal in butt welded joint with straight edges, in low carbon steels using GMAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Díaz-Cedré

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de ferrita acicular (FA en la microestructura del cordón de soldadura, dentro de determinado rango de valores, eleva considerablemente la tenacidad de las uniones soldadas. Es por ello, que el presente trabajo trata sobre un estudio que relaciona la cantidad de ferrita acicular en el cordón en función del contenido de oxígeno presente en la mezcla activa CO2+O2, durante la realización de uniones soldadas de bordes rectos en aceros de bajo carbono con el proceso con electrodo fusible y protección gaseosa (GMAW en condiciones invariables de parámetros de proceso (corriente de soldadura, voltaje de arco, velocidad de soldadura, longitud libre y flujo de gas protector. Como resultado del trabajo se estableció la relación gráfica existente entre la ferrita acicular y el contenido de oxígeno en la mezcla.The presence of acicular ferrite (AF in the microstructure of weld bead, in a specified range of values, increase considerably the toughness of welded joints. The present paper, for that reason, study the relationship between the acicular ferrite quantity in the deposited metal and the oxygen present in the active gas mixture of CO2+O2, during the execution of butt welded joints with straight edges, in low carbon steels with consumable electrode and gas protection (GMAW in invariable conditions of process parameters (welding current, arc voltage, welding speed, electrode extension, and gas flow. The graphic relation between the acicular ferrite and the oxygen content was established, as result of the research work.

  6. Proceso de recuperación de CO2. Generalidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Núñez-Caraballo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra una recopilación sobre las propiedades físicas y químicas del CO 2 , la influencia del mismo en el efecto invernadero, sus apli- caciones en la industria, los sistemas de captura del gas y algunas estrategias que actualmente se siguen para la reducción de las emisiones.

  7. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  8. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  9. Sistemas respiratórios com absorção de CO2, circulares, valvulares: comparação do comportamento térmico entre sistema coaxial e convencional com diferentes fluxos de gás fresco Sistemas respiratorios con absorción de CO2, circulares, valvulares: comparación del comportamiento térmico entre el sistema coaxial y convencional con diferentes flujos de gas fresco Anesthesia breathing systems with CO2 absorption, circle valve circuit: comparison of thermal behavior of coaxial system and conventional system with different fresh gas flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luís Abramides Torres

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A manutenção da temperatura do gás inalado pelo paciente durante o procedimento anestésico é fundamental para evitar complicações respiratórias durante o peri-operatório. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar a capacidade de aquecimento dos gases inalados em sistemas respiratórios com absorção de CO2, circulares, valvulares, coaxial e convencional, variando o fluxo de gás fresco (FGF. MÉTODO: Foram estudados dois sistemas respiratórios em um simulador de pulmão, que foi ventilado com volume corrente de 600 mL e freqüência de 10 bpm. O modelo simulava a produção de CO2, através da administração de fluxo de 250 mL.min-1 de CO2, e o gás exalado do pulmão-teste passava por um umidificador aquecido para simular o gás expirado. Os dois sistemas foram classificados como circulares, valvulares, com absorção de CO2. No sistema A (coaxial, o ramo inspiratório passava pelo interior do ramo expiratório, enquanto que o sistema B foi o convencional. As medidas de temperatura do gás inalado foram realizadas nos momentos 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 90 minutos, sendo empregados FGF baixos (0,5 e 1 L.min-1 e altos (3 e 6 L.min-1. RESULTADOS: O sistema A apresentou variação térmica significativa entre o início e o final dos ensaios (22,47 ± 1,77 ºC e 24,27 ± 3,52 ºC p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El mantenimiento de la temperatura del gas inhalado por el paciente durante el procedimiento anestésico es de fundamental importancia para evitar complicaciones respiratorias durante el peri-operatorio. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar, a través de modelo experimental, la capacidad de calentamiento de los gases inhalados con la utilización de sistemas respiratorios con absorción de CO2, circulares, valvulares coaxial y convencional, variándose el flujo de gas fresco (FGF. MÉTODO: Fue realizado en estudio experimental en laboratorio, testándose dos sistemas respiratorios en un simulador de pulm

  10. Simulación del proceso de captura de CO2 mediante los ciclos de carbonatación/calcinación de CaO integrado en plantas de producción de energía

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Berges, Isabel; Murillo Villuendas, Ramón; Abanades García, Juan Carlos; Grasa Adiego, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    La tecnología de captura de CO2 basada en los ciclos de carbonatación/calcinación de CaO cuenta con un gran potencial de aplicación como tecnología emergente de captura de CO2 tanto en configuraciones de proceso en post-combustión aplicado a un gas de combustión, como en configuraciones en pre-combustión para generación de un gas rico en hidrógeno. Esta tecnología de captura de CO2 se basa en la reacción de un sorbente basado en CaO con el CO2 presente en una corriente gaseosa, y en la reacci...

  11. The CO2nnect activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  12. Influencia de la cantidad de O2 adicionado al CO2 en el gas de protección sobre la microestructura del metal depositado en uniones soldadas de bordes rectos en aceros de bajo contenido de carbono con el proceso GMAW

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Díaz-Cedré; Amado Cruz-Crespo; Félix Ramos Morales; Mauricio Tello Rico; Joel Chaparro Gonzáles; Manuel Rodríguez Pérez; Pozo Morejón,Juan A.; Nancy M. Pérez Pino

    2010-01-01

    La presencia de ferrita acicular (FA) en la microestructura del cordón de soldadura, dentro de determinado rango de valores, eleva considerablemente la tenacidad de las uniones soldadas. Es por ello, que el presente trabajo trata sobre un estudio que relaciona la cantidad de ferrita acicular en el cordón en función del contenido de oxígeno presente en la mezcla activa CO2+O2, durante la realización de uniones soldadas de bordes rectos en aceros de bajo carbono con el proceso con electrodo fus...

  13. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la corrosión por picado del acero API 5L x42 expuesto a un ambiente con cloruros y CO2 mediante la técnica de ruido electroquímico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Vanegas, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of chloride ions and the partial pressure of CO2 play an important role in the degradation of low-carbon steels used for the construction of pipelines in oil and gas industry. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of carbon steel API 5L X42 to pitting corrosion electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions and CO2. The concentration of chloride ions was varied between, 10000 and 18000 ppm, and the CO2 partial pressure between 10 psi and 18 psi. Experimental results pointed out that the formation of protective layer, consisting mainly of FeCO 3, depends on the partial pressure of CO2 in the system. Nevertheless, the stability of this layer was considerably affected by increasing the concentration of chloride ions causing that localized corrosion has taken place in some areas of the surface of API 5L X42, which were detected by electrochemical noise echnique.La concentración de iones cloruro y la presión parcial de CO2, tienen un papel importante en el proceso de degradación de los aceros de bajo carbono empleados en la construcción de líneas de transporte en industrias petroleras. Con el fin de evaluar la susceptibilidad del acero al carbono API 5L X42 a la corrosión por picado, se realizaron medidas de ruido electroquímico y resistencia a la polarización lineal en soluciones acuosas de iones cloruro con concentraciones entre 10.000 y 18.000 ppm, variando la presión parcial de CO2 entre 10 psi y 18 psi. Los resultados indican que la formación de una capa protectora, constituida principalmente por FeCO3, depende de la presión parcial de CO2 del sistema. No obstante, la estabilidad de dicha capa es afectada significativamente por el aumento de la concentración de iones cloruro, que producen fenómenos de corrosión localizada en algunas áreas de la superficie del acero API 5L X42, los cuales fueron detectados por la técnica de

  14. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  15. Monitoring subsurface CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.; Arts, R.; Schroot, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of various currently applied monitoring techniques for CO2 storage. Techniques are subdivided in correspondence to their applicability for monitoring three distinct realms. These are: - the atmosphere and the near-surface; - the overburden (including faults and wells); - the

  16. Excitation of CO2/+/ by electron impact on CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentall, J. E.; Coplan, M. A.; Kushlis, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of a discrepancy concerning the correct value of the cross section for excitation of the CO2(+) B state by electron impact on CO2. It is suggested that the reason for the disparate results obtained by various authors for the B state can be traced to a calibration error due to scattered light. In particular, the tungsten filament lamps used in the experiments cited have very low intensity at wavelengths below 3000 A where the B state emissions occur, so that even a small amount of scattered light in the spectrometer will produce a large error in the measured cross section. In a remeasurement of the cross section for excitation of the B state at an energy of 150 eV it was found that at 2900 A the scattered light signal, if uncorrected for, would introduce an error of about 50%.

  17. Análisis del desempeño (actividad y selectividad) de catalizadores para la producción de combustibles líquidos por reciclado de CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Fornero, Esteban Luis

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió el desempeño de catalizadores novedosos de metales soportados (Pd y Cu), promovidos con galio, en la síntesis de metanol por hidrogenación selectiva, a partir de mezclas ricas en dióxido de carbono (CO2). Se simuló un módulo de recuperación de CO2 alimentado por mezclas H2/CO2 y con reciclo de gases incondensables. En “equilibrio termodinámico” y en condiciones industriales de proceso la recuperación sería cercana al 100 %. Con catalizadores comerciales (CuO/ZnO/Al2O3) s...

  18. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    2010-01-01

    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  19. RODZAJE METOD SEKWESTRACJI CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  20. Surface Condensation of CO2 onto Kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Owen, Antionette T.; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-02-11

    The fundamental adsorption behavior of gaseous and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) onto poorly crystalline kaolinite (KGa-2) at conditions relevant to geologic sequestration has been investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The QCM data indicated linear adsorption of CO2 (0-0.3 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) onto the kaolinite surface up through the gaseous state (0.186 g/cm3). However in the supercritical region, CO2 adsorption increases dramatically, reaching a peak (0.9-1.0 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) near 0.43 g/cm3, before declining rapidly to surface adsorption values equivalent or below gaseous CO2. This adsorption profile was not observed with He or N2. Comparative density functional studies of CO2 interactions with kaolinite surface models rule out CO2 intercalation and confirm that surface adsorption is favored up to approximately 0.35 g/cm3 of CO2, showing distorted T-shaped CO2-CO2 clustering, typical of supercritical CO2 aggregation over the surface as the density increases. Beyond this point, the adsorption energy gain for any additional CO2 becomes less than the CO2 interaction energy (~0.2 eV) in the supercritical medium resulting in overall desorption of CO2 from the kaolinite surface.

  1. Propuesta de proyecto de estadística: un modelo de regresión lineal simple para pronosticar la concentración de co2 del volcán Mauna Loa

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Alfredo López Miranda; César Augusto Romero Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo aplica un modelo predictivo de regresión lineal para analizar la contaminación atmosférica de dióxido de carbono (CO2) producida por el volcán Mauna Loa de Hawái. Los datos fueron extraídos de un repositorio de internet que contiene múltiples casos de geología, climatología, física, etcétera. El modelo se utilizó para predecir la tendencia de emisiones de CO2 con respecto al tiempo; se estimó la contaminación promedio de dicha tendencia, la cual descubrimos ha crecido aproximadam...

  2. CyclicCO2R: production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 using renewable feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Håkonsen, S.F.; Heyn, R.; Offermans, W.; Leitner, W.; Ostapowicz, T.; Müller, T. E.; Mul, G.; North, M.; Ngomsik-Fanselow, A.F.; Sarron, E.; Sigurbjörnsson, O.; Schäffner, B.

    2013-01-01

    The consortium behind CyclicCO2R wants to kick-start the implementation of CO2 utilization technologies by converting CO2 into a high value-added product, thus providing a showcase that inspires industry to further develop technologies utilizing CO2 as a sustainable raw material and valorizing CO2

  3. CyclicCO2R: production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 using renewable feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Håkonsen, S.F.; Heyn, R.; Offermans, W.; Leitner, W.; Ostapowicz, T.; Müller, T. E.; Mul, G.; North, M.; Ngomsik-Fanselow, A.F.; Sarron, E.; Sigurbjörnsson, O.; Schäffner, B.

    2013-01-01

    The consortium behind CyclicCO2R wants to kick-start the implementation of CO2 utilization technologies by converting CO2 into a high value-added product, thus providing a showcase that inspires industry to further develop technologies utilizing CO2 as a sustainable raw material and valorizing CO2 i

  4. Análisis de intensidades energéticas y emisiones de CO2 a partir de la matriz de contabilidad social de Andalucía del año 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro; Fuentes Saguar, Patricia D.; Polo, Clemente

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este artículo se estiman las intensidades energéticas y emisiones de CO2 para la economía andaluza en el año 2000. Las intensidades energéticas de las ramas productivas se calculan en varios escenarios empleando un modelo SAM especificado con la matriz de contabilidad social elaborada por los autores. Las emisiones se estiman con el modelo input-output, distinguiendo la polución intermedia de la originada por la demanda final. Los resultados muestran la existencia de importantes v...

  5. CO2 Virtual Science Data Environment API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CO2 Virtual Data Environment is a comprehensive effort at bringing together the models, data, and tools necessary to perform research on atmospheric CO2.This...

  6. Why capture CO2 from the atmosphere?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, David W

    2009-01-01

    Air capture is an industrial process for capturing CO2 from ambient air; it is one of an emerging set of technologies for CO2 removal that includes geological storage of biotic carbon and the acceleration of geochemical weathering...

  7. Propuesta de proyecto de estadística: un modelo de regresión lineal simple para pronosticar la concentración de co2 del volcán Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alfredo López Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aplica un modelo predictivo de regresión lineal para analizar la contaminación atmosférica de dióxido de carbono (CO2 producida por el volcán Mauna Loa de Hawái. Los datos fueron extraídos de un repositorio de internet que contiene múltiples casos de geología, climatología, física, etcétera. El modelo se utilizó para predecir la tendencia de emisiones de CO2 con respecto al tiempo; se estimó la contaminación promedio de dicha tendencia, la cual descubrimos ha crecido aproximadamente 0.1 partes por millón por mes; así como también se obtuvieron los intervalos de predicción para una emisión puntual que existió en un momento determinado. Se recomienda el trabajo para estudiantes de ciencias exactas y naturales, como prototipo de artículo de investigación donde se aplique específicamente el modelo de regresión lineal simple; aunque la estructura también puede servir en otras áreas donde se enseñen los modelos de regresión.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION AND CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS DINIS DA GAMA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las principales contribuciones al desarrollo tecnológico del proceso de gasificación subterránea del carbón (G.S.C. y complementariamente la posibilidad de secuestración del CO2 en el medio ambiente subterráneo. Se busca explicar por que razones existen actualmente en el mundo muy pocas plantas industriales de G.S.C. que produzcan regularmente combustibles gaseosos oriundos de la combustión del carbón "in situ", a pesar de las ventajas de protección ambiental que resultan de este proceso. Un breve listado de los proyectos en curso es incluido. La posibilidad del almacenamiento subterráneo del CO2 con o sin simultaneidad respecto a la G.S.C. es analizada, destacando las principales dificultades de aplicación de esta técnica y los riesgos asociados a las soluciones integradas, que necesitan soluciones de innovación.

  9. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are ofte

  10. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are

  11. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310 ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is ...

  12. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  13. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  14. Selecting CO2 Sources for CO2 Utilization by Environmental-Merit-Order Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Assen, Niklas; Müller, Leonard J; Steingrube, Annette; Voll, Philip; Bardow, André

    2016-02-01

    Capture and utilization of CO2 as alternative carbon feedstock for fuels, chemicals, and materials aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil resource use. For capture of CO2, a large variety of CO2 sources exists. Since they emit much more CO2 than the expected demand for CO2 utilization, the environmentally most favorable CO2 sources should be selected. For this purpose, we introduce the environmental-merit-order (EMO) curve to rank CO2 sources according to their environmental impacts over the available CO2 supply. To determine the environmental impacts of CO2 capture, compression and transport, we conducted a comprehensive literature study for the energy demands of CO2 supply, and constructed a database for CO2 sources in Europe. Mapping these CO2 sources reveals that CO2 transport distances are usually small. Thus, neglecting transport in a first step, we find that environmental impacts are minimized by capturing CO2 first from chemical plants and natural gas processing, then from paper mills, power plants, and iron and steel plants. In a second step, we computed regional EMO curves considering transport and country-specific impacts for energy supply. Building upon regional EMO curves, we identify favorable locations for CO2 utilization with lowest environmental impacts of CO2 supply, so-called CO2 oases.

  15. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  16. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  17. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-20

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed.

  18. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  19. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2.

  20. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  1. Adsorbentes de bajo coste orientados a la separación y captura de CO2

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster se han desarrollado una serie de materiales adsorbentes ( carbones activados) a partir de residuos biomásicos de distinto origen, para la captura y separación del CO2 de una corriente gaseosa de biogás generado en un vertedero. De esta forma evitamos que el CO2 sea emitido a la atmósfera y separamos el CO2 del metano y el hidrógeno para que éstos puedan ser utilizados en un futuro, por ejemplo, como gases de síntesis.

  2. Adsorbentes de bajo coste orientados a la separación y captura de CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Fernández, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster se han desarrollado una serie de materiales adsorbentes ( carbones activados) a partir de residuos biomásicos de distinto origen, para la captura y separación del CO2 de una corriente gaseosa de biogás generado en un vertedero. De esta forma evitamos que el CO2 sea emitido a la atmósfera y separamos el CO2 del metano y el hidrógeno para que éstos puedan ser utilizados en un futuro, por ejemplo, como gases de síntesis.

  3. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  4. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  5. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  6. [A new colorimetric CO2 indicator Colibri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, T; Hanaoka, K

    1996-06-01

    A new colorimetric carbon dioxide (CO2) indicator Colibri is a disposable, compact and light weighted device. Colibri does not need to be calibrated and is easily usable in an emergency. It indicates blue with CO2 below 4 mmHg and becomes yellow with CO2 above 40 mmHg. In comparison with EASY CAP, Colibri functions for a longer period and it has a humidifier and a bacterial filter. Colibri is useful for emergency situations and anesthetic care.

  7. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  8. Synthetic biology for CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO2-derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO2-fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO2-fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO2-fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO2.

  9. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof......% of the inlet CO2 was captured by highly deactivated limestone, which had a maximum CO2 capture capacity of 11.5%, with an inlet Ca/C ratio of 13. So, the performance of the carbonator can be defined by the inlet Ca/C ratio, which can be estimated if the maximum capture capacity of limestone is known...

  10. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  11. CO2 Interaction with Geomaterials (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, V.; Howard, B. H.; Lynn, R. J.; Warzinski, R. P.; Hur, T.; Myshakin, E. M.; Lopano, C. L.; Voora, V. K.; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Jordan, K. D.; Cygan, R. T.; Guthrie, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas #3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or “geopolymer”) theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2

  12. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co...

  13. Monitoring Options for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Winthaegen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of various monitoring techniques for CO2 storage that is structured into three categories-instrumentation in a well (monitoring well); instrumentation at the (near) surface (surface geophysical methods); and sampling at the (near) surface measuring CO2 concentration

  14. CO2 capture research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Kuramochi, T.; Egmond, S. van

    2008-01-01

    The global climate is changing due to human activities. This human‑induced climate change is mainly caused by global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Most scientists agree that in order to mitigate climate change, by 2050, global CO2 emissions must be reduced by at least 50% co

  15. Photocatalytic CO2 Activation by Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Chieh-Chao

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic activation of CO2 and water has potential for producing fuels by conversion of photon energy. However, the low productivity still limits practical application. In this study, the goal was to gain more fundamental insight in CO2 activation, and to provide guidelines for rational design

  16. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  17. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team members expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  18. CO2 Rekentool voor Tuinbouw: Handleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiller, S.R.C.H.; Danse, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Dit document is een handleiding bij de online CO2 Rekentool voor Tuinbouw Ketens. De CO2 tool is mogelijk gemaakt door de financiële bijdrage van Productschap Tuinbouw en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV). De tool is ontwikkeld door het onderzoeksconsortium WUR, BMA en AI

  19. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  20. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  1. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  2. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  3. CO2 deserts: implications of existing CO2 supply limitations for carbon management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Richard S; Clarens, Andres F; Liu, Xiaowei; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Levine, Jonathan S

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change will require deep reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the scale of gigatonnes per year. CO2 capture and utilization and/or storage technologies are a class of approaches that can substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Even though examples of this approach, such as CO2-enhanced oil recovery, are already being practiced on a scale >0.05 Gt/year, little attention has been focused on the supply of CO2 for these projects. Here, facility-scale data newly collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was processed to produce the first comprehensive map of CO2 sources from industrial sectors currently supplying CO2 in the United States. Collectively these sources produce 0.16 Gt/year, but the data reveal the presence of large areas without access to CO2 at an industrially relevant scale (>25 kt/year). Even though some facilities with the capability to capture CO2 are not doing so and in some regions pipeline networks are being built to link CO2 sources and sinks, much of the country exists in "CO2 deserts". A life cycle analysis of the sources reveals that the predominant source of CO2, dedicated wells, has the largest carbon footprint further confounding prospects for rational carbon management strategies.

  4. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  5. Effects of CO2 leakage on soil bacterial communities from simulated CO2-EOR areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Yongjun; Ma, Yanjun; Hou, Huping; Zhang, Shaoliang; Ma, Jing

    2016-05-18

    CO2-EOR (enhanced oil recovery) has been proposed as a viable option for flooding oil and reducing anthropogenic CO2 contribution to the atmospheric pool. However, the potential risk of CO2 leakage from the process poses a threat to the ecological system. High-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the effects of CO2 emission on the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The diversity of bacterial communities notably decreased with increasing CO2 flux. The composition of bacterial communities varied along the CO2 flux, with increasing CO2 flux accompanied by increases in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, but decreases in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi phyla. Within the Firmicutes phylum, the genus Lactobacillus increased sharply when the CO2 flux was at its highest point. Alpha and beta diversity analysis revealed that differences in bacterial communities were best explained by CO2 flux. The redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that differences in bacterial communities were best explained by soil pH values which related to CO2 flux. These results could be useful for evaluating the risk of potential CO2 leakages on the ecosystems associated with CO2-EOR processes.

  6. Glacial CO2 Cycles: A Composite Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are three main contributors to the glacial drawdown of atmospheric CO2 content: starvation of the supply of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere reservoir, excess CO2 storage in the deep sea, and surface-ocean cooling. In this talk, I explore a scenario in which all three play significant roles. Key to this scenario is the assumption that deep ocean storage is related to the extent of nutrient stratification of the deep Atlantic. The stronger this stratification, the larger the storage of respiration CO2. Further, it is my contention that the link between Milankovitch insolation cycles and climate is reorganizations of the ocean's thermohaline circulation leading to changes in the deep ocean's CO2 storage. If this is the case, the deep Atlantic d13C record kept in benthic foraminifera shells tells us that deep ocean CO2 storage follows Northern Hemisphere summer insolation cycles and thus lacks the downward ramp so prominent in the records of sea level, benthic 18O and CO2. Rather, the ramp is created by the damping of planetary CO2 emissions during glacial time intervals. As it is premature to present a specific scenario, I provide an example as to how these three contributors might be combined. As their magnitudes and shapes remain largely unconstrained, the intent of this exercise is to provoke creative thinking.

  7. Elevated CO2 and Soil Nitrogen Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K.; Schlesinger, W.

    2002-12-01

    Although forests can be large terrestrial carbon sinks, soil fertility can limit carbon sequestration in response to increased atmospheric CO2. During five years of CO2 fertilization (ambient + 200ppm) at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, net primary production increased significantly by an average of 25% in treatment plots. Total nitrogen in the foliar canopy increased by 16%, requiring an additional 1.3 g N m-2yr-1 to be taken up from soils under elevated CO2. Mechanisms supporting increased nitrogen acquisition have not been identified. Here we report on biological N-fixation rates, using the acetylene reduction assay, in litter and mineral soil during three years of the CO2 enrichment experiment. Lack of a significant CO2 treatment effect on acetylene reduction indicates that carbon is not directly limiting biological N fixation. Nutrient addition experiments using a complete block design with glucose, Fe, Mo and P indicate biological N fixation is co-limited by molybdenum and carbon. These results suggest even if elevated atmospheric CO2 enhances below-ground carbon availability via root exudation, biological nitrogen fixation may not be stimulated due to micronutrient limitations. Assessment of future carbon sequestration by forest stands must consider limitations imposed by site fertility, including micronutrients.

  8. CO2 laser in vitreoretinal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlin, D.B.; Patel, C.K.; Wood, O.R.; Llovera, I.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation from a CO2 laser has the dual effect of phototransection and photocoagulation. Incisions have been made in scleral-chorioretinal tissue, lens tissue, and the vitreous body (with and without membrane formation). Results indicate that the CO2 laser may be useful in intravitreal surgery. Its simultaneous cutting and coagulating properties may make the experimental transvitreal chorioretinal biopsy and the full-thickness ocular wall resection for small melanosarcomas of the choroid clinical possibilities in the not too distant future. Finally, the effects of CO2 laser radiation on the normal human lens suggests the possibility of the dissolution of cataracts by laser irradiation.

  9. Spin polarization effect for Co2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Bao Wen-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT)(b3p86) of Gaussian 03 has been used to optimize the structure of the Co2molecule, a transition metal element molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Co2 molecule is a 7-multiple state, indicating a spin polarization effect in the Co2 molecule. Meanwhile, we have not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground state is not mingled with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So for the ground state of Co2 molecule to be a 7-multiple state is the indicative of spin polarization effect of the Co2molecule, that is, there exist 6 parallel spin electrons in a Co2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is the greatest. These electrons occupy different spacial orbitals so that the energy of the Co2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Co2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule,which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and the other states of the Co2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of Co2 molecule is 4.0489eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2061 nm, and vibration frequency 11.2222 aJ.nm-4respectively(1 a.J=10-18 J). The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of Co2 molecule ωexe,Be, and αe are 0.7202 cm-1, 0.1347 cm-1, and 2.9120× 10-1 cm-1 respectively. And ωexe is the non-syntonic part of frequency, Be is the rotational constant, αe is revised constant of rotational constant for non-rigid part of Co2 molecule.

  10. Structurally simple complexes of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Luke J.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Richard A. Kemp; TUONONEN, Heikki; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to bind CO2 through the formation of low-energy, easily-broken, bonds could prove invaluable in a variety of chemical contexts. For example, weak bonds to CO2 would greatly decrease the cost of the energy-intensive sorbent-regeneration step common to most carbon capture technologies. Furthermore, exploration of this field could lead to the discovery of novel CO2 chemistry. Reduction of complexed carbon dioxide might generate chemical feedstocks for the preparation of value-added p...

  11. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective...... control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  12. CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kundak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Global CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the past century are presented. Taking into consideration the total world production of more than 1,3 billion tons of steel, the steel industry produces over two billion tons of CO2. Reductions in CO2 emissions as a result of technological improvements and structural changes in steel production in industrialized countries during the past 40 years are described. Substantial further reductions in those emissions will not be possible using conventional technologies. Instead, a radical cutback may be achieved if, instead of carbon, hydrogen is used for direct iron ore reduction. The cost and the ensuing CO2 generation in the production of hydrogen as a reducing agent from various sources are analysed.

  13. Hoeveel CO2 kostte deze paprika?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, P.X.

    2011-01-01

    Ondernemers in de tuinbouwsector kunnen dankzij een nieuw protocol de CO2-voetafdruk van hun product van zaaigoed tot supermarktschap berekenen. Daarbij zit een tool die de telers, handelaren en transporteurs kan laten zien waar de uitstoot plaatsvindt.

  14. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  15. Translucent CO2 ice on Mars ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frederic; Andrieu, Francois; Douté, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate is driven by the condensation/sublimation of CO2 representing 95% of the atmosphere. Many active surface features (such dark spot, dark flows), have been potentially linked to CO2 exchange. Understanding the surface/atmosphere interactions is a major issue, for both atmospheric but also surface science. This study aims at estimating the physical properties of the seasonal CO2 ice deposits. Are these deposits granular or compact? What is the thickness of the ice? How much impurities are included within the ice? These questions have been highly debated in the literature, in particular the presence of a translucent slab ice, the link with the H2O cycle. In particular the cold jet geyser model requires translucent CO2 ice. We use radiative transfer models to simulate spectroscopic data from the CRISM instrument and perform an inversion to estimate model's parameters though time. We then discuss the consistency of the results with other datasets.

  16. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  17. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  18. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  19. CO2 Removal from Mars EMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CO2 control for during ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) on mars is challenging. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters have impractical logistics penalties, and regenerable...

  20. CO2 phytotron established in Ailaoshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Understanding the Uinteractions between ecological systems and the environment is a priority for the studies of global change, evolutionary biology, and functional genomics.Controlled environment facilities,like CO2 phytotrons, are necessary for acquiring such an understanding.

  1. CO2 Removal from Mars EMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A practical CO2 control system for ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) on Mars have not yet been developed. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to develop a durable,...

  2. Combustion of hythane diluted with CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraiech Ibtissem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions have become major research topics in combustion and engine development. Hythane (a blend of hydrogen H2 and natural gas NG has generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of CO2 addition on the stability of a turbulent jet diffusion NG-H2 flame. The mole fraction of hydrogen (% H2 in NG-H2 mixture was varied from 0% to 50%. The equivalence ratio of the hythane/CO2/air mixture was kept at stoichiometry. The results show that the lift-off height increases with the addition of CO2 at various % H2 content in hythane. However, we observe that with 20% H2, we can obtain a stable flame diluted with 40% CO2, while for 0% H2, the flame is blown out above 20% CO2. This means that the limits of flame blowing out are pushed with the additions of H2. Moreover, the results show that for %H2 content in NG-H2 fuel up to 10%, the addition of CO2 could produce lifted flame if the % CO2 is low. At higher % CO2 dilution, flame would remain attached until blow-out. This is mainly due to the fact that the dilution leads to ejection velocities very high but reactivity of the mixture does not change so the flame tends to stretch.

  3. Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt.......Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt....

  4. The Twelve Principles of CO2 CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Leitner, Walter; Streng, Emilia S

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of 12 Principles, based on the acronym CO2 CHEMISTRY, which are intended to form a set of criteria for assessing the viability of different processes or reactions for using CO2 as a feedstock for making organic chemicals. The principles aim to highlight the synergy of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) with the components of green and sustainable chemistry as well as briefly pointing out the connection to the energy sector.

  5. The twelve principles of CO2 Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Leitner, Walter; Streng, Emelia S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of 12 Principles, based on the acronym CO2 CHEMISTRY, which are intended to form a set of criteria for assessing the viability of different processes or reactions for using CO2 as a feedstock for making organic chemicals. The principles aim to highlight the synergy of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) with the components of green and sustainable chemistry as well as briefly pointing out the connection to the energy sector.

  6. Trapping atmospheric CO2 with gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Alba; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Webb, Paul B; Kruger, Hedi; Bühl, Michael; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P

    2014-10-07

    The ability of gold-hydroxides to fix CO2 is reported. [Au(IPr)(OH)] and [{Au(IPr)}2(μ-OH)][BF4] react with atmospheric CO2 to form the trigold carbonate complex [{Au(IPr)}3(μ(3)-CO3)][BF4]. Reactivity studies revealed that this complex behaves as two basic and one cationic Au centres, and that it is catalytically active. DFT calculations and kinetic experiments have been carried out.

  7. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  8. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  9. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  10. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  11. On the Vertical Gradient in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, A. R.; Fung, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Attempts to constrain surface fluxes of carbon from atmospheric measurements of carbon dioxide have primarily focused on surface boundary layer measurements, because information about surface fluxes is least diluted close to the locations where the fluxes occur. However, errors in model ventilation of air in the vertical can be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes. Satellites which measure column integrated CO2 are expected to represent a major advance in part because they observe the entire atmospheric column. Recent work has highlighted the fact that vertical gradients in carbon concentrations can give us information about where vertical mixing errors are likely to be misinterpreted as local surface fluxes, but passive tracer evidence suggests that models that capture vertical profiles on the ocean do poorly on the land (and vice versa), suggesting that the problem of correctly treating vertical mixing in inverse studies is more fundamental than picking the "best" model. We consider observations of the vertical gradient in CO2 from aircrafts and from a comparison of satellites that observe in the near infrared (which observe the column integrated CO2 field) and the thermal infrared (which observe the upper troposphere). We evaluate the feasibility of using these satellites for determining the vertical gradient in CO2. We examine how observations of the vertical gradient of CO2 allow us to differentiate the imprint of vertical mixing and the imprint in surface fluxes on the observed field of atmospheric CO2.

  12. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  13. Actividad del (2E-3-(2, 3-dimetoxifenil-1-(4-metilfenil prop-2-en-1-ona en presencia del poli(ácido maleico-co-2-vinil-pirrolidona sobre un aislamiento clínico de Staphylococcus aureus productor de β-lactamasas = Activity of (2E-3-(2, 3-dimetoxifenil-1-(4-metilfenil prop-2-en-1-ona in the presence of poli(maleic acid-co-2-vinyl-pyrrolidone on a b-lactamase producing clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arenas Fernández, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: debido a la problemática actual de fármaco-resistencia hacia los antibióticos b-lactámicos, se ha hecho necesario, en busca de una solución, trabajar con nuevas moléculas con potencial farmacológico, así como utilizar novedosos sistemas poliméricos como matrices o excipientes farmacéuticos.Objetivo: evaluar la actividad antibiótica de la ampicilina, combinada con un compuesto sintético de tipo chalcona, denominado (2E-3-(2,3-dimetoxifenil-1-(4-metilfenilprop-2-en- 1-ona, sobre un aislamiento clínico de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a penicilinas, en presencia de una matriz polimérica hidrosoluble denominada poli(ácido maleico-co-2-vinilpirrolidona.Materiales y métodos: el compuesto sintético y la matriz polimérica se obtuvieron por métodos descritos en la literatura. Se usó un aislamiento clínico de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a penicilinas y se hicieron ensayos de actividad antibiótica por la técnica de macrodilución en caldo, de la cual se obtuvieron las concentraciones inhibidoras mínimas de los compuestos evaluados.Resultados: la mezcla ampicilina-chalcona muestra un efecto antibiótico menor que el de su referente ampicilina-sulbactam. No obstante, cuando se utiliza la matriz polimérica en combinación con la ampicilina-chalcona se aprecia un incremento significativo de la actividad antibiótica, evidenciado en que la concentración inhibidora mínima es la mitad de la del referente comercial.

  14. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  15. Application of CO2 in BOF%转炉应用CO2技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雪峰; 曹东; 刘祥; 朱晓雷; 廖相巍

    2015-01-01

    By the thermodynamic analysis of top blowing CO2 in the converter,combined with laboratory simulation re-sult of top blowing O2+CO2 mixture gas in converter,some key parameters of CO2 used in converter were established. It is concluded that although pure CO2 injected in the converter could achieve decarburize,the drop of temperature was rath-er large. When the CO2 supplying intensity was 3.0 m3/(t·min),the reduction of temperature was 15.1℃/min;By blow-ing O2+CO2 mixture gas,temperature balance could be realized,but the largest theoretical proportion of CO2 in mixture gas was 79.1%;with the increase of CO2 proportion,the carbon and oxygen product of molten steel at the blowing end was reduced,under the condition of φ(CO2)∶φ(O2)=1∶1,the carbon and oxygen product could be controlled in the range of (25~32)×10-8.%通过对转炉顶吹CO2的热力学分析,结合实验室模拟转炉顶吹O2+CO2混合气体试验结果,确立了CO2在转炉中应用的关键参数。得出在转炉中顶吹纯CO2虽可脱碳,但温降较大,顶吹CO2供气强度为3.0 m3/(t·min)时,钢液温降速率为15.1℃/min;通过喷吹O2+CO2混合气体可实现温度平衡,但CO2配比的最大理论比例为79.1%;随着混合气体中CO2比例增大,吹炼终点钢液碳氧积降低,当φ(CO2)∶φ(O2)=1∶1时可控碳氧积为(25~32)×10-8。

  16. Precursory volcanic CO2 signals from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kataoka, Fumie; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Identification of earliest signals heralding volcanic unrest benefits from the unambiguous detection of precursors that reflect deviation of magmatic systems from metastable background activity. Ascent and emplacement of new basaltic magma at depth may precede eruptions by weeks to months. Transient localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stemming from exsolution from depressurized magma are expected, and have been observed weeks to months ahead of magmatic surface activity. Detecting such CO2 precursors by continuous ground-based monitoring operations is unfortunately not a widely implemented method yet, save a handful of volcanoes. Detecting CO2 emissions from space offers obvious advantages - however it is technologically challenging, not the least due to the increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, against which a surface emission signal is hard to discern. In a multi-year project, we have investigated the feasibility of space-borne detection of pre-eruptive volcanic CO2 passive degassing signals using observations from the Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Since 2010, we have observed over 40 active volcanoes from space using GOSAT's special target mode. Over 72% of targets experienced at least one eruption over that time period, demonstrating the potential utility of space-borne CO2 observations in non-imaging target-mode (point source monitoring mode). While many eruption precursors don't produce large enough CO2 signals to exceed space-borne detection thresholds of current satellite sensors, some of our observations have nevertheless already shown significant positive anomalies preceding eruptions at basaltic volcanoes. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from the single-shot GOSAT instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath can slice

  17. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines for CO2 capture: designing for mesoporous CO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Seung Su; Choi, Ung Su

    2011-09-15

    CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket".

  18. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  19. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  20. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-05-16

    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO2-brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO2-wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO2-wet. Note that CO2-wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO2-wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO2-wettability and the ability to

  1. Carbon Dioxide Clusters: (CO_2)_6 to (CO_2)13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Oliaee, J. Norooz; Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2011-06-01

    We recenty reported assignments of specific infrared bands in the CO_2 νb{3} region (˜2350 wn) to (CO_2)_6, (CO_2)_7, (CO_2)_9, (CO_2)10, (CO_2)11, (CO_2)12, and (CO_2)13. Spectra are obtained by direct absorption using a rapid-scan tuneable diode laser spectrometer to probe a pulsed supersonic slit-jet expansion and assignments are facilitated by recent calculations of Takeuchi based on the Murthy potential. (CO_2)_6 is a symmetric top with S_6 point group symmetry which can be thought of as a stack of two planar cyclic trimers. (CO_2)13 is also an S_6 symmetric top, and consists of a single CO_2 monomer surrounded by an slightly distorted icosahedral cage. The remaining clusters are asymmetric tops without symmetry. Here we report additional CO_2 cluster results. Calculations based on the SAPT-s potential indicate that the structure of (CO_2)10 may be slightly different from that given by Takeuchi/Murthy. An additional band is observed for each of (CO_2)13 and (CO_2)10. A feature observed at 2378.2 wn is assigned as a (CO_2)_6 parallel combination band involving the sum of a fundamental and a low-lying intermolecular vibration. Most significantly, two bands are assigned to a second isomer of (CO_2)_6. This is also a symmetric top, but now with S_4 symmetry. The two symmetric hexamer isomers observed spectroscopically correspond well with the lowest energy structures given by both the SAPT-s and Murthy intermolecular potentials. [1] J. Norooz Oliaee, M. Dehgany, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, and A.R.W. McKellar, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 1297 (2011). [2] H. Takeuchi, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5703 (2008); C.S. Murthy, S.F. O'Shea, and I.R. McDonald, Mol. Phys. 50, 531 (1983). [3] R. Bukowski, J. Sadlej, B. Jeziorski, P. Jankowski, K. Szalewicz, S.A. Kucharski, H.L. Williams, and B.M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 3785 (1999)

  2. CO2 and CO Simulations and Their Source Signature Indicated by CO/CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Randy; Huisheng, Bian

    2004-01-01

    Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS-4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes fiom the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.

  3. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co...... profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future.......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  4. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co...... not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future.......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  5. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily......, a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...

  6. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2-HX complexes using the CO2 asymmetric stretch chromophore: CO2HF(DF) and CO2HCl(DCl) linear and CO2HBr bent equilibrium geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, S. W.; Zeng, Y. P.; Wittig, C.; Beaudet, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra associated with the CO2 asymmetric stretch vibration have been recorded for weakly bonded gas-phase complexes of CO2 with HF, DF, HCl, DCl, and HBr, using tunable diode laser spectroscopy and a pulsed slit expansion (0.15×38 mm2) that provides >20 MHz overall resolution. Results obtained with CO2-HF are in agreement with earlier studies, in which the HF-stretch region near 3900 cm-1 was examined. In both cases, broad linewidths suggest subnanosecond predissociation. With CO2-DF, the natural linewidths are markedly narrower than with CO2-HF (e.g., 28 vs 182 MHz), and this difference is attributed to slower predissociation, possibly implicating resonances in the case of CO2-HF. Both CO2-HF and CO2-DF exhibited overlapping features: simple P and R branches associated with a linear rotor, and P and R branches containing doublets. As in earlier studies, the second feature can be assigned to either a slightly asymmetric rotor with Ka=1, or a hot band involving a low-frequency intermolecular bend mode. Results obtained with CO2-HCl are in excellent agreement with earlier microwave measurements on the ground vibrational state, and the vibrationally excited state is almost identical to the lower state. Like CO2-DF, linewidths of CO2-HCl and CO2-DCl are much sharper than those of CO2-HF, and in addition, CO2-HCl and CO2-DCl exhibited weak hot bands, as were also evident with CO2-HF and CO2-DF. Upon forming complexes with either HF or HCl, the asymmetric stretch mode of CO2 underwent a blue shift relative to uncomplexed CO2. This can be understood in terms of the nature of the hydrogen bonds, and ab initio calculations are surprisingly good at predicting these shifts. Deuteration of both HF and HCl resulted in further blue shifts of the band origins. These additional shifts are attributed to stronger intermolecular interactions, i.e., deuteration lowers the zero-point energy, and in a highly anharmonic field this results in a more compact average

  7. Investigation into optimal CO2 concentration for CO2 capture from aluminium production

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Anette; Sørensen, Henriette; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Müller, Gunn-Iren

    2013-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from aluminum production has been simulated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Hysys. The technology used for aluminum production is the Hall-Héroult and the current cell design necessitates that large amounts of false air is supplied to the cells. This results in a CO2 concentration in the process gas at around 1 vol%, which is considered uneconomical for CO2 capture. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to evaluate the CO2 capture from aluminum production when the process g...

  8. Measuring Nitrous Oxide Mass Transfer into Non-Aqueous CO2BOL CO2 Capture Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Freeman, Charles J.; Zwoster, Andy; Heldebrant, David J.

    2016-03-28

    This paper investigates CO2 absorption behavior in CO2BOL solvents by decoupling the physical and chemical effects using N2O as a non-reactive mimic. Absorption measurements were performed using a wetted-wall contactor. Testing was performed using a “first generation” CO2 binding organic liquid (CO2BOL), comprised of an independent base and alcohol. Measurements were made with N2O at a lean (0.06 mol CO2/mol BOL) and rich (0.26 mol CO2/mol BOL) loading, each at three temperatures (35, 45 and 55 °C). Liquid-film mass transfer coefficients (kg') were calculated by subtracting the gas film resistance – determined from a correlation from literature – from the overall mass transfer measurement. The resulting kg' values for N2O in CO2BOLs were found to be higher than that of 5 M aqueous MEA under comparable conditions, which is supported by published measurements of Henry’s coefficients for N2O in various solvents. These results suggest that the physical solubility contribution for CO2 absorption in CO2BOLs is greater than that of aqueous amines, an effect that may pertain to other non-aqueous solvents.

  9. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2 geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO2 injection. CO2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number.

  10. The Abundance of Atmospheric CO2 in Ocean Exoplanets: a Novel CO2 Deposition Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D.; Podolak, M.

    2017-03-01

    We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction large enough to form an external mantle composed of high-pressure water-ice polymorphs and also lack a substantial H/He atmosphere. We consider such planets in their habitable zone, so that their outermost condensed mantle is a global, deep, liquid ocean. For these ocean planets, we investigate potential internal reservoirs of CO2, the amount of CO2 dissolved in the ocean for the various saturation conditions encountered, and the ocean-atmosphere exchange flux of CO2. We find that, in a steady state, the abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere has two possible states. When wind-driven circulation is the dominant CO2 exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of tens of bars of CO2 results, where the exact value depends on the subtropical ocean surface temperature and the deep ocean temperature. When sea-ice formation, acting on these planets as a CO2 deposition mechanism, is the dominant exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of a few bars of CO2 is established. The exact value depends on the subpolar surface temperature. Our results suggest the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism, unique to water planets, where a reduction in the subpolar temperature drives more CO2 into the atmosphere to increase the greenhouse effect.

  11. Metal-CO2 Batteries on the Road: CO2 from Contamination Gas to Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaojun; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-01-20

    Rechargeable nonaqueous metal-air batteries attract much attention for their high theoretical energy density, especially in the last decade. However, most reported metal-air batteries are actually operated in a pure O2 atmosphere, while CO2 and moisture in ambient air can significantly impact the electrochemical performance of metal-O2 batteries. In the study of CO2 contamination on metal-O2 batteries, it has been gradually found that CO2 can be utilized as the reactant gas alone; namely, metal-CO2 batteries can work. On the other hand, investigations on CO2 fixation are in focus due to the potential threat of CO2 on global climate change, especially for its steadily increasing concentration in the atmosphere. The exploitation of CO2 in energy storage systems represents an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . Here, the aim is to provide a timely summary of recent achievements in metal-CO2 batteries, and inspire new ideas for new energy storage systems. Moreover, critical issues associated with reaction mechanisms and potential directions for future studies are discussed.

  12. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  13. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  14. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Water purification technologies such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles, or so-called diffusiophoresis. Due to the large diffusion potential built up by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Our findings suggest a means to separate particles without membranes or filters, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits very low pressure drop and is essentially free from fouling.

  15. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaat, B.; Ostrega, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra pixel layer in the space obtained by a smaller radius beam pipe. This new pixel layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) was installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the expected high radiation dose received at an integrated luminosity of 550 fb1. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  16. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... promising mass transfer rate promoter for CCS. This process has been previously been tested successfully in lab scale and in some rare cases in pilot scale, but no validated process model for this technology has been published yet. This PhD thesis presents an investigation of the feasibility of enzyme...... enzyme kinetic model and validating it against in-house pilot plant experiments. The work consisted of identifying a suitable enzyme-solvent system and the ideal process conditions by comparing mass transfer rates of different solvents and enzyme enhanced solvents in a lab scale wetted wall column...

  17. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...... monotonously. Such a variation is caused by scalar advection in the trunk space and reveals itself as a decrease or increase in vertical fluxes over the forest relative to carbon dioxide exchange of the underlying forest. The effect was more pronounced in model forests where the leaf area is concentrated...

  18. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  19. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  20. Local CO2-induced swelling of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    2017-04-01

    In heterogeneous shale rocks, CO2 adsorbs more strongly to organic matter than to the other components. CO2-induced swelling of organic matter has been shown in coal, which is pure carbon. The heterogeneity of the shale matrix makes an interesting case study. Can local swelling through adsorption of CO2 to organic matter induce strain in the surrounding shale matrix? Can fractures close due to CO2-induced swelling of clays and organic matter? We have developed a new generation of microfluidic high pressure cells (up to 100 bar), which can be used to study flow and adsorption phenomena at the microscale in natural geo-materials. The devices contain one transparent side and a shale sample on the other side. The shale used is the Pomeranian shale, extracted from 4 km depth in Poland. This formation is a potential target of a combined CO2-storage and gas extraction project. To answer the first question, we place the pressure cell under a Veeco NT1100 Interferometer, operated in Vertical Scanning Interferometry mode and equipped with a Through Transmissive Media objective. This allows for observation of local swelling or organic matter with nanometer vertical resolution and micrometer lateral resolution. We expose the sample to CO2 atmospheres at different pressures. Comparison of the interferometry data and using SEM-EDS maps plus optical microscopy delivers local swelling maps where we can distinguish swelling of different mineralogies. Preliminary results indicate minor local swelling of organic matter, where the total amount is both time- and pressure-dependent.

  1. Do Tree Stems Recapture Respired CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilman, B.; Angert, A.

    2016-12-01

    Tree stem respiration is an important, yet not well understood, component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Predicting how trees as whole organisms respond to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 requires understanding of the variability in the fraction of assimilated carbon allocated to respiration, versus the allocation to growth, damage repair, and to rhizosphere symbionts. Here we used the ratio of CO2 efflux/O2 influx (Apparent Respiratory Quotient, ARQ) to study stem respiration. The ARQ in trees stems is predicted to be 1.0, as a result of carbohydrates metabolism. Lower than 1.0 ARQ values may indicate a local assimilation of respired CO2, or dissolution and transport of CO2 in the xylem stream. We measured stems ARQ in 16 tree species at tropical, Mediterranean and temperate ecosystems using stem chambers and in-vitro incubations. The CO2 and O2 were measured by a system we developed, which is based on an IRGA and a Fuel-cell O2 analyzer (Hilman and Angert 2016). We found typical values of ARQ in the range of 0.4-0.8. Since incubations of detach stem tissues yielded similar ARQ values, and since the influence of natural variations in the transpiration stream on ARQ was found to be small, we conclude that the removal of the respired CO2 is not via dissolution in the xylem stream. Using 13C labeling, dark fixation of stem tissues was detected, which is most probably phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) mediated. Hence, we suggest that in-stem dark fixation of respired CO2 to organic acids (e.g. malate) affects the outgoing efflux. Further research should determine if these organic acids are transported to the canopy, stored in the stem, or transported to the roots to serve as exudates. Hilman B, Angert A (2016) Measuring the ratio of CO2 efflux to O2 influx in tree stem respiration. Tree Physiol 2016, doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpw057

  2. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...... concerns of the potential measures within those intervention areas: • Reductions in the need to travel • Improved efficiency of the transport system • Improved fuel efficiency of transport activities • Reduced CO2 intensity of the fuels Within each area a number of measures were analysed. The measures...

  3. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  4. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... perspectives for decreasing the heat requirement. However, a scientific understanding of the processes is required. The thermodynamic properties of the NH3–CO2–H2O system were described using the extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model developed by Thomsen and Rasmussen in a temperature range from 0 to 110°C...

  5. Leak Path Development in CO2 Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsater, M.; Todorovic, J.; Opedal, N.; Lavrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Wells have in numerous scientific works been denoted the "weak link" of safe and cost-efficient CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Whether they are active or abandoned, all wells are man-made intrusions into the storage reservoir with sealing abilities depending on degradable materials like steel and cement. If dense CO2 is allowed to expand (e.g. due to leakage) it will cool down its surroundings and cause strong thermal and mechanical loading on the wellbore. In addition, CO2 reacts chemically with rock, cement and steel. To ensure long-term underground containment, it is therefore necessary to study how, why, where and when leakage occurs along CO2wells. If cement bonding to rock or casing is poor, leak paths can form already during drilling and completion of the well. In the present work, we have mapped the bonding quality of cement-rock and cement-steel interfaces - and measured their resistance towards CO2 flow. This involved a large experimental matrix including different rocks, steels, cement types and well fluids. The bonding qualities were measured on composite cores using micro computed tomography (µ-CT), and CO2 was flooded through the samples to determine leakage rates. These were further compared to numerical simulations of leakage through the digitalized µ-CT core data, and CO2chemical interactions with the materials were mapped using electron microscopy. We also present a new laboratory set-up for measuring how well integrity is affected by downhole temperature variations - and we showcase some initial results. Our work concludes that leak path development in CO2 wells depends critically on the drilling fluids and presflushes/spacers chosen already during drilling and completion of a well. Fluid films residing on rock and casing surfaces strongly degrade the quality of cement bonding. The operation of the well is also important, as even slight thermal cycling (between 10°C and 95°C on casing) leads to significant de-bonding of the annular cement.

  6. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended. A counter......-productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin...

  7. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  8. Multi-technique monitoring of CO2 leakage from an engineered CO2 leakage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Apple, M. E.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of canopy and soil geophysical and geochemical properties in vadose zone by multiple techniques were carried out from 1999 to 2012 using an engineered CO2 release to simulate the CO2 leakage from CO2 storage at an agricultural plot at Bozeman, MT. The CO2 release was based on a horizontally-drilled well of 100 m at a depth of about 2.0-2.3m (Fig.1). Techniques utilized include hyperspectral and infrared radiation of various vegetations, electric conductivity in soil, magnetic field at the ground surface, and soil gas composition and dynamics using various gas sensors and soil moisture sensors. Measurements were made at several sites along a transect perpendicular to the releasing well, along which the soil CO2 concentration attenuated from high to normal condition at control site. The response of the canopy hyperspectral reflectance, infrared radiation, soil geophysical properties such as soil electric conductivity, top soil magnetic susceptibility and magnetic field, soil gas composition such as CO2 and O2 concentration to CO2 release at different rates were quantified and will be shown at this presentation. Fig.2 shows some examples of the results. The different responses at the impact and control sites are used to assess the effectiveness for CO2 surface and near-surface detection when a possible CO2 leakage occurs.ig.1. A schematic showing the injection and release of CO2 at an agricultral plot in Bozeman, MT. ig.2. Some examples of results showing the response of vegetation, hyperspectral reflectance, soil electric conductivity, soil O2 concentration to the release of CO2.

  9. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the inferr

  10. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the inferr

  11. The Abundance of Atmospheric CO2 in Ocean Exoplanets: A Novel CO2 Deposition Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Amit; Podolak, Morris

    2016-01-01

    We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction that is large enough to form an external mantle composed of high pressure water ice polymorphs and that lack a substantial H/He atmosphere. We consider such planets in their habitable zone so that their outermost condensed mantle is a global deep liquid ocean. For these ocean planets we investigate potential internal reservoirs of CO2; the amount of CO2 dissolved in the ocean for the various saturation conditions encountered, and the ocean-atmosphere exchange flux of CO2. We find that in steady state the abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere has two possible states. When the wind-driven circulation is the dominant CO2 exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of tens of bars of CO2 results, where the exact value depends on the subtropical ocean surface temperature and the deep ocean temperature. When sea-ice formation, acting on these planets as a CO2 deposition mechanism, is the dominant exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of a few bars of CO2 is esta...

  12. Projecting human development and CO2 emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

  13. The mechanical impact of CO2 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Schroot, B.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical impact of CO2 injection into a depleted hydrocarbon field or aquifer is caused by changes in the stress field, resulting from changes in the pore pressure and volume of the rock. Mechanical processes can lead to the loss of reservoir and caprock integrity, and the reactivation of exis

  14. 50 years of CO2 experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyree, L. Jr [Liquid Carbonic Corp., PRAXAIR Inc., Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An overview is given of the experiences with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant at the Liquid Carbonic Corporation, now owned by PRAXAIR Inc. The overview is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets, presented in Session 2 on Applications

  15. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  16. Kosten en baten CO2-emissiereductie maatregelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, B.; Tieben, B.; Weda, J.; Hekkenberg, M.; Smekens, K.; Vethman, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment has requested the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and SEO Economic Research (SEO) to investigate the costs and benefits of a broad range of technical measures to realise CO2 emission reductions. The research aims to identify th

  17. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a to

  18. CO2 laser used in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chenglie

    1993-03-01

    Cases of various kinds of warts, nevi, papillomas, skin angiomas, ephilises, skin vegetation, scars and brandy noses were vaporized and solidified with a 2.5 - 8 W low power CO2 laser with an overall satisfaction rate up to 99.8% and the satisfaction rate for one time 92%.

  19. Warming the early Earth - CO2 reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Von Paris, P; Grenfell, L; Patzer, B; Hedelt, P; Stracke, B; Trautmann, T; Schreier, F

    2008-01-01

    Despite a fainter Sun, the surface of the early Earth was mostly ice-free. Proposed solutions to this so-called "faint young Sun problem" have usually involved higher amounts of greenhouse gases than present in the modern-day atmosphere. However, geological evidence seemed to indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Archaean and Proterozoic were far too low to keep the surface from freezing. With a radiative-convective model including new, updated thermal absorption coefficients, we found that the amount of CO2 necessary to obtain 273 K at the surface is reduced up to an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. For the late Archaean and early Proterozoic period of the Earth, we calculate that CO2 partial pressures of only about 2.9 mb are required to keep its surface from freezing which is compatible with the amount inferred from sediment studies. This conclusion was not significantly changed when we varied model parameters such as relative humidity or surface albedo, obtaining CO2 ...

  20. Agriculture waste and rising CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, there are many uncertainties concerning agriculture’s role in global environmental change including the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A viable and stable world food supply depends on productive agricultural systems, but environmental concerns within agriculture have to...

  1. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.

    1994-05-01

    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  2. Sustainable Process Networks for CO2 Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, P.; Pavarajam, V.

    carbonate and ethylene carbonate are just some of the possible products that can be formed. Each of these involves CO2 and a co-reactant, such as hydrogen, which may also be captured from process purge streams. The process network evolves as some of the reactions involve products from other reactions...

  3. Economic optimization of CO2 pipeline configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an economic optimization tool is developed taking into account different steel grades, inlet pressure, diameter and booster stations for point-to-point pipelines as well as for simple networks. Preliminary results show that gaseous CO2 transport is cost effective for relatively smal

  4. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album...

  5. Rhizosphere Responses to Elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drigo, B.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; de Bruijn, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to have major consequences on C cycling and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Experimentation during the last two to three decades using a large variety of approaches have provided sufficient information to conclude that the enrichment of atmosphe

  6. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  7. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ammoura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical

  8. CO2 adsorption isotherm on clay minerals and the CO2 accessibility into the clay interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Rother, Gernot; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale CO2 storage in porous rock formations at 1-3 km depth is seen as a global warming mitigation strategy. In this process, CO2 is separated from the flue gas of coal or gas power plants, compressed, and pumped into porous subsurface reservoirs with overlying caprocks (seals). Good seals are mechanically and chemically stable caprocks with low porosity and permeability. They prevent leakage of buoyant CO2 from the reservoir. Caprocks are generally comprised of thick layers of shale, and thus mainly consist of clay minerals. These clays can be affected by CO2-induced processes, such as swelling or dissolution. The interactions of CO2 with clay minerals in shales are at present poorly understood. Sorption measurements in combination scattering techniques could provide fundamental insight into the mechanisms governing CO2-clay interaction. Volumetric sorption techniques have assessed the sorption of supercritical CO2 onto coal (Gensterblum et al., 2010; Gensterblum et al., 2009), porous silica (Rother et al., 2012a) and clays as a means of exploring the potential of large-scale storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological reservoirs (Busch et al., 2008). On different clay minerals and shales, positive values of excess sorption were measured at gas pressures up to 6 MPa, where the interfacial fluid is assumed to be denser than the bulk fluid. However, zero and negative values were obtained at higher densities, which suggests the adsorbed fluid becomes equal to and eventually less dense than the corresponding bulk fluid, or that the clay minerals expand on CO2 charging. Using a combination of neutron diffraction and excess sorption measurements, we recently deduced the interlayer density of scCO2 in Na-montmorillonite clay in its single-layer hydration state (Rother et al., 2012b), and confirmed its low density, as well as the expansion of the basal spacings. We performed neutron diffraction experiments at the FRMII diffractometer on smectite, kaolinite and illite

  9. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  10. Effects of dissolved CO2 on Shallow Freshwater Microbial Communities simulating a CO2 Leakage Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, D. M.; Lowry, G. V.; Gregory, K.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration is likely to be part of a comprehensive strategy to minimize the atmospheric release of greenhouse gasses, establishing a concern of sequestered CO2 leakage into overlying potable aquifers. Leaking CO2 may affect existing biogeochemical processes and therefore water quality. There is a critical need to understand the evolution of CO2 exposed microbial communities that influence the biogeochemistry in these freshwater aquifers. The evolution of microbial ecology for different CO2 exposure concentrations was investigated using fluid-slurry samples obtained from a shallow freshwater aquifer (55 m depth, 0.5 MPa, 22 °C, Escatawpa, MS). The microbial community of well samples upstream and downstream of CO2 injection was characterized. In addition, batch vessel experiments were conducted with the upstream aquifer samples exposed to varying pCO2 from 0% to 100% under reservoir temperature and pressure for up to 56 days. The microbial community of the in situ experiment and the batch reactor experiment were analyzed with 16S rRNA clone libraries and qPCR. In both the in situ experiment and the batch reactor experiment, DNA concentration did not correlate with CO2 exposure. Both the in situ experiment and the batch reactors displayed a changing microbial community with increased CO2 exposure. The well water isolate, Curvibacter, appeared to be the most tolerant genus to high CO2 concentrations in the in situ experiments and to mid-CO2 concentrations in the batch reactors. In batch reactors with pCO2 concentrations higher than experienced in situ (pCO2 = 0.5 MPa), Pseudomonas appeared to be the most tolerant genus. Findings provide insight into a dynamic biogeochemical system that will alter with CO2 exposure. Adapted microbial populations will eventually give rise to the community that will impact the metal mobility and water quality. Knowledge of the surviving microbial populations will enable improved models for predicting the fate of CO2

  11. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  13. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G

    2015-05-01

    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A cross-association model for CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-association model was proposed for CO2-alcohol mixtures based on the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT).CO2 was treated as a pseudo-associating molecule and both the self-association between alcohol hydroxyls and the cross-association between CO2 and alcohol hydroxyls were considered.The equilibrium properties from low temperature-pressure to high temperature-pressure were investigated using this model.The calculated p-x and p-p diagrams of CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures agreed with the experimental data.The results showed that when the cross-association was taken into account for Helmholtz free energy,the calculated equilibrium properties could be significantly improved,and the error prediction of the three phase equilibria and triple points in low temperature regions could be avoided.

  15. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram

    2014-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  16. CO2 acquisition in Chlamydomonas acidophila is influenced mainly by CO2, not phosphorus, availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Elly; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Beardall, John

    2014-09-01

    The extremophilic green microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grows in very acidic waters (pH 2.3-3.4), where CO2 is the sole inorganic carbon source. Previous work has revealed that the species can accumulate inorganic carbon (Ci) and exhibits high affinity CO2 utilization under low-CO2 (air-equilibrium) conditions, similar to organisms with an active CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), whereas both processes are down-regulated under high CO2 (4.5 % CO2) conditions. Responses of this species to phosphorus (Pi)-limited conditions suggested a contrasting regulation of the CCM characteristics. Therefore, we measured external carbonic anhydrase (CAext) activities and protein expression (CAH1), the internal pH, Ci accumulation, and CO2-utilization in cells adapted to high or low CO2 under Pi-replete and Pi-limited conditions. Results reveal that C. acidophila expressed CAext activity and expressed a protein cross-reacting with CAH1 (the CAext from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Although the function of this CA remains unclear, CAext activity and high affinity CO2 utilization were the highest under low CO2 conditions. C. acidophila accumulated Ci and expressed the CAH1 protein under all conditions tested, and C. reinhardtii also contained substantial amounts of CAH1 protein under Pi-limitation. In conclusion, Ci utilization is optimized in C. acidophila under ecologically relevant conditions, which may enable optimal survival in its extreme Ci- and Pi-limited habitat. The exact physiological and biochemical acclimation remains to be further studied.

  17. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from −30.3 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (−3.39 kg C m−2 yr−1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (+2.6 kg C m−2 yr−1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding −32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential

  18. Explaining Dutch emissions of CO2; a decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Hoen; Machiel Mulder

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of CO2 data of the Netherlands shows that much progress has been made with reduction of CO2 emissions by changing to less CO2 intensive technologies. Moreover, demand shifted to products that are produced with less CO2 emission. Further, shifts in the inputs needed in the production process also managed to decrease the CO2 emissions. These effects, however, were more than compensated by increased CO2 emission due to economic growth. Especially growth in exports led to substantia...

  19. Detection of CO2 leakage by the surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system in a small scale CO2 release test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gitak; Yu, Soonyoung; Sung, Ki-Sung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Han, Raehee; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Park, Kwon Gyu

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of CO2 release through the ground surface is essential to testify the safety of CO2 storage projects. We conducted a feasibility study of the multi-channel surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system as a soil CO2 monitoring tool with a small scale injection. In the system, chambers are attached onto the ground surface, and NDIR sensors installed in each chamber detect CO2 in soil gas released through the soil surface. Before injection, the background CO2 concentrations were measured. They showed the distinct diurnal variation, and were positively related with relative humidity, but negatively with temperature. The negative relation of CO2 measurements with temperature and the low CO2 concentrations during the day imply that CO2 depends on respiration. The daily variation of CO2 concentrations was damped with precipitation, which can be explained by dissolution of CO2 and gas release out of pores through the ground surface with recharge. For the injection test, 4.2 kg of CO2 was injected 1 m below the ground for about 30 minutes. In result, CO2 concentrations increased in all five chambers, which were located less than 2.5 m of distance from an injection point. The Chamber 1, which is closest to the injection point, showed the largest increase of CO2 concentrations; while Chamber 2, 3, and 4 showed the peak which is 2 times higher than the average of background CO2. The CO2 concentrations increased back after decreasing from the peak around 4 hours after the injection ended in Chamber 2, 4, and 5, which indicated that CO2 concentrations seem to be recovered to the background around 4 hours after the injection ended. To determine the leakage, the data in Chamber 2 and 5, which had low increase rates in the CO2 injection test, were used for statistical analysis. The result shows that the coefficient of variation (CV) of CO2 measurements for 30 minutes is efficient to determine a leakage signal, with reflecting the abnormal change in CO2

  20. Geochemical monitoring of water discharges and dissolved gases in the co2 injection site of Hontomin (Burgos, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Elio Medina, Javier de; Ortega Romero, Marcelo Fabián; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe; Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Caballero, Juan; Grandia, Fidel; Delgado, Antonio; García González, Jerónimo Emilio; Vilanova, Ester; García Martínez, María Jesús; Llamas Borrajo, Juan Francisco

    2011-01-01

    En el marco del Programa de Almacenamiento Geológico de CO2 del Proyecto EEPR Compostilla, liderado por la Fundación Ciudad de la Energía (CIUDEN), se ha establecido una red de monitorización de geoquímica de aguas y gases disueltos en la zona seleccionada para la inyección de CO2 en Hontomín (Burgos, España). Esta red va a poder permitir detectar cambios relacionados con potenciales fugas de CO2 desde el acuífero almacén.Se han determinado las concentraciones de iones mayoritarios, minoritar...

  1. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  2. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  3. CO2-helium and CO2-neon mixtures at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, B; Ninet, S; Le Marchand, G; Munsch, P; Datchi, F

    2013-01-28

    The properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with helium or neon have been investigated as a function of CO(2) concentration and pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. The binary phase diagrams of these mixtures are determined over the full range of CO(2) concentrations using visual observations and Raman scattering measurements. Both diagrams are of eutectic type, with a fluid-fluid miscibility gap for CO(2) concentrations in the range [5, 75] mol. % for He and [8, 55] mol. % for Ne, and a complete separation between the two components in the solid phase. The absence of alloys or stoichiometric compounds for these two binary systems is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules of hard sphere mixtures. The Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns of solid CO(2) embedded in He or Ne for various initial concentrations have been measured up to 30 GPa and 12 GPa, respectively. The frequencies of the Raman modes and the volume of solid phase I are identical, within error bars, to those reported for 100% CO(2) samples, thus confirming the total immiscibility of CO(2) with He and Ne in the solid phase. These results demonstrate the possibility to perform high-pressure experiments on solid CO(2) under (quasi-)hydrostatic conditions using He or Ne as pressure transmitting medium.

  4. On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hirsch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of its ubiquitous release on land and well-characterized atmospheric loss, radon-222 has been very useful for deducing fluxes of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O. It is shown here that the radon-tracer method, used in previous studies to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas fluxes, returns a weighted-average flux (the flux field F weighted by the sensitivity of the measurements to that flux field, f rather than an evenly-weighted spatial average flux. A synthetic data study using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and modeled CO2 fluxes suggests that the discrepancy between the sensitivity-weighted average flux and evenly-weighted spatial average flux can be significant in the case of CO2, due to covariance between F and f for biospheric CO2 fluxes during the growing season and also for anthropogenic CO2 fluxes in general. A technique is presented to correct the radon-tracer derived fluxes to yield an estimate of evenly-weighted spatial average CO2 fluxes. A new method is also introduced for correcting the CO2 flux estimates for the effects of radon-222 radioactive decay in the radon-tracer method.

  5. On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hirsch

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of its ubiquitous release on land and well-characterized atmospheric loss, radon-222 has been very useful for deducing fluxes of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and N2O. It is shown here that the radon-tracer method, used in previous studies to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas fluxes, returns a weighted-average flux (the flux field F weighted by the sensitivity of the measurements to that flux field, f rather than an evenly-weighted spatial average flux. A synthetic data study using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and modeled CO2 fluxes suggests that the discrepancy between the sensitivity-weighted average flux and evenly-weighted spatial average flux can be significant in the case of CO2, due to covariance between F and f for biospheric CO2 fluxes during the growing season and also for anthropogenic CO2 fluxes in general. A technique is presented to correct the radon-tracer derived fluxes to yield an estimate of evenly-weighted spatial average CO2 fluxes. A new method is also introduced for correcting the CO2 flux estimates for the effects of radon-222 radioactive decay in the radon-tracer method.

  6. CO2驱油与埋存研究进展%Advances in CO2 Displacing Oil and CO2 Sequestrated Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢庆; 胡永乐; 田昌炳

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches was reviewed. Nowadays, CO2 displacing oil had got good economic benefits outside and was carried out oil field experiment inside. And CO2 sequestrated researches were in exploring stage all over the world. The key problems in CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches contained five parts, such as enlarging sweep volume of EOR, carrier and medium choice of CO2 sequestrated, the formation damage in the process of CO2 displacing oil, air source, industrial coordination and overall planning. Finally, several development directions of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches were proposed.%详细介绍了CO2驱油与埋存研究的现状。目前CO2驱油在国外已取得较好的经济效益,在国内正在进行矿场先导试验。而CO2埋存在国内外均处于探索阶段。CO2驱油与埋存研究中存在的问题主要包括提高采收率方面的扩大波及体积等关键问题、CO2埋存介质和方法的选择、CO2驱油对地层的伤害、CO2驱油与埋存的气源问题、CO2驱油与埋存产业协调和整体规划5大方面。指出了该项研究的发展趋势。图2表2参38

  7. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved by the SRON-KIT RemoTeC algorithm from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land–sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source–sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  8. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land-sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source-sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  9. The Relationship Between CO2 Levels and CO2 Related Symptoms Reported on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, M.; Law, J.; Foy, M.; Wear, M. L.; Mason, S.; Mendez, C.; Meyers, V.

    2014-01-01

    Medical Operations, Toxicology, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health collaborated to assess the association of CO2 levels on board the International Space Station and USOS crew reported symptoms inflight, i.e. headache and vision changes. Private Medical Conference (PMC) documents and the weekly Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) Notes were used to provide a robust data set of inflight medical events. All events and non-events were documented independent of CO2 levels and other potential contributors. Average (arithmetic mean) and single point maximum ppCO2 was calculated for the 24 hours and 7 days prior to the PMC or SMOT date and time provided by LSAH. Observations falling within the first 7 days of flight (147) were removed from the datasets analyzed to avoid confounding with Space Adaptation Syndrome. The final analysis was based on 1716 observations. For headache, 46 headaches were observed. CO2 level, age at launch, time inflight, and data source were all significantly associated with headache. In particular, for each 1 mmHg increase in CO2, the odds of a crewmember reporting a headache doubled. For vision changes, 29 reports of vision changes were observed. These observations were not found to be statistically associated with CO2 levels as analyzed. While the incidence of headache has was not high (3%), headaches may be an indicator of underlying increases in intracranial pressure, which may result likely from the synergy between CO2-induced cerebral vasodilatation and decreased venous drainage in microgravity. Vision changes were inconsistently reported and as a result did not align appropriately with the CO2 levels. Further analysis is needed. Our results support ongoing efforts to lower the CO2 exposure limits in spacecraft.

  10. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    OpenAIRE

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    PDF file available for free at http://pubs.ub.ro/?pg=revues&rev=cscc6&num=201011&vol=1&aid=2975; International audience; This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give so...

  11. CO2 mineralization-bridge between storage and utilization of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Hans; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2013-01-01

    CO2 mineralization comprises a chemical reaction between suitable minerals and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The CO2 is effectively sequestered as a carbonate, which is stable on geological timescales. In addition, the variety of materials that can be produced through mineralization could find applications in the marketplace, which makes implementation of the technology more attractive. In this article, we review recent developments and assess the current status of the CO2 mineralization field. In an outlook, we briefly describe a few mineralization routes, which upon further development have the potential to be implemented on a large scale.

  12. Dynamic breathing of CO2 by hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Sahoo, Pathik; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Labuta, Jan; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Ken; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Suehara, Shigeru; Iyi, Nobuo

    2013-12-04

    The carbon cycle of carbonate solids (e.g., limestone) involves weathering and metamorphic events, which usually occur over millions of years. Here we show that carbonate anion intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH), a class of hydrotalcite, undergoes an ultrarapid carbon cycle with uptake of atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by IR spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. Exchange is promoted by conditions of low humidity with a half-life of exchange of ~24 h. Since hydrotalcite-like clay minerals exist in Nature, our finding implies that the global carbon cycle involving exchange between lithosphere and atmosphere is much more dynamic than previously thought.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    performed satisfactorily and predicted the general behavior of the systems, but qCPA used fewer adjustable parameters to achieve similar predictions. It has been demonstrated that qCPA is a promising model which, compared to CPA, systematically improves the predictions of the experimentally determined phase......, accurate predictions of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing CO2 are challenging with classical models such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state (EoS). This is believed to be due to the fact, that CO2 has a large quadrupole moment which the classical models...... do not explicitly account for. In this thesis, in an attempt to obtain a physically more consistent model, the cubicplus association (CPA) EoS is extended to include quadrupolar interactions. The new quadrupolar CPA (qCPA) can be used with the experimental value of the quadrupolemoment...

  14. Streamer parameters and breakdown in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, M.; Avaheden, J.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Votteler, T.

    2017-01-01

    CO2 is a promising gas for the replacement of SF6 in high-voltage transmission and distribution networks due to its lower environmental impact. The insulation properties of CO2 are, therefore, of great interest. For this, the properties of streamers are important, since they determine the initial discharge propagation and possibly the transition to a leader. The present experimental investigation addresses the streamer inception and propagation at ambient temperature in the pressure range 0.05-0.5 MPa at both polarities. Streamer parameters, namely the stability field, radius and velocity, were deduced in uniform and in strongly non-uniform background fields. The measured breakdown fields can then be understood by streamer propagation and streamer-to-leader transition.

  15. CO2 Impacts on the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Stevenson, Rachel; Yelle, Roger

    2014-09-01

    The dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 140,000 km on 2014 Oct 19. This encounter is unique---a record close approach to a planet with spacecraft that can observe its passage---and currently, all 5 Mars orbiters have plans to observe the comet and/or its effects on the planet. Gas from the comet's coma is expected to collide with the Martian atmosphere, altering the abundances of some species and producing significant heating, inflating the upper atmosphere. We propose DDT observations with Spitzer/IRAC to measure the comet's CO2+CO coma (observing window Oct 30 - Nov 20), to use these measurements to derive the coma's CO2 density at Mars during the closest approach, and to aid the interpretation of any observed effects or changes in the Martian atmosphere.

  16. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  17. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  18. CO2 enhanced oil recovery economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Realistic estimates of potential enhanced oil recovery (EOR) reserve additions range from 15 to 50 billion bbl. Oil price, technical advancements, and taxation will strongly influence how much of this potential can be realized. EOR can be implemented on a large scale in the near term, and can contribute significantly to domestic oil production by the late 1980s. The contribution of CO2 injection recovery processes to this enhancement of oil reserves is examined with regard to economics and technology.

  19. Inbound Logistics Cost and CO2 Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kökler, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Business has globalized rapidly during the last decades. Distances between point of origin and point of consumption have increased as a result of globalization. Today’s increased distances mean that companies require faster logistic responses. Air transportation is preferred because it’s worldwide lead-time, of just 1-2 day, fulfill business expectations. However, transportation operation costs have risen dramatically and there are growing concerns about the high CO2 emission levels associate...

  20. Pulpotomies with CO2 laser in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of dental pulps submitted to shallow pulpotomy followed by CO2 laser radiation at five different procedures. For this purpose, initially 66 dogs' teeth were opened and about 2 or 3 mm of coronal dental pulp was removed. Continuous irrigation with saline solution was implemented. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 11 each. After cessation of bleeding, in group I, CO2 laser (Xanar-20, USA) was irradiated for 1 second at a power of 5 watts; in group II, 2 seconds at 3 watts; in Group III, 2 seconds at 5 watts; in Group IV, 1 second at 3 watts; in Group V, a continuous mode at 3 watts; Group VI served as a control, with no laser irradiation. The results showed no clinical differences between the 3 W and 5 W powers. Time period of irradiation exposition influenced definitively the clinical appearance of the dental pulps. Groups I and IV (1 second) were unable to stop the bleeding, which persisted over 15 minutes for all teeth. This may be due to the intense heat generated by CO2 laser, causing vasodilatation. Groups II and III displayed a similar appearance, but bleeding stopped in about 10 minutes. Group V (continuous mode) had no bleeding after irradiation, but a plasma-like liquid would come out for almost 2 minutes. When comparing to the control (Group VI), all the pulps would assume a jelly-like aspect, with black granulated tissue on the surface, covering totally the pulps of Group V and partially the other groups. The histological results will be discussed in a further study. From the data obtained, it seems that CO2 laser irradiation for pulpotomies should be done in a continuous mode, for clinical convenience in terms of time taken and effective irradiation.

  1. La captura de CO2 toma protagonismo en el Mercado Global de Emisiones

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Jul, María del Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Los derechos de emisiones y su localización son piezas claves para el desarrollo e implantación de las tecnologías de captura y almacenamiento de CO2 permitiendo una implementación efectiva del sistema de captura y mercado.

  2. CO2 cooling for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat; Van Lysebetten, A

    2008-01-01

    The new generation silicon detectors require more efficient cooling of the front-end electronics and the silicon sensors themselves. To minimize reverse annealing of the silicon sensors the cooling temperatures need to be reduced. Other important requirements of the new generation cooling systems are a reduced mass and a maintenance free operation of the hardware inside the detector. Evaporative CO2 cooling systems are ideal for this purpose as they need smaller tubes than conventional systems. The heat transfer capability of evaporative CO2 is high. CO2 is used as cooling fluid for the LHCb-VELO and the AMS-Tracker cooling systems. A special method for the fluid circulation is developed at Nikhef to get a very stable temperature of both detectors without any active components like valves or heaters inside. This method is called 2-phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) and is a good candidate technology for the design of the future cooling systems for the Atlas and CMS upgrades.

  3. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S. G. J.; Tayler, M. C. D.; Kentgens, A. P. M.; van Bentum, P. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for 1H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in 1H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4 ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4 T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  4. CO2 flux geothermometer for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Oladottir, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A new geothermometer (TCO2 Flux) is proposed based on soil diffuse CO2 flux and shallow temperature measurements made on areas of steam heated, thermally altered ground above active geothermal systems. This CO2 flux geothermometer is based on a previously reported CO2 geothermometer that was designed for use with fumarole analysis. The new geothermometer provides a valuable additional exploration tool for estimating subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. Mean TCO2 Flux estimates fall within the range of deep drill hole temperatures at Wairakei (New Zealand), Tauhara (New Zealand), Rotokawa (New Zealand), Ohaaki (New Zealand), Reykjanes (Iceland) and Copahue (Argentina). The spatial distribution of geothermometry estimates is consistent with the location of major upflow zones previously reported at the Wairakei and Rotokawa geothermal systems. TCO2 Flux was also evaluated at White Island (New Zealand) and Reporoa (New Zealand), where limited sub-surface data exists. Mode TCO2 Flux at White Island is high (320 °C), the highest of the systems considered in this study. However, the geothermometer relies on mineral-water equilibrium in neutral pH reservoir fluids, and would not be reliable in such an active and acidic environment. Mean TCO2 Flux at Reporoa (310 °C) is high, which indicates Reporoa has a separate upflow from the nearby Waiotapu geothermal system; an outflow from Waiotapu would not be expected to have such high temperature.

  5. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  6. CO2-neutral cities. Apeldoorn, Heerhugowaard, Tilburg [Netherlands]; CO2-neutrale steden. Apeldoorn, Heerhugowaard, Tilburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.; Braber, K.; Voskuilen, Th.; Manders, H.; Rovers, V.

    2007-11-16

    The three Dutch cities of Apeldoorn, Heerhugowaard and Tilburg asked BuildDesk to undertake a survey of the options for realizing a CO2 neutral energy supply in their cities. In principle, this entails direct energy consumption for living, working (incl. industry) and mobility. With the developed 'Road maps towards CO2 neutral' each city holds their own guideline with which they can suit the action to the word. [mk]. [Dutch] De drie steden Apeldoorn, Heerhugowaard en Tilburg hebben BuildDesk de opdracht gegeven een verkenning uit te voeren naar de mogelijkheid om een CO2-neutrale energievoorziening in hun stad te realiseren. Daarbij gaat het in principe om het directe energiegebruik voor wonen, werken (incl. industrie) en mobiliteit. Met de ontwikkelde 'Roadmaps naar CO2-neutraal' heeft elke stad een eigen richtsnoer in handen waarmee ze actief de daad bij het woord kan voegen.

  7. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.

  8. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  9. Strategies for CO2 capture from different CO2 emission sources by vacuum swing adsorption technology☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghua Ling; Penny Xiao; Augustine Ntiamoah; Dong Xu; Paul Webley; Yuchun Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Different VSA (Vacuum Swing Adsorption) cycles and process schemes have been evaluated to find suitable process configurations for effectively separating CO2 from flue gases from different industrial sectors. The cycles were studied using an adsorption simulator developed in our research group, which has been suc-cessfully used to predict experimental results over several years. Commercial zeolite APGIII and granular ac-tivated carbon were used as the adsorbents. Three-bed VSA cycles with-and without-product purge and 2-stage VSA systems have been investigated. It was found that for a feed gas containing 15%CO2 (representing flue gas from power plants), high CO2 purities and recoveries could be obtained using a three-bed zeolite APGIII VSA unit for one stage capture, but with more stringent conditions such as deeper vacuum pressures of 1–3 kPa. 2-stage VSA process operated in series allowed us to use simple process steps and operate at more realistic vacuum pressures. With a vacuum pressure of 10 kPa, final CO2 purity of 95.3%with a recov-ery of 98.2%were obtained at specific power consumption of 0.55 MJ·(kg CO2)−1 from feed gas containing 15%CO2. These numbers compare very well with those obtained from a single stage process operating at 1 kPa vacuum pressure. The feed CO2 concentration was very influential in determining the desorption pressure necessary to achieve high separation efficiency. For feed gases containing N30%CO2, a single-stage VSA capture process operating at moderate vacuum pressure and without a product purge, can achieve very high product purities and recoveries.

  10. CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and secure storage of CO2 in reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yunhang

    2015-01-01

    CO2-EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery) is an effective and useful technology that can not only increase the oil production to meet the increasing need for energy around the world, but also mitigate the negtive influence of global green house effect. Different categories of oil recovery methods including primary recovery, secondary recovery, and EOR technologies are introduced at first. Then the history, global distribution, screening criteria, mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of CO2-EOR are d...

  11. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  12. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.

    2013-01-01

    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work, th...

  13. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.

    2013-01-01

    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work...

  14. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus

    2012-08-10

    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Potential Improvements of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of strong candidates for a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is subjected to a sodium water reaction, which can deteriorate the safety of a SFR. To prevent any hazards from sodium-water reaction, a SFR with the Brayton cycle using Helium or Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO2) as working fluids can be an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. As in a helium cycle, there has been an investigation to modify thermo-physical properties to increase the efficiency of the cycle and reduce the size of turbomachineries. Particularly, He-Xe or He-N2 binary mixture were successful to decrease the stages of turbomachines due to the increment of molecular weight of gas mixture than that of pure helium. Similar to the case of helium, CO2 has a potential to modify its thermo-physical properties by mixing with other gases. For instance, it was reported that critical point of CO2 can be shifted by mixing with different gases. Since, the efficiency of a S-CO2 cycle is limited to the critical point of CO2, the shift in critical point implies that there is a possibility of improving the cycle efficiency than the current design. This paper presents the results of a preliminary analysis to identify the effects of CO2 critical point modification on the Brayton cycle performance.

  16. CO2 transport in normovolemic anemia: complete compensation and stability of blood CO2 tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, S; Alberts, M K; Bishop, M J; Bidani, A; Swenson, E R

    1997-07-01

    Isovolemic hemodilution does not appear to impair CO2 elimination nor cause CO2 retention despite the important role of red blood cells in blood CO2 transport. We studied this phenomenon and its physiological basis in eight New Zealand White rabbits that were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated at a fixed minute ventilation. Isovolemic anemia was induced by simultaneous blood withdrawal and infusion of 6% hetastarch in sequential stages; exchange transfusions ranged from 15-30 ml in volume. Variables measured after each hemodilution included hematocrit (Hct), arterial and venous blood gases, mixed expired PCO2 and PO2, and blood pressure; also, O2 consumption, CO2 production, cardiac output (Q), and physiological dead space were calculated. Data were analyzed by comparison of changes in variables with changes in Hct and by using the model of capillary gas exchange described by Bidani (J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 1686-1699, 1991). There was complete compensation for anemia with stability of venous and arterial PCO2 between Hct values of 36 +/- 3 and 12 +/- 1%, which was predicted by the mathematical model. Over this range of hemodilution, Q rose 50%, and the O2 extraction ratio increased 61% without a decline in CO2 production or a rise in alveolar ventilation. The dominant compensations maintaining CO2 transport in normovolemic anemia include an increased Q and an augmented Haldane effect arising from the accompanying greater O2 extraction.

  17. CO2-Responsive Polymer-Functionalized Au Nanoparticles for CO2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Promthaveepong, Kittithat; Li, Nan

    2016-08-16

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) coated with stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) exhibit tunable optical properties responding to external stimuli and show promising sensing applications. We present a new CO2-responsive polymer, poly(N-(3-amidino)-aniline) (PNAAN), coated gold NPs (AuNPs) synthesized by directly reducing HAuCl4 with a CO2-responsive monomer N-(3-amidino)-aniline (NAAN). The amidine group of PNAAN can be protonated into a hydrophilic amidinium group by dissolved CO2 (dCO2). This induces the PNAAN to swell and detach from the AuNP surface, resulting in AuNP aggregation and color change. By monitoring the UV absorbance change of AuNPs, a sensitive dCO2 sensor with a linear range of 0.0132 to 0.1584 hPa and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0024 hPa is developed. This method shows dramatic improvement in sensitivity and convenience of sample preparation compared with the previously reported dCO2 sensor.

  18. Carbon Sequestration: Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydr...

  19. Carbon Sequestration: Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Praveenkumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydrogenation reaction, both the homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalytic systems were discussed along with the effect of solvent systems on reaction kinetics.

  20. Process-dependent residual trapping of CO2 in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that the nature and extent of residual CO2 trapping depend on the process by which the CO2 phase is introduced into the rock. We compare residual trapping of CO2 in Berea Sandstone by imbibing water into a core containing either exsolved CO2 or CO2 introduced by drainage. X-ray computed tomography measurements are used to map the spatial distribution of CO2 preimbibition and postimbibition. Unlike during drainage where the CO2 distribution is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the rock, the distribution of exsolved CO2 is comparatively uniform. Postimbibition, the CO2 distribution retained the essential features for both the exsolved and drainage cases, but twice as much residual trapping is observed for exsolved CO2 even with similar preimbibition gas saturations. Residually trapped exsolved gas also disproportionately reduced water relative permeability. Development of process-dependent parameterization will help better manage subsurface flow processes and unlock benefits from gas exsolution.

  1. The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation: An analogue for CO2 storage in depleted oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Hangx, Suzanne; Kampman, Niko; Nover, Georg; Stanjek, Helge; Weniger, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation is hosted in the Röt (Early Triassic) sandstone of the West Netherlands Basin, at a depth of 2.8 km, about 20 km south-east of Rotterdam (NL). This reservoir, in a fault-bound structure, was oil-filled prior to charging with magmatic CO2 in the early Cretaceous. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to study long-term CO2-water-rock interactions in the presence of oil. This contribution will present the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of core sections from the Werkendam CO2 reservoir and an adjacent, stratigraphically equivalent aquifer. X-ray diffraction combined with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the reservoir samples contain substantially more feldspar and more barite and siderite than those from the aquifer, while the latter have higher hematite contents. These differences are attributed to the effects hydrocarbons and related fluids on diagenesis in the closed system of the CO2 reservoir versus the open-system of the aquifer. Petrophysical analyses yielded overall higher and more anisotropic permeability for the reservoir samples, while the porosity is overall not significantly different from that of their aquifer equivalents. The differences are most pronounced in coarse-grained sandstones. These have low anhydrite contents and contain traces of calcite, while all other analyzed samples contain abundant anhydrite, dolomite/ankerite and siderite, but no calcite. Detailed petrography revealed mm-sized zones of excessive primary porosity. These are attributed to CO2-induced dissolution of precompactional, grain-replacive anhydrite cement. Diagenetic dolomite/ankerite crystals are covered by anhedral, epitaxial ankerite, separated from the crystals by bitumen coats. Since these carbonates were oil-wet before CO2-charging, the overgrowths are interpreted to have grown after CO2-charging. Their anhedral habit suggests growth in a 2-phase water-CO2 system. Isotopic

  2. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CO2 DIRECT HYDROGENATION REACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Fahai; Liu Dianhua; Hou Qiushi; Fang Dingye

    2001-01-01

    CO2 hydrogenation is one of important routes for the activation and effective utilization of CO2. In this paper, eighteen CO2 direct hydrogenation reactions are listed and their reaction heats and equilibrium constants are calculated. On the assumption that the reactions of CO2 and H2 are in stoichiometric ratio and the amount of whole reactants is one mole, the equilibrium conversions of CO2 are obtained.

  3. Method for tracing simulated CO2 leak in terrestrial environment with a 13CO2 tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, developing regulations and guidance throughout the world (e.g. the EC Directive and the USEPA Vulnerability Evaluation Framework) recognize the importance of assessing the potential for environmental impacts from CO2 storage. RISCS, a European (FP7) project, aims to improve understanding of those impacts that could plausibly occur in the hypothetical case that unexpected leakage occurs. As part of the RISCS project the potential impacts that an unexpected CO2 leaks might have on a cropland ecosystems was investigated. A CO2 exposure field experiment based on CO2 injection at 85 cm depth under an oats culture was designed. To facilitate the characterization of the simulated leaking zone the gas used for injection was produced from natural gas and had a δ13C of -46‰. The aim of the present communication is to depict how the injected gas was traced within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum using 13CO2 continuous cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS). Four subsurface experimental injection plots (6m x 3m) were set up. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, the field experiment was designed as to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient for each plot. For this purpose gas supply pipes were inserted at one extremity of each plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under the clayey plough layer of Norwegian moraine soils. Soil CO2 concentration and isotopic signature were punctually recorded: 1) in the soil at 20 cm depth at 6 positions distributed on the central transect, 2) at the surface following a (50x50 cm) grid sampling pattern, and 3) in the canopy atmosphere at 10, 20, 30 cm along three longitudinal transects (seven sampling point per transect). Soil CO2 fluxes and isotopic signature were finally

  4. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect the quantity and quality of plant tissues which will impact carbon (C) cycling and storage in plant/soil systems and the release of CO2 back to the atmosphere. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated CO2 on soil CO2 efflux to predi...

  5. Mechanisms of CO2 Capture into Monoethanolamine Solution with Different CO2 Loading during the Absorption/Desorption Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bihong; Guo, Bingsong; Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua

    2015-09-01

    Though the mechanism of MEA-CO2 system has been widely studied, there is few literature on the detailed mechanism of CO2 capture into MEA solution with different CO2 loading during absorption/desorption processes. To get a clear picture of the process mechanism, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to analyze the reaction intermediates under different CO2 loadings and detailed mechanism on CO2 absorption and desorption in MEA was evaluated in this work. The results demonstrated that the CO2 absorption in MEA started with the formation of carbamate according to the zwitterion mechanism, followed by the hydration of CO2 to form HCO3(-)/CO3(2-), and accompanied by the hydrolysis of carbamate. It is interesting to find that the existence of carbamate will be influenced by CO2 loading and that it is rather unstable at high CO2 loading. At low CO2 loading, carbamate is formed fast by the reaction between CO2 and MEA. At high CO2 loading, it is formed by the reaction of CO3(-)/CO3(2-) with MEA, and the formed carbamate can be easily hydrolyzed by H(+). Moreover, CO2 desorption from the CO2-saturated MEA solution was proved to be a reverse process of absorption. Initially, some HCO3(-) were heated to release CO2 and other HCO3(-) were reacted with carbamic acid (MEAH(+)) to form carbamate, and the carbamate was then decomposed to MEA and CO2.

  6. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y−1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y−1 and land use change (240 TgC y−1. Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y−1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y−1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y−1. The average amount of carbon (C emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  7. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  8. CO2刺激响应聚合物%CO2-Stimuli Responsive Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯岸超; 闫强; 袁金颖

    2012-01-01

    CO2刺激响应性聚合物是新近发展起来的一类智能型刺激响应聚合物,是指在通入和排出CO2后,聚合物性质能够发生可逆性变化的新型聚合物。由于调控过程中仅仅涉及CO2以及一些惰性气体而不引入其他杂质,因此具有多方面的潜在应用价值。本文调研了这方面的工作,综述了几类CO2刺激响应聚合物的合成及其自组装,并指出了CO2刺激响应聚合物的应用前景和发展方向。%CO2-stimuli responsive polymers are a class of newly developed smart stimuli responsive polymers, which usually refers to the polymers possessing reversible changes upon admission and emission of C02. Since the regulation process only involves CO2 and inert gases, without the introduction of other impurities, there are many potential applications in this field. This article summarized recent research progress on the preparation of C02- stimuli responsive polymers, followed by the discussion of their self-assembly, classifying in accordance with the C02-switchable groups, such as primary amine, amide and some specific polymer chains. The development prospect of this research field and its potential applications are also discussed.

  9. CO2 acclimation impacts leaf isoprene emissions: evidence from past to future CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo; van der Laan, Annick; Dekker, Stefan; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted by many plant species as a side-product of photosynthesis. Once in the atmosphere, isoprene exhibits climate forcing through various feedback mechanisms. In order to quantify the climate feedbacks of biogenic isoprene emission it is crucial to establish how isoprene emissions are effected by plant acclimation to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. A promising development for modelling CO2-induced changes in isoprene emissions is the Leaf-Energetic-Status model (referred to as LES-model hereafter, see Harrison et al., 2013 and Morfopoulos et al., 2014). This model simulates isoprene emissions based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on the imbalance between the photosynthetic electron supply of reducing power and the electron demands of carbon fixation. The energetic imbalance is critically related to the photosynthetic electron transport capacity (Jmax) and the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax). Here we compare predictions of the LES-model with observed isoprene emission responses of Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) specimen that acclimated to CO2 growth conditions representative of the last glacial, the present and the end of this century (200, 400 and 800 ppm, respectively) for two growing seasons. These plants were grown in walk-in growth chambers with tight control of light, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetic biochemical parameters Vcmax and Jmax were determined with a Licor LI-6400XT photosynthesis system. The relationship between photosynthesis and isoprene emissions was measured by coupling the photosynthesis system with a Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Our empirical results support the LES-model and show that the fractional allocation of carbon to isoprene biosynthesis is reduced in response to both short-term and long-term CO2 increases. In the short term, an increase in CO2 stimulates photosynthesis through an increase in the leaf interior CO2

  10. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  11. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  12. Translating crustacean biological responses from CO2 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies of animal responses to ocean acidification focus on uniformly conditioned age cohorts that lack complexities typically found in wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for predicting higher level ecological effects, but the roles of intraspecific interactions in re-shaping biological, demographic and evolutionary responses are not commonly considered. To explore this problem, I assessed responses in the mysid Americamysis bahia to bubbling of CO2-enriched and un-enriched air into the seawater supply in flow-through aquariums. I conducted one experiment using isolated age cohorts and a separate experiment using intact populations. The seawater supply was continuously input from Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). The 28-day cohort study was maintained without resource or spatial limitations, whereas the 5-month population study consisted of stage-structured populations that were allowed to self-regulate. These differences are common features of experiments and were intentionally retained to demonstrate the effect of methodological approaches on perceptions of effect mechanisms. The CO2 treatment reduced neonate abundance in the cohort experiment (24% reduction due to a mean pH difference of −0.27) but not in the population experiment, where effects were small and were strongest for adult and stage 1 survival (3% change due to a mean pH difference of −0.25). I also found evidence of competition in the population exper

  13. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  14. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  15. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  16. CO(2) Inhibits Respiration in Leaves of Rumex crispus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, J S; Koch, G W; Bloom, A J

    1992-02-01

    Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) was grown from seed in a glasshouse at an ambient CO(2) partial pressure of about 35 pascals. Apparent respiration rate (CO(2) efflux in the dark) of expanded leaves was then measured at ambient CO(2) partial pressure of 5 to 95 pascals. Calculated intercellular CO(2) partial pressure was proportional to ambient CO(2) partial pressure in these short-term experiments. The CO(2) level strongly affected apparent respiration rate: a doubling of the partial pressure of CO(2) typically inhibited respiration by 25 to 30%, whereas a decrease in CO(2) elicited a corresponding increase in respiration. These responses were readily reversible. A flexible, sensitive regulatory interaction between CO(2) (a byproduct of respiration) and some component(s) of heterotrophic metabolism is indicated.

  17. Investigation of CO2 precursors in roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO2. However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee.

  18. Desarrollo de materiales sólidos para captura de CO2 a bajas temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Peral Guillamón, Ariadna

    2010-01-01

    Una vez comprobado el problema medioambiental existente en nuestro planeta en cuanto a emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y con el objetivo de reducir dichas emisiones, se están desarrollando nuevos métodos y materiales sintéticos para la captura de CO2, entre otros. Este proyecto pretende estudiar una tecnología de captura de CO2, centrándose en el estudio postcombustión basado en materiales sólidos compuestos por sílice impregnados del grupo amino. El método experimental utiliza...

  19. Reducing CO2 from shipping – do non-CO2 effects matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Eide

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is a growing sector in the global economy, and it contributions to global CO2 emissions are expected to increase. CO2 emissions from the world shipping fleet will likely be regulated in the near future, and studies have shown that significant emission reductions can be achieved at low cost. Regulations are being discussed for both existing ships as well as for future additions to the fleet. In this study a plausible CO2 emission reduction inventory is constructed for the cargo fleet existing in 2010, as well as for container ships, bulk ships and tankers separately. In the reduction inventories, CO2 emissions are reduced by 25–32% relative to baseline by applying 15 technical and operational emission reduction measures in accordance with a ship-type-specific cost-effectiveness criterion, and 9 other emission compounds are changed as a technical implication of reducing CO2. The overall climate and environmental effects of the changes to all 10 emission components in the reduction inventory are assessed using a chemical transport model, radiative forcing (RF models and a simple climate model. We find substantial environmental and health benefits with up to 5% reduction in surface ozone levels, 15% reductions in surface sulfate and 10% reductions in wet deposition of sulfate in certain regions exposed to heavy ship traffic. The major ship types show distinctly different contributions in specific locations. For instance, the container fleet contributes 50% of the sulfate decline on the west coast of North America. The global radiative forcing from a 1 yr emission equal to the difference between baseline and reduction inventory shows an initial strong positive forcing from non-CO2 compounds. This warming effect is due to reduced cooling by aerosols and methane. After approximately 25 yr, the non-CO2 forcing is balanced by the CO2 forcing. For the global mean temperature change, we find a shift from warming to cooling after approximately 60

  20. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  1. Reducing CO2 from shipping - do non-CO2 effects matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, M. S.; Dalsøren, S. B.; Endresen, Ø.; Samset, B.; Myhre, G.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.

    2013-04-01

    Shipping is a growing sector in the global economy, and it contributions to global CO2 emissions are expected to increase. CO2 emissions from the world shipping fleet will likely be regulated in the near future, and studies have shown that significant emission reductions can be achieved at low cost. Regulations are being discussed for both existing ships as well as for future additions to the fleet. In this study a plausible CO2 emission reduction inventory is constructed for the cargo fleet existing in 2010, as well as for container ships, bulk ships and tankers separately. In the reduction inventories, CO2 emissions are reduced by 25-32% relative to baseline by applying 15 technical and operational emission reduction measures in accordance with a ship-type-specific cost-effectiveness criterion, and 9 other emission compounds are changed as a technical implication of reducing CO2. The overall climate and environmental effects of the changes to all 10 emission components in the reduction inventory are assessed using a chemical transport model, radiative forcing (RF) models and a simple climate model. We find substantial environmental and health benefits with up to 5% reduction in surface ozone levels, 15% reductions in surface sulfate and 10% reductions in wet deposition of sulfate in certain regions exposed to heavy ship traffic. The major ship types show distinctly different contributions in specific locations. For instance, the container fleet contributes 50% of the sulfate decline on the west coast of North America. The global radiative forcing from a 1 yr emission equal to the difference between baseline and reduction inventory shows an initial strong positive forcing from non-CO2 compounds. This warming effect is due to reduced cooling by aerosols and methane. After approximately 25 yr, the non-CO2 forcing is balanced by the CO2 forcing. For the global mean temperature change, we find a shift from warming to cooling after approximately 60 yr. The major ship

  2. CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Hazlewood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nos lleva, más allá de la crisis económica, hacia el calentamiento global y nos advierte de un problema profundo: un defecto estructural en el capitalismo. Vinculando teóricamente cambio climático, colonialismo y capitalismo, se estudia a San Lorenzo como una frontera agrícola en la que el CO2lonialismo se despliega a través del cultivo de palma aceitera y la producción de agrocombustibles. Esta investigación resalta las prácticas culturales y espaciales a través de las cuales las comunidades afro-ecuatoriana, chachi, y awá construyen y sostienen “geografías de esperanza” en medio de bosques talados, ríos envenenados y conflictos sociales. A través de la exposición detallada de la deuda ecológica del Norte global con el Sur global, este artículo condena discursos y acciones que se enfocan en el mejoramiento del clima económico mientras arrasan los bosques húmedos, las prácticas culturales de vida de las comunidades y las soluciones reales al cambio climático.This paper takes us beyond the present economic crisis to where global warming warns of a much more profound problem: a structural flaw in capitalism. Theoretically linking relations between climate change, colonialism, and capitalism, San Lorenzo is investigated as an agricultural frontier where “CO2lonialism” unfolds in African oil palm cultivation and agrofuel production. This research highlights the cultural and spatial practices through which Afro-Ecuadorian, Chachi, and Awá communities construct and sustain “geographies of hope” amid landscapes of fallen forests, poisoned rivers and social conflicts. Expounding on the ecological debt of the Global North to the Global South, this paper condemns discourses and actions that solely focus on improving the economic climate while bulldozing rainforests, livelihoods, and real solutions to climate change.

  3. Factors affecting the direct mineralization of CO2 with olivine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soonchul Kwon; Maohong Fan; Herbert F. M. DaCosta; Armistead G. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Olivine,one of the most abundant minerals existing in nature,is explored as a CO2 carbonation agent for direct carbonation of CO2 in flue gas.Olivine based CO2 capture is thermodynamically favorable and can form a stable carbonate for long-term storage.Experimental results have shown that water vapor plays an important role in improving CO2 carbonation rate and capacities.Other operation conditions including reaction temperature,initial CO2 concentration,residence time corresponding to the flow rate of CO2 gas stream,and water vapor concentration also considerably affect the performance of the technology.

  4. Factors affecting the direct mineralization of CO2 with olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonchul; Fan, Maohong; DaCosta, Herbert F M; Russell, Armistead G

    2011-01-01

    Olivine, one of the most abundant minerals existing in nature, is explored as a CO2 carbonation agent for direct carbonation of CO2 in flue gas. Olivine based CO2 capture is thermodynamically favorable and can form a stable carbonate for long-term storage. Experimental results have shown that water vapor plays an important role in improving CO2 carbonation rate and capacities. Other operation conditions including reaction temperature, initial CO2 concentration, residence time corresponding to the flow rate of CO2 gas stream, and water vapor concentration also considerably affect the performance of the technology.

  5. CO2 measurements during transcranial Doppler examinations in headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    -tidal pCO2 with a capnograph. When patients are nauseated and vomit, as in migraine, the mask or mouthpiece connected to the capnograph represents a problem. We therefore evaluated whether a transcutaneous pCO2 electrode was as useful as the capnograph for pCO2 measurements in TCD examinations. We...... conclude that this is not the case, and recommend capnographic end-tidal pCO2 measurements during TCD examinations. However, transcutaneous pCO2 measurements may represent a supplement to spot measurements of end-tidal pCO2 in stable conditions when long-term monitoring is needed, and the mask...

  6. Supercritical CO2 as a substitute of volatile hydrocarbons; Superkritisch CO2 vervangt vluchtige koolwaterstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, G. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    In many cases supercritical carbon dioxide can replace volatile hydrocarbons in extraction processes. Currently gaseous or liquid CO2 is already used for industrial purification processes, extraction of caffeine from coffee and as a solvent for paint. Although supercritical extraction s a batch process the technique can be applied as a continuous process. [Dutch] In processen waar vluchtige koolwaterstoffen worden ingezet om stoffen te extraheren, biedt superkritisch CO2 een milieuvriendelijk alternatief. Het koolzuur dat zowel in de vloeistof- als gasfase zit, wordt dan ook steeds meer ingezet in extractieprocessen.

  7. Responses of soil CO2 efflux to changes in plant CO2 uptake and transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, János; de Luca, Giulia; Mészáros, Ádám; Trieber, Júlia; Gecse, Bernadett; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Nagy, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Biotic drivers of soil respiration represent a significant supply-side (plant) control of the process. Those biotic drivers that integrate over longer time periods are useful in describing the phenological changes and physiological state of the vegetation, but they are not suitable to explain the diel variability of soil respiration. Two plant physiological processes, acting in opposite directions, could be relevant at diel timescale: (1) photosynthesis, and (2) transpiration. Firstly, it was recently found that photosynthesis has a time-lagged (a few hours) positive effect on the respiration of roots and root-associated microbes. This can be explainedby an increase in easily accessible non-structural hydrocarbon sources for the roots and root-associated organisms within this period. Secondly, it was found that the effect of transpiration could reduce root respiration due to CO2 transport through the transpiration stream, and this effect is expected to be immediate. Removing the effect of the abiotic drivers from the soil efflux signal could help to clarify the role of other driving variables. In the present study, we conducted manipulation measurements in lab environment to be able to detect the effects of the plant physiological variables (CO2 uptake, transpiration) on soil CO2 efflux. Plant individuals were planted into field soil samples in small pots. Transpiration manipulation was done by regulating vapour pressure of the air around the plant canopy and by inhibitors. Photosynthesis manipulation consisted of programmed absence of light. Isotopic signatures of soil respiration were used for estimating the contribution of the autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration components. 13CO2 concentration of the CO2 efflux of the different soil components was measured continuously in open system by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (Picarro G1101-i gas analyser). Keeling-plot approach was also used to calculate the isotopic signals of the sources. According to the

  8. Greenhouse Gas (CO2 AND N2O Emissions from Soils: A Review Emisión de Gases invernadero (CO2 y N2O desde Suelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural activities, the main greenhouse gases (GHG are those related to C and N global cycles. The impact of agriculture on GHG emissions has become a key issue, especially when considering that natural C and N cycles are influenced by agricultural development. This review focuses on CO2 and N2O soil emissions in terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis in Chilean and similar agro-ecosystems around the world. The influence of land use and crop management practices on CO2 and N2O emissions is analyzed; some mitigation measures to reduce such emissions are also discussed here. More knowledge on the biological processes that promote of GHG emissions from soil will allow creating opportunities for agricultural development under friendly-environmental conditions, where soil can act as a reservoir and/or emitter of GHG, depending on the balance of inputs and outputs.En actividades agrícolas los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GHG son los relacionados con los ciclos globales de C y N. El impacto de la agricultura sobre las emisiones GHG se ha convertido en una cuestión clave, especialmente si se considera que los ciclos naturales C y N se ven influidos por el desarrollo agrícola. Esta revisión se centra en emisiones de CO2 y N2O del suelo en los ecosistemas terrestres, con énfasis en agro-ecosistemas de Chile y similares alrededor del mundo. Se analiza la influencia del uso del suelo y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo sobre emisiones de CO2 y N2O, se discuten medidas de mitigación para reducir estas emisiones. Un mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos biológicos que promueven las emisiones GHG del suelo permitirá la creación de oportunidades para el desarrollo agrícola en condiciones ambientalmente amigables, donde el suelo puede actuar como un reservorio y/o emisor de GHG, dependiendo del balance de entradas y salidas.

  9. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  10. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2004-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  11. Beam profile analyzer for CO2 lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of an optoelectronic system to analyze the beam intensity profile of CO2 lasers is presented herein. The device collects the beam profile with a LiTaO3 pyroelectric detector and uses a sampling technique based on the acquisition of horizontal sections at different levels. The digital signal processing includes subroutines that drop down two dimensional and three dimensional beam profile displays to determine the laser beam parameters of optical power, peak pixel location, centroid location and width of the laser beam, with algorithms based on the ISO 11146 standard. With the systematic calibration of the analyzer was obtained in the measurement of power an error under 5%, for a 20–200 W range and an error under 1.6% for spatial measurements of a TEM00 laser. By design, the analyzer can be used during the laser process.

  12. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  13. CO2 chemoreception in cardiorespiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made elucidating the cellular signals and ion channel targets involved in the response to increased CO2/H+ of brain stem neurons from chemosensitive regions. Intracellular pH (pHi) does not exhibit recovery from an acid load when extracellular pH (pHo) is also acid. This lack of pHi recovery is an essential but not unique feature of all chemosensitive neurons. These neurons have pH-regulating transporters, especially Na+/H+ exchangers, but some may also contain HCO3--dependent transporters as well. Studies in locus ceruleus (LC) neurons have shown that firing rate will increase in response to decreased pHi or pHo but not in response to increased CO2 alone. A number of K+ channels, as well as other channels, have been suggested to be targets of these pH changes with a fall of pH inhibiting these channels. In neurons from some regions it appears that multiple signals and multiple channels are involved in their chemosensitive response while in neurons from other regions a single signal and/or channel may be involved. Despite the progress, a number of key issues remain to be studied. A detailed study of chemosensitive signaling needs to be done in neurons from more brain stem regions. Fully describing the chemosensitive signaling pathways in brain stem neurons will offer new targets for therapies to alter the strength of central chemosensitivity and will yield new insights into the reason why there are multiple central chemoreceptive sites.

  14. Metodología de simulación del almacenamiento geológico de CO2 como contribución a la solución al problema del Cambio Climático, aplicada a la estructura BG-GE-08 (oeste de la Comunidad de Murcia)

    OpenAIRE

    Arjona García-Borreguero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Una de las medidas de mitigación del Cambio Climático propuestas al amparo de la ONU por el IPCC (Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change) en su ‘Informe de Síntesis 2007’ consiste en la puesta en marcha de acciones para la captación y almacenamiento de dióxido de carbono, existiendo tres tipos de formaciones geológicas idóneas para el almacenamiento geológico de este gas: yacimientos de petróleo y gas agotados, capas de carbón no explotables y formaciones salinas profundas. En el caso de l...

  15. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be

  16. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  17. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  18. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be

  19. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  20. Novel Long-Term CO2 Removal System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current Technology for CO2 removal from enclosed air of spacecraft utilizes LiOH canisters for CO2 absorption. This absorption is irreversible so longer flights...

  1. Monitoring solid oxide CO2 capture sorbents in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keturakis, Christopher J; Ni, Fan; Spicer, Michelle; Beaver, Michael G; Caram, Hugo S; Wachs, Israel E

    2014-12-01

    The separation, capture, and storage of CO2 , the major greenhouse gas, from industrial gas streams has received considerable attention in recent years because of concerns about environmental effects of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. An emerging area of research utilizes reversible CO2 sorbents to increase conversion and rate of forward reactions for equilibrium-controlled reactions (sorption-enhanced reactions). Little fundamental information, however, is known about the nature of the sorbent surface sites, sorbent surface-CO2 complexes, and the CO2 adsorption/desorption mechanisms. The present study directly spectroscopically monitors Na2 O/Al2 O3 sorbent-CO2 surface complexes during adsorption/desorption with simultaneous analysis of desorbed CO2 gas, allowing establishment of molecular level structure-sorption relationships between individual surface carbonate complexes and the CO2 working capacity of sorbents at different temperatures.

  2. Understanding and predicting trends in north Atlantic CO2 uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Paul; Lebehot, Alice; Watson, Andy; McNeall, Doug; Ford, David; Schuster, Ute

    2017-04-01

    To determine the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions society must commit to, to remain below a given atmospheric CO2 threshold, the scientific community must robustly quantify what proportion of human emitted CO2 will be taken up by the land and marine carbon reservoirs. The North Atlantic Ocean is the most intense marine sink of anthropogenic CO2 on the planet, accounting for about a fifth of the global oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake, despite covering just 15% of the global ocean area. Carefully assessing uncertainties, we quantify the real-world trend in North Atlantic CO2 uptake over the past two decades. Comparing this to results from state-of-the-art climate models, we find that models are systematically underestimating the observed CO2 uptake trend. By performing a set of targeted climate model simulations, we diagnose and account for this bias, and produce the first set of observation-informed future ocean CO2 uptake predictions.

  3. Lipid accumulation and CO2 utilization of Nannochloropsis oculata in response to CO2 aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chiun-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce microalgal lipids that can be transformed to biodiesel fuel, effects of concentration of CO(2) aeration on the biomass production and lipid accumulation of Nannochloropsis oculata in a semicontinuous culture were investigated in this study. Lipid content of N. oculata cells at different growth phases was also explored. The results showed that the lipid accumulation from logarithmic phase to stationary phase of N. oculata NCTU-3 was significantly increased from 30.8% to 50.4%. In the microalgal cultures aerated with 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% CO(2), the maximal biomass and lipid productivity in the semicontinuous system were 0.480 and 0.142 g L(-1)d(-1) with 2% CO(2) aeration, respectively. Even the N. oculata NCTU-3 cultured in the semicontinuous system aerated with 15% CO(2), the biomass and lipid productivity could reach to 0.372 and 0.084 g L(-1)d(-1), respectively. In the comparison of productive efficiencies, the semicontinuous system was operated with two culture approaches over 12d. The biomass and lipid productivity of N. oculata NCTU-3 were 0.497 and 0.151 g L(-1)d(-1) in one-day replacement (half broth was replaced each day), and were 0.296 and 0.121 g L(-1)d(-1) in three-day replacement (three fifth broth was replaced every 3d), respectively. To optimize the condition for long-term biomass and lipid yield from N. oculata NCTU-3, this microalga was suggested to grow in the semicontinuous system aerated with 2% CO(2) and operated by one-day replacement.

  4. CO2 emissions from Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2011-01-01

    rise to a substantial reduction of the CO2 emission in the construction phase. The present paper describes how the CO2 emission is reduced when using Super-light technology instead of traditional structural components. Estimations of the CO2 emissions from a number of projects using various...... construction methods suggest that building with Super-light structures may cut the CO2 emission in half, compared to traditional concrete structures, and reduce it to 25% compared to traditional steel structures....

  5. Simulation of CO2-Distribution in Fractured Oil Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Furuvik, Nora; Halvorsen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    Deep geologic injections and storage of Carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are an upcoming combination due to the potential for increased oil production from depleted oilfields at the same time reducing the carbon footprint from industrial sources. CO2-EOR refers to a technique for injection of supercritical-dense CO2 into an oil reservoir. Remaining oil, not producible by primary and secondary techniques, has been successfully produced using EOR with CO2 since early 1970??....

  6. Time-course of ventilation, arterial and pulmonary CO(2) tension during CO (2) increase in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Toru; Okada, Yasumasa; Hara, Yasushi; Sakamaki, Fumio; Kyotani, Shingo; Tomita, Takeshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    A change of ventilation (VE), PaCO( 2 ) (arterial CO( 2 ) tension) and PvCO( 2 ) (pulmonary arterial CO( 2 ) tension) with time was not evaluated precisely during exercise or CO( 2 ) rebreathing in humans. In this study, changes of these variables with time were fitted to exponential curves {y = Exp ( x/ T + A ) + k} and compared. When exercise pulmonary hemodynamics was examined in 15 cardiac patients to decide therapies, we asked the patients to undergo CO( 2 ) rebreathing using air with supplementation of consumed O( 2 ). Arterial and pulmonary blood was drawn every minute. During exercise, T was 28.2 ± 8.4 and 26.8 ± 12.4, and A was 0.80 ± 0.50 and 0.50 ± 0.90 in VE and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with no statistical differences. During CO( 2 ) rebreathing, T was 18.6 ± 5.8, 41.8 ± 38.0 and 21.6 ± 9.7 and A was 0.39 ± 0.67, 1.64 ± 1.35 and 0.17 ± 0.83 in VE, PaCO( 2 ) and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with statistical difference of PaCO( 2 ) from other variables, suggesting that VE and PvCO( 2 ) showed same mode of change according to time but PaCO( 2 ) did not.

  7. CO2-adapted legumes ameliorate but do not prevent the negative effect of elevated CO2 on nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, P.; Bowatte, S.; Lieffering, M.; Li, F.

    2015-12-01

    The response of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to climate and elevated CO2 (eCO2) is a key uncertainty in modelling C cycle projections. In addition, as BNF provides 50% of the nitrogen (N) input to agricultural production and as ecosystem responses to eCO2 are strongly influenced by N availability then the eCO2 impact on BNF is central to modelling legume-based system responses to climate change. Greater photoassimilate production under eCO2 should lead to enhanced BNF and this response is a feature of ecosystem models thus providing the N inputs necessary to provide continuing stimulation of NPP. FACE experiments provide a 'realistic' environment for eCO2 studies; however, even if run for multiple years, they still may not capture adaptation to eCO2 particularly in ecosystems dominated by perennial species. We tested the effect of eCO2 on BNF and the potential importance of adaption by growing legumes that had been exposed to high or ambient CO2 concentrations at a natural CO2 spring in a long-running (16 year) FACE experiment on grassland. BNF was significantly lower under eCO2 but the reduction was less marked where plants had originated in a high CO2 environment. An ecosystem model run with reduced BNF proved a better fit to the experimental data for the FACE experiment than where BNF was enhanced or unchanged under eCO2.

  8. Activation of CO2 by phosphinoamide hafnium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Michael J; Stephan, Douglas W

    2013-04-04

    Hf-phosphinoamide cation complexes behave as metal-based frustrated Lewis pairs and bind one or two equivalent of CO2 and in as well can activate CO2 in a bimetallic fashion to give a pseudo-tetrahedral P2CO2 fragment linking two Hf centres.

  9. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  10. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  11. Impacts: economic trade-offs for CO2 impurity specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhoff, C.; Neele, F.P.; Hammer, M.; DiBiagio, M.; Hofstee, C.; Koenen, M.; Fischer, S.; Isaenko, A.; Brown, A.; Kovacs, T.

    2014-01-01

    The IMPACTS project has a stated broad objective to develop the knowledge base of CO2 quality required for establishing norms and regulations to ensure safe and reliable design, construction and operation of CO2 pipelines and injection equipment, and safe long-term geological storage of CO2. More sp

  12. Suppression of CO2-plasticization by semiinterpenetrating polymer network formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Pünt, I.G.M.; Wessling, M.; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    CO2-induced plasticization may significantly spoil the membrane performance in high-pressure CO2/CH4 separations. The polymer matrix swells upon sorption of CO2, which accelerates the permeation of CH4. The polymer membrane looses its selectivity. To make membranes attractive for, for example, natur

  13. Suppression of CO2-plasticization by semiinterpenetrating polymer network formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    CO2-induced plasticization may significantly spoil the membrane performance in high-pressure CO2/CH4 separations. The polymer matrix swells upon sorption of CO2, which accelerates the permeation of CH4. The polymer membrane looses its selectivity. To make membranes attractive for, for example, natur

  14. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2 ab...

  15. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  16. Suppression of CO2-plasticization by semiinterpenetrating polymer network formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    1998-01-01

    CO2-induced plasticization may significantly spoil the membrane performance in high-pressure CO2/CH4 separations. The polymer matrix swells upon sorption of CO2, which accelerates the permeation of CH4. The polymer membrane looses its selectivity. To make membranes attractive for, for example,

  17. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    H, alkalinity and sewer-air CO2 concentrations. An intercepting sewer was studied and an average sewer-air retention time of approximately 1.5-2.5 hours was found at CO2 levels around 4-6 times the natural background. Also an upstream sub-catchment was studied. In this part of the sewer system the level of CO2...

  18. Applied stress reduces the CO2 sorption capacity of coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, S.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Though the adsorption of CO2 by coal has been extensively studied in experiments, few systematic studies have been done on the effects of the stress state within the coal on CO2 sorption. To investigate whether or not the CO2 sorption capacity of coal is influenced by the application of an effective

  19. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  20. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  1. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  2. Sensory Transduction of the CO2 Response of Guard Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Eduardo Zeiger

    2003-06-30

    Stomata have a key role in the regulation of gas exchange and intercellular CO2 concentrations of leaves. Guard cells sense internal and external signals in the leaf environment and transduce these signals into osmoregulatory processes that control stomatal apertures. This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. Three central aspects of this hypothesis will be investigated: CO2 sensing by the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco in the guard cell chloroplast, which would modulate zeaxanthin concentrations via changes in lumen pH; transduction of the CO2 signal by zeaxanthin via a transducing cascade that controls guard cell osmoregulation; and blue light dependence of the CO2 signal transduction by zeaxanthin, required for the formation of an isomeric form of zeaxanthin that is physiologically active as a transducer. The role of Rubisco in CO2 sensing will be investigated in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 in the Arabidopsis mutants R100 and rca-, which have reduced rates of Rubisco-dependent carboxylation. The role of zeaxanthin as a CO2 transducer will be studied in npq1, a zeaxanthin-less mutant. The blue light-dependence of CO2 sensing will be studied in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 under red light. Arabidopsis mutants will also be used in further studies of an acclimation of the stomatal response to CO2, and a possible role of the xanthophyll cycle of the guard cell chloroplast in acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2. Studies on the osmoregulatory role of sucrose in

  3. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  4. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  5. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  6. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.

    2006-12-15

    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  7. CO 2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO 2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Coussy Paula; Raynal Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Carbon capture technology (and associated storage), applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of captu...

  8. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  9. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Muneer; Ehsani, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon c...

  10. El CO2 como disolvente y como reactivo

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca Pitarresi, Vincenzo Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Existen numerosas ventajas asociada con el uso de CO2 , tanto como disolvente que como reactivo, y todas se pueden resumir en cuatro categorías generales: beneficios ambiental, beneficios de salud y seguridad, beneficios en el procedimiento y beneficios químicos. Los procesos que implican el CO2 como disolvente no aumentaría las emisiones de CO2, más bien proporcionaría una oportunidad para el reciclaje de CO2 residual. Además, los esfuerzos para secuestrar el CO2 producido de los gases de co...

  11. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  12. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.

    1995-03-01

    An advanced turbine/CO2 pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (ALC), Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air 'sandblast' pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting and by combining the use of environmentally benign solvents with the pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies.

  13. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In

  14. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In additi

  15. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Soil CO2 Efflux in a Young Longleaf Pine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern landscape is composed of agricultural and forest systems that can store carbon (C in standing biomass and soil. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 on terrestrial C dynamics including CO2 release back to the atmosphere and soil sequestration. Longleaf pine savannahs are an ecologically and economically important, yet understudied, component of the southeastern landscape. We investigated the effects of ambient and elevated CO2 on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system using a continuous monitoring system. A significant increase (26.5% in soil CO2 efflux across 90 days was observed under elevated CO2; this occurred for all weekly and daily averages except for two days when soil temperature was the lowest. Soil CO2 efflux was positively correlated with soil temperature with a trend towards increased efflux response to temperature under elevated CO2. Efflux was negatively correlated with soil moisture and was best represented using a quadratic relationship. Soil CO2 efflux was not correlated with root biomass. Our data indicate that, while elevated CO2 will increase feedback of CO2 to the atmosphere via soil efflux, terrestrial ecosystems will remain potential sinks for atmospheric CO2 due to greater biomass production and increased soil C sequestration.

  16. CO2GeoNet, the unique role of the European scientific body on CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Arts, R.; Durand, D.; Durucan, S.; Johannessen, P.; May, F.; Olivier, M.-L.; Persoglia, S.; Riley, N.; Sohrabi, M.; Stokka, S.; Vercelli, S.; Vizika-Kavvadias, O.

    2009-01-01

    CO2GeoNet is a Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2, initiated by the EC's 6th research framework programme in 2004 and integrating Europe's key research institutes to create a scientific reference body dedicated to the development of CO2 geological storage as a viable option for m

  17. Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sie King; Wang, Shaobin; Peng, Yuelian

    2010-06-15

    Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co(2+), PMS, H(2)O(2), and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H(2)O(2))/Co(2+) for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is found that dye decomposition is much faster in Co(2+)/PMS system than in Co(2+)/H(2)O(2). For Co(2+)/H(2)O(2), an optimal ratio of H(2)O(2) to Co(2+) at 6 is required for the maximum decomposition of the dyes. For Co(2+)/PMS, higher concentrations of Co(2+) and PMS will increase dye degradation rate with an optimal ratio of 3, achieving 95% decolourisation. For basic blue 9, a complete decolourisation can be achieved in 5 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 7 mg/l basic blue 9 while the complete degradation of acid red 183 will be achieved at 30 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 160 mg/l of acid red 183. The degradation of acid red 183 follows the second-order kinetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of five-coordinated Co2+ in phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, M; Robert, J-L; Newville, M; Galoisy, L; Calas, G

    2014-01-03

    Co3(PO4)2, SrCo2(PO4)2, Co2P2O7, BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7 present different geometries of five-coordinated Co(2+) (([5])Co(2+)) sites, coexisting with ([6])Co(2+) in Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7, and ([4])Co(2+) in SrCo2(PO4)2. ([5])Co K-edge XANES spectra show that the intensity of the pre-edge and main-edge is intermediate between those of ([6])- and ([4])Co. Diffuse reflectance spectra show the contributions of Co(2+) in (D3h) symmetry for SrCo2(PO4)2, and (C4v) symmetry for BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7. In Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7 the multiple transitions observed arise from energy level splitting and may be labeled in (C2v) symmetry. Spectroscopic data confirm that (D3h) and (C4v) symmetries may be distinguished upon the intensity of the optical absorption bands and crystal field splitting values. We discuss the influence of the geometrical distortion and of the nature of the next nearest neighbors.

  19. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to $0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  20. Fijación de CO2 en cultivos y sus implicaciones en el cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Cadenas, César

    2011-01-01

    El CO2 es una variable clave que afecta tanto al desarrollo como a la fisiología de las plantas, por lo que los incrementos derivados del cambio climático afectarán al crecimiento de los cultivos. Muchas de las respuestas fisiológicas observadas frente al aumento del CO2 están influenciadas por su interacción con otros estreses, como por ejemplo la salinidad, debido al creciente aumento de las áreas afectadas por la salinidad y su impacto sobre la masa vegetal. Por ello, en esta Tesis, se exp...

  1. Recent global CO2 flux inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations and its regional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The net surface exchange of CO2 for the years 2002–2007 is inferred from 12 181 atmospheric CO2 concentration data with a time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion scheme. Monthly CO2 fluxes are optimized for 30 regions of the North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Although there have been many previous multiyear inversion studies, the reliability of atmospheric inversion techniques has not yet been systematically evaluated for quantifying regional interannual variability in the carbon cycle. In this study, the global interannual variability of the CO2 flux is found to be dominated by terrestrial ecosystems, particularly by tropical land, and the variations of regional terrestrial carbon fluxes are closely related to climate variations. These interannual variations are mostly caused by abnormal meteorological conditions in a few months in the year or part of a growing season and cannot be well represented using annual means, suggesting that we should pay attention to finer temporal climate variations in ecosystem modeling. We find that, excluding fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans absorb an average of 3.63 ± 0.49 and 1.94 ± 0.41 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The terrestrial uptake is mainly in northern land while the tropical and southern lands contribute 0.62 ± 0.47, and 0.67 ± 0.34 Pg C yr−1 to the sink, respectively. In North America, terrestrial ecosystems absorb 0.89 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1 on average with a strong flux density found in the south-east of the continent.

  2. Recent global CO2 flux inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations and its regional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The net surface exchange of CO2 for the years 2002–2007 is inferred from 12 181 atmospheric CO2 concentration data with a time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion scheme. Monthly CO2 fluxes are optimized for 30 regions of the North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Although there have been many previous multiyear inversion studies, the reliability of atmospheric inversion techniques is not yet been systematically evaluated for quantifying regional interannual variability in the carbon cycle. In this study, the global interannual variability of the CO2 flux is found to be dominated by terrestrial ecosystems and is mostly caused by tropical land, and the variations of regional terrestrial carbon fluxes are closely related to climate variations. These interannual variations are mostly caused by abnormal meteorological conditions in a few months in the year or part of a growing season and cannot be well represented using annual means, suggesting that we should pay attention to monthly or submonthly climate variations in ecosystem modeling. We find that, excluding fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans absorb an average of 3.63±0.49 and 1.94±0.41 Pg C/yr, respectively. The terrestrial uptake is mainly in northern land while the tropical and southern lands contribute 0.62±0.47, and 0.67±0.34 Pg C/yr to the sink, respectively. In North America, terrestrial ecosystems absorb 0.89±0.18 Pg C/yr on average with a strong flux density found in the south-east of the continent.

  3. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  4. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  5. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Upscaling nitrogen-mycorrhizal effects to quantify CO2 fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrer, C.; Franklin, O.; Kaiser, C.; Vicca, S.; Stocker, B.; Prentice, I. C.; Soudzilovskaia, N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems sequester annually about a quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, it has been proposed that nitrogen (N) availability will limit plants' capacity to absorb increasing quantities of CO2 in the atmosphere. Experiments in which plants are fumigated with elevated CO2 show contrasting results, leaving open the debate of whether the magnitude of the CO2 fertilization effect will be limited by N. By synthesizing data from CO2 experiments through meta-analysis, we found that the magnitude of the CO2 fertilization effect can be explained based on the interaction between N availability and type of mycorrhizal association. Indeed, N availability is the most important driver of the CO2 fertilization effect, however, plants that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi can overcome N limitations and grow about 30% more under 650ppm than under 400ppm of atmospheric CO2. On the other hand, plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi show no CO2 fertilization effect under low N availability. Using this framework, we quantified biomass responses to CO2 as a function of the soil parameters that determine N availability for the two mycorrhizal types. Then, by overlaying the distribution of mycorrhizal plants with global projections of the soil parameters that determine N availability, we estimated the amount of extra CO2 that terrestrial plants can sequester in biomass for an increase in CO2, as well as the distribution of the CO2 fertilization effect. This synthesis reconciles contrasting views of the role of N in terrestrial carbon uptake and emphasizes the plant control on N availability through interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Large-scale ecosystem models should account for the influence of nitrogen and mycorrhizae reported here, which will improve representation of the CO2 fertilization effect, critical for projecting ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate change.

  7. A Multi-scale Approach for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Middleton, R. S.; Pan, F.; Ampomah, W.; Yang, C.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Using carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce carbon sequestration costs in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multi-scale approach to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and transport in the Marrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2 injection rate, CO2 first breakthrough time, CO2 production rate, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil and CH4 production, and water injection and production rates. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/CH4 recovery rates. The well spacing (the distance between the injection and production wells) and the sequence of alternating CO2 and water injection are the major operational parameters for designing an effective five-spot CO2-EOR pattern. The response surface analysis shows that net CO2 injection rate increases with the increasing reservoir thickness, permeability, and porosity. The oil/CH4 production rates are positively correlated to reservoir permeability, porosity and thickness, but negatively correlated to the initial water saturation. The mean and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying the uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. The results from this study provide useful insights for understanding the CO2 storage potential and the corresponding risks of commercial-scale CO2-EOR fields.

  8. Modelos de transporte y emisiones de CO2 en España

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Estevan

    2005-01-01

    El sector del transporte es el primer emisor de gases de efecto invernadero en España, incluso si se consideran solamente las emisiones generadas en la tracción de los vehículos. Si se imputan también las emisiones generadas en la construcción y mantenimiento de los vehículos y las infraestructuras, las emisiones del sector se acrecientan sustancialmente. En el presente artículo se realizan algunas estimaciones de las emisiones de CO2 que generan los diferentes modos de transporte España, así...

  9. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  10. Ambient CO2, fish behaviour and altered GABAergic neurotransmission: exploring the mechanism of CO2-altered behaviour by taking a hypercapnia dweller down to low CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Matthew D; Turko, Andy J; Heras, Joseph; Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark; Brauner, Colin J; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Nilsson, Göran E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that projected rises of aquatic CO2 levels cause acid-base regulatory responses in fishes that lead to altered GABAergic neurotransmission and disrupted behaviour, threatening fitness and population survival. It is thought that changes in Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) gradients across neural membranes interfere with the function of GABA-gated anion channels (GABAA receptors). So far, such alterations have been revealed experimentally by exposing species living in low-CO2 environments, like many oceanic habitats, to high levels of CO2 (hypercapnia). To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we set out to study the opposite situation, hypothesizing that fishes living in typically hypercapnic environments also display behavioural alterations if exposed to low CO2 levels. This would indicate that ion regulation in the fish brain is fine-tuned to the prevailing CO2 conditions. We quantified pH regulatory variables and behavioural responses of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a fish native to the hypercapnic Mekong River, acclimated to high-CO2 (3.1 kPa) or low-CO2 (0.04 kPa) water. We found that brain and blood pH was actively regulated and that the low-CO2 fish displayed significantly higher activity levels, which were reduced after treatment with gabazine, a GABAA receptor blocker. This indicates an involvement of the GABAA receptor and altered Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) ion gradients. Indeed, Goldman calculations suggest that low levels of environmental CO2 may cause significant changes in neural ion gradients in P. hypophthalmus. Taken together, the results suggest that brain ion regulation in fishes is fine-tuned to the prevailing ambient CO2 conditions and is prone to disruption if these conditions change.

  11. CAPTURA DE CO2 MEDIANTE TRANSPORTADORES SÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Forero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de transportadores de oxígeno (TO, basados en CuO y NiO sobre Al2O3 y preparados por impregnación, se llevó a cabo en una planta piloto de dos lechos fluidizados interconectados de 500 Wte, donde se utilizaron tanto metano como gas de síntesis como gas combustible. Además, se estudió el efecto de diferentes impurezas presentes en el gas combustible como azufre o hidrocarburos ligeros en la eficacia de combustión del proceso y en el comportamiento de los TO. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que ambos TO son adecuados para la captura de CO2 mediante transportadores sólidos de oxígeno en el proceso de combustión de metano, gas de síntesis o metano con impurezas como hidrocarburos ligeros o azufre en el gas.

  12. Research on the physical properties of supercritical CO2 and the log evaluation of CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baozhi; Lei, Jian; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Yuhang

    2017-10-01

    CO2-bearing reservoirs are difficult to distinguish from other natural gas reservoirs during gas explorations. Due to the lack of physical parameters for supercritical CO2, particularly neutron porosity, at present a hydrocarbon gas log evaluation method is used to evaluate CO2-bearing reservoirs. The differences in the physical properties of hydrocarbon and CO2 gases have led to serious errors. In this study, the deep volcanic rock of the Songliao Basin was the research area. In accordance with the relationship between the density and acoustic velocity of supercritical CO2 and temperature and pressure, the regularity between the CO2 density and acoustic velocity, and the depth of the area was established. A neutron logging simulation was completed based on a Monte Carlo method. Through the simulation of the wet limestone neutron logging, the relationship between the count rate ratio of short and long space detectors and the neutron porosity was acquired. Then, the nature of the supercritical CO2 neutron moderation was obtained. With consideration given to the complexity of the volcanic rock mineral composition, a volcanic rock volume model was established, and the matrix neutron and density parameters were acquired using the ECS log. The properties of CO2 were applied in the log evaluation of the CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin. The porosity and saturation of CO2 were obtained, and a reasonable application was achieved in the CO2-bearing reservoir.

  13. Electric field controlled CO2 capture and CO2/N2 separation on MoS2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Qin, Gangqiang; Ma, Yingying; Wang, Weihua; Li, Ping; Du, Aijun; Li, Zhen

    2017-01-07

    Developing new materials and technologies for efficient CO2 capture, particularly for separation of CO2 post-combustion, will significantly reduce the CO2 concentration and its impacts on the environment. A challenge for CO2 capture is to obtain high performance adsorbents with both high selectivity and easy regeneration. Here, CO2 capture/regeneration on MoS2 monolayers controlled by turning on/off external electric fields is comprehensively investigated through a density functional theory calculation. The calculated results indicate that CO2 forms a weak interaction with MoS2 monolayers in the absence of an electric field, but strongly interacts with MoS2 monolayers when an electric field of 0.004 a.u. is applied. Moreover, the adsorbed CO2 can be released from the surface of MoS2 without any energy barrier once the electric field is turned off. Compared with the adsorption of CO2, the interactions between N2 and MoS2 are not affected significantly by the external electric fields, which indicates that MoS2 monolayers can be used as a robust absorbent for controllable capture of CO2 by applying an electric field, especially to separate CO2 from the post-combustion gas mixture where CO2 and N2 are the main components.

  14. Structural diversity of copper-CO2 complexes: infrared spectra and structures of [Cu(CO2)n]- clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurr, Benjamin J; Weber, J Mathias

    2014-11-06

    We  present infrared spectra of  [Cu(CO2)n](-) (n = 2-9) clusters in the wavenumber range 1600-2400 cm(-1). The CO stretching modes in this region encode the structural nature of the cluster core and are interpreted with the aid of density functional theory. We find a variety of core species in [Cu(CO2)n](-) clusters, but the dominant core structure is a [Cu(CO2)2](-) core where the two CO2 ligands are bound to the Cu atom in a bidentate fashion. We compare the results of [Cu(CO2)n](-) clusters to those of other [M(CO2)n](-) clusters (M = Au, Ag, Co, Ni) to establish trends of how the metal-CO2 interaction depends on the metal partner.

  15. Reinforced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO by a ternary metal oxide NiCo2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Jiang, Min; Qin, Jiani; Zhou, Han; Ding, Zhengxin

    2015-06-28

    The work reported herein was the facile preparation of uniform urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres, and their use as an efficient and stable cocatalyst for photocatalytic CO2 reduction catalysis. A combined solvothermal-calcination strategy was applied to synthesize the NiCo2O4 material that was systematically characterized by physical and chemical measurements (e.g. SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, EDX, elemental mapping and N2 physisorption analysis). By cooperation with a visible light photosensitizer, the NiCo2O4 material effectively promoted the deoxygenative reduction of CO2 to CO by more than twenty times under mild reaction conditions. The carbon origin of CO evolution was validated by (13)CO2 isotope tracer experiments. Various reaction parameters were examined and optimized, and a possible reaction mechanism was proposed. Furthermore, the stability and reusability of NiCo2O4 cocatalysts were firmly confirmed.

  16. A simple model of the anthropogenically forced CO2 cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From basic physical assumptions we derive a simple linear model of the global CO2 cycle without free parameters. It yields excellent agreement with the observations reported by the carbon dioxide information analysis center (CDIAC as time series of atmospheric CO2 growth, of sinks in the ocean and of absorption by the biosphere. The agreement extends from the year 1850 until present (2013. Based on anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios until 2150, future atmospheric CO2 concentrations are calculated. As the model shows, and depending on the emission scenario, the airborne fraction of CO2 begins to decrease in the year ~ 2050 and becomes negative at the latest in ~ 2130. At the same time the concentration of the atmospheric CO2 will reach a maximum between ~ 500 and ~ 900 ppm. As a consequence, increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions will make the ocean and the biosphere the main reservoirs of anthropogenic CO2 in the long run. Latest in about 150 years, anthropogenic CO2 emission will no longer increase the CO2 content of the atmosphere.

  17. Bubble nucleation in polymer–CO2 mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Cristancho, Diego E; Costeux, Stéphane; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-10-28

    We combine density-functional theory with the string method to calculate the minimum free energy path of bubble nucleation in two polymer–CO2 mixture systems, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)–CO2 and polystyrene (PS)–CO2. Nucleation is initiated by saturating the polymer liquid with high pressure CO2 and subsequently reducing the pressure to ambient condition. Below a critical temperature (Tc), we find that there is a discontinuous drop in the nucleation barrier as a function of increased initial CO2 pressure (P0), as a result of an underlying metastable transition from a CO2-rich-vapor phase to a CO2-rich-liquid phase. The nucleation barrier is generally higher for PS–CO2 than for PMMA–CO2 under the same temperature and pressure conditions, and both higher temperature and higher initial pressure are required to lower the nucleation barrier for PS–CO2 to experimentally relevant ranges. Classical nucleation theory completely fails to capture the structural features of the bubble nucleus and severely underestimates the nucleation barrier.

  18. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  19. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pHCO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  20. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  1. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture.

  2. A simple model of the anthropogenically forced CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W.; Lüdecke, H.-J.; Weiss, C. O.

    2015-10-01

    From basic physical assumptions we derive a simple linear model of the global CO2 cycle without free parameters. It yields excellent agreement with the observations reported by the carbon dioxide information analysis center (CDIAC) as time series of atmospheric CO2 growth, of sinks in the ocean and of absorption by the biosphere. The agreement extends from the year 1850 until present (2013). Based on anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios until 2150, future atmospheric CO2 concentrations are calculated. As the model shows, and depending on the emission scenario, the airborne fraction of CO2 begins to decrease in the year ~ 2050 and becomes negative at the latest in ~ 2130. At the same time the concentration of the atmospheric CO2 will reach a maximum between ~ 500 and ~ 900 ppm. As a consequence, increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions will make the ocean and the biosphere the main reservoirs of anthropogenic CO2 in the long run. Latest in about 150 years, anthropogenic CO2 emission will no longer increase the CO2 content of the atmosphere.

  3. Enhanced CO2 Dissolution in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M. J.; Hallworth, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term and secure geological storage of CO2 through technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within reservoirs is seen as a technological means to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The long-term viability of this technology is reliant on the structural and secondary trapping of supercritical CO2 within heterogeneous reservoirs. Secondary trapping, primarily through the dissolution of CO2 into ambient reservoir brine to produce a denser fluid, is capable of retaining CO2 in the subsurface and thus reducing the risks of storage. To model secondary trapping we need to understand how the flow of CO2 through heterogeneous reservoir rocks enhances dissolution of supercritical CO2 in reservoir brines. Here we experimentally investigate the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines in layered, heterogeneous geological formations. Using analogue experiments, designed to approximate an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) setting, the processes of mixing, dispersion and dissolution are examined. These are compared against test results from non-layered, homogeneous porous media experiments. We find that heterogeneities significantly enhance mixing, particularly between adjacent porous layers. During fluid propagation, pore-scale viscous fingers grow and retreat, thereby providing an increased surface area between the flow and the ambient reservoir fluid. This enhanced mixing is predicted to substantially increase the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines. Both permeability and viscosity differences are found to have a significant effect on the interface between the two fluids, and therefore the likely amount of dissolution of CO2.

  4. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  5. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  6. Synergetic effect of carbon nanopore size and surface oxidation on CO2 capture from CO2/CH4 mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A; Harris, Peter J F

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the synergetic effect of confinement (carbon nanopore size) and surface chemistry (the number of carbonyl groups) on CO2 capture from its mixtures with CH4 at typical operating conditions for industrial adsorptive separation (298 K and compressed CO2-CH4 mixtures). Although both confinement and surface oxidation have an impact on the efficiency of CO2/CH4 adsorptive separation at thermodynamics equilibrium, we show that surface functionalization is the most important factor in designing an efficient adsorbent for CO2 capture. Systematic Monte Carlo simulations revealed that adsorption of CH4 either pure or mixed with CO2 on oxidized nanoporous carbons is only slightly increased by the presence of functional groups (surface dipoles). In contrast, adsorption of CO2 is very sensitive to the number of carbonyl groups, which can be examined by a strong electric quadrupolar moment of CO2. Interestingly, the adsorbed amount of CH4 is strongly affected by the presence of the co-adsorbed CO2. In contrast, the CO2 uptake does not depend on the molar ratio of CH4 in the bulk mixture. The optimal carbonaceous porous adsorbent used for CO2 capture near ambient conditions should consist of narrow carbon nanopores with oxidized pore walls. Furthermore, the equilibrium separation factor was the greatest for CO2/CH4 mixtures with a low CO2 concentration. The maximum equilibrium separation factor of CO2 over CH4 of ~18-20 is theoretically predicted for strongly oxidized nanoporous carbons. Our findings call for a review of the standard uncharged model of carbonaceous materials used for the modeling of the adsorption separation processes of gas mixtures containing CO2 (and other molecules with strong electric quadrupolar moment or dipole moment).

  7. Forecasting CO2 emissions in the Persian Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Olabemiwo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.

  8. Spectral nature of CO2 adsorption onto meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Genesis; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Takir, Driss; Dyar, M. Darby; Sklute, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have identified carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surfaces of jovian and Galilean satellites in regions of non-ice material that are too warm for CO2 ice to exist. CO2 ice would quickly sublimate if not retained by a less-volatile material. To ascertain what non-ice species may be responsible for stabilizing this CO2, we performed CO2 gas adsorption experiments on thirteen powdered CM, CI, and CV carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Reflectance spectra of the ν3 feature associated with adsorbed CO2 near 4.27 μm were recorded. Results show that many meteorites adsorbed some amount of CO2, as evidenced by an absorption feature that was stable over several hours at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and high vacuum, (1.0 × 10-8 and 1.0 × 10-7Torr, respectively). Ivuna, the only CI chondrite studied, adsorbed significantly more CO2 than the others. We found that CO2 abundance did not vary with 'water' abundance, organics, or carbonates as inferred from the area of the 3-μm band, the 3.2-3.4 μm C-H feature, and the ∼3.8-μm band respectively, but did correlate with hydrous/anhydrous phyllosilicate ratios. Furthermore, we did not observe CO2 ice because the position of the CO2 feature was generally shifted 3-10 nm from that of the 4.27 μm absorption characteristic of ice. The strongest compositional relationship observed was a possible affinity of CO2 for total FeO abundance and complex clay minerals, which make up the bulk of the CI chondrite matrix. This finding implies that the most primitive refractory materials in the Solar System may also act as reservoirs of CO2, and possibly other volatiles, delivering them to parts of the Solar System where their ices would not be stable.

  9. New sciences enabled by the new SABER CO2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Jian, Y.; Rezac, L.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Garcia, R. R.; Gan, Q.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Salinas, C. C. J.; Chang, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    The new SABER CO2 mixing ratio dataset includes the longest CO2 record in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) in existence [Rezac et al., 2015]. It spans from 2003 to 2015 with extensive spatial and temporal coverage (daytime only). This unique dataset provides the opportunity to study several important scientific topics in the Earth's MLT. The first is the long-term anthropogenic increase of CO2. Along with ACE-FTS CO2 data [Emmert et al., 2012], we discovered that the increase rate of CO2 above 80 km is greater than 5% per decade, which cannot be predicted by climate models. One possible explanation is that the eddy diffusivity in the MLT may also be increasing. The second project is to derive eddy diffusion from global mean SABER CO2. This parameter is extremely difficult to measure on a global scale, but by averaging the global mean SABER CO2 and removing vertical advection, we can estimate the eddy diffusion coefficient using a 1D photochemical model. The derived eddy diffusion due to gravity wave breaking is critical for understanding seasonal composition changes in the thermosphere. The third scientific study is to examine global-scale waves modulating the CO2 mixing ratio. We found that there is no wave feature in CO2 below 80 km as CO2 is well mixed. The CO2 wave feature is related to both the mean CO2 vertical and meridional gradient and wave induced vertical/meridional displacements. In general, the new SABER CO2 data allows us to better understand the short-term and long-term dynamics in the MLT region. This paper will show examples of SABER results and discuss the potential of the data set for study of dynamics phenomenon in the MLT.

  10. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Wecht, K. J. [Harvard University; Yantosca, R. M. [Harvard University; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Matsueda, H [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure

  11. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Bowman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of global three-dimensional (3-D models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth's carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01 CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (~0.19 Pg C yr−1, 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (~0.16 Pg C yr−1, and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (~1.05 Pg C yr−1. Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May–June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (~3%, while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (~10% with a complex

  12. A 40-million-year history of atmospheric CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Liu, Zhonghui; Bohaty, Steven M; Deconto, Robert

    2013-10-28

    The alkenone-pCO2 methodology has been used to reconstruct the partial pressure of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the past 45 million years of Earth's history (Middle Eocene to Pleistocene epochs). The present long-term CO2 record is a composite of data from multiple ocean localities that express a wide range of oceanographic and algal growth conditions that potentially bias CO2 results. In this study, we present a pCO2 record spanning the past 40 million years from a single marine locality, Ocean Drilling Program Site 925 located in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The trends and absolute values of our new CO2 record site are broadly consistent with previously published multi-site alkenone-CO2 results. However, new pCO2 estimates for the Middle Miocene are notably higher than published records, with average pCO2 concentrations in the range of 400-500 ppm. Our results are generally consistent with recent pCO2 estimates based on boron isotope-pH data and stomatal index records, and suggest that CO2 levels were highest during a period of global warmth associated with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-14 million years ago, Ma), followed by a decline in CO2 during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (approx. 14 Ma). Several relationships remain contrary to expectations. For example, benthic foraminiferal δ(18)O records suggest a period of deglaciation and/or high-latitude warming during the latest Oligocene (27-23 Ma) that, based on our results, occurred concurrently with a long-term decrease in CO2 levels. Additionally, a large positive δ(18)O excursion near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (the Mi-1 event, approx. 23 Ma), assumed to represent a period of glacial advance and retreat on Antarctica, is difficult to explain by our CO2 record alone given what is known of Antarctic ice sheet history and the strong hysteresis of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet once it has grown to continental dimensions. We also demonstrate that in the

  13. Sequestering CO2 in the Ocean: Options and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2002-12-01

    The likelihood of negative climate and environmental impacts associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted serious consideration of various CO2 mitigation strategies. Among these are methods of capturing and storing of CO2 in the ocean. Two approaches that have received the most attention in this regard have been i) ocean fertilization to enhanced biological uptake and fixation of CO2, and ii) the chemical/mechanical capture and injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. Both methods seek to enhance or speed up natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake and storage by the ocean, namely i) the biological CO2 "pump" or ii) the passive diffusion of CO2 into the surface ocean and subsequent mixing into the deep sea. However, as will be reviewed, concerns about the capacity and effectiveness of either strategy in long-term CO2 sequestration have been raised. Both methods are not without potentially significant environmental impacts, and the costs of CO2 capture and injection (option ii) are currently prohibitive. An alternate method of ocean CO2 sequestration would be to react and hydrate CO2 rich waste gases (e.g., power plant flue gas) with seawater and to subsequently neutralize the resulting carbonic acid with limestone to produce calcium and bicarbonate ions in solution. This approach would simply speed up the CO2 uptake and sequestration that naturally (but very slowly) occurs via global carbonate weathering. This would avoid much of the increased acidity associated with direct CO2 injection while obviating the need for costly CO2 separation and capture. The addition of the resulting bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich solution to the ocean would help to counter the decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration, and hence loss of biological calcification that is presently occurring as anthropogenic CO2 invades the ocean from the atmosphere. However, as with any approach to CO2 mitigation, the costs, impacts, risks, and benefits of this method need to be better understood

  14. Influence of the cation substitution on the magnetic properties of LiCo2O4 and Li(Me,Co2O4 spinels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier, J. L.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based cells LiCo2O4 have been characterized by magnetic techniques, looking at the influence of the partial substitution of cobalt by 3d or 4d transition metal elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo. The non-substituted compound LiCo2O4 behaves as an antiferromagnet, with a Néel temperature TN of 30 K, although antiferromagnetic interactions are much more important, as suggested by a Weiss parameter Θ of the order of ‑225 K. In the solid solution Li(NixCo2‑xO4 the Weiss parameter Θ changes with x(Ni, reaching large positive values (e.g., Θ ~ +230 K, for x = 0.5. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a canted‑antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic structures with large ferromagnetic components. Substitution of cobalt by other 3d or 4d transition metals in the LiMe0.5Co1.5O4 series shows dramatic effects with respect to the non-substituted LiCo2O4 compound : copper completely suppresses the magnetic order, while iron increases TN to almost room temperature. No modifications are observed when molybdenum substitutes cobalt, while chromium transforms the AF order in a ferromagnetic one, with Tc of about 90 K.Se ha caracterizado por técnicas magnéticas, el efecto de la sustitución parcial de Co por elementos de transición 3d o 4d (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo en celdas LiCo2O4 a base de litio. El compuesto no sustituído LiCo2O4, se comporta como un antiferromagneto de temperatura de Néel TN de 30 K, aunque existen interacciones antiferromagnéticas mucho más importantes, como lo indica un parámetro de Weiss Θ del orden de -225K. En la solución sólida Li(NixCo2‑xO4, el parámetro de Weiss Θ cambia con x(Ni, alcanzando valores positivos altos (e.g., Θ ~ +230K, para x=0.5. Este fenómeno sugiere la existencia de una estructura antiferromagnética inclinada (“AF-canted” o de una estructura ferrimagnética, donde predominan componentes ferromagnéticas importantes. La sustitución del cobalto por otros elementos de transición 3d o 4d en

  15. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  16. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  17. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  18. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage CO2 .

  19. Recent enlightening strategies for co2 capture: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qiu, Ziyang; Liu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    The global climate change has seriously affected the survival and prosperity of mankind, where greenhouse effect owing to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a great cause. Accordingly, a series of down-to-earth measures need to be implemented urgently to control the output of CO2. As CO2 capture appears as a core issue in developing low-carbon economy, this review provides a comprehensive introduction of recent CO2 capture technologies used in power plants or other industries. Strategies for CO2 capture, e.g. pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion, are covered in this article. Another enlightening technology for CO2 capture based on fluidized beds is intensively discussed.

  20. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  1. Valence Fluctuations in CeCo2 and Ti-Doped CeCo2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Yıldırhan

    2016-12-01

    We report on the magnetic measurements of polycrystalline samples of CeCo2 and CeCo(2-x)Ti x (x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05) which have been synthesized by an arc melting technique. All these compounds crystallize into the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure with the Fd bar{3} m space group. The lattice parameter decreases linearly with increasing Ti content from 7.15808(5) Å for x = 0 (CeCo2) to 7.15231(7) Å for x = 0.05. The magnetic behavior of these compounds has been investigated in the temperature range 5-400 K. The zero field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled magnetization (FC) curves show irreversibility below T = 400 K. This result indicates that an inhomogeneous, dynamic magnetic state exists over a wide temperature range. The magnetic susceptibility for both ZFC and FC cases initially decreases with Ti content and then increases with further Ti addition. This behavior is interpreted in terms of band magnetism in the presence of magnetic clusters. This result indicates that the magnetic inhomogeneity of these alloys becomes dominant over a wide temperature range. The observed temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility leads us to suggest that these compounds are in a mixed-valence state of the magnetic Ce3+ ions and non-magnetic Ce4+ ions. This fact allows us to successfully interpret the ZFC magnetic susceptibility data with the two-level ionic inter-configuration fluctuations model. We also observe that the magnetic susceptibility increases by the addition of Ti, as evidenced by the enhancement of the formation of magnetic Co clusters due to local disorder. Finally, the magnetic state below the Curie temperatures are discussed based on Griffiths-like behavior.

  2. Surface CO2 fluxes implied by a full year of OCO-2 column CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Over one year of full-column CO2 concentration data is now available from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite, with retrieval biases corrected using upward-looking solar spectrometer data from the TCCON network as well with internal consistency checks. We use this OCO-2 data to estimate weekly surface CO2 flux corrections at 6.7ºx6.7º resolution with a variational data assimilation technique built around the off-line PCTM atmospheric transport model driven with MERRA 1ºx1.25° winds and mixing parameters. Since such flux estimates can depend strongly on the prior fluxes assumed (which may remain unchanged in regions of sparse sampling), the initial 3-D concentrations assumed (especially in the upper part of the atmosphere), vertical transport/mixing errors in the model, and un-corrected biases in the satellite data, we invert the OCO-2 data in multiple inversions in which different prior fluxes are used (e.g. SiB4 vs. CASA land bio, Takahashi vs. Doney ocean, FFDAS vs. CDIAC fossil fuel), in which ACOS GOSAT data and NOAA surface in situ and aircraft profile data are used (or not) to correct the prior fluxes and concentration fields, and in which the vertical mixing in the transport model is artificially increased/decreased by a factor of 3, to assess the sensitivity of the OCO-2 flux corrections. These inversions are done in the context of a longer span (2009-2015) to allow the impact of the fluxes and other data sources to fully impact the upper layers of the model. The bias between the OCO-2 data and the prior forward CO2 fields is also calculated before doing the inversions, and compared to similar retrieval biases solved for the ACOS GOSAT data (B3.5). The impact of these bias corrections, as well as the standard ones provided by the OCO-2 team, is assessed by comparing the fit of the a posteriori CO2 fields to independent data (including surface in situ and NOAA aircraft).

  3. Transport Mechanisms for CO2-CH4 Exchange and Safe CO2 Storage in Hydrate-Bearing Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Arne Birkedal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 injection in hydrate-bearing sediments induces methane (CH4 production while benefitting from CO2 storage, as demonstrated in both core and field scale studies. CH4 hydrates have been formed repeatedly in partially water saturated Bentheim sandstones. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and CH4 consumption from pump logs have been used to verify final CH4 hydrate saturation. Gas Chromatography (GC in combination with a Mass Flow Meter was used to quantify CH4 recovery during CO2 injection. The overall aim has been to study the impact of CO2 in fractured and non-fractured samples to determine the performance of CO2-induced CH4 hydrate production. Previous efforts focused on diffusion-driven exchange from a fracture volume. This approach was limited by gas dilution, where free and produced CH4 reduced the CO2 concentration and subsequent driving force for both diffusion and exchange. This limitation was targeted by performing experiments where CO2 was injected continuously into the spacer volume to maintain a high driving force. To evaluate the effect of diffusion length multi-fractured core samples were used, which demonstrated that length was not the dominating effect on core scale. An additional set of experiments is presented on non-fractured samples, where diffusion-limited transportation was assisted by continuous CO2 injection and CH4 displacement. Loss of permeability was addressed through binary gas (N2/CO2 injection, which regained injectivity and sustained CO2-CH4 exchange.

  4. Density-driven enhanced dissolution of injected CO2 during long-term CO2 geological storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations is increasingly seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, possible leakage of injected CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells is a huge challenge for CO2 geological storage projects. Thus, the density-driven fluid flow as a process that can accelerate the phase change of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase is receiving more and more attention. In this paper, we performed higher-resolution reactive transport simulations to investigate the possible density-driven fluid flow process under the ‘real’ condition of CO2 injection and storage. Simulation results indicated that during CO2 injection and geological storage in deep saline formations, the higher-density CO2-saturated aqueous phase within the lower CO2 gas plume migrates downward and moves horizontally along the bottom of the formation, and the higher-density fingers within the upper gas plume propagate downward. These density-driven fluid flow processes can significantly enhance the phase transition of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase, consequently enhancing the effective storage capacity and long-term storage security of injected CO2 in saline formations.

  5. Macroalgal Performance and Competition under Elevated CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Laurie Carol

    2012-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been increasing, and the surface waters of the global oceans have absorbed 30% of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. A higher CO2 concentration in surface ocean waters shifts the carbon chemistry, resulting in higher concentrations of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and protons (H ) and lower concentrations of carbonate ions (CO32-). Such a shift in ocean carbon chemistry decreases the pH and the s...

  6. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  7. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  8. Evaluation of Stirling cooler system for cryogenic CO2 capture

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chun Feng; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Shu Hong

    2012-01-01

    In previous research, a cryogenic system based on Stirling coolers has been developed. In this work, the novel system was applied on CO2 capture from post-combustion flue gas and different process parameters (i.e. flow rate of feed gas, temperature of Stirling cooler and operating condition) were investigated to obtain the optimal performance (CO2 recovery and energy consumption). From the extensive experiments, it was concluded that the cryogenic system could realize CO2 capture without solv...

  9. Enhancing CO2 Capture using Robust Superomniphobic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Florian; Schönecker, Clarissa; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2017-02-01

    Superomniphobic membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture are introduced. Concentrated aqueous amine solutions stay on the topmost part of the membranes, providing a large liquid/CO2 interface. Wetting of the membrane, which reduces the capture efficiency, is prevented. The CO2 capture rates using the chemically, mechanically, and thermally stable superomniphobic membranes are enhanced by up to 40% relative to commercial membranes.

  10. Modeling post-combustion CO2 capture with amine solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Grégoire; Heyen, Georges

    2010-01-01

    In order to avoid the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gas, CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and subsequent underground CO2 sequestration is studied. The capture occurs by reactive CO2 absorption into chemical solvent systems at moderate temperature (~50°C) followed by solvent regeneration at higher temperature (~120°C). So far, the most employed solvent for acid gas capture is monoethanolamine (MEA). One main drawback of this technology is the high energy consumption necessary ...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  12. CO2 injection along a pipeline with transient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Víctor; Carrera, Jesús; Slooten, Luit Jan; Silva, Orlando; Bear, Jacob; Kitro-Belinkov, Myra

    2013-04-01

    CO2 geological sequestration involves several processes. One of the more relevant of these processes is the CO2 injection along a pipeline, because it links the capture and transport of CO2 with its deep geological storage. The knowledge of the CO2 behavior within injection and monitoring wells is essential for designing efficient CO2 storage strategies. In particular, a thorough modeling and simulation of CO2 flow through the injection pipe is required to define operational protocols and to design the surface CO2 conditioning facilities. Much work has been performed on modeling the steady state multiphase flow in wellbores during CO2 injection. However, relevant problems, including the displacement of the initial brine in the injection well, or the upwards flow of CO2 during a push-pull test, require the modeling of transient conditions, which is the goal of the present work. Here, we present the governing equations and preliminary results for the modeling of dynamic non isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well, including displacement of the initial brine. The model considers continuity, momentum and energy equations, together with equations of state and some thermodynamic relations. These equations are solved using the simulation framework "Proost", which implements the finite element method. The code is verified by comparison with a steady-state solver for a range of surface injection conditions. The results obtained show pressure, velocity and temperature evolution, which allows quantifying the phase changes that gradually experiment the CO2 through the injection pipe. We find the surface pressure required initially is much higher than steady-state because heat exchange with the formation reduces significantly the density of CO2 at the borehole.

  13. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  14. The reversibility of CO2 induced climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peili; Ridley, Jeff; Pardaens, Anne; Levine, Richard; Lowe, Jason

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the reversibility of CO2 induced climate change and in particular the potential impacts of different rates of CO2 reduction using a coupled climate model. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is ramped up by 0.5 %/year from the preindustrial value to 4×CO2 and then ramped down from 2×CO2 to 4×CO2 with different rates. How the response of the climate system is affected by the peak atmospheric CO2 concentration and the rate of long term decline is vital information for those considering hypothetical geoengineering options to remove CO2. Major components of the climate system including global mean surface air temperature and precipitation, contribution of thermal expansion to global sea level rise, loss of the Arctic sea ice, weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the South Asia monsoon are analyzed. We have found no `tipping points' or thresholds beyond which CO2 induced climate change in these components become irreversible within this model under the specific scenarios. However, there are strong inertias and path-dependent hysteresis in the climate system linked through oceanic memory. Initially the strengthened global hydrological cycle accelerates further in response to a CO2 ramp-down before weakening. Thermal expansion of the oceans continues for many decades after CO2 concentration starts to decrease. A 0.5 %/year reduction from 4×CO2 could see a further 25 % sea level rise. The weakening of the AMOC is reversible, but the build-up of highly saline subtropical waters during global warming drives an overshoot of the AMOC after the CO2 ramp-down and extends the warming of the northern high latitudes by many decades. The South Asia monsoon strengthens in response to a CO2 ramp-up marked by an increase in summer monsoon rainfall. This increase reverses rapidly following a CO2 ramp-down, displaying an undershoot in monsoon rainfall for rapid CO2 reductions.

  15. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  16. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2: Airborne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Heaps, W. S.; Mao, J.; Andrews, A. E.; Burris, J. F.; Miodek, M.; Georgieva, E.

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are, however, extremely demanding (precision approximately 0.3%). We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere that should be able to achieve sufficient sensitivity and signal-to-noise to measure column CO2 at the target specification. We are currently constructing a prototype instrument for deployment on aircraft. The aircraft version will measure total column CO2 and CO2 below the aircraft as well as O2, which allows normalization of CO2 column amounts for varying surface height and pressure. This instrument will be a valuable asset in carbon budget field studies as well as a useful tool for evaluating existing and future space-based CO2 measurements. We will present the instrument concept, sensitivity calculations, and the results of testing a bench system in the laboratory and outdoors on the ground. We will also discuss our plan for deployment on the aircraft and potential flight applications to the CO2 budget problem.

  17. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Estimates of CO2 since the mid-Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Heather

    2016-04-01

    For past warm climates, direct CO2 determinations are unavailable. Our inferences of Antarctic ice sheet thresholds and climate sensitivity to CO2 are therefore strongly conditioned by the reliability of CO2 proxy reconstructions. For the Miocene, these rely heavily on proxies using the carbon isotopic fractionation of marine phytoplankton during photosynthesis (ep). While recent records are beginning to reveal more clearly the long term CO2 trends since the middle Miocene , the absolute CO2 concentrations are subject to higher uncertainty. This in turn influences the ability of models to simulate dynamic Antarctic ice sheet behavior in the context of expected ice sheet hysteresis. In this contribution, I discuss a new approach for estimating CO2 from published and new measurements of phytoplankton carbon isotopic fractionation using the ACTI-CO cell model. This approach accounts for the physiological adaptations made by phytoplankton cells to avoid falling below optimal photosynthetic rates as CO2 declines, the carbon concentrating mechanism. The model yields CO2 estimates which can be significantly (up to 2-fold) higher than those estimated from classic equations. Given the large degree of cooling since the late Miocene in extratropical sea surface temperature records, such CO2 estimates are consistent with a more conservative estimate of climate sensitivity over the last 12 Ma.

  19. Atmospheric CO2 Variability Observed From ASCENDS Flight Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Choi, Yonghoon; Dobler, Jeremy; Fan, Tai-Fang; Harrison, F. Wallace; Kooi, Susan; Liu, Zhaoyan; Meadows, Byron; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; Plant, James; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales were observed during ASCENDS flight campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200x300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Even over extended forests, about 2-ppm CO2 column variability was measured within about 500-km distance. For winter times, especially over snow covered ground, relatively less horizontal CO2 variability was observed, likely owing to minimal interactions between the atmosphere and land surface. Inter-annual variations of CO2 drawdown over cornfields in the Mid-West were found to be larger than 5 ppm due to slight differences in the corn growing phase and meteorological conditions even in the same time period of a year. Furthermore, considerable differences in atmospheric CO2 profiles were found during winter and summer campaigns. In the winter CO2 was found to decrease from about 400 ppm in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to about 392 ppm above 10 km, while in the summer CO2 increased from 386 ppm in the ABL to about 396 ppm in free troposphere. These and other CO2 observations are discussed in this presentation.

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis Using Enzymes in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Matsuda

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Great efforts have been extended to catalysis in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) since the early 1990's due to the environmental friendliness, high diffusivity, high solubilizing power, easiness of the product separation,etc.. A combined process of scCO2 and enzymatic catalyst system would be a promising synthetic tool to produce optically active compounds because the enzyme has advantages of being natural and having high enantioselectivity in nature. Here we report asymmetric synthesis using lipase and alcohol dehydrogenase in scCO2[1,2].

  1. Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Fátima; Gaspar, João L; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the main soil gases released silently and permanently in diffuse degassing areas, both in volcanic and non-volcanic zones. In the volcanic islands of the Azores (Portugal) several villages are located over diffuse degassing areas. Lethal indoor CO2 concentrations (higher than 10 vol %) were measured in a shelter located at Furnas village, inside the caldera of the quiescent Furnas Volcano (S. Miguel Island). Hazardous CO2 concentrations were detected not only underground, but also at the ground floor level. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to the CO2 and environmental time series recorded between April 2008 and March 2010 at Furnas village. The results show that about 30% of the indoor CO2 variation is explained by environmental variables, namely barometric pressure, soil water content and wind speed. The highest indoor CO2 concentrations were recorded during bad weather conditions, characterized by low barometric pressure together with rainfall periods and high wind speed. In addition to the spike-like changes observed on the CO2 time series, long-term oscillations were also identified and appeared to represent seasonal variations. In fact, indoor CO2 concentrations were higher during winter period when compared to the dry summer months. Considering the permanent emission of CO2 in various volcanic regions of the world, CO2 hazard maps are crucial and need to be accounted by the land-use planners and authorities.

  2. Supported Catalysts for CO2 Methanation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Frontera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 methanation is a well-known reaction that is of interest as a capture and storage (CCS process and as a renewable energy storage system based on a power-to-gas conversion process by substitute or synthetic natural gas (SNG production. Integrating water electrolysis and CO2 methanation is a highly effective way to store energy produced by renewables sources. The conversion of electricity into methane takes place via two steps: hydrogen is produced by electrolysis and converted to methane by CO2 methanation. The effectiveness and efficiency of power-to-gas plants strongly depend on the CO2 methanation process. For this reason, research on CO2 methanation has intensified over the last 10 years. The rise of active, selective, and stable catalysts is the core of the CO2 methanation process. Novel, heterogeneous catalysts have been tested and tuned such that the CO2 methanation process increases their productivity. The present work aims to give a critical overview of CO2 methanation catalyst production and research carried out in the last 50 years. The fundamentals of reaction mechanism, catalyst deactivation, and catalyst promoters, as well as a discussion of current and future developments in CO2 methanation, are also included.

  3. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; Beerling, D.; Berner, R; Masson-Delmotte, V.; M. Pagani; Raymo, M.; Royer, D. L.; J. C. Zachos

    2008-01-01

    Paleoclimate data show that climate sensitivity is ~3 deg-C for doubled CO2, including only fast feedback processes. Equilibrium sensitivity, including slower surface albedo feedbacks, is ~6 deg-C for doubled CO2 for the range of climate states between glacial conditions and ice-free Antarctica. Decreasing CO2 was the main cause of a cooling trend that began 50 million years ago, large scale glaciation occurring when CO2 fell to 450 +/- 100 ppm, a level that will be exceeded within decades, b...

  4. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  5. CO2 Sink/Source in the Indonesian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct CO2 sink/source characteristics appeared from the compiled observed data 1984-2013 in the tropical Indonesian seas. The western part persistently emits CO2 to the atmosphere, while the eastern is rather dynamic which emits and absorbs smaller amount of CO2 to and from atmosphere, respectively. The segregation is proximal to the virtual Wallace line, where in the continental shelf is located. Lower salinity and higher silicate condition in the western part influenced the higher pCO2 condition in Java Sea. Temperature is found to have a limited influence to control different characteristic in the west and east, but SST change of 2.0 0C during La Ninã condition effectively reduced the source amount of CO2 by 50% compared to Normal year condition. Yet, during La Ninã, higher wind speed increases CO2 flux twice compared to Normal year. In the continental shelf area where CO2 sink area is found, 29 years data showed that pCO2 trend is increasing ±0.6-3.8 μatm/year. From this study, the overall areas have a significant source of CO2 of approximately 10 - 24 μatm.

  6. Investigation of the interfacial properties for CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures%CO2-甲醇和CO2-乙醇体系的界面性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付东

    2011-01-01

    An equation of state (EOS) applicable for the interfacial properties of CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures was established by combining the cross-association EOS and the density gradient theory (DGT). The correlated surface tensions of CO2-ethanol mixtures agreed well with the experimental data. The results illustrated the temperature and pressure dependence of the cross-association between CO2 and alcohol hydroxyls in the whole vapor-liquid surface, and the influence of the cross-association on the calculation of the surface tensions of binary mixtures.%在交叉缔合的均相状态方程的基础上,结合密度梯度理论(density gradient theory,DGT),建立了适用于CO2-甲醇和CO2-乙醇二元体系界面性质研究的状态方程,对CO2-乙醇体系表面张力的关联结果与实验值吻合良好.阐明了CO2分子与甲醇分子和乙醇分子之间的交叉缔合作用对二元体系表面张力计算结果的影响,以及界面相中CO2与醇羟基之间的交叉缔合与温度和压力之间的关系.

  7. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  8. Aproximación a un proceso PSA para la captura de CO2 precombustión

    OpenAIRE

    Beneroso Vallejo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    En este Trabajo Fin de Máster se ha realizado una modelización del proceso de adsorción, con vistas a su aplicación a la captura de CO2 de mezclas gaseosas en condiciones de precombustión. Se utilizaron resultados previos obtenidos en experimentos estáticos de adsorción de gases puros (CO2, H2 y N2), y en experimentos dinámicos en un lecho de adsorción, para una mezcla gaseosa con 40% CO2, 50% H2 y 10% N2, en condiciones representativas de la corriente de entrada al sistema de captura de CO2 ...

  9. CO2 laser welding of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Mohammed; Masse, Jean Eric; Mathieu, J. F.; Barreau, Gerard; Autric, Michel L.

    2000-02-01

    Metallic alloys with a low mass density can be considered to be basic materials in aeronautic and automotive industry. Magnesium alloys have better properties than aluminum alloys in respect of their low density and high resistance to traction. The main problems of magnesium alloy welding are the inflammability, the crack formation and the appearance of porosity during the solidification. The laser tool is efficient to overcome the difficulties of manufacturing by conventional processing. Besides, the laser processing mainly using shielding gases allows an effective protection of the metal against the action of oxygen and a small heat affected zone. In this paper, we present experimental results about 5 kW CO2 laser welding of 4 mm-thick magnesium alloy plates provided by Eurocopter France. The focused laser beam has about 0.15 mm of diameter. We have investigated the following sample: WE43, alloy recommended in aeronautic and space applications, is constituted with Mg, Y, Zr, rare earth. More ductile, it can be used at high temperatures until 250 degrees Celsius for times longer than 5000 hours without effects on its mechanical properties. A sample of RZ5 (French Norm: GZ4TR, United States Norm ZE41) is composed of Mg, Zn, Zr, La, rare earth. This alloy has excellent properties of foundry and it allows to the realization of components with complex form. Also, it has a good resistance and important properties of tightness. The parameters of the process were optimized in the following fields: laser power: 2 to 5 kW, welding speed: 1 to 4.5 m/min, focal position: -3 mm to +3 mm below or on the top of the metal surface, shielding gas: helium with a flow of 10 to 60 l/min at 4 bars. Metallurgical analyses and mechanical control are made (macroscopic structure, microscopic structure, interpretations of the structures and localization of possible defects, analyse phases, chemical composition, hardness, tensile test etc.) to understand the parameters influence of welding

  10. Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott

    2016-05-01

    National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in

  11. Triazine containing N-rich microporous organic polymers for CO2 capture and unprecedented CO2/N2 selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Bhanja, Piyali; Das, Sabuj Kanti; Sen, Tapas; Bhaumik, Asim

    2017-03-01

    Targeted synthesis of microporous adsorbents for CO2 capture and storage is very challenging in the context of remediation from green house gases. Herein we report two novel N-rich microporous networks SB-TRZ-CRZ and SB-TRZ-TPA by extensive incorporation of triazine containing tripodal moiety in the porous polymer framework. These materials showed excellent CO2 storage capacities: SB-TRZ-CRZ displayed the CO2 uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K and SB-TRZ-TPA gave that of 16 wt% under identical conditions. The substantial dipole quadruple interaction between network (polar triazine) and CO2 boosts the selectivity for CO2/N2. SB-TRZ-CRZ has this CO2/N2 selectivity ratio of 377, whereas for SB-TRZ-TPA it was 97. Compared to other porous polymers, these materials are very cost effective, scalable and very promising material for clean energy application and environmental issues.

  12. 超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工%Supercritical CO2 assisted polymer processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    近年来,以超临界CO2替代聚合物加工过程中大量使用的有机溶剂实现超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工过程已引起人们越来越多的关注.CO2在聚合物中的溶解扩散可导致其结构和形态的变化,能够溶胀增塑聚合物并且将溶解于其中的小分子物质携带输运到聚合物基体中,进而影响聚合物的结晶及晶型转变行为,聚合物/CO2体系界面张力以及聚合物/CO2体系流变行为等基本物性的变化.利用聚合物基本物性的变化可实现CO2辅助聚合物接枝反应,CO2辅助聚合物渗透小分子物质以及CO2辅助聚合物发泡等超临界CO2辅助聚合物加工过程的应用.结合本研究室的实例,探讨了CO2作用下等规聚丙烯和间规聚丙烯的结晶行为以及一种多晶型聚合物——等规聚丁烯-1的晶型转变行为;探讨了利用CO2对等规聚丙烯、聚乳酸和聚酯三种典型的低熔体强度结晶聚合物具有的不同诱导结晶作用,调控聚合物的结晶行为,使其具备发泡所需的熔体强度,制备了具有不同结构特征的发泡聚合物材料.%The use of CO2 for substituting volatile organic compounds in polymer processing, i. e. , supercritical CO2-assisted polymer processing, has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Dissolution of CO2 in polymer could swell, plasticize and deliver small molecules into the polymer matrixes. Consequently, the structure and morphology of the polymer would change, as well as the fundamental properties, including polymer crystallization, interfacial tension between polymer and gas, and rheology of CO2 /polymers melt. CO2 -induced changes in these properties could be used to realize the supercritical CO2-assisted polymer processing, e.g., CO2-assisted polymer grafting, CO2-assisted penetrating of small molecules into polymer and CO2-assisted polymer foaming. Several cases from the authors' laboratory are presented for elucidating how to use the changes to manipulate

  13. Commercial Reclaiming Recovery of CO2 Emission%CO2排放的商业回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉倩

    2008-01-01

    CO2是最主要的温室气体,其减排和回收利用关系到可持续发展.世界CO2排放185亿~242亿t/a,只有1亿t/a得到利用.主要产品是液体CO2.我国CO2排放已超过30亿t/a,只有80万t/a得到有效利用.利用方式是干冰和液体CO2.液体CO2需求量增长速度为15%~20%,未来5年后年需量达到200万t以上.

  14. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  15. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  16. Inducing a CO2 leak into a shallow aquifer (CO2FieldLab EUROGIA+ project): Monitoring the CO2 plume in groundwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Frédérick; Proust, Eric; Humez, Pauline; Braibant, Gilles; Brach, Michel; Koch, Florian; Widory, David; Girard, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    International audience; An important part of the CO2 capture and storage projects concerns monitoring methods. Here we are focusing on the geochemical monitoring methods that may be deployed at depth to ensure early warning in case of unwanted CO2 leakages from a storage site. Independently from the nature of the reservoir (saline aquifer, depleted oil/gas reservoir), aquifers are ubiquitous in the overlying sedimentary pile. Before deploying water monitoring methods at depth, where long-term...

  17. Methanol from CO2 by organo-cocatalysis: CO2 capture and hydrogenation in one process step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Christian; Pöge, Matthias; Lißner, Andreas; Mertens, Florian O R L

    2014-12-16

    Carbon dioxide chemically bound to alcohol-amines was hydrogenated to methanol under retrieval of these industrially used CO2 capturing reagents. The energetics of the process can be seen as a partial cancellation of the exothermic heat of reaction of the hydrogenation with the endothermic one of the CO2 release from the capturing reagent. The process provides a means to significantly improve the energy efficiency of CO2 to methanol conversions.

  18. Weak Interactions and CO_2 Microsolvation in the CIS-1,2-DIFLUOROETHYLENE...CO_2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendell, William; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.

    2017-06-01

    The need for a deep understanding of CO_2 interactions is significant given the importance of supercritical CO_2 (sc-CO_2) as a green solvent. Fluorinated compounds often have higher solubility in sc-CO_2 than their hydrocarbon analogs, and the reasons for this are not well understood. Investigations of dimers of one CO_2 molecule with a simple fluorinated hydrocarbon provide an initial step towards understanding the complex balance of forces that is likely to be present as a larger solvation shell of sc-CO_2 is built. The weakly bound dimer cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is the latest in a series of complexes of CO_2 with fluorinated ethylenes that has recently been studied using chirped-pulse (CP) Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Unlike all previous members of the series, the observed structure of cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is nonplanar, with CO_2 sitting above the ethylene plane and crossed relative to the C=C bond. This nonplanar arrangement is consistent with predictions made using symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), where the dispersion energy of the nonplanar structure is significantly more favorable than for a structure where CO_2 lies in the same plane as the ethylene moiety. Observed transitions are doubled as a result of CO_2 tunneling between equivalent positions above and below the ethylene plane, leading to inversion of the μ_c dipole moment component. Observed transitions for the most abundant isotopologue have been fitted to a two state Hamiltonian to give an energy difference between tunneling states of Δ E ≈ 333 MHz, and analysis using Meyer's one dimensional model to determine the barrier to inversion is presently in progress.

  19. Using Subsurface CO2 Concentrations and Isotopologues to Identify CO2 Seepage from CCS/CO2-EOR Projects: A Signal-to-Noise Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, N. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to fulfill a role in demonstrating containment, surface monitoring for Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage (CCS) sites must be able to clearly discriminate between natural, and leakage-source CO2. The CCS community lacks a clear metric for quantifying the degree of discrimination, for successful inter-comparison of monitoring approaches. This study illustrates the utility of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to compare the relative performance of three commonly used soil gas monitoring approaches, including bulk CO2, δ13CO2, and Δ14CO2. For inter-comparisons, we used a simulated northern temperate landscape similar to that of Weyburn, Saskatchewan (home of the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project), in which realistic spatial and temporal CO2 and isotopic variation is simulated for periods of one year or more. Results indicate, that, for this particular ecosystem, Δ14C signatures have the best overall SNR at all simulated seepage rates, and for all points across the synthetic landscape. We then apply this same SNR based approach to data collected during a 6-month sampling campaign at three locations on the Weyburn oil field. This study emphasizes both the importance of developing clear metrics for monitoring performance, and the benefit of modeling for decision support in CCS monitoring design.

  20. Effects of CO2 Partial Pressure on CO2 Corrosion Behavior of N80 Tubular Steel%CO2分压对 N80油管钢 CO2腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高纯良; 刘明亮; 李大朋; 张雷; 马文海; 路民旭

    2014-01-01

    利用高温高压反应釜进行腐蚀模拟试验。采用失重法、SEM 和 XRD 等手段研究了 CO2分压对 N80油管钢在100℃下 CO2腐蚀行为的影响。结果表明,N80钢的腐蚀速率随 CO2分压升高而上升。不同 CO2分压下腐蚀类型与腐蚀产物膜宏观形貌的变化相对应,在低 CO2分压下腐蚀产物膜完整覆盖。随着 CO2分压的进一步升高,腐蚀产物膜由局部覆盖转而重新完整覆盖。相应地,N80钢在低 CO2分压下发生全面腐蚀,然后随 CO2分压的进一步升高,腐蚀类型由局部腐蚀向全面腐蚀过渡。%The effects of CO2 partial pressure on CO2 corrosion behavior of N80 steel at 100 ℃ were studied by autoclave test,together with weight loss method,SEM,and XRD.The results showed that the corrosion rate of N80 steel rose with the increase of CO2 pressure corresponding to the change of corrosion product film macro-morphology. At the low partial pressure of CO2 ,the corrosion product film was complete,then with the further increase of CO2 partial pressure,corrosion product film turned from incomplete to complete.Accordingly,at low CO2 partial pressure,the corrosion of N80 steel was general corrosion,and then with the further increase of CO2 partial pressure, corrosion characteristics were transformed from localized corrosion to general corrosion.

  1. Calculation of Co2 emissions from the italian energy system; Calcolo delle emissioni di CO2 dal settore energetico italiano. 1990-2000. Metodo di riferimento IPCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, M. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); La Motta, S. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The calculation of Co2 emissions from the Italian energy system is the object of this work. The inventory method used is the Reference Approach from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the energy consumption data are taken from the Italian Energy Balance edited by the Ministry of Industry. The years analysed are those from 1990 to 2000. [Italian] Lo scopo di questo lavoro e' quello di contabilizzare le emissioni di CO2 provenienti dal settore energetico per fonte di utilizzo dell'energia, a partire direttamente dal Bilancio Energetico Nazionale (Bilancio Energetico Nazionale, BEN, a cura del Ministero Industria, Commercio ed Artigianato) ed applicando all'Italia la metodologia di riferimento per il calcolo delle emissioni della CO2 elaborata dall'Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories). Gli anni presi in considerazione in queto lavoro sono quelli dal 1990 al 2000.

  2. Crystal structures and dynamical properties of dense CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xue; Liu, Hanyu; Wu, Min; Yao, Yansun; Tse, John S; Dias, Ranga; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-10-04

    Structural polymorphism in dense carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted significant attention in high-pressure physics and chemistry for the past two decades. Here, we have performed high-pressure experiments and first-principles theoretical calculations to investigate the stability, structure, and dynamical properties of dense CO2 We found evidence that CO2-V with the 4-coordinated extended structure can be quenched to ambient pressure below 200 K-the melting temperature of CO2-I. CO2-V is a fully coordinated structure formed from a molecular solid at high pressure and recovered at ambient pressure. Apart from confirming the metastability of CO2-V (I-42d) at ambient pressure at low temperature, results of ab initio molecular dynamics and metadynamics (MD) simulations provided insights into the transformation processes and structural relationship from the molecular to the extended phases. In addition, the simulation also predicted a phase V'(Pna21) in the stability region of CO2-V with a diffraction pattern similar to that previously assigned to the CO2-V (P212121) structure. Both CO2-V and -V' are predicted to be recoverable and hard with a Vicker hardness of ∼20 GPa. Significantly, MD simulations found that the CO2 in phase IV exhibits large-amplitude bending motions at finite temperatures and high pressures. This finding helps to explain the discrepancy between earlier predicted static structures and experiments. MD simulations clearly indicate temperature effects are critical to understanding the high-pressure behaviors of dense CO2 structures-highlighting the significance of chemical kinetics associated with the transformations.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification for CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Middleton, R.; Bauman, J.; Viswanathan, H.; Fessenden-Rahn, J.; Pawar, R.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is currently an option for permanently sequestering CO2 in oil reservoirs while increasing oil/gas productions economically. In this study we have developed a framework for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR-sequestration environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. By coupling a EOR tool--SENSOR (CEI, 2011) with a uncertainty quantification tool PSUADE (Tong, 2011), we conduct an integrated Monte Carlo simulation of water, oil/gas components and CO2 flow and reactive transport in the heterogeneous Morrow formation to identify the key controlling processes and optimal parameters for CO2 sequestration and EOR. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis are conducted with PSUADE to build numerically the relationship among CO2 injectivity, oil/gas production, reservoir parameters and distance between injection and production wells. The results indicate that the reservoir permeability and porosity are the key parameters to control the CO2 injection, oil and gas (CH4) recovery rates. The distance between the injection and production wells has large impact on oil and gas recovery and net CO2 injection rates. The CO2 injectivity increases with the increasing reservoir permeability and porosity. The distance between injection and production wells is the key parameter for designing an EOR pattern (such as a five (or nine)-spot pattern). The optimal distance for a five-spot-pattern EOR in this site is estimated from the response surface analysis to be around 400 meters. Next, we are building the machinery into our risk assessment framework CO2-PENS to utilize these response surfaces and evaluate the operation risk for CO2 sequestration and EOR at this site.

  4. Well Integrity and Sealing in CO2 Sequestration Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, R.; Santra, A.; Kulakofsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration is a cost-effective and safe way to help mitigate climate change. Sustained well integrity and zonal isolation of CO2 by cement for the required 1000 year trapping period may be challenging. Some researchers report that cement fails when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage into the atmosphere or other underground zones. Others show cement samples from 30-50 year old CO2 wells that maintain the well’s sealing integrity, even though carbonization was found. This presentation provides reasons likely for this disparity between research lab test results and actual well performance data along with best practices to provide efficient cement-based systems for maintaining CO2 containment in storage and EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reservoirs. This discussion includes the geochemical conditions surrounding wells and the positive, long-term effects on cement durability, sealing integrity, and the protection of well casing from CO2 induced corrosion. Also discussed are recent laboratory results testing cement samples surrounded by formation material treated at two different downhole conditions. In one case the cement specimens were treated with a 40% humid CO2 at 140°F and 2000 psi whereas in the second case they were treated with saturated CO2 in water at 200°F and 2000 psi for various time intervals. Results show that samples of carefully designed cement systems had carbonization without any sign of loss of mechanical or sealing integrity which could lead to zonal isolation and well integrity failures. We also will report on a new lab method proposed to determine CO2 sealing performance by cement in a relatively short time period compared to previous methods. In summary, we will discuss a comprehensive approach that may be taken to help ensure longer term effective well integrity and CO2 containment in new CO2 wells and remedial solutions for old wells and for plugging and abandoning wells.

  5. IMPACT OF CO2 ENHANCEMENT ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND PROTEIN PROFILE -RESPONSE STUDIES WITH A CO2 RESPONSIVE BLACK GRAM GENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sathish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper var. IC-282009 - a highly CO2 responsive genotype for biomass and seed yield was grown in Open top chambers (OTCs under three levels of CO2 i.e. ambient (390 ppm and two elevated levels 550ppm and 700ppm to assess photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2. Net photosynthetic rate (PN, change in leaf soluble protein profile and leaf carbohydrate constituents such as total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch content in leaves was quantified at all three CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetic rate was enhanced by 78% and 30% at flowering stage with 550ppm and 700ppm CO2 as compared with ambient control. It was also observed a higher accumulation of starch, total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in leaves at elevated CO2 levels. However, the leaf protein content recorded a decrease and altered the profile of ploy peptides with enhanced CO2 levels. At elevated CO2 concentrations significant differences were observed in ploy peptide profile at vegetative and flowering stages, the intensity of 260 kDa poly peptide increased at vegetative stage, whereas 72 kDa polypeptide increased at flowering stage, while 52 kDa poly peptide decreased at both stages. Enhanced CO2 concentrations improved the PN though certain polypeptides of leaf protein are down regulated and necessitate further experimentation to confirm their involvement in responsiveness of the selected black gram genotype

  6. Ab initio studies on [bmim][PF6]–CO2 mixture and CO2 clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B L Bhargava; M Saharay; S Balasubramanian

    2008-06-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics studies have been carried out on the room temperature ionic liquid, 1,n-butyl,3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and supercritical carbon dioxide mixture at room temperature and experimental density. Partial radial distribution functions (RDF) for different sites have been computed to see the organization of CO2 molecules around the ionic liquid. Several partial RDFs around the carbon atom of CO2 molecule are compared to find out that the CO2 has specific interaction with a carbon atom present in the imidazolium ring. The CO2 is also found to be very well organized around the terminal carbon atom of the butyl chain. The partial RDFs for the oxygen atoms around oxygen and carbon atoms of the CO2 suggests that there is very good organization of CO2 molecules around themselves even in the [bmim][PF6] – CO2 mixture. The instantaneous quadrupole moment tensor has been calculated for the anion and the cation. The ensemble average of diagonal components of quadrupole moment tensor of the cation have finite values, whereas the off-diagonal components of the cation and both the diagonal and off-diagonal components of the anion have the value of zero with a large standard deviation. The CPMD studies performed on CO2 clusters reveals the greater tendency of the clusters with more CO2 units, to deviate from the linear geometry.

  7. CO2管道输送工艺技术研究%Research on CO2 Pipeline Transportation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆争光

    2016-01-01

    我国的 CO2排放量已居世界首位,碳减排压力巨大。为了控制温室气体的排放,CO2捕捉与封存技术呈现出快速发展的趋势,CO2管道输送相关的工艺技术也备受关注。基于纯 CO2物性以及管输CO2中杂质的种类与含量,分析了管输 CO2中的杂质会对其混合物性产生的影响规律;从管输相态选择、总体管输工艺、管输 CO2杂质预处理、设计压力和流动安全保障等方面,探讨了国内外 CO2管道输送工艺技术的发展,并对我国 CO2管道输送研究提出了相应的建议。%At present,the carbon dioxide emissions in China have been ranked first in the world,which leads to enor-mous pressure on carbon emissions.In order to control the emission of greenhouse gases,CO2 capture and geological storage technology has been developed rapidly,so also largely concern on CO2 pipeline transportation technology.Based on the pure CO2 property and the impurity,deeply analyz the effect of CO2 impurity on the property of the mixture CO2 in the pipeline. Then,introduce the current situation of CO2 pipeline transportation technology development worldwide in such aspect as phase selection,overall transportation system,impurity pretreatment,design pressure and flow assurance.Besides,analyze the problems and relative advices in CO2 pipeline transportation technology research in China.

  8. CO2 footprint 2008 District Oud-Zuid, Amsterdam, Netherlands; CO2-voetafdruk 2008 Stadsdeel Oud-Zuid [Amsterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanekamp, E.; Van Merksteijn, C. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The district 'Oud-Zuid' in Amsterdam, Netherlands, plans to become CO2 neutral in 2015. For this purpose, the CO2 footprint of the district is determined and a plan of action developed. By means of scenarios, the district council can make choices for climate investments [Dutch] Stadsdeel Oud-Zuid van de gemeente Amsterdam wil CO2-neutraal zijn in 2015. Daartoe is de CO2-voetafdruk van Oud-Zuid bepaald en een plan van aanpak uitgewerkt. Met behulp van scenario's zal de stadsdeelraad keuzes kunnen maken over haar klimaatinvesteringen.

  9. Fabrication of a glycerol from CO2 reaction system, supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication, installation, and testing of a glycerol hydrogenation and a CO2 hydrogenation - CH4 partial oxidation units are reported. The glycerol system proved to be operational while the CO2 system was installed but not bought on operational steam.

  10. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. CO2 absorption characteristics of monoethanol amine aqueous solution and recovery of CO2 from marine engine exhaust; Monoethanol amine suiyoeki no CO2 kyushu tokusei to hakuyo kikan no CO2 kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikame, M.; Suga, S.; Hiraoka, K.; Kumakura, T. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-04-13

    Investigations were made on characteristics of CO2 absorption into monoethanol amine aqueous solution under normal pressure as a method of recovering CO2, the CO2 concentration and effect of the accompanying gases. Furthermore, assuming a large marine diesel engine using methanol as a fuel, the experimental result was used to discuss a size of the CO2 absorbing device. Assuming exhaust gases from a methanol-fueled diesel engine and steam reformed gas of methanol, from which CO2 is to be recovered, the experiment used two kinds of accompanying gases, N2 and H2, and the CO2 concentrations of 5% to 25% by volume. The relationship between the CO2 material balance and the substance movement between gas and liquid based on the double boundary film theory was put into order to derive an experiment equation. This equation was capable of expression with an error of less than {plus_minus}35%. This paper indicates by using the experimental result a method to derive the size of an absorbing and filling layer for CO2 in exhaust gases from a methanol fueled marine diesel engine. Given an example, the volume of the filling layer in the absorption column is required to be about 12% of the engine volume of 770m{sup 3}, and the absorption flow rate to be 65.4kg/s. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. CO2 triggering and controlling orthogonally multiresponsive photochromic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Tamim A; Evans, Richard A; James, Michael; Malic, Nino; Triani, Gerry; Hanley, Tracey L

    2010-08-11

    We report a new generic method of reversibly controlling the photochromism of spiropyrans. It was found that the photochromic effect of spiropyrans can be reversibly switched on and off by addition and removal of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) to spiropyran in alcohol solutions containing an amidine (i.e., DBU) that acts as a CO(2) sensitizer. Spiropyrans are not photochromic in the presence of DBU but photochromic when CO(2) is subsequently added to the solution. The CO(2) is readily removed by inert gas bubbling, thus allowing facile activation and deactivation of the photochromic effect. Carbon dioxide, without the presence of the sensitizing amidine, had no effect on photochromism of the spiropyrans. Other photochromic dyes classes such as spirooxazines and chromenes are not affected by this CO(2)/DBU stimulus. As a result, orthogonal activation of mixtures of spirooxazines and spiropyrans was achieved to provide four color states (clear, yellow, green, and blue) by varying the combinations of the stimuli of UV, visible light, CO(2), and CO(2) depleted. This finding now permits the many applications using spiropyrans to be CO(2) responsive.

  13. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, T.B. van; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Kürschner, W.M.; Visscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores, stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration. CO2 trends based on leaf remains of Quercus robur (English oak) from the Netherlan

  14. CO2 storage capacity calculations for the Dutch subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Yavuz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the capacity of a geological formation to store CO2 is not a straightforward or simple process. Bradshaw [1] has recently listed various estimations for both regional and global CO2 storage capacity. The estimations were quoted as "very large" with ranges for the estimates in the order of

  15. CO2 reduction strategies for the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Rene; Moll, Henk; Noorman, Klaas Jan; Wiersma, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    The concern about global warming initiated ambitious CO2 reduction goals in cities and regions in the Netherlands. This article describes a study of such a local initiative for the Northern Netherlands. The research aimed to develop CO2 reduction scenarios for 2035 with national and international

  16. Simulating CO2 adsorption and diffusion on a graphite surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, T.T.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Hägg, M.B.; Bedeaux, D.; Kjelstrup, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    We performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to understand the mechanism of CO2 adsorption and transport on graphite surface. The temperature of the system in our simulation was in the range 300-500K. The simulation data show that there are two layers of CO2 molecules absorbed on the su

  17. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina Skovbølling; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin.......The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin....

  18. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration: An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  19. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  20. CO2 dissolution and its impact on reservoir pressure behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.

    2015-01-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in large, saline aquifers needs to be monitored for safety purposes. In particular the observation of the pressure behavior of a storage site is relevant for the indication of CO2 leakage. However, interpretation of observed pressure is not straightforward in these systems,

  1. Enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO(2) domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2010-04-01

    Data suggest that domes of high CO(2) levels form over cities. Despite our knowledge of these domes for over a decade, no study has contemplated their effects on air pollution or health. In fact, all air pollution regulations worldwide assume arbitrarily that such domes have no local health impact, and carbon policy proposals, such as "cap and trade", implicitly assume that CO(2) impacts are the same regardless of where emissions occur. Here, it is found through data-evaluated numerical modeling with telescoping domains from the globe to the U.S., California, and Los Angeles, that local CO(2) emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Although health impacts of such changes are uncertain, they are of concern, and it is estimated that that local CO(2) emissions may increase premature mortality by 50-100 and 300-1000/yr in California and the U.S., respectively. As such, reducing locally emitted CO(2) may reduce local air pollution mortality even if CO(2) in adjacent regions is not controlled. If correct, this result contradicts the basis for air pollution regulations worldwide, none of which considers controlling local CO(2) based on its local health impacts. It also suggests that a "cap and trade" policy should consider the location of CO(2) emissions, as the underlying assumption of the policy is incorrect.

  2. CO2 Removal from Biogas by Water Washing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xiao; Hairong Yuan; Yunzhi Pang; Shulin Chen; Baoning Zhu; Dexun Zou; Jingwei Ma; Liang Yu; Xiujin Li

    2014-01-01

    CO2 removal from biogas by water washing system was investigated with various parameters, including liquid/gas ratio, pressure, temperature, and CO2 content. The results indicate that CO2 removal ratio could reach 34.6%-94.2%as liquid/gas ratio increased from 0.14 to 0.50. Increasing pressure (from 0.8 to 1.2 MPa) could improve gas purification with a constant inflow rate of gas. Temperature played a key role in the process and lower temper-ature in absorption tower was beneficial for reducing CO2 content. CO2 removal ratio could reach 24.4%-83.2%when CO2 content in the simulated gas was 25%-45%. The lowest CO2 content after absorption was 2.6%at 1.2 MPa with 400 L·h-1 gas flow and 200 L·h-1 water flow, which meets the requirement of CO2 content in natural gas for vehicle fuel.

  3. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  4. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of MR gradient echo imaging towards CO2 induced changes in cerebral blood flow was investigated in 10 normal subjects. The subjects were inhaling 5% and 7% CO2 and the experiments were carried out at 1.5 T (n = 6) and 2.0 T (n = 5), allowing a comparison of field strengths. Additi...

  5. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Hyun Sic; Lee, Ju Sung; Han, Junyoung;

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical...

  6. Interactions between CO2 oral pungency and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; García-Medina, M R; Calviño, A M; Noriega, G

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the perceptual interactions between oral pungency, evoked by CO2, and the taste of each of four tastants--sucrose (sweet), quinine sulfate (bitter), sodium chloride (salty), and tartaric acid (sour)--were explored. In experiment 1 the effect of three concentrations of each tastant on the stimulus-response function for perceived oral pungency, in terms of both rate of change (slope) and relative position along the perceived pungency axis, was determined. In experiment 2 the effect of three concentrations of CO2 on the stimulus-response function for the perceived taste intensity of each tastant was examined. Results show that the characteristics of the mutual effects of tastant and pungent stimulus depend on the particular tastant employed. Sucrose sweetness and CO2 oral pungency have no mutual effect; sodium chloride saltiness or tartaric acid sourness and CO2 oral pungency show mutual enhancement; and quinine sulfate bitterness abates CO2 oral pungency, whereas CO2 has a double and opposite effect on quinine sulfate bitterness--at low concentrations of bitter tastant CO2 enhances bitterness, and at high concentrations of bitter tastant CO2 abates bitterness. It is suggested that the perceptual attributes of saltiness and sourness are closer, from a qualitative point of view, to oral pungency than are the attributes of bitterness and sweetness.

  7. CO2-emissiehandel in 2020 : betekenis voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Het rapport bepaalt de impact van de EU-richtlijn voor de handel in CO2-emissierechten voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. Het rapport berekent de kosten die de richtlijn met zich meebrengt voor de sector en bepaalt het effect op de CO2- uitstoot door de sector. Verder bepaalt het rapport het effect o

  8. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon capture include post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxy-combustion capture, which are under active research globally. Mineral carbonation has been investigated as a suitable technique for long term storage of CO2. Sequestration is a highly energy intensive process and the additional energy is typically supplied by the power plant itself. This leads to a reduction in net amount of CO2 captured because of extra CO2 emitted. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the energy consumption during sequestra...

  9. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO 2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO 2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mech

  10. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mechan

  11. MODEL SIMULASI EMISI DAN PENYERAPAN CO2 DI KOTA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Permatayakti Rasyidta Nur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the urban pollution is the result of carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from human activities. This research identified CO2 emission and absorption in Bogor, and also the alternatives to solve the emission problem by system model and simulation. CO2 emission and absorption system model was created using software Stella 9.0.2 based on loss-gain emission concept for 30 years prediction. Human activities that contribute to CO2 emission are transportation, industries, energy consumption such as fuel or electricity, house hold waste, and farms, while the decrease factor is green open spaces as CO2 sequester. The alternatives to solve emission problem in Bogor is created based on green city concept by including the environmental aspects in every urban activity. The result of this research, the CO2 emission of Bogor reached 20.027.878 tons and the absorption reached 93.843 tons in 2042. Combined mitigation alternatives in several sectors could reduce CO2 emission by 2.797.667 tons in 2042 and CO2 emission could be neutralized by reforestation in 2036.

  12. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  13. Influence of travel behavior on global CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Vries, B. de

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand is rising steeply and its contribution to global CO2 emissions is increasing. Different studies have shown possible mitigation through technological options, but so far few studies have evaluated the implications of changing travel behavior on global travel demand, energy use and CO2 e

  14. Ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding to improve oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Hossein; Sharifi Haddad, Amin; Mohammadian, Erfan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Azdarpour, Amin; Ghahri, Panteha; Ombewa, Peter; Neuert, Tobias; Zink, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    CO2 flooding process as a common enhanced oil recovery method may suffer from interface instability due to fingering and gravity override, therefore, in this study a method to improve the performance of CO2 flooding through an integrated ultraosund-CO2 flooding process is presented. Ultrasonic waves can deliver energy from a generator to oil and affect its properties such as internal energy and viscosity. Thus, a series of CO2 flooding experiments in the presence of ultrasonic waves were performed for controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions. Results indicate that oil recovery was improved by using ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding compared to conventional CO2 flooding. However, the changes were more pronounced for uncontrolled temperature conditions of ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding. It was found that ultrasonic waves create a more stable interface between displacing and displaced fluids that could be due to the reductions in viscosity, capillary pressure and interfacial tension. In addition, higher CO2 injection rates, increases the recovery factor in all the experiments which highlights the importance of injection rate as another factor on reduction of the fingering effects and improvement of the sweep efficiency.

  15. CO2 dissolution and its impact on reservoir pressure behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.

    2015-01-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in large, saline aquifers needs to be monitored for safety purposes. In particular the observation of the pressure behavior of a storage site is relevant for the indication of CO2 leakage. However, interpretation of observed pressure is not straightforward in these systems,

  16. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  17. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings...

  18. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  19. Hydrogel-based sensor for CO2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.; Berg, van den A.

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogel-based sensor is presented for CO2 measurements. The sensor consists of a pressure sensor and porous silicon cover. A pH-sensitive hydrogel is confined between the two parts. Furthermore the porous cover contains a bicarbonate solution and a gaspermeable membrane. CO2 reacts with the solut

  20. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansø, Anne Sofie

    2016-01-01

    of the simulated atmospheric CO2 across Denmark was, in particular, affected by the Danish terrestrial surface exchanges and its temporal variability. This study urges all future modelling studies of air–sea CO2 to include short-term variability in pCO2. To capture the full heterogeneity of the surface exchanges......It is scientifically well-established that the increase of atmospheric CO2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29......% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand...

  1. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  2. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J; Kharecha, P; Beerling, D; Masson-Delmotte, V; Pagani, M; Raymo, M; Royer, D L; Zachos, J C

    2008-01-01

    Paleoclimate data show that climate sensitivity is ~3 deg-C for doubled CO2, including only fast feedback processes. Equilibrium sensitivity, including slower surface albedo feedbacks, is ~6 deg-C for doubled CO2 for the range of climate states between glacial conditions and ice-free Antarctica. Decreasing CO2 was the main cause of a cooling trend that began 50 million years ago, large scale glaciation occurring when CO2 fell to 425 +/- 75 ppm, a level that will be exceeded within decades, barring prompt policy changes. If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm. The largest uncertainty in the target arises from possible changes of non-CO2 forcings. An initial 350 ppm CO2 target may be achievable by phasing out coal use except where CO2 is captured and adopting agricultural and forestry practice...

  3. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  4. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B;

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of MR gradient echo imaging towards CO2 induced changes in cerebral blood flow was investigated in 10 normal subjects. The subjects were inhaling 5% and 7% CO2 and the experiments were carried out at 1.5 T (n = 6) and 2.0 T (n = 5), allowing a comparison of field strengths...

  5. Biogeophysical effects of CO2 fertilization on global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G.; Caldeira, K.; Mirin, A.; Wickett, M.; Delire, C.; Phillips, T. J.

    2006-11-01

    CO2 fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO2-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multicentury simulations: a `Control' simulation with no emissions and a `Physiol-noGHG' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO2 emissions, but where CO2-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO2 fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 yr. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal timescales, the CO2 uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO2-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century timescales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO2 fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  6. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration: An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  7. Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to oxalate by a copper complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angamuthu, R.; Byers, P.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming concern has dramatically increased interest in using CO2 as a feedstock for preparation of value-added compounds, thereby helping to reduce its atmospheric concentration. Here, we describe a dinuclear copper(I) complex that is oxidized in air by CO2 rather than O2; the product is a te

  8. Costs, safety and uncertainties of CO2 infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    To avoid drastic climate change, strong reductions in CO2 emissions are required. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a potential mitigation measure. With CCS, CO2 from industrial and energy related sources is captured from flue gases and subsequently transported with pipelines and / or ships to geo

  9. The future of CO2 cooling in particle physics detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Verlaat; A.P. Colijn; H. Postema

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative CO2 cooling has attracted a lot of interest as cooling fluid for particle physics detectors. Two detectors (the AMS on the International Space Station and the LHCb at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN) have been equipped with CO2 cooling; many more particle detectors are considering it f

  10. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, T.B. van; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Kürschner, W.M.; Visscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores, stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration. CO2 trends based on leaf remains of Quercus robur (English oak) from the

  11. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  12. CO2 ice structure and density under Martian atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T. P.; Salzmann, C. G.; Plane, J. M. C.; Murray, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Clouds composed of CO2 ice form throughout the Martian atmosphere. In the mesosphere, CO2 ice clouds are thought to form via heterogeneous ice nucleation on nanoparticles of meteoric origin at temperatures often below 100 K. Lower altitude CO2 ice clouds in the wintertime polar regions form up to around 145 K and lead to the build-up of the polar ice caps. However, the crystal structure and related fundamental properties of CO2 ice under Martian conditions are poorly characterised. Here we present X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of CO2 ice, grown via deposition from the vapour phase under temperature and pressure conditions analogous to the Martian mesosphere. A crystalline cubic structure was determined, consistent with the low-pressure polymorph (CO2-I, space group Pa-3 (No. 205)). CO2 deposited at temperatures of 80-130 K and pressures of 0.01-1 mbar was consistent with dry ice and previous literature measurements, thus removing the possibility of a more complicated phase diagram for CO2 in this region. At 80 K, a lattice parameter of 5.578 ± 0.002 Å, cell volume of 173.554 ± 0.19 Å3 and density of 1.684 ± 0.002 g cm-3 was determined. Using these measurements, we determined the thermal expansion of CO2 across 80-130 K that allowed for a fit of CO2 ice density measurements across a larger temperature range (80-195 K) when combined with literature data (CO2 density = 1.72391 - 2.53 × 10-4T - 2.87 × 10-6 T2). Temperature-dependent CO2 density values are used to estimate sedimentation velocities and heterogeneous ice nucleation rates, showing an increase in nucleation rate of up to a factor of 1000 when compared to commonly used literature values. This temperature-dependent equation of state is therefore suggested for use in future studies of Martian mesospheric CO2 clouds. Finally, we discuss the possible shapes of crystals of CO2 ice in the Martian atmosphere and show that a range of shapes including cubes and octahedra as well as a combination of the

  13. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  14. Long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 enhances forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loecke, T. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Treseder, K. K.; LaDeau, S.

    2011-12-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing at historically unprecedented but ecologically gradual rates. The implications of this perturbation for carbon sequestration and feedback on global climate change are difficult to predict due in part to its gradual and largely uniform nature. We used long-term (>40 years) spatial gradients in atmospheric CO2 concentration, produced by spatially heterogeneous fossil fuel combustion along a rural to urban transect, to test the hypotheses that 1) rural to urban CO2 spatial gradients are useful analogs for gradual climate change and 2) higher atmospheric CO2 concentration promotes tree growth and C sequestration. Fossil fuel derived CO2 imparts a distinctive 14C isotopic signature on atmospheric CO2; as this CO2 is fixed into annual tree rings, a proxy for fossil fuel derived CO2 is preserved. Ten four-year tree ring segments were analyzed for α-cellulose 14C content by AMS from trees within 10 closed canopy forested sites in the Baltimore Maryland metropolitan area. Tree growth parameters were assessed by measuring the annual ring width change of 224 trees across the 10 sites. A hierarchical Bayesian model was constructed to determine the influence of CO2 concentration and other site and environmental factors on tree growth. Our proxy for historical CO2 concentrations indicates a detectable but diminishing spatial CO2 gradient across the rural to urban transect that ranged from a 5.6% gradient during the 1970s to a 1.4% gradient in recent years (2000-2008). This observation is consistent with urban deindustrialization and concurrent expansion of suburban development. As an analog for future atmospheric conditions, this spatial gradient is equivalent to a temporal gradient of ca. 15, 7.2, 9.8, 2.6 years of atmospheric CO2 rise during the past four decades. The CO2 spatial gradient had an overall positive effect on tree size adjusted ring width growth. Modeled air surface temperature differences among sites indicate

  15. Acute and Chronic Exposure to CO2 in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.; Wu, J.; Barr, Y. R.; Watkins, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft and space stations, similar to other habitable confined spaces such as submarines, need to provide a breathable atmosphere for their inhabitants. The inevitable production of CO2 during respiration necessitates life support systems that "scrub" the atmosphere and lower CO2 levels. Due to operational limitations associated with space flight (limited mass, volume, power, and consumables) CO2 is not scrubbed down to its terrestrial equivalent of 0.03% CO2 (ppCO2 of 0.23 mmHg), but is kept below 0.7% (ppCO2 of 5.3 mmHg), a level established in NASA s 180-day mission Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) to be safe and unlikely to cause symptoms. Reports of space flight crewmembers becoming symptomatic with headaches, fatigue, and malaise at levels below those known to cause such symptoms terrestrially has prompted studies measuring the levels of CO2 on both the space shuttle and the space station. Data from cabin atmosphere sampling were collected on space shuttle missions STS-113, STS-122, STS-123, and International Space Station Expeditions 12-15 and 17, and the measured CO2 levels were then correlated to symptoms reported by the crew. The results indicate that a correlation exists between CO2 levels and symptomatology, however causality cannot be established at this time. While the short-term effects of elevated CO2 exposure are well known terrestrially, less is known regarding potential long-term effects of prolonged exposure to a CO2-rich environment or how the physiological changes caused by microgravity may interact with such exposures. Other challenges include limitations in the CO2 monitors used, lack of convection in the microgravity environment, and formation of localized CO2 pockets. As it is unclear if the unique environment of space increases sensitivity to CO2 or if other confounding factors are present, further research is planned to elucidate these points. At the same time, efforts are underway to update the SMAC to a lower level

  16. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannara, A.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: http://tinyurl.com/6xgpkfa We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  17. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration determined with trenching, soil CO2 fluxes and 13CO2/12CO2 concentration gradients in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Shurpali, Narasinha; Kulmala, Liisa; Kolari, Pasi; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux forms a substantial part of the ecosystem carbon balance, and it can contribute more than half of the annual ecosystem respiration. Recently assimilated carbon which has been fixed in photosynthesis during the previous days plays an important role in soil CO2 efflux, and its contribution is seasonally variable. Moreover, the recently assimilated C has been shown to stimulate the decomposition of recalcitrant C in soil and increase the mineralization of nitrogen, the most important macronutrient limiting gross primary productivity (GPP) in boreal ecosystems. Podzolic soils, typical in boreal zone, have distinctive layers with different biological and chemical properties. The biological activity in different soil layers has large seasonal variation due to vertical gradient in temperature, soil organic matter and root biomass. Thus, the source of CO2 and its components have a vertical gradient which is seasonally variable. The contribution of recently assimilated C and its seasonal as well as spatial variation in soil are difficult to assess without disturbing the system. The most common method of partitioning soil respiration into its components is trenching which entails the roots being cut or girdling where the flow of carbohydrates from the canopy to roots has been isolated by cutting of the phloem. Other methods for determining the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration components in soil CO2 efflux are pulse labelling with 13CO2 or 14CO2 or the natural abundance of 13C and/or 14C isotopes. Also differences in seasonal and short-term temperature response of soil respiration have been used to separate Ra and Rh. We compared the seasonal variation in Ra and Rh using the trenching method and differences between seasonal and short-term temperature responses of soil respiration. I addition, we estimated the vertical variation in soil biological activity using soil CO2 concentration and the natural abundance of 13C and 12C

  18. Sustainable DME synthesis-design with CO2utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasertsri, Weeranut; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn;

    2016-01-01

    ) dry reforming step, methanol synthesis step, and methanoldehydration step; (B) CO2 hydrogenation step followed by methanol dehydration step;and (C) dry reforming step followed by direct DME synthesis step. Starting with a basecasedesign, the process flow sheets for the three routes are studied......Minimizing CO2 emission, while achieving economic feasibility in CO2 utilization for producing valuable chemicals is a challenging problem, as reported in recent studies.Due to its high Cetane number, clean-burning, and non-toxic, DME is a promising fuelalternative, and therefore, potentially...... valuable chemical that can be produced viathermochemical CO2 conversion reactions. The aim of this study is to identify the mostpromising processing route for sustainable production of DME in terms of CO2 emission, economic indicators and sustainable indicators. The three processing routesare generated: (A...

  19. Compensation of CO2 emissions by air travels: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several aircraft companies launched awareness campaigns, offering to their passenger the opportunity to known and also calculate their own per-capita CO2 emissions related to the flight they are going to make. Such campaigns permits to the passenger to pay a volunteer contribution in order to compensate their CO2 emissions. In this short communication, some programs undertaken by airline companies are showed. These initiatives are all characterized by a common denominator: the achievement of concrete, proved and verifiable results to compensate the aircraft CO2 emissions. Moreover, also a concrete case is reported as example: it is useful to show which is the per capita CO2 emission for a sample flight in Europe and, quantitatively, the amount of compensation measurements. Finally, this communication highlights on how the estimates of such measurements are usually miscalculated, considering that the capability of forest ecosystems to store CO2 are often underestimated.

  20. Interfacial phenomena at the compressed co2-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bharatwaj

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed CO2 is considered to be a viable alternative to toxic volatile organic solvents with potential applications in areas including separation reactions, and materials formation processes. Thus an interest in CO2 stems from the fact that it is very inexpensive, has low toxicity, and is not a regulated. However, compressed CO2 has a zero dipole moment and weak van der Waals forces and thus is a poor solvent for both polar and most high molecular weight solutes, characteristics that severely restrict its applicability. In order to overcome this inherent inability, surfactant-stabilized organic and aqueous dispersions in CO2 have been proposed. This work will discuss fundamentals and recent advances in the design of amphiphiles for the novel CO2-water interface.

  1. Effect of CO2 Partial Pressure on CO2/H2S Corrosion of Oil Tube Steel%CO2分压对油管钢CO2/H2S腐蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清; 李全安; 文九巴; 白真权

    2004-01-01

    采用高温高压釜、失重法和扫描电镜, 对不同CO2分压(310.264 2、 930.792 6、1 551.321 0、2 171.849 4 kPa)条件下油管钢N80和P110的CO2/H2S腐蚀进行了研究.结果表明,随着CO2分压的升高,两种钢的CO2/H2S腐蚀速率均单调增加;除了CO2分压极低的情况以外,P110钢的腐蚀速率总是大于N80钢.

  2. Diamino protic ionic liquids for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayraghavan, R; Pas, Steven J; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-12-14

    A series of multifunctional protic ionic liquids (PILs), some of which are based on a combination of primary and tertiary amines in the same moiety coupled with a carboxylic acid, have been synthesised and employed for CO2 capture, yielding absorption capacities comparable to standard absorbents. In contrast to traditional amine absorbers, CO2 was found to desorb at lower temperatures and hence could result in a significant reduction in both the energy required to strip the absorber of CO2 and the thermally activated degradation mechanisms, which in traditional absorbers result in the loss of absorber and the production of toxic compounds. The lower basicity of the amine sites resultant from PIL formation decreases the binding energy of the CO2 to the absorber. The weaker basicity is also evidenced by lower pH of the PIL CO2 absorbers, which reduces common corrosion problems associated with traditional amine absorbers.

  3. Towards Carbon-Neutral CO2 Conversion to Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Davide; Jones, Matthew D; O'Byrne, Justin P; Griffiths, Owen G; Owen, Rhodri E; Sackville, Emma; McManus, Marcelle; Plucinski, Pawel

    2015-12-07

    With fossil fuels still predicted to contribute close to 80 % of the primary energy consumption by 2040, methods to limit further CO2 emissions in the atmosphere are urgently needed to avoid the catastrophic scenarios associated with global warming. In parallel with improvements in energy efficiency and CO2 storage, the conversion of CO2 has emerged as a complementary route with significant potential. In this work we present the direct thermo-catalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons using a novel iron nanoparticle-carbon nanotube (Fe@CNT) catalyst. We adopted a holistic and systematic approach to CO2 conversion by integrating process optimization-identifying reaction conditions to maximize conversion and selectivity towards long chain hydrocarbons and/or short olefins-with catalyst optimization through the addition of promoters. The result is the production of valuable hydrocarbons in a manner that can approach carbon neutrality under realistic industrial process conditions.

  4. CO2 reduction using adsorption followed by nonthermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masanari; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main substances linked to global warming, and its emission should be reduced. In this study, a CO2 reduction treatment using an adsorbent and a nonthermal plasma flow is investigated. This treatment comprises a physical adsorption process and nitrogen (N2) plasma reduction process. In the physical adsorption process, CO2 is adsorbed by the adsorbent. In the N2 plasma reduction process, the adsorbed CO2 is reduced to CO by a nonthermal plasma flow that is generated by a plasma reactor with a circulating N2 plasma flow. The generated CO can be reused as a fuel. We estimate this experimental results by calculating conversion efficiency of CO2 to CO. In the N2 plasma reduction process, the CO concentration reaches approximately 1%, regardless of the number of experiments, and conversion efficiency reaches at most 5.3%.

  5. Silicon microring refractometric sensor for atmospheric CO(2) gas monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Aktary, Mirwais; Van, Vien

    2016-01-25

    We report a silicon photonic refractometric CO(2) gas sensor operating at room temperature and capable of detecting CO(2) gas at atmospheric concentrations. The sensor uses a novel functional material layer based on a guanidine polymer derivative, which is shown to exhibit reversible refractive index change upon absorption and release of CO(2) gas molecules, and does not require the presence of humidity to operate. By functionalizing a silicon microring resonator with a thin layer of the polymer, we could detect CO(2) gas concentrations in the 0-500ppm range with a sensitivity of 6 × 10(-9) RIU/ppm and a detection limit of 20ppm. The microring transducer provides a potential integrated solution in the development of low-cost and compact CO(2) sensors that can be deployed as part of a sensor network for accurate environmental monitoring of greenhouse gases.

  6. Synthesis and Design of a Sustainable CO2 Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    In response to increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are targeted for reduction. One method is the conversion of CO2 to useful compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy...... a superstructure-based approach a network of utilization alternatives is created linking CO2 and other raw materials with various products using processing blocks. This will then be optimized and verified for sustainability. Detailed design has also been performed for a case study on the methanol synthesis...... processing block. CO2 conversion processes show promise as an additional method for the sustainable reduction of CO2 emissions....

  7. Large-scale CO2 measurement campaigns in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In two large measurement campaigns performed in 2009 and 2014 more than 1500 spot measurements of CO2 were made by pupils in Danish primary school classes. In 2009 56% of the measurements exceeded the recommended value of 1000 ppm CO2. This percentage had increased to 60% in 2014. Changing...... the behaviour of the pupils had a positive effect, as the proportion of classrooms exceeding 1000 ppm CO2 in separate measurement (students outside and airing in the break preceding the measurement lesson in which the measurement was made) was 39%. The principle of ventilation had a substantial impact...... on the measured CO2 concentrations. In 80% of the classrooms with natural ventilation the concentration of CO2 exceeded 1000 ppm, while the fraction was 40% in classrooms with balanced mechanical ventilation....

  8. Lessons from Natural CO2 Leakage Analogue Site Studies and their Application to Secure CO2 Storage and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; McPherson, B. J.; Kim, K.; Chae, G.; Yum, B.

    2011-12-01

    At CO2 injection sites, CO2 leakage from the storage formation could be catastrophic. CO2 is a highly compressible fluid, typically injected at high pressure and temperature conditions. If this compressed CO2 reaches highly permeable conduits such as faults and fractures, CO2 could leak unabated to other formations (e.g. fresh water aquifers) and/or to the surface. Assuming a fast-flow path to the surface, CO2 escaping from the storage formation instantaneously reaches the surface while experiencing adiabatic expansion, which results in Joule-Thomson cooling. The addressed eruptive mechanisms are analogues to natural CO2 eruption mechanisms, which are found in CO2-driven cold-water geysers around the world. A notable example of a CO2-driven cold-water geyser is the Crystal Geyser in central Utah. The fluid mechanics of this regularly erupting geyser was investigated by instrumenting its conduit with pressure, temperature, pH, EC, and dissolved oxygen sensors, measuring every 1 minute during and between eruptions. Results of these measurements suggest that the time-scale of a single-eruption cycle is composed of four successive eruption types with two recharge periods ranging from 30 to 40 hours. Current eruption patterns exhibit a bimodal distribution although previous measurements and anecdotal evidence suggests that this pattern was different prior to recent seismic activity. This cold geyser's eruptions are regular and predictable, and reflect pressure, temperature, EC, pH, and dissolved oxygen changes resulting from Joule-Thomson cooling, endothermic CO2 exsolution, and exothermic CO2 dissolution. Specifically, the perturbation of pressure and temperature data observed at the Crystal Geyser suggested the possibility of using temperature sensing technology within the observation well at the engineered CO2 sequestration site. With the lessons learned from the Crystal Geyser studies, we established the theoretical framework of temperature changes caused by CO2

  9. On the statistical optimality of CO2 atmospheric inversions assimilating CO2 column retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chevallier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extending archive of the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT measurements (now covering about six years allows increasingly robust statistics to be computed, that document the performance of the corresponding retrievals of the column-average dry air-mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2. Here, we compare a model simulation constrained by surface air-sample measurements with one of the GOSAT retrieval products (NASA's ACOS. The retrieval-minus-model differences result from various error sources, both in the retrievals and in the simulation: we discuss the plausibility of the origin of the major patterns. We find systematic retrieval errors over the dark surfaces of high-latitude lands and over African savannahs. More importantly, we also find a systematic over-fit of the GOSAT radiances by the retrievals over land for the high-gain detector mode, which is the usual observation mode. The over-fit is partially compensated by the retrieval bias-correction. These issues are likely common to other retrieval products and may explain some of the surprising and inconsistent CO2 atmospheric inversion results obtained with the existing GOSAT retrieval products. We suggest that reducing the observation weight in the retrieval schemes (for instance so that retrieval increments to the retrieval prior values are halved for the studied retrieval product would significantly improve the retrieval quality and reduce the need for (or at least reduce the complexity of ad-hoc retrieval bias correction. More generally, we demonstrate that atmospheric inversions cannot be rigorously optimal when assimilating XCO2 retrievals, even with averaging kernels.