WorldWideScience

Sample records for del chenopodium quinoa

  1. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  2. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D.E.; Shwen Ho, Yung; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, T.J.A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Mitchell, Craig T.; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong H.; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A.; Negräo, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, van der C.G.; Loo, van E.N.; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for

  3. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours....... The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  4. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-02-08

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  5. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, David E; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J A; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig T; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M; Rupper, Ryan R; Sharp, Aaron R; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A; Woo, Yong H; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A; Negrão, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C Gerard van der; van Loo, Eibertus N; Jellen, Eric N; Maughan, Peter J; Tester, Mark

    2017-02-16

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  6. Treatment of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa Willd) with Colchicina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarillas Santa Cruz, H.

    1984-01-01

    The sample no. 559, coming from the Bank of Germoplasma of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of the Experimental Station at Patacamaya, located in the province Aroma of the La Paz department Bolivia, was treated with an aqueous solution of 0.4% of Colchicina. The treatment did not give the expected result, due, probably, to the very special behaviour of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) during the process of mitosis

  7. Development of novel InDel markers and genetic diversity in Chenopodium quinoa through whole-genome re-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tifu; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yuhe; Lv, Yuanda; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Haiyan; Liang, Shuaiqiang; Bao, Huabin; Zhao, Han

    2017-09-05

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a balanced nutritional crop, but its breeding improvement has been limited by the lack of information on its genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on genomic variation, population structure, and genetic diversity and to develop novel Insertion/Deletion (InDel) markers for quinoa by whole-genome re-sequencing. We re-sequenced 11 quinoa accessions and obtained a coverage depth between approximately 7× to 23× the quinoa genome. Based on the 1453-megabase (Mb) assembly from the reference accession Riobamba, 8,441,022 filtered bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 842,783 filtered InDels were identified, with an estimated SNP and InDel density of 5.81 and 0.58 per kilobase (kb). From the genomic InDel variations, 85 dimorphic InDel markers were newly developed and validated. Together with the 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers reported, a total of 147 markers were used for genotyping the 129 quinoa accessions. Molecular grouping analysis showed classification into two major groups, the Andean highland (composed of the northern and southern highland subgroups) and Chilean coastal, based on combined STRUCTURE, phylogenetic tree and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) analyses. Further analysis of the genetic diversity exhibited a decreasing tendency from the Chilean coast group to the Andean highland group, and the gene flow between subgroups was more frequent than that between the two subgroups and the Chilean coastal group. The majority of the variations (approximately 70%) were found through an analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) due to the diversity between the groups. This was congruent with the observation of a highly significant F ST value (0.705) between the groups, demonstrating significant genetic differentiation between the Andean highland type of quinoa and the Chilean coastal type. Moreover, a core set of 16 quinoa germplasms that capture all 362 alleles was

  8. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  10. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su-Young; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Lee, Hyun-Oh; Cho, Kwang-Soo; Suh, Jong-Taek; Kim, Su-Jeong; Nam, Jeong-Hwan; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album, two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp (C. quinoa) and 152,167 bp (C. album) long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA) were identified. We found 14 (C. quinoa) and 15 (C. album) tandem repeats (TRs); 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one (C. quinoa) or two (C. album) copies of TRs (66 bp); the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium, and Chenopodium koraiense, but not in Chenopodium glaucum. A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions—14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC), one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC). A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium. PMID:29056940

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su-Young; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Lee, Hyun-Oh; Cho, Kwang-Soo; Suh, Jong-Taek; Kim, Su-Jeong; Nam, Jeong-Hwan; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album , two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp ( C. quinoa ) and 152,167 bp ( C. album ) long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA) were identified. We found 14 ( C. quinoa ) and 15 ( C. album ) tandem repeats (TRs); 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one ( C. quinoa ) or two ( C. album ) copies of TRs (66 bp); the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium , and Chenopodium koraiense , but not in Chenopodium glaucum . A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions-14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC), one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC). A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium .

  12. Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenle, H N

    2003-03-01

    The proximate analysis, evaluation of nutritionally valuable minerals, sugars, chemical properties of the oil and functional properties of the seed flour of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the quinoa flour contained 11.2% moisture, 13.5% crude protein, 6.3% ether extract, 9.5% crude fibre, 1.2% total ash and 58.3% carbohydrate. The quinoa has a high proportion of D-xylose (120.0 mg in 100 g sample) and maltose (101.0 mg in 100 g sample), and a low content of glucose (19.0 mg in 100 g sample) and fructose (19.6 mg in 100 g sample), suggesting that it would be useful in malted drink formulations. The values for the chemical properties of the oil extracted were: acid value, 0.50%; iodine value, 54.0%; peroxide value, 2.44%; and saponification value, 192.0%. Quinoa has a high water absorption capacity (147.0%) and low foaming capacity and stability (9.0%, 2.0%). The flour has a least gelation concentration of 16% w/v. Protein solubility of the flour was also evaluated and found to be pH dependent, with minimum solubility at about pH 6.0.

  13. Production of Cosmetics from the Aqueous Extract of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fedrigo, Islaine Helena; Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão; Borgo, Ana Paula; Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão; Baggio, Francieli Ramos; Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão; Musial, Diego Castro; Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão; Valentini, Sergio Alexandre; Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a worldwide distributed plant, featuring several species, with about 250 scientifically identified. First quinoa strains in the Brazilian savannah showed varying levels of saponin, a substance soluble in water, which occurs in the seed’s episperm. Quinoa has high protein rates and more balance in the distribution of essential amino-acids than grain. In fact, it resembles casein, a milk protein fraction. Another feature of each quinoa seed is its fat conte...

  14. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  15. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DEL PROCESO DE EXTRUSIÓN EN HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd NORMAL Y GERMINADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTHIAN EMILIO TOVAR HERNÁNDEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd germinated seeds shows nutritional value and body assimilation differences respect to normal seeds, therefore, sought to identify the extrusion process effect over flour from normal and germinated quinoa. Proximal analysis, pasting curves, Water Absorption Index (WAI and Water Solubility Index (WSI. After extrusion process, proximal analysis, WAI and WSI performed to flours. Changes in germinated flour was found respect to normal flour like protein increase (15,06 g/100 g sample to 15,74 g/100 g sample, gelation properties, WAI and WSI variations. Significant differences was found on germinated flour due to extrusion process applied, over WSI and WAI (2,5274 g gel/g D.M. in normal quinoa flour increased to 5,8761 g gel/g D.M. in extruded quinoa flour. Thus, 2,5829 g gel/g D.M. for no extruded germinated quinoa flour, increased to 5,4197 g gel/g D.M. for extruded germinated quinoa flour.

  16. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  17. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  18. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  19. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  20. Additional toxic, bitter saponins from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W W; Heinstein, P F; McLaughlin, J L

    1989-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important Native American food grain. Prior to consumption, the seeds must be washed with H2O to remove bitterness and improve nutritive value. From the warm-H2O extract of quinoa seeds from Mexico, saponins 1-4 were isolated by monitoring the fractionation with brine shrimp lethality and a taste test for bitterness. By chemical, spectral, and enzymatic methods, 1-4 were identified as glycosides of oleanolic acid. Saponin 4, 3-O-[(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)(1----3)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-O -methyl ester]-oleanolic acid, is a new natural compound.

  1. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition. PMID:27453695

  2. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  3. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia...

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  5. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk, using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha. Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant height and number of plants per meter on the grain yield. Correlation coefficients were generally low and didn't show as significant. This indicates that these studies included small number of properties that can affect grain yield. In further work with this introduced species, more properties should be included.

  6. Assessment of Downy mildew Resistance (Peronospora farinosa) in a Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Manal Mhada; BrahimEzzahiri; Ouafae Benlhabib

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-nine accessions, including two local wild species (Chenopodium album and C. murale) and several cultivated quinoa lines developed through recurrent selection in Morocco were screened for their resistance against Peronospora farinose, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. The method of artificial inoculation on detached healthy leaves taken from the middle stage of the plant was used. Screened accessions showed different levels of quantitative resistance to downy mildew as they wer...

  7. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...... values in both FI and PD. During the drought period, the xylem [ABA] extracted from the shoots increased faster than that extracted from the roots. A reduction in WT, caused by salinity and soil drying, reduced transpiration and increased apparent root resistance (R) to water uptake, especially in PD0.......42 or lower, but under the saline conditions of PD10 and PD20, the threshold values of RAW were 0.67 and 0.96, respectively. In conclusion, due to the additive effect of osmotic and matric potential during soil drying on soil water availability, quinoa should be re-irrigated at higher RAW in salt...

  8. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular and cytological characterization of ribosomal RNA genes in Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Kolano, B A; Maluszynska, J; Coles, N D; Bonifacio, A; Rojas, J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Parkinson, S E; Jellen, E N

    2006-07-01

    The nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are valuable as chromosome landmarks and in evolutionary studies. The NOR intergenic spacers (IGS) and 5S rRNA nontranscribed spacers (NTS) were PCR-amplified and sequenced from 5 cultivars of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., 2n = 4x = 36) and a related wild ancestor (C. berlandieri Moq. subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel, 2n = 4x = 36). Length heterogeneity observed in the IGS resulted from copy number difference in subrepeat elements, small re arrangements, and species-specific indels, though the general sequence composition of the 2 species was highly similar. Fifteen of the 41 sequence polymorphisms identified among the C. quinoa lines were synapomorphic and clearly differentiated the highland and lowland ecotypes. Analysis of the NTS sequences revealed 2 basic NTS sequence classes that likely originated from the 2 allopolyploid subgenomes of C. quinoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that C. quinoa possesses an interstitial and a terminal pair of 5S rRNA loci and only 1 pair of NOR, suggesting a reduction in the number of rRNA loci during the evolution of this species. C. berlandieri exhibited variation in both NOR and 5S rRNA loci without changes in ploidy.

  10. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, M.

    1992-02-01

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  11. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  12. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  13. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  14. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  16. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  17. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...... or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment......M to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na+ content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na+ loading or an efficient Na+ removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K+ and H+ fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid Na...

  18. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  19. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  20. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  1. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  2. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  3. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity and yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters to invest......Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were....... Radiation use efficiency of dry matter was similar between salinity levels and between FI and PD. In line with this, no negative effect of severe salinity and soil–drying on total dry matter could be detected. Salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m-1 significantly reduced the seed yield by ca. 33 % compared...

  4. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  6. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  7. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  8. Heterothallism in Peronospora farinosa f.sp. chenopodii, the causal agent of downy mildew of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, S

    2001-01-01

    Heterothallism in Peronospora farinosa f.sp. chenopodii, the causal agent of downy mildew of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is reported for the first time. Downy mildew is the most important disease of this crop in the Andean region. Eight single-lesion isolates from different regions in Peru and Bolivia were crossed in all possible combinations using a detached leaf assay, to determine the mating system of the downy mildew pathogen. The presence of two mating types, P1 and P2, was revealed showing that P. farinosa f.sp. chenopodii is heterothallic. It is suggested that frequent sexual reproduction is an important evolutionary force in this pathogen in South America.

  9. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  10. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  11. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    OpenAIRE

    Ouafae Benlhabib; Noura Boujartani; Peter Jeffrey Maughan; Sven Erik Jacobsen; Eric N Jellen

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and p...

  12. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  13. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  14. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szegedi, S.; Llopiz, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  16. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  17. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  18. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  19. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  1. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  3. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  4. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  5. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  6. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Schmöckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum. We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  7. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-06-21

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  8. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions. PMID:28680429

  9. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Lightfoot, Damien J; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa , 5 C. berlandieri , and 2 C. hircinum ). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  10. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stikic, Radmila; Glamoclija, Djordje; Demin, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    quality was remarkably good, with protein content ranging from 15.16 to 17.41 % on a dry weight basis, depending on whether seeds were processed. Amino acid and mineral composition revealed the potential of quinoa seeds as a valuable ingredient in the preparation of highly nutritious foods. Quinoa seeds...

  11. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  13. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:29043217

  14. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni .

  15. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    Water scarcity, soil salinity and high temperatures are the major causes of yield losses worldwide. The halophytic crop quinoa that originates in the South American Andes, provides very nutritious seeds and can tolerate high levels of soil salinity. It is therefore considered an option to sustain...... crop production in other salt affected areas worldwide. The large genetic variability within the species may allow the selection of varieties for cultivation under various climatic conditions. In the study, intra-species differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity in terms of biomass production...... and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...

  16. Gastrointestinal effects of eating quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Herencia, L Irene; Chang, Fuju; Donnelly, Suzanne; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley. Treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes that has been recommended as part of a GFD. However, in-vitro data suggested that quinoa prolamins can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in celiac patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the in-vivo effects of eating quinoa in adult celiac patients. Nineteen treated celiac patients consumed 50 g of quinoa every day for 6 weeks as part of their usual GFD. We evaluated diet, serology, and gastrointestinal parameters. Furthermore, we carried out detail histological assessment of 10 patients before and after eating quinoa. Gastrointestinal parameters were normal. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth improved from slightly below normal values (2.8:1) to normal levels (3:1), surface-enterocyte cell height improved from 28.76 to 29.77 μm and the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes per 100 enterocytes decreased from 30.3 to 29.7. Median values for all the blood tests remained within normal ranges, although total cholesterol (n=19) decreased from 4.6 to 4.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein decreased from 2.46 to 2.45 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein decreased from 1.8 to 1.68 mmol/l and triglycerides decreased from 0.80 to 0.79 mmol/l. Addition of quinoa to the GFD of celiac patients was well tolerated and did not exacerbate the condition. There was a positive trend toward improved histological and serological parameters, particularly a mild hypocholesterolemic effect. Overall, this is the first clinical data suggesting that daily 50 g of quinoa for 6 weeks can be safely tolerated by celiac patients. However, further studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of quinoa consumption.

  17. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  18. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  19. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants ( Chenopodium quinoa ) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium , Phoma and Fusarium , which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C . quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  20. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  3. Phenotypic flexibility in exotic quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.) germplasm for seedling vigor and viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, H.; Basra, S.M.A.; Cheema, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and

  4. Variable activation of immune response by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) prolamins in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Ellis, H Julia; Suligoj, Tanja; Herencia, L Irene; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. The current treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins, that has been recommended as part of a gluten-free diet; however, few experimental data support this recommendation. We aimed to determine the amount of celiac-toxic prolamin epitopes in quinoa cultivars from different regions of the Andes and the ability of these epitopes to activate immune responses in patients with celiac disease. The concentration of celiac-toxic epitopes was measured by using murine monoclonal antibodies against gliadin and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Immune response was assessed by proliferation assays of celiac small intestinal T cells/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and production of IFN-γ/IL-15 after organ culture of celiac duodenal biopsy samples. Fifteen quinoa cultivars were tested: 4 cultivars had quantifiable concentrations of celiac-toxic epitopes, but they were below the maximum permitted for a gluten-free food. Cultivars Ayacuchana and Pasankalla stimulated T cell lines at levels similar to those for gliadin and caused secretion of cytokines from cultured biopsy samples at levels comparable with those for gliadin. Most quinoa cultivars do not possess quantifiable amounts of celiac-toxic epitopes. However, 2 cultivars had celiac-toxic epitopes that could activate the adaptive and innate immune responses in some patients with celiac disease. These findings require further investigation in the form of in vivo studies, because quinoa is an important source of nutrients for patients with celiac disease.

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for an allotetraploid origin of Chenopodium quinoa and C. berlandieri (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity Analysis of a Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm during Two Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mhada; E. N. Jellen; S. E. Jacobsen; O. Benlhabib

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to evaluate the diversity of a collection of 78 quinoa accessions developed through recurrent selection from Andean germplasm introduced to Morocco in the winter of 2000. Twenty-three quantitative and qualitative characters were used for the evaluation of genetic diversity and the relationship between the accessions, and also for the establishment of a core collection in Morocco. Important variation was found among the accessions in terms of plant morphol...

  7. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours...... day length responses in contrasting cultivars. Throughout this study, separate controlled environment experiments, involving contrasting cultivars, were employed to evaluate yield performance and compare leaf level physiological responses to changes in day length and the influence of different light...

  8. Characterization of betalains, saponins and antioxidant power in differently colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Josefa; Cabanes, Juana; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Ibañez-Tremolada, Martha; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Quinoa was the traditional grain crop used by the prehispanic civilizations in America. Grains are white, black, yellow, and red-violet and plants are cultivated in vast areas of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The recent description of the betacyanin pigment betanin in red-violet varieties is here further analyzed detecting the presence of amaranthin not previously identified in quinoa grains. Yellow-orange grains are characterized for the first time and up to four different betaxanthins are found to be responsible for this coloration. The native fluorescence of the identified betaxanthins makes the surface of the yellow quinoa grains glow with green fluorescent light. The presence of betalains is correlated with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities measured under the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays in grain extracts of 29 Peruvian varieties. TEAC equivalence is as high as 44.1 and 47.4mmol Trolox/kg for the yellow and red-violet varieties analyzed respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  11. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physicochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 μg/g to 570 ± 124 μg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 μg/g to 804 ± 91 μg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 μg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 μg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. PMID:25683633

  12. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physico-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-30

    Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among 17 distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physico-chemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). PE and FG concentrations exhibited over four-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg g(-1) to 570 ± 124 µg g(-1) total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg g(-1) to 804 ± 91 µg g(-1) total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg g(-1)) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg g(-1)) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results s...

  14. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F. A.; Guwela, Veronica F.; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237–3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62–692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height (r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity (r = 0.76), and (3) biomass (r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  15. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height ( r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity ( r = 0.76), and (3) biomass ( r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  16. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  17. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences

  18. APROVEITAMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E ANTINUTRICIONAL DA FARINHA DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA

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    Cristiane de Oliveira LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado há milênios e amplamente distribuído ao mundo. No Brasil, foi introduzido na década de 90 e, através de modifi cações genéticas, desenvolveu-se a variedade BRS Piabiru, adaptada para cultivos em solos brasileiros. Nutricionalmente, destaca-se em relação a muitos cereais, como o trigo, o milho e a cevada, por apresentar qualidade protéica comparável à caseína do leite e pela ausência de proteínas formadoras de glúten. Além disso, possui elevado teor de lisina, vitaminas (como tiamina, ribofl avina, niacina e piridoxina e minerais (como magnésio, zinco, cobre, ferro manganês e potássio. É essencial a realização de estudos dos nutrientes e antinutrientes da quinoa, de utilizá-la no preparo e desenvolvimento de receitas isentas de glúten. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou elaborar uma farinha de quinoa (FQ, caracterizar a sua composição nutricional e antinutricional, além de aproveitá-la na formulação de bolinhos fritos e avaliar sua aceitabilidade. Para a obtenção da farinha, os grãos de quinoa foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 60-65oC, triturados e peneirados. A FQ foi submetida às avaliações da composição centesimal, de alguns minerais (potássio, cálcio, ferro e zinco e antinutricional (nitrato, ácido oxálico e inibidor de tripsina, sendo ainda formuladas e avaliadas a aceitabilidade de três preparações de bolinhos fritos com diferentes adições de FQ em escala hedônica de 5 pontos. Observou-se que a FQ destacou-se em proteínas, fi bras, cinzas, potássio, ferro, cálcio e zinco. Os valores (mg/100g dos antinutrientes encontrados na FQ foram de 63,26 para o nitrato, 380 para o ácido oxálico e 2,11UTI/mg para inibidor de tripsina, sendo considerados teores menores aos de outros alimentos vegetais comumente utilizados na alimentação humana. O bolinho de formulação com 12,61% de FQ

  19. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety...... increased CS for stomatal conductance, CT for transpiration and CLfor leaf water potential. Achachino showed significantly lower CT and CL when compared with Titicaca, implying that transpiration and leaf water potential were less affected under mild drought conditions in the Bolivian variety. CS...... in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate...

  20. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

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    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  1. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  2. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  3. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow: composición química y procesamiento. Aspectos relacionados con otras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es un cultivo con alto potencial para contribuir con la seguridad alimentaria en todas las regiones del mundo. El cultivo posee notable capacidad de adaptación a diferentes regiones agroecológicas y gradiente altitudinal. Aunque los principales países productores son Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, la producción de quinoa se está expandiendo a otros continentes y actualmente se cultiva en varios países. En Venezuela no se cultiva. La semilla de quinua es reconocida como nutritiva gracias a la cantidad y calidad de su contenido de proteína, especialmente por su alto contenido en lisina, como también en hierro, potasio, vitaminas B2, B5 y E, entre otros constituyentes. Quinoa tiene una variedad de usos en la industria procesadora de alimentos. En este trabajo se compiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre la composición química y el procesamiento de semillas de quinua. Nuevas investigaciones han reafirmado la cantidad, calidad de sus componentes químicos y nuevos fitoquímicos se han descubierto. Existe considerable desarrollo e innovación tecnológica que ha dado valor agregado a la quinua.

  5. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-12-01

    Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  6. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.

  7. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  8. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses. PMID:28337209

  9. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  10. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile

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    M. González-Teuber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  12. Efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa Temperature and salinity effects on germination and seedling growth on two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chilo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa. Se diseñó un experimento factorial con tres factores: 1 variedad, con dos niveles (Cica y Real; 2 temperatura, con tres niveles (5 ºC, 10 ºC y 20 ºC; y 3 salinidad, con cinco niveles (0,0; 0,1; 0,2; 0,3 y 0,4M de cloruro de sodio. Los ensayos se realizaron según normas ISTA, las variables de respuesta fueron: poder germinativo como porcentaje de plántulas normales, velocidad de germinación y crecimiento de plántulas. Se determinaron porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas; además, peso seco y contenido de sodio y potasio. En las variedades Cica y Real el descenso de temperatura y aumento de salinidad produjeron una disminución del poder germinativo, de la velocidad de germinación y del crecimiento de las plántulas; además, afectaron el peso seco y los porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Las variedades acumularon solutos en las vacuolas de las células epidérmicas del tallo y hojas. La variedad Cica presentó mejor respuesta a la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas en comparación con la variedad Real.The effect of temperature and salinity on germination and seedling growth was studied in two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa. A factorial experiment with three factors was designed: 1 variety (two levels: Cica and Real; 2 temperature, (three levels: 5 ºC, 10 ºC and 20 ºC and 3 salinity (five levels: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4M of sodium chloride. The tests were carried out according to ISTA rules. The response variables were: germination rate as a percentage of normal seedlings; germination speed and seedling growth. Percentage of normal seedlings, abnormal and dead seeds, together with dry weight and sodium and potassium content were determined. In Cica and Real varieties, decreasing temperature and increasing salinity caused a

  13. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  15. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  16. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRUZ MORILLO CORONADO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (C. quinoa W. is considered a cereal with excellent nutritional properties, including high protein contein, because it has all amino acids, trace elements and significant amounts of vitamins. In Colombia more accurately in the department of Nariño, Cauca, Cundinamarca y Boyacá currently has had a huge boost due to their agronomic potential and different benefits derived from the production, processing and marketing of its products. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the genetic diversity of a collection of 55 materials quinoa with seven microsatellite markers RAMs. The analysis by the coefficient of Nei-Li at the level of similarity of 0,65 divided the population into four groups according the site origin materials. The value of average heterozygosity was 0,34 which is considered low compared to other studied of genetic diversity in Chenopodium. Molecular Analysis of Variance (AMOVA and Fst demonstrate the existence of genetic variability at the intraspecific level. The parameters of genetic diversity found in this study show that the quinoa materials of the Boyacá governance collection are very homogeneous, however the variability that exists must be exploited in the breeding programs of the species leading to the production of new and better quinoa materials.

  18. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  20. The introns in FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes are useful markers for tracking paternity in tetraploid Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Jellen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2015), s. 913-925 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Ancestry * Chenopodium quinoa * FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2015

  1. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado

  2. Nutritional value of quinua (chenopodium quinoa) seeds improved by radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz, T. E.; Avila R, S.; Garcia R, A.

    2006-01-01

    Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), a pseudo cereal considered as an alternative crop for areas with marginal agricultural conditions has been subjected since 1990 to a radioinduced mutagenesis programme aiming to obtain lines with low saponin content, good yields and high nutritional value. Seeds obtained from lines grown in M7 generation which exhibited yields averaging 1.5 ton/ha, were analyzed regarding grain quality and nutritive value. Evaluated parameters were diameter and thickness of the seed, weight of 100 seeds and density. Regarding to bromatological analysis, determinations were made of moisture, ash, raw fiber, proteins, oil content and carbohydrates, following the procedures indicated in Official Mexican Norms (NOM). Evaluated genotypes were the varieties Sajama, Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani and the mutant lines 20R110, 94, 20R333, 20R227, 20R342, 20R37 and the advanced line obtained by selection 640304. Mutant genotypes 20R333 and 20R342 exhibited outstanding characteristics regarding to grain quality (diameter 2.0 mm, thickness 1.2mm, weight of 100 seeds 0.42 and 0.22 g respectively and density 710 and 686 grams per liter). In the bromatological analysis the protein content ranged from 11.82 % (genotype 20 R227) to 16.8% in mutant 20R333 while mutant 20R342 exhibited 15.6%. The lipid content was minimum on Barandales and 20R333 both with 3.8%, having the genotype 20R110 the highest value among evaluated genotypes with 4.35%, line 20R342 exhibited 4.2%.. The high percentages of proteins and lipids, found among some analyzed mutants exhibit the feasibility to obtain, through radioinduced mutagenesis, lines with low saponins and high nutritive value

  3. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly.

  4. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  5. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.

  6. Macrorrestos de Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la plaza de Laqaya (Nor Lípez, Potosí, Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    López, María Laura; Nielsen, Axel E.

    2017-01-01

    Se presentan análisis arqueobotánicos de macrorrestos carbonizados de quinoa recuperados al interior de una torre chullpa situada en la plaza central del sitio Laqaya (Potosí, Bolivia) y datada en los siglos XV-XVI. Con base en este hallazgo discutimos la participación de la quinoa en la vida política de los grupos prehispánicos tardíos del altiplano. Fil: López, María Laura. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Fil: Nie...

  7. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  9. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  10. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S

    2013-11-01

    In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development.

  12. Quality assessments of untreated and washed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds based on histlogical and foaming capacity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Ossenkoppele, J.S.; Houben, R.; Lotgering, M.; Groot, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa seed has a high nutritional value, but has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it unpalatable. Therefore the seeds are usually processed in order to remove the naturally occurring saponins from the seeds. To investigate the impact of processing, untreated and washed seeds of the

  13. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Li, Siang-Ling; Peng, Ying-Che; Fan, Ya-Hsu; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV) has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR) were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  14. Desenvolvimento de filmes biodegradaveis a partir de derivados do grão de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoia Willdenow) da variedade "Real"

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Cecilia Araujo Farro

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: O grão de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willdenow) é um pseudocereal originário da América do Sul Andina, que tem gerado interesse industrial crescente e cultivo diversificado em diversos países de América do Norte e da Europa. Recentemente nos países da América Latina tem-se despertado um interesse comum na busca de tecnologias de desenvolvimento de biomateriais, como uma forma de diminuir a poluição gerada pelos resíduos sintéticos, utilizando os recursos naturais próprios da região. ...

  15. Influence of natural and synthetic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on primary and secondary metabolites and associated metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants under water deficit regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aniqa; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V 9 ) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC). After one month of water deficit treatments, various levels of ascorbic acid (150 mg L -1 AsA or 25% OJ) besides control [distilled water (DW) and no spray (NS)] were applied as a foliar spray. After 15 days of AsA application, different physio-biochemical attributes were measured. The results showed that water deficit markedly decreased plant growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, total carotenoids (CAR) and total flavonoids, while it increased relative membrane permeability (RMP), intrinsic AsA content, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, total soluble proteins (TSP), total free amino acids, activities of key antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)], total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing (RS) and non-reducing sugars (NRS). Most obvious results of most of these parameters were observed at 40% and 20% FC. Foliar-applied pure 150 mg L -1 AsA and 25% OJ were found to be very effective in improving plant growth, RMP, photosynthetic rate, CAR, proline, AsA, MDA, GB, TSP, free amino acids, SOD, POD, TSS, RS, NRS and total flavonoids. It was noticed that 25% OJ enriched with AsA and other essential nutrients and biomolecules was as efficient as 150 mg L -1 AsA in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on quinoa plants. So, it was concluded

  16. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa)consumption as a coadjuvant in nutritional intervention in prediabetic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Ruiz, María Salud; Barnuevo Espinosa, María Dolores; García Santamaría, Carlos; Contreras Fernández, Carlos Javier; Aldeguer García, Miriam; Soto Méndez, Fulgencio; Guillén Guillén, Isabel; Luque Rubia, Antonio Jesús; Quinde Ràzuri, Francisco Javier; Martínez Garrido, Antonio; López Román, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-24

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients. Thirty patients were randomized (2:1) in two study arms: Kuska Active product (processed quinoa) and placebo (maltodextrin), with an intake period of 28 days. BMI, HbA1c and FPG were determined before starting treatment and at 28-day intake. Satiety and fullness sensation were just assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) at the day 28. ANOVA was performed for repeated measures with two factors to study (within-subject factor: time; intersubject factor: product consumed) to demonstrate the effectiveness of processed quinoa on the study variables. Twenty-nine patients (placebo, n = 10; quinoa, n = 19) completed the study, and the quinoa group shows a significant decrease in BMI (p quinoa intake during 28 days decreases BMI and HbA1c levels, maintains FPG levels, and incr eases the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients.

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  1. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  2. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  3. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  4. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alandia Robles, Gabriela Renee

    Until 2013, Bolivia has been the first quinoa world exporter. Quinoa for export is produced in a semi-arid region: the Bolivian southern highlands. Bolivians have now to face the challenge to keep competitive producing in a region with low levels of soil fertility and scarce water in a new scenario...... that includes more countries producing this crop. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyze challenges for quinoa production in the Bolivian southern highlands. This analysis was performed from different perspectives. A critical analysis of information presents the context of quinoa production...... and is followed by two experimental studies focused to approach two issues of concern. Wind erosion was assessed for the first time in Bolivia with Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) samplers under different management practices related to quinoa production. A pot experiment under controlled conditions was carried...

  6. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Julio; Luna Nayra; Vargas Amalia; Magne Jury; Angulo Ada; La Torre Jaime; Bonifacio Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa) of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative), the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, ...

  7. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, R; Barrio, D; Carpio, C; García-Ruiz, A; Rúales, J; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Carrillo, W

    2017-09-01

    Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Gastric digestion at pH 1.2 showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition percentage (75.15%). The lipid peroxidation activity increased after the duodenal phase. The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%).

  9. Elemental Characterization of minerals in Chenopodium quinoa grains by the X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera de Lescano, Paula; Nieto Aco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize by the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive quinoa grain for human consumption, 8 samples of different trademarks of quinoa, which are distributed in the local market were analyzed; together one reference materials certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was analyzed. The results show the presence of elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr, the same as compared to data reported in various studies in neighboring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. (authors).

  10. Characterization of the acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family in the tetraploide plant Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mestanza

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The presence of multiple copies of the gene AHAS shows that gene duplication is a common feature in polyploid species during evolution. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction of sub-genomes in quinoa.

  11. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  13. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw)

  14. Physiological effects of short acute UVB treatments in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Castagna, Antonella; Cosio, Eric G; Ranieri, Annamaria; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-10

    Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m -2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants. Further studies of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements showed that 30 min UVB dramatically decrease stomatal conductance, probably associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was also observed, which could be a response to reduce ROS. Otherwise, irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was found with 60 min UVB probably due to severe ROS overproduction that decompensates the redox balance inducing UVB non-specific signaling. Moreover, 60 min UVB compromised Rubisco carboxylase activity and photosynthetic electron transport. Overall, these data suggest that quinoa modulates different response mechanisms depending on the UVB irradiation dosage.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE À BASE DE PITAIA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS, ENRIQUECIDO COM QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA E SUCRALOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Thiago Matos Carvalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado para alimentos que visam determinado benefício à saúde tem se mostrado promissor, aliado a esse fato é crescente o número de estudos na área de alimentos derivados do leite, como o iogurte, produto de alto valor biológico, com propriedades benéficas a saúde e de fácil comercialização. O iogurte se adicionado de polpa de pitaia (Hylocereus undatus, fruta exótica de potencial sensorial e pouco explorada, tende a ser um produto de fácil aceitação pelos consumidores, adicionalmente é possível aumentar seu valor nutricional adicionando quinoa, cereal de elevado teor protéico e conteúdos significativos em ácidos graxos, e não obstante a utilização da sucralose que é considerado um edulcorante sem restrições de uso, torna o produto ainda mais atrativo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar sensorialmente iogurtes acrescidos de polpa de pitaia em diferentes concentrações e verificar qual foi a de maior aceitação. Foram feitas as análises microbiológicas de coliformes a 30ºC, 45ºC e presença de Salmonella sp. para verificar a qualidade do produto. O modelo adotado para a análise sensorial foi o teste de ordenação de preferência, para comparação do iogurte em suas diferentes concentrações de polpa. As análises microbiológicas encontradas para os iogurtes nas concentrações de 20%, 30% e 40% de polpa foram satisfatórias de acordo com a legislação vigente para esse tipo de produto. Os resultados obtidos para o teste sensorial apontaram à preferência do consumidor a amostra com maior concentração de polpa de pitaia (40%.

  16. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  17. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  18. EFECTO DE LA EXTRUSIÓN SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA LORENA CERÓN FERNANDEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD is a pseudocereal produced for many years in Andean regions and allows different transformations taking advantage of their nutritional qualities becoming it a food agribusiness alternative. Objective of this study was to observe physical and chemical changes from two quinoa flour varieties (Blanca dulce de Jericó and Tunkahuan during extrusion process and determine conditions (flour moisture, temperature and screw speed that allow obtain an extruded similar to precooked functional properties. Water absorption index (IAA, water solubility index (ISA and swelling power (PH was response variables. Two flour extrusion at 105°C degrees, 150 rpm screw speed and 25 to 30% moisture improved functional properties (IAA increased from 1,81 g gel/g D.M to 4,22 g gel/g D.M in Tunkahuan extruded quinoa flour and 2,00 g gel/g to 4,27 g gel MS/MS g flour in Blanca dulce de Jericó but nutriotional properties decreased as digestibility except for a carbohydrate content increase.

  19. Genome-Wide Characterization of Heat-Shock Protein 70s from Chenopodium quinoa and Expression Analyses of Cqhsp70s in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxia; Wang, Runmei; Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Hongli; Guo, Yaodong; Wen, Riyu

    2018-01-23

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous proteins with important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stress. The 70-kDa heat-shock genes ( Hsp70s ) encode a group of conserved chaperone proteins that play central roles in cellular networks of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts across all the studied organisms including bacteria, plants and animals. Several Hsp70s involved in drought tolerance have been well characterized in various plants, whereas no research on Chenopodium quinoa HSPs has been completed. Here, we analyzed the genome of C. quinoa and identified sixteen Hsp70 members in quinoa genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the independent origination of those Hsp70 members, with eight paralogous pairs comprising the Hsp70 family in quinoa. While the gene structure and motif analysis showed high conservation of those paralogous pairs, the synteny analysis of those paralogous pairs provided evidence for expansion coming from the polyploidy event. With several subcellular localization signals detected in CqHSP70 protein paralogous pairs, some of the paralogous proteins lost the localization information, indicating the diversity of both subcellular localizations and potential functionalities of those HSP70s. Further gene expression analyses revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis illustrated the significant variations of Cqhsp70s in response to drought stress. In conclusion, the sixteen Cqhsp70 s undergo lineage-specific expansions and might play important and varied roles in response to drought stress.

  20. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and quantification of even and odd chained 5-n alkylresorcinols, branched chain-alkylresorcinols and methylalkylresorcinols in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Karlsson, Göran; Savolainen, Otto I

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal grown in the Andean region of South America that is of increasing interest worldwide as an alternative staple food. We have detected a complex mixture of both odd- and even-alkyl chain alkylresorcinols (AR), branched-chain alkylresorcinols (bcAR) and methylalkylresorcinols (mAR) in ethyl acetate extracts of quinoa. We quantified the content of AR in 17 commercial samples of quinoa, and found that the mean±SD content of AR was 58±16μg/g, bcAR was 182±52μg/g, and mAR was 136±40μg/g. AR from quinoa could also be detected in plasma after eating quinoa, indicating that some of these unique AR could be used as biomarkers of quinoa intake in humans. Further work is required to understand the role of these ARs in the quinoa plant and whether any of the novel ARs may be of particular interest in human nutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Detection of lunasin in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and the in vitro evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guixing; Zhu, Yingying; Shi, Zhenxing; Li, Jianhui

    2017-09-01

    Lunasin is a novel cancer-preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa have not been demonstrated. Lunasin was detected in quinoa using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-electrosparay ionization-mass spectrometry. The content in 15 quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10 -3 g kg -1 dry seed to 4.89 × 10 -3 g kg -1 dry seed. Significant differences (P quinoa (QLP) exhibited a weak DPPH radical scavenging activity (no IC 50 value), but a strong ABTS + radical scavenging activity (IC 50 value, 1.45 g L -1 ) and oxygen radical scavenging activity (40.06 µmol L -1 Trolox equivalents/g QLP when the concentration was 3.20 g L -1 ). In addition, QLP inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by up to 44.77%, 39.81% and 33.50%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.40 g L -1 . Taken together, these findings indicate that lunasin presents in quinoa and is bioactive, which strengthens the recommendations for the development of quinoa-based functional foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Caracterización morfo agronómica de diecinueve cultivares de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la sabana de Bogotá Morpho-agronornic characterization of nineteen cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Bogota's savanna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres M. Juner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de proveer información acerca de la variabilidad genética y la adaptación en la Sabana de Bogotá de la colección de quinua correspondiente a la Prueba Americana y Europea de Quinua, se estudiaron 19 cultivares mediante la evaluación 49 características morfológicas y agronómicas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario «Marengo» de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ubicado en Mosquera (Cundinamarca. El análisis estadístico, mediante componentes principales para 35 de las variables evaluadas mostró que los ocho primeros componentes
    explican el 88.12% de la variación total. Estos componentes
    estuvieron asociados a 18 variables manifestando la diversidad entre los genotipos. Además, éstos se usaron para construir un dendograma que, calculado a partir de la distancia euclidiana, mostró la existencia de nueve grupos en los cuales se distinguieron claramente los materiales americanos de los europeos. Agronómicamente se destacaron los cultivares E-DK-4 y G-205- 95, procedentes de Dinamarca, principalmente por su precocidad, alto rendimiento en grano, alto rendimiento en biomasa y
    por su porte bajo.
    Nineteen cultivars of «American and European Quinoa Test» were used in this assay. Forty-nine morphological and agronomic characteristics were evaluated at Research Center «Marengo» of National University of Colombia, located at Mosquera (Cundinamarca. The main objective ofthis experiment was to study the genetic variability of quinoa cultivars from American and European countries. The statistical analysis was carried out with 35 out of 49 variables. The first eight components explained the 88,12% of total variation and were constituted by 18 variables. Using this information a dendogram was constructed. Nine groups
    were identified. Cultivars from American countries were separated from European's ones. The bcst cultivars were E-DK-4 and G-205-95 from Denmark. These presented high

  6. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  7. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  8. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.)

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que...

  9. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan A; Konishi, Yotaro; Bruno, Marcela; Valoy, Mariana; Prado, Fernando E

    2012-04-01

    Quinoa is a good source of protein and can be used as a nutritional ingredient in food products. This study analyses how much growing region and/or seasonal climate might affect grain yield and nutritional quality of quinoa seeds. Seeds of ten quinoa cultivars from the Andean highlands (Bolivia/Argentina site) and Argentinean Northwest (Encalilla site) were analysed for seed yield, protein content and amino acid composition. Grain yields of five cultivars growing at Encalilla were higher, and four were lower, compared with data from the Bolivia/Argentina site. Protein contents ranged from 91.5 to 155.3 and from 96.2 to 154.6 g kg(-1) dry mass for Encalilla and Bolivia/Argentina seeds respectively, while essential amino acid concentrations ranged from 179.9 to 357.2 and from 233.7 to 374.5 g kg(-1) protein respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the content of essential amino acids and protein percentage. It appears that there are clear variations in seed yield, total protein content and amino acid composition among cultivars from the two sites. Essential amino acid composition was more affected than grain yield and protein level. The study revealed that both environmental and climatic factors influence the nutritional composition of quinoa cultivars growing in different agroecological regions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups...

  11. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que fomenten el consumo de productos nativos y autóctonos. Al elaborar productos con materia prima disponible en el país logramos disminuir la dependencia externa y promover el trabajo interno y por ende contribuir a garantizar la Soberanía Alimentaria. La Soberanía Alimentaria es el derecho de los pueblos a definir sus propias políticas y estrategias sustentables de producción, distribución y consumo de alimentos que garanticen el derecho a la alimentación para toda la población, con base en la pequeña y medi

  12. Isolation and characterization of the betalain biosynthesis gene involved in hypocotyl pigmentation of the allotetraploid Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroki; Miyazato, Akio; Ohki, Shinya; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi

    2018-02-05

    In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap+ method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent. In addition, the transient expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the accumulation of betanin but not isobetanin, and the presence of a polymorphism in CqCYP76A1-2 in the CQ127 variety was shown to have resulted in its loss of function. These findings suggested that CqCYP76AD1-1 is involved in betalain biosynthesis during the hypocotyl pigmentation process in quinoa. To our knowledge, CqCYP76AD1-1 is the first quinoa gene identified by EMS mutagenesis using a draft gene sequence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  14. Sampling strategy for a core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Ruiz-Tapia, E N; Mujica-Sanchez, A

    1998-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean crop with a high potential for cultivation under temperate agricultural conditions. A new quinoa cultivar for such an environment requires plant characteristics that may be available primarily largely in genetic resources held in gene banks. A core collection may simplify management and enhance the utilisation of quinoa genetic resources. This paper describes the development of a core subset of the whole quinoa gene bank (1029 accessions) of the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano (UNAP). All accessions available in this gene bank have location and altitude descriptors and a partial description for qualitative and quantitative descriptors. The core collection (103 accessions) contains chosen ecotypes or landraces that capture most of the genetic variability available in this Peruvian germplasm. The accessions were selected for the core collection based on a geographically stratified non-overlapping sampling procedure. The number of accessions that were allocated to the core subset was determined using a proportional method adjusted by the relative importance of the quinoa crop in each geographical cluster as determined by its acreage. The sampling method also considered the morphological diversity within four geographical clusters of at least 100 accessions. The multivariate pattern of morphological variation was defined within each of these clusters by independent principal component analyses. A comparison of phenotypic diversity between the entire collection and its core subset confirmed that the proper sampling strategy for this core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm had been applied. The most important phenotypic correlations between quantitative descriptors observed in the entire collection, which may be under the control of co-adapted gene complexes, were also preserved by the core collection. The most comprenhensive quinoa core collection should consider accessions from other gene banks in Bolivia and Ecuador, a

  15. Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean ... qualitative traits (Simmonds 1971; Risi and Galwey 1984;. Ward 2000; Maughan et al. ..... of which 402 were suitable for primer design (178, 85 and. 139 from the GA, AAT ...

  16. Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Peru. UNA. aAltiplano types are subdivided in valley, salares and high Andes. ...... Im perfect g acctattaaaggttcc g ca ca ggtccacacacacac aga g c. 195. 4. 0 .73. K. G. A. 023. (C. T. )31. S im p le. P erfect cacgagaccaagcctctc tt tcaccacctttgcaa ac.

  17. Extraction of Glucuronoarabinoxylan from Quinoa Stalks (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Evaluation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced by GH10 and GH11 Xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Veizaga, Daniel Martin; Villagomez, Rodrigo; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Carrasco, Cristhian; Álvarez, María Teresa; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva

    2017-10-04

    Byproducts from quinoa are not yet well explored sources of hemicellulose or products thereof. In this work, xylan from milled quinoa stalks was retrieved to 66% recovery by akaline extraction using 0.5 M NaOH at 80 °C, followed by ethanol precipitation. The isolated polymer eluted as a single peak in size-exclusion chromatography with a molecular weight of >700 kDa. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with acid hydrolysis to monomers showed that the polymer was built of a backbone of β(1 → 4)-linked xylose residues that were substituted by 4-O-methylglucuronic acids, arabinose, and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 114:23:5:1. NMR analysis also indicated the presence of α(1 → 5)-linked arabinose substituents in dimeric or oligomeric forms. The main xylooligosaccharides (XOs) produced after hydrolysis of the extracted glucuronoarabinoxylan polymer by thermostable glycoside hydrolases (GHs) from families 10 and 11 were xylobiose and xylotriose, followed by peaks of putative substituted XOs. Quantification of the unsubstituted XOs using standards showed that the highest yield from the soluble glucuronoarabinoxylan fraction was 1.26 g/100 g of xylan fraction, only slightly higher than the yield (1.00 g/100 g of xylan fraction) from the insoluble fraction (p 0.05). This study shows that quinoa stalks represent a novel source of glucuronoarabinoxylan, with a substituent structure that allowed for limited production of XOs by GH10 or GH11 enzymes.

  18. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in organic quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) by GC-µECD, using the QuEChERS method

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Barriga, Rosario Edely; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Zamalloa Cuba, Walter Alejandro; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Luiz Tornisielo, Valdemar; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao; Zirena Vilca, Franz; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is currently great interest in environmental pollutants in relation to food security; previous studies show that persistent organic pollutants  (POPs) could be found in small amounts, even in organic food; therefore, in this  research, 12 organochlorine pesticides residues (p, p'-DDD; p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'DDE, Dicofol, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, α-BHC, β-BCH, heptachlor and mirex) were monitored in quinoa grains from organic production systems, sampled ...

  19. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M2, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M 2 lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author)

  20. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors that limits crop production is the availability of water. Deficit irrigation is the most important irrigation strategy to increase water use efficiency and crop water productivity. Organic amendment combined with deficit irrigation can be practical solution...... to compensate the negative effect of water deficit through the improvement of soil water-holding capacity. This research was conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir) between October 2011 and January 2012. The mean objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of organic matter...... significant difference only between deficit irrigation treatments for most measured parameters. However, significant difference was obtained between organic matter treatments in terms of grain yield. The highest grain yield (66.3 g plant−1) has been recorded when quinoa was subjected to full irrigation...

  1. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The global expansion of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then......, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing...... the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010...

  3. PROCESAMIENTO POST-COSECHA DE GRANOS DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, CHENOPODIACEAE EN EL PERÍODO PREHISPÁNICO TARDÍO EN EL NORTE DE LÍPEZ (POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del estudio etnoarqueológico del tratamiento post-cosecha de granos de quinoa entre los habitantes del altiplano de Lípez (Potosí, Bolivia, se describen algunos rasgos diagnósticos de cada actividad y forma de procesamiento observables en los granos desecados. El potencial de estas observaciones para investigar las antiguas prácticas de procesamiento y consumo de este pseudocereal es ilustrado mediante el análisis de granos recuperados en cuatro sitios arqueológicos cercanos al Salar de Uyuni. Las quinoas examinadas se encontraban en distintas etapas de procesamiento; algunas no habían sido aún desaponificadas, por lo que inferimos que habían sido almacenadas inmediatamente después de la cosecha, mientras que otras muestras exhibían rastros de desaponificación comparables a los observados en contextos actuales, sugiriendo su preparación para distintos modos de consumo.

  4. Variabilidad genética de Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en el Noroeste Argentino y su relación con la dispersión de la especie

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Tártara, Sabrina María

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una especie originaria de la región Andina de Sudamérica perteneciente a la familia Chenopodiacea. Sus semillas poseen un elevado nivel de proteínas de buena calidad ya que contiene altos niveles y un buen balance de aminoácidos esenciales como la lisina y metionina. Tiene la capacidad de adaptarse a condiciones ambientales extremas como déficit hídrico, bajas temperaturas y salinidad, haciendo posible su cultivo en un amplio rango de ambientes. Estudios de caract...

  5. Fungal population in soils producing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, under different management systems in the community Kerecaya Municipality of Salinas de Garci Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco-Pérez Victor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kerecaya community (3700-4000 msnm of the municipality of Salinas of Garci Mendoza of the south altiplano of Bolivia, in spite of your climatics risks. The plots of quinoa present lower organic matter to 0.93%, humidity of the smaller earth to 12.9%, temperature of the earth for under 8.5 oC and pH lower to 8.0. The population of funguses in three types it has studied of earths that went: without farm (without entropic intervention, traditional and mechanized. The humid samples of the earth were gathered to a depth of 6 to 25 cm at random in zig-zag, these to be prosecuted by means of the method of seriate dilution and inoculated in plates with 0.5 mL and it is evaluated the colonies for UFC´s/g of earth, the genre of Penicilli-um spp., with major population of 65.1%, followed for Aspergillus spp., with 24,1% and Trichoderma spp., with minor great quality of 13,8% and the population average in UFC´s/g of earth it went of 1035.4 in with-out farm (without entropic intervention, 959.7 in traditional and 868.2 in the mechanized and the major population was presented in the month of February 1572.8 UFC/g of earth.

  6. Atahualpa's revenge: the spread of quinoa downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.; Backman, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record The Andean crop quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, has gained popularity in recent years due to its nutritious seed and desirable agricultural traits, such as its tolerance to drought and high saline soils. Prized by the Inca, quinoa is now highly desirable to health conscious consumers in North America and Europe. Quinoa also has interesting applications to plant pathology, including being a “universal” virus host as well as its production of antimicrobial compounds. Quinoa ...

  7. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  8. Bocadito con alto contenido proteico: un extruido a partir de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y camote (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pérez Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la elaboración de un bocadito extruido de elevado tenor proteico, a partir de quinua ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y fécula de camote ( Ipomoea batatas L.. Para su formulación se aplicó el método de diseño de mezclas usando la herramienta computacional - estadíst ica Design Expert® versión 7.0, siendo las variables independientes las harinas de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote; y las variables dependientes el contenido de proteína, índice de expansión, densidad aparente y dureza de los extruidos. La formulación ópt ima se determinó aplicando la prueba de deseabilidad basada en los modelos de regresión ajustado, dicha formulación se obtuvo maximizando el contenido de proteína e índice de expansión; y minimizando la dureza y densidad aparente de los extruidos. La formu lación óptima tuvo un porcentaje de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote de 57%, 26% y 17 % respectivamente. El análisis fisicoquímico de la fórmula óptima dio como resultado 20,16% de proteína, 2,19 de índice de expansión, 0,220 g/cm 3 densidad aparente y 9,31 N de dureza. La calidad proteica de la formulación óptima fue determinada mediante los ensayos de digestibilidad verdadera y valor biológico verdadero en ratas, obteniéndose 83,5% y 62,9% respectivamente.

  9. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KIRINUS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos específi cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em macarrão tipo talharim e cozimento em água e sal. Para realização da análise sensorial, participaram 40 provadores não treinados e não portadores de doença celíaca, os quais receberam três amostras de macarrão de farinha de trigo, macarrão de soja e macarrão de quinoa. A massa elaborada com farinha de soja foi mais bem aceita do que a elaborada com farinha de quinoa, podendo então ser sugerida como alternativa para a não privação de alimentos à base de glúten. Com o presente estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe a viabilidade de elaboração de macarrão caseiro do tipo talharim com farinha de soja ou de quinoa. Contudo, a massa elaborada com farinha de soja sugere características sensoriais mais promissoras.

  10. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  11. Control de Sitophilus zeamais con polvos vegetales de tres especies del género Chenopodium Control of Sitophilus zeamais with vegetable powders of three species of Chenopodium genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ivan Silva-Aguayo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron polvos vegetales de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. y Chenopodium quinoa Willd. para el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los parámetros evaluados fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos, pérdida de peso y germinación de los granos, efecto ovicida y larvicida, fumigación, repelencia y residualidad de los polvos. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. La mayor mortalidad de insectos se obtuvo con los polvos de la inflorescencia y la mezcla de hojas y tallos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., al 2% (p/p con valores de 69,4% y 67,9% respectivamente. La menor emergencia de adultos se obtuvo con los mismos tratamientos. La pérdida de peso de granos, en todos los tratamientos de C. ambrosioides, no superó el 3%. Para el tratamiento inflorescencia de C. ambrosioides al 2% (p/p, la residualidad de los polvos se mantuvo hasta los 15 días, con una mortalidad de 98,3%. Esta misma especie presentó una mortalidad de huevos y larvas de 100%, además de presentar un efecto fumigante con una mortalidad de adultos de 100%, en todos los tratamientos evaluados. El polvo de C. ambrosioides es repelente para S. zeamais.Powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. were evaluated under laboratory conditions for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky control. Evaluated parameters were insect mortality and adult emergence, grain weight loss, grain germination and the following effects of powders: ovicide and larvicide, fumigant, repellent and residual. A completely randomized experimental design with factorial arrangement and three replicates was used. The highest levels of insect mortality were obtained with the powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. inflorescence and the mixture of leaves and stems at 2% (w/w, with values of 69.4% and 67.9% respectively. Best emergence reductions were

  12. Caracterizacion de carbohidratos de Chenopodium quinoa y variabilidad cenética usando marcadores de tipo RAPD.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, A.; Ames, M.; Barrantes, W.; Leiva, N.

    2004-01-01

    La quinua ( Willd.) es una de las especies nativas caracterizada por su reconocido aporte nutricional y su elevada productividad. Esta especie ha sido cultivada desde hace miles de años en los Andes de Perú y Bolivia, principalmente en el Altiplano, de donde provienen la mayoría de las variedades. Las cuales se pueden diferenciar por características morfológicas del grano (tamaño, color, sabor) y otras propiedades agro-fisiológicas. Sin embargo, para fines de mejoramiento ge...

  13. A crossing method for quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Adam; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Bonifacio, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used......As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work...

  14. A Crossing Method for Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Peterson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems.

  15. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. E CENOURA (Daucus carota PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild. FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota

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    M ASTAÍZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La pasta de sémola es un alimento de consumo masivo, pero el valor biológico de su proteína es bajo, dada la deficiencia de Usina en la proteína del trigo. Al complementar la sémola con harina de quinua y zanahoria, se mejora la calidad de la proteína por ser la quinua muy rica en Usina y se incrementa el contenido de fibra soluble y vitamina A con la adición de zanahoria. Este estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la Etapa I se elaboraron y analizaron pastas enriquecidas con harina integral de quinua, con niveles de sustitución del 30%, 40% y50% en la Etapa II, se sustituyó con zanahoria un 15% de la fase líquida de la formulación que en la fase I presentó mejor calidad. En las dos etapas se evaluó calidad de cocción, composición química y calidad sensorial de las pastas. La sustitución de la sémola por un 30% de harina de quinua, al igual que la inclusión de zanahoria en la formulación, permitió la obtención de un producto de mayor calidad nutricional y de excelente aceptación por el consumidor. Se logró un incremento significativo en la concentración de proteína y fibra, acompañado de una disminución en el contenido de carbohidratos; igualmente, mejoró el cómputo químico de las pastas pasando de 55.2% en las pastas control a 72.4 en las pastas enriquecidas con quinua. La calidad de cocción fue inferior en las pastas enriquecidas; sin embargo, las propiedades tecnológicas de las pastas se mantienen dentro de los rangos adecuados para su preparaciónAs pastas de sêmola de trigo é um alimento de consumo massivo, mas o valor biológico da sua proteína é baixo devido à; sua deficiencia em Usina. Ao complementar a sêmola com farinha de quinua e cenoura, não só se melhora a qualidade da proteína por complementaridade de aminoácidos entre a proteína do trigo e os aminoácidos da proteína de quinua, pseudo cereal muito rico em Usina, senão que também se incrementa o conteúdo de fibra e vitamina A com

  16. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by drought and salinity – mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under field conditions was exposed to five irrigation water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m–1; 4 : 1 NaCl : CaCl2 molar ratio) from flowering, and divided between full irrigation and progressive drought (PD) during seed filling. Quinoa demonstrated h...

  17. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily

  18. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  19. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  20. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Legislative control of quinoa in the United Kingdom and European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ojinnaka, D

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter food safety control in relation to quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) as food and food ingredient was discussed and evaluated through a critical examination of the current statutory provisions at United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) Levels. The risk if any, posed by quinoa seeds from production to consumption were identified and suggestions for compliance were made. Quinoa though novel in the UK and marketed loosely as superfood apparently does not warrant any specific (...

  2. The quinoa boom in Southern Altiplano of Bolivia : Agrarian transformations, discourses and socio-environmental tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Pak, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) production began in the 1980s in the Southern Highlands of Bolivia. It has generated transformations in the agrarian system of the region questioning the production sustainability. The low quinoa yields experienced by quinoa producers within indigenous communities is a major issue for the different actors of the production chain, scientists, development institutions and policy makers. Today, they mainly attribute it to soil degradation. Consens...

  3. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel T.; Del Castillo C.; Mahy G.

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drough...

  4. EVALUACIÓN DEL PAICO Chenopodium ambrosioides Y CHOCHO Lupinus mutabilis SWEET COMO ANTIPARASITARIOS GASTROINTESTINALES EN BOVINOS JÓVENES

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo López, Francisco; Barrera Mosquera, Víctor; Rodríguez Iturralde, Luis; Mosquera Andrade, Jorge; Yánez Ortiz, Iván; Godoy Ortiz, Germán; Grijalva Olmedo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Las infestaciones parasitarias son una de las principales causas de enfermedades y pérdidas de la productividad en las explotaciones ganaderas en Ecuador, por lo que se hace necesario establecer mecanismos para reducirlas a través del uso de tratamientos alternativos a los químicos. En este estudio se evaluó el suministro del extracto acuoso del paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) y del extracto fitoquímico de chocho (Lupinus mutábilis Sweet) en el control de parásitos gastrointestinales en bov...

  5. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  6. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente "bio-équitable" = Quinoa in Bolivia : an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with "organic fair-trade" labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo, Carmen; Mahy, G.; Winkel, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resi...

  7. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa's expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  8. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides), en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Rodríguez; Elias Carvajal; Catalina Álavarez

    2011-01-01

    El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) ha sido empleado en i...

  9. Effect of irrigation, intercrop and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of three irrigation regimes and three intercrop treatments on emergence, plant height, seed yield, protein and mineral concentration of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties. The experiment was carried out using a strip plot, randomized co...

  10. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  11. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen,

  12. Desenvolupament de begudes a base de farina de quinoa i sucs de fruites

    OpenAIRE

    Saubi Oriol, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal and is a native plant in the Andean region. Is known for its protein quality with a well balanced amino acids; also, it contains a considerable amount of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and others nutrients. The main objective of this Bachelor's thesis Degree in Food Engineering has been make a previous develop of a soft drink pasteurized mixed, stable and acceptable organoleptically, with quinoa flour and fruits juices, that could preserv...

  13. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as “Indian food.” After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region. PMID:27242826

  14. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... may be purchased online or at any health food store. Major grocery stores may also carry bags ...

  15. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...

  16. Evaluación de 16 genotipos de quinua dulce (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en el municipio de Iles, Nariño (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado P. Adriana I.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Debido a su alto potencial agrícola y nutritivo, el interés por la quinua se ha incrementado en los últimos años, convirtiéndola en alternativa de diversificación para la región andina. Sin embargo, se han detectado necesidades limitantes, así como buenas posibilidades de mejoramiento genético, aún escasamente exploradas. En la presente investigación, llevada a cabo en la vereda San Francisco del municipio de Iles, Nariño, se evaluaron 16 líneas de quinua dulce. Una parte de ellas fueron selecciones provenientes de los genotipos SL47, Piartal y Tunkahuan. El resto consistió en cuatro testigos comerciales (SL47, Piartal, Tunkahuan y Blanca de Jericó. El estudio fue conducido bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones, a través del cual se evaluaron algunos componentes de rendimiento (altura de la planta, longitud de panoja, peso de 1.000 granos, y rendimiento, la reacción al mildeo velloso y las características fenológicas. Posteriormente todas las variables fueron sometidas a análisis de varianza, prueba de Tukey (5% y evaluación del grado de asociación por medio del análisis de correlaciones de Pearson. Los resultados mostraron la precocidad del grupo SL47 (128,75 a 135 días a madurez fisiológica. Al comparar las líneas con sus testigos, se observa que el grupo Tunkahuan (S20, S39, S44 obtuvo ganancia genética en rendimiento (2.635,25 a 2.699,83 kg ha-1. El análisis de correlación mostró que hay asociación significativa entre las variables altura de la planta y longitud de panoja (0,739 por una parte, y por otra entre rendimiento y peso de 1.000 granos (0,647. SL47 testigo alcanzó el mayor índice de selección (0,960, mostrándose superior a las demás líneas.

  17. The global expansion of quinoa: trends and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier eBAZILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd. was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as Indian food. After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the twentieth century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010 and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  18. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  19. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  20. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M.; Bazile, Didier; Kellogg, Julianne; Rahmanian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa’s wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ). Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network on quinoa (GCN-Quinoa) could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments. PMID:27242815

  1. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkel T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resistance of the plants, and the capacity to recover high photosynthetic activity after drought. Under field conditions, the genetic diversity in local landraces and the crop practices also contribute notably to the adaptation of quinoa to climatic hazards.

  2. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  3. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  4. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos; José Antonio Gomez Vieira; Javier Telis-Romero; Harvey Alexander Villa-Vélez; Jose Francisco Lopes Filho

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters ...

  5. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Pumacahua-Ramos, Augusto; Gomez Vieira, José Antonio; Telis- Romero, Javier; Villa-Vélez, Harvey Alexander; Lopes Filho, Jose Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) and in relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data:  GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown...

  6. When Fair Trade increases unfairness: The case of quinoa from Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie Carimentrand; Jérôme Ballet

    2010-01-01

    Fair Trade movement tackles the question of global justice. It is experiencing growing success. Fair Trade therefore sorts the beneficiaries, usually by means of certification. Numerous impact studies have assessed the beneficial effects of Fair Trade on the intended beneficiaries. Several studies have nevertheless called into question both the impact of certification and Fair trade. Following these studies this paper shows that Fair Trade in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is actually inc...

  7. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  8. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  9. Quinoa Expansion in Peru and Its Implications for Land Use Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia S. Bedoya-Perales

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has gained prominence worldwide over recent years and suddenly Peru has emerged as a major player in the global quinoa market. This study aims to analyze the expansion of quinoa farming in Peru in the period 1995–2014 and to discuss the changes in land-use the country has experienced as a result of the boom in the global demand for quinoa. Two statistical approaches, principal component analysis (PCA and exponential smoothing, were applied in the data analysis to explore the evolution of the quinoa boom in Peru by periods and to forecast what the acreage expansion rate would have been if the boom had not occurred. The results show that the quinoa boom was responsible for an increase of 43% in the number of hectares planted with quinoa in 2014, in relation to the number predicted if there had been no boom. This provoked an acceleration of production in traditional quinoa farming areas and the extension of this activity to new regions. The consequences are already apparent in the land-use changes seen in Peru, namely the: (i displacement; (ii rebound; and (iii cascade effects.

  10. Non-polar lipids characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection and non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Beccaria, Marco; Salivo, Simona; Tranchida, Peter; Tripodo, Giusy; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    A chemical characterization of major lipid components, namely, triacylglycerols, fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction, in a Quinoa seed lipids sample is reported. To tackle such a task, non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the analysis of triacylglycerols. The main triacylglycerols (>10%) were represented by OLP, OOL and OLL (P = palmitoyl, O = oleoyl, L = linoleoyl); the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (18.1%). Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters were evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. 89% of the total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 48 and 28%, respectively. An extensive characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction of Quinoa seed lipids was performed for the first time, by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. Overall, 66 compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were tentatively identified, many constituents of which (particularly sterols) were confirmed by using gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seed and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testen, Anna L; del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Ochoa, José B; Backman, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important export of the Andean region, and its key disease is quinoa downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis. P. variabilis oospores can be seedborne and rapid methods to detect seedborne P. variabilis have not been developed. In this research, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method was developed to detect seedborne P. variabilis and a sequencing-based method was used to validate the PCR-based method. P. variabilis was detected in 31 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the PCR-based method and in 32 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the sequencing-based method. Thirty-one of the quinoa seed lots tested in this study were sold for human consumption, with seed originating from six different countries. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) phylogenies were examined to determine whether geographical differences occurred in P. variabilis populations originating from Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States. No geographical differences were observed in the ITS-derived phylogeny but the COX2 phylogeny indicated that geographical differences existed between U.S. and South American samples. Both ITS and COX2 phylogenies supported the existence of a Peronospora sp., distinct from P. variabilis, that causes systemic-like downy mildew symptoms on quinoa in Ecuador. The results of these studies allow for a better understanding of P. variabilis populations in South America and identified a new causal agent for quinoa downy mildew. The PCR-based seed detection method allows for the development of P. variabilis-free quinoa seed, which may prove important for management of quinoa downy mildew.

  12. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  13. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  14. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  15. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host’s redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa’s immediate confrontation with “foreign” reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa’s microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  16. Busca de compostos em Chenopodium spp. (Chenopodiaceae) com bioatividade em relação a pragas de grãos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Aurélio Garcia Correia Tavares

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a bioatividade de pós, extratos aquosos e não aquosos (hexano, clorofórmio e metanol) de folhas e frutos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd. e Chenopodium album L. sobre as pragas de grãos armazenados, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabr.), bem como avaliar o potencial inseticida do óleo essencial de C. ambrosioides, e o efeito repelente e inseticida de algumas substâncias (limoneno, α-pineno e ...

  17. Flavonoids from Chenopodium botrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pascual-T, J; González, M S; Vicente, S; Bellido, I S

    1981-04-01

    From Chenopodium botrys, five flavonoids have been isolated: hispidulin, 1, salvigenin 2, 5-methylsalvigenin, 3, 7-methyleupatulin, 4 and sinensetin, 5. None of them have been previously reported from Ch. botrys.

  18. Effect of nitrogen and water availability of three soil types on yield, radiation use efficiency and evapotranspiration in field-grown quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is believed to be tolerant to abiotic stress including salinity, drought and poor soil quality. To investigate the effect of soil type and soil-drying during the seed-filling phase on N-uptake, yield and water use, a Danish-bred cultivar (cv. Titicaca) was grown...... of nitrogen. Quinoa is tolerant to soil-drying during seed-filling, and deficit irrigation may improve water productivity and save considerable amounts of irrigation water. The basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and evaporation coefficient (Ke) values were found to be 0.20 and 0.85 for initial, 1.20 and 0...

  19. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN REOLÓGICA DE UNA BEBIDA ELABORADA CON Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Glycine max L. Y Amaranthus caudatus L. “QUINUA, SOYA Y KIWICHA” Y Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni “ESTEVIA”

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Javier S.; Villafuerte, Úrsula; Cerrón, Luz M.; Tapia, Edgar; Yuli, Ricardo; Inostroza, Luis; Rodríguez, Alfonso; Condorhuaman, Martín

    2017-01-01

    El propósito de la investigación fue determinar las características reológicas de una bebida nutricional elaborada a base de quinua, kiwicha y soya. Para ello se utilizó un viscosímetro rotacional Brookfield DV-E, versión 1.1, para determinar: índice reológico, índice de consistencia, perfil de la viscosidad aparente y el modelo matemático del comportamiento reológico de la bebida. La evaluación de cada parámetro se hizo con el preparado a 18 y 25°C. Presentó un índice de consistencia (K) de ...

  1. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Killi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  3. Chemical characteristics and mineral composition of quinoa by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Martín, M Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; Fischer, Susana; Escuredo, Olga

    2014-03-30

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been traditionally used as a foodstuff in the Andes and it has gained increasing interest in recent years owing to its high nutritional value. The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for estimating chemical compounds in quinoa was studied because of the possibility of conducting direct measurement without prior sample treatment. The use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe for the analysis of major compounds and mineral composition of 48 quinoa samples was studied. The calibration of the NIRS instrument was conducted using modified partial least squares (MPLS) analysis. This allowed the determination of protein (16.0-20.2 g 100g⁻¹), crude fiber (1.8-3.1 g 100g⁻¹), fat (4.4-7.5 g 100g⁻¹), calcium (298.8-1164.5 mg kg⁻¹), iron (0-948.5 mg kg⁻¹) and phosphorus (2735.0-4543.3 mg kg⁻¹). The correlation coefficients (RSQ) were 0.83 for protein, 0.73 for crude fiber, 0.93 for fat; 0.60 for calcium; 0.76 for iron and 0.75 for phosphorus. The robustness of the equations obtained was verified by external validation on unknown quinoa samples. NIRS with fiber-optic probe provides an alternative for the determination of chemical compounds of quinoa, faster and at lower cost, with results comparable with chemical methods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution. PMID:29039809

  5. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA C CHAPARRO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los cambios en la cantidad de hierro y calcio durante el proceso germinativo en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, guandul (Cajanus cajan y soya (Glycine maxy. Se utilizaron semillas producidas por agricultores del departamento del Cauca; las cuatro especies fueron seleccionadas para asegurar un grado óptimo en su calidad física y un porcentaje de germinación mayor al 90%. Inicialmente se estandarizó el método para la obtención de semillas germinadas, mediante la definición de variables como uso o no de desinfectante, tipo de sustrato, tiempo de germinación y temperatura de germinación. Para el desarrollo del estudio se aplicó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres réplicas por día de germinación (días cero, uno, dos y tres; para cuantificación de hierro y calcio se utilizó absorción atómica. Los resultados encontrados permiten concluir que la germinación indujo cambios en la disponibilidad de hierro y calcio de forma particular en la semilla de cada especie; el hierro disponible, en semillas de amaranto soya y quinua, tendió a disminuir a medida que avanzó el proceso de germinación; sin embargo, la germinación no afectó significativamente el contenido de hierro en semillas de amaranto y guandul. El calcio disponible se incrementó significativamente en semillas de amaranto y quinua a partir del segundo día de germinación, la germinación generó un incremento porcentual, en el contenido de calcio, de 169.1% en amaranto y de 24.75% en quinua, mientras que en guandul y soya el calcio disponible disminuyó con la germinación.Foram avaliadas as alterações na quantidade disponível de ferro e cálcio durante o processo de germinação das sementes de amaranto (Amaranthus sp, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, guandu (Cajanus cajan e soja (Glycine max y. Empregaram- se sementes produzidas por agricultores da região; as quatro espécies foram selecionadas para assegurar um

  6. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  7. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  8. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), temperature (80°C), time (4 h), and solvent ratio (5 ml/g seed). When compared to extraction of macerated seeds, the leaching procedure released essentially all the 20HE available in the seeds (491 μg/g seed). The optimized quinoa leachate (QL), containing 0.86% 20HE, 1.00% total phytoecdysteroids, 2.59% flavonoid glycosides, 11.9% oil, and 20.4% protein, significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice. Leaching effectively releases and concentrates bioactive phytochemicals from quinoa seeds, providing an efficient means to produce a food-grade mixture that may be useful for anti-diabetic applications. PMID:24912714

  9. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA NO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher than those reached by the BRS Piabiru and Kancolla check cultivars. The grains are saponin-free and have a mean weight of 2.9 g 1000-1. The results reveal that the BRS Syetetuba meets the desirable characteristics for commercial yield in Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Chenopodium quinoa; grain weight; biomass; plant height.A Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., originária dos Andes, tem sido adaptada ao cultivo no Brasil, via seleção de progênies. Entre as progênies avaliadas, tem-se destacado a Q4.5, proveniente da população Q4, originária dos vales equatorianos. O genótipo foi uniformizado em suas características agronômicas, recebendo o nome de BRS Syetetuba. Em experimentos de verão e entressafra, apresentou rendimentos de 2,3 t ha-1 de grãos e 7,5 t ha-1 de biomassa total, em 120 dias, da emergência à maturação. Estes resultados superaram aqueles alcançados pelas cultivares padrões BRS Piabiru e Kancolla. Os grãos são livres de saponina e têm peso médio de 2,9 g 1000-1. Os resultados indicam que a BRS Syetetuba reúne características favoráveis para desencadear a produção comercial de quinoa no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chenopodium quinoa; peso de grãos; biomassa; altura de planta.

  10. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na + ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na + accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na + accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na + accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl - accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na + accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na + than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na + accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na + , and all of the observed increase in K + concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl - in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na + . QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na + accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na + uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl - accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na + under genetic control, or is Cl - (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl - accumulation to find Cl - QTL

  11. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    on salt affected soils in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to evaluate whether these cultivars are also able to thrive under warmer temperatures. Temperatures of the Bolivian highland and Morocco were simulated in climate chambers to evaluate the performance of a very salt tolerant Bolivian...

  12. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  13. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  14. Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Biondi, Stefania; Oses, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is rapidly degrading the conditions of crop production. For instance, increasing salinization and aridity is forecasted to increase in most parts of the world. As a consequence, new stress-tolerant species and genotypes must be identified and used for future agriculture. Stress......-tolerant species exist but are actually underutilized and neglected. Many stress-tolerant species are indeed traditional crops that are only cultivated by farmers at a local scale. Those species have a high biodiversity value. Besides, the human population will probably reach nine billion within coming decades....... To keep pace with population growth, food production must increase dramatically despite the limited availability of cultivable land and water. Here, we review the benefits of quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a seed crop that has endured the harsh bioclimatic conditions of the Andes since ancient times...

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Liden, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m -3 d -1 . Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process

  16. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. Nederlandse quinoa in de winkel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, J.; Timmer, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Dit jaar ligt er voor het eerst quinoa van vaderlandse bodem in de winkel. Wageningen leverde de geschikte rassen, en helpt boeren met de teelt. Interview met onder andere Ruud Timmer van PPO-agv te Lelystad

  19. Quinoa, Version 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-06

    Quinoa is a set of computational tools that enables research and numerical analysis in fluid dynamics. At this time it is a test-bed to experiment with various algorithms using fully asynchronous runtime systems.

  20. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  1. Microbial approaches to support Andean quinoa production

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record As Quinoa production increases in response to growing global demand for the crop, it is necessary to develop improved production practices that will support sustainable production. To that end, this thesis examines the ability of the Bacillus species of bacteria to colonize quinoa and to promote quinoa growth, and seeks to identify source of inoculum for Peronospora variabilis, the cause of the quinoa downy mildow disease. Bacillus populations isolated from Pennsylvani...

  2. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  3. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  4. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  5. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Chenopodium species; Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides were evaluated on wild oat (Avena fatua L.), one of the problematic weeds of wheat. Among the aqueous extracts of 0, 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) employed in bioassays, 6% ...

  6. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Talwinder S.; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J.; Chiu, Mei-Chen M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  7. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis; Evaluacion de calidad de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) mejorada por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R{sub 1}10, 94, 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 2}27, 20R{sub 3}42 and 20R{sub 3}7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R{sub 3}33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 3}42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  8. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  9. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  10. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  11. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld. grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown to be appropriate by the coefficients of determination (R2 and the mean absolute error (MA%E. The influence of temperature was observed because the adsorption of water by the grains was lower at highertemperatures. The equilibrium moisture contents for security of storage, for long periods of time at water activity lower than 0.65, were 12 -13%. The effect of temperature on the parameters of the GAB model was analysed using the exponential Arrhenius equation. The isosteric heats of sorption were determined by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of humidity. The isosteric heat at 5% moisture for grains of the Blanca de Juli variety was 3663 kJ/kg and for the Pasankalla variety it was 3393 kJ/kg. The experimental data for isosteric heat as a function of humidity were satisfactorily modelled using three mathematical equations.

  12. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia's Salar region with the intention to push agricultural development - with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production. Using Landsat images, SRTM elevations and field survey data, we investigate the relationship of field areas to erosion patterns and large-scale geomorphology. The soils of the southern Bolivian Altiplano are highly susceptible to particle entrainment due to a loose and sandy substrate, strong winds, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended by approx. 1,6 % per year between 1985 and 2003, an average annual increase of 8,4 % could be observed for the last decade, when many new fields were established at lower elevations

  13. Uptake of various trace elements during germination of wheat, buckwheat and quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintschinger, J; Fuchs, N; Moser, H; Jäger, R; Hlebeina, T; Markolin, G; Gössler, W

    1997-01-01

    The practice of sprouting is widely used to improve the nutritional value of grain seeds. Several nutritive factors such as vitamin concentrations and bioavailability of trace elements and minerals increase during germination. The objective of this work was to study the enrichment of various essential trace elements during germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds in order to improve their nutritional role as a source of bioavailable trace elements. Seeds were sprouted either in distilled- or tap-water and in five different electrolyte solutions to investigate the concentration-dependent uptake. The time-dependence was investigated by analyzing aliquots of the sprouts after certain germination periods. Samples were analyzed after freeze drying for their Li, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, As and Se concentrations with inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a control for possible changes in the biochemical metabolism of the sprouts, the biosynthesis of vitamin C was also determined by using reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC. It was shown that quinoa was the most resistant to the applied electrolyte solutions and had the highest uptake rates for almost all elements, followed by buckwheat and wheat. Greatest increases were observed for Co, Sr, and Li. No significant changes in vitamin C biosynthesis were observed between sprouts grown in different electrolyte solutions. The time-dependent uptake for most elements was characterized by a significant absorption during soaking of the seeds, followed by a lag phase during the first day of germination and an increased uptake during the second and third day. Se and As showed distinctly different uptake behaviors.

  14. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A.; Cruz T, E. De la

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R 1 10, 94, 20R 3 33, 20R 2 27, 20R 3 42 and 20R 3 7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R 3 33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R 3 33, 20R 3 42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  15. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M. Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person −1 day −1 ) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person −1 day −1

  16. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  17. THE ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaf of Chenopodium ambrosides, a Nigeria traditional medicinal plant, has been evaluated for its analgesic potential in mice. The analgesic potential of the plant extract was studied using the thermal (hot plate) test. The plant extract was found effective at the dose of 0.4g/kg and 0.8g/kg in elevating ...

  18. Quinoa Starch Characteristics and Their Correlations with the Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of Cooked Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-10-01

    Starch characteristics significantly influence the functionality and end-use quality of cereals and pseudo-cereals. This study examined the composition and properties of starch from 11 pure varieties and 2 commercial samples of quinoa in relationship to the texture of cooked quinoa. Nearly all starch properties and characteristics differed among these samples. Results showed that total starch content of seeds ranged from 53.2 to 75.1 g/100 g apparent amylose content ranged from 2.7% to 16.9%; total amylose ranged from 4.7% to 17.3%; and the degree of amylose-lipid complex ranged from 3.4% to 43.3%. Amylose leaching ranged from 31 mg/100 g starch in "Japanese Strain" to 862 mg/100 g starch in "49ALC." "Japanese Strain" starch also exhibited the highest water solubility (4.5%) and the lowest swelling power (17). α-Amylase activity in "1ESP," "Col.#6197," "Japanese Strain," "QQ63," "Yellow Commercial," and "Red Commercial" (0.03 to 0.09 CU) were significantly lower than the levels of the other quinoa samples (0.20 to 1.16 CU). Additionally, gel texture, thermal properties, and pasting properties of quinoa starches were investigated. Lastly, correlation analysis showed that the quinoa samples with higher amylose content tended to yield harder, stickier, more cohesive, more gummy, and more chewy texture after cooking. A higher degree of amylose-lipid complex and amylose leaching were associated with softer and less chewy cooked quinoa TPA texture. Higher starch enthalpy correlated with firmer, more adhesive, more cohesive, and chewier texture. In sum, starch plays a significant role in the texture of cooked quinoa. The research determined starch characteristics among a diverse set of pure quinoa varieties and commercial samples, and identified the relationships between starch properties and cooked quinoa texture. The results can help breeders and food manufacturers to understand better the relationships among quinoa starch characteristics, cooked quinoa texture, and

  19. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S.; Torquato, Alex S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto, E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Nilson E. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  20. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P.; Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  1. Improved quinoa growth, physiological response, and seed nutritional quality in three soils having different stresses by the application of acidified biochar and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Shan, Lin; Anjum, Shazia; Khan, Waqas-Ud-Din; Ronggui, Hu; Iqbal, Muhammad; Virk, Zaheer Abbas; Kausar, Salma

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a traditional Andean agronomical resilient seed crop having immense significance in terms of high nutritional qualities and its tolerance against various abiotic stresses. However, finite work has been executed to evaluate the growth, physiological, chemical, biochemical, antioxidant properties, and mineral nutrients bioavailability of quinoa under abiotic stresses. Depending on the consistency in the stability of pH, intended rate of S was selected from four rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% S) for the acidification of biochar and compost in the presence of Thiobacillus thiooxidans by pH value of 4. All three soils were amended with 1% (w/w) acidified biochar (BC A ) and compost (CO A ). Results revealed that selective plant growth, yield, physiological, chemical and biochemical improved significantly by the application of BC A in all stressed soils. Antioxidants in quinoa fresh leaves increased in the order of control > CO A  > BC A , while reactive oxygen species decreased in the order of control < CO A  < BC A . A significant reduction in anti-nutrients (phytate and polyphenols) was observed in all stressed soils with the application of BC A . Moreover, incorporation of CO A and BC A reduced the pH of rhizosphere soil by 0.4-1.6 units in all stressed soils, while only BC A in bulk soil decreased pH significantly by 0.3 units. These results demonstrate that BC A was more effective than CO A to enhance the bioavailability, translocation of essential nutrients from the soil to plant and their enhanced bioavailability in the seed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Technological Progress and Productivity in the Quinoa Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Cristóbal Birbuet; Carlos Gustavo Machicado

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this case study is to analyze the effect that a significant technological innovation in quinoa processing has had on the productivity of companies devoted to this activity and the impact of such an innovation on the growth and organization of the quinoa cluster in Bolivia, and its possible effects on the future. The study will explain how the boost engendered by technological innovation in quinoa processing has triggered a series of events that have allowed the establish...

  3. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Ludena Urquizo Fanny Emma; García Torres Silvia Melissa; Tolonen Tiina; Jaakkola Mari; Grazzia Pena-Niebuhr Maria; von Wright Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia Ritva; Korhonen Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer Carme

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro?ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type?2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, hea...

  4. ESTUDIOS DE ISÓTOPOS ESTABLES EN HUERTAS FAMILIARES ACTUALES DE LA QUEBRADA DE HUMAHUACA (JUJUY, ARGENTINA. SU POTENCIAL APORTE A LOS ESTUDIOS PALEODIETARIOS DEL NOROESTE ARGENTINO / Stable isotope studies on current home gardens of the Quebrada de ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. Killian Galván

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una propuesta metodológica para la generación de marcos de referencia en los estudios paleodietarios, mediante el análisis de la composición isotópica del carbono y el nitrógeno (?13C y ?15N en arqueología. En particular, nos centraremos en cómo influyen algunas prácticas de cultivo en los valores isotópicos de las plantas procedentes de huertas familiares (siendo las especies escogidas Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus, Chenopodium quinoa y Opuntia ficus-indica, esta última como especie silvestre del área. La metodología propuesta consiste en: el relevamiento de información entre productores locales, la caracterización del suelo en cuanto a sus propiedades químicas (pH, conductividad eléctrica, carbono orgánico y nitratos y la medición isotópica de los vegetales muestreados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, podemos afirmar que al menos en entornos semiáridos, como es el caso de Quebrada de Humahuaca, la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo repercute en los valores ?15N de Zea mays. Si bien no hay una relación lineal entre las variables propuestas y los resultados isotópicos obtenidos, se registró un rango más amplio de valores cuando la calidad del suelo fue menor. AbstractWe present a methodological proposal for the construction of a frame of reference in paleodietary research through the analysis of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes (?13C y ?15N in archaeology. In particular, we focus on the effect of certain harvest practices in the isotopic values of plants from family farms (the species chosen being Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa and Opuntia ficus-indica, this last as a wild plant from the area. The methodology consist in: collection of information among local producers, soil characterization in terms of their chemical properties (Ph, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrate and analysis of isotopic values from

  5. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Aizheng

    Global food security faces the challenges of rapid population growth and shortage of water resources. Drought, heat waves and soil salinity are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climatic changes in many regions of the world, and resulting in yield reduction of many crops. It is hypothesized...... other crops, its productivity declines under severe drought, high salt conditions and harsh climate conditions. Different management approaches including water-saving irrigation methods (such as deficit irrigation, DI and alternate root-zone drying irrigation, ARD), inoculating crop seeds with plant...... growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and priming seed (such as with saponin) were involved to improve drought and salinity stress and climate adaptability in quinoa. During PhD research, the effect of theses strategies on physiological and agronomic characteristics of quinoa were studied in detail....

  6. Eten als de Inca's : Quinoa verovert de wereld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Timmer, R.D.; Loo, van E.N.; Minor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is immens populair. Dit van oorsprong Zuid-Amerikaanse voedselgewas is wereldwijd aan een opmars bezig. Mede dankzij Wageningse veredelaars is er nu ook quinoa uit Frankrijk, Engeland en Duitsland. En binnenkort misschien ook uit Nederland. ‘Dit wordt een beslissend jaar.’

  7. Invloed oogsttijdstip, stikstofbemesting en ras op kwaliteit Quinoa-GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for forage crops which capture nitrogen or use nitrogen very efficiently, both in conventional and organic farming. Research in Denmark has indicated that quinoa whole crop silage (quinoa-WCS) is quite promising as an high yielding forage crop. In this research,

  8. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  9. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  10. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seeds and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.; M. Jimenez-Gasco; Ochoa, J.B.; Backman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Metadata only record As Quinoa production increases in response to growing global demand for the crop, it is necessary to develop improved production practices that will support sustainable production. To that end, this paper examines the ability of the Bacillus species of bacteria to colonize quinoa and to promote quinoa growth, and seeks to identify source of inoculum for Peronospora variabilis, the cause of the quinoa downy mildow disease. Bacillus populations isolated from Pennsylvania...

  11. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludena Urquizo, Fanny Emma; García Torres, Silvia Melissa; Tolonen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Pena-Niebuhr, Maria Grazzia; von Wright, Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, Ritva; Korhonen, Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer, Carme

    2017-05-01

    Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro-ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, healthier and more nutritious food products, a fermented quinoa-based beverage was developed. Two quinoa varieties (Rosada de Huancayo and Pasankalla) were studied. The fermentation process, viscosity, acidity, and metabolic activity during the preparation and storage of the drink were monitored, as well as the preliminary organoleptic acceptability of the product. The drink had viable and stable microbiota during the storage time and the fermentation proved to be mostly homolactic. Both quinoa varieties were suitable as base for fermented products; Pasankalla, however, has the advantage due to higher protein content, lower saponin concentration, and lower loss of viscosity during the fermentation process. These results suggest that the differences between quinoa varieties may have substantial effects on food processes and on the properties of final products. This is a factor that should be taken into account when planning novel products based on this grain.

  12. Quinoa bitterness: causes and solutions for improving product acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Estrella, Diego; Torri, Luisa; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra

    2018-02-27

    Awareness of the several agronomic, environmental, and health benefits of quinoa has led to a constant increase in its production and consumption not only in South America - where it is a native crop - but also in Europe and the United States. However, producing wheat or gluten-free based products enriched with quinoa alters some quality characteristics, including sensory acceptance. Several anti-nutritional factors such as saponins are concentrated in the grain pericarp. These bitter and astringent substances may interfere with the digestion and absorption of various nutrients. Developing processes to decrease or modify the bitterness of quinoa can enhance palatability and thus consumption of quinoa. In addition to the production of sweet varieties of quinoa, other processes have been proposed. Some of them (i.e. washing, pearling and the combination of the two) have a direct effect on saponins, either by solubilisation and/or the mechanical removal of seed layers. Others, such as fermentation or germination, are able to mask the bitterness with aroma compounds and/or sugar formation. This review presents the major sources of the undesirable sensory attributes of quinoa, included bitterness, and various ways of counteracting the negative characteristics of quinoa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The nutritional quality of an infant food from quinoa and its effect on the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, Jenny; de Grijalva, Yolanda; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nair, Baboo M

    2002-03-01

    An infant food product was manufactured by drum drying a pre-cooked slurry of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) flour. The chemical composition shows that the product is a potential source of valuable nutrients, like protein (16%), vitamin E (19 mg/kg), thiamine (0.7 mg/100 g), iron (70 mg/kg), zinc (48 mg/kg) and magnesium (1.8 g/kg), all the values expressed on dry basis, to pre-school children (of 5 years of age). The animal feeding experiments with rats showed a net protein utilisation (NPU) of 68, digestibility (TD) 95 and biological value (BV) 71. The level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the plasma of the children who consumed a supplementary portion of 2 x 100 g of the above infant food product showed an increase after a period of 15 days, while the plasma level of IGF-1 in the children of the control group as well as the reference group did not show any significant increase.

  14. Reduced Tonoplast Fast-Activating and Slow-Activating Channel Activity Is Essential for Conferring Salinity Tolerance in a Facultative Halophyte, Quinoa1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pottosin, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte species implement a “salt-including” strategy, sequestering significant amounts of Na+ to cell vacuoles. This requires a reduction of passive Na+ leak from the vacuole. In this work, we used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to investigate the ability of halophytes to regulate Na+-permeable slow-activating (SV) and fast-activating (FV) tonoplast channels, linking it with Na+ accumulation in mesophyll cells and salt bladders as well as leaf photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Our data indicate that young leaves rely on Na+ exclusion to salt bladders, whereas old ones, possessing far fewer salt bladders, depend almost exclusively on Na+ sequestration to mesophyll vacuoles. Moreover, although old leaves accumulate more Na+, this does not compromise their leaf photochemistry. FV and SV channels are slightly more permeable for K+ than for Na+, and vacuoles in young leaves express less FV current and with a density unchanged in plants subjected to high (400 mm NaCl) salinity. In old leaves, with an intrinsically lower density of the FV current, FV channel density decreases about 2-fold in plants grown under high salinity. In contrast, intrinsic activity of SV channels in vacuoles from young leaves is unchanged under salt stress. In vacuoles of old leaves, however, it is 2- and 7-fold lower in older compared with young leaves in control- and salt-grown plants, respectively. We conclude that the negative control of SV and FV tonoplast channel activity in old leaves reduces Na+ leak, thus enabling efficient sequestration of Na+ to their vacuoles. This enables optimal photosynthetic performance, conferring salinity tolerance in quinoa species. PMID:23624857

  15. Can quinoa, a salt-tolerant Andean crop species, be used for phytoremediation of chromium-polluted soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Cicatelli, Angela; Guarino, Francesco; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Biondi, Stefania; Castiglione, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean halophytic seed crop, exhibits exceptional resistance to salinity, drought, and cold. Consistent with the notion that such a resilient plant is likely to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metals as well and could, therefore, be employed for the clean-up of polluted soil (via phytoextraction or phytostabilization), the species' ability to take up, translocate, and tolerate chromium (CrIII) was investigated in a greenhouse pot experiment. A cultivar adapted to European conditions (cv. Titicaca) was grown on soil spiked with 500 mg kg-1 DW of Cr(NO3)3•9H2O, combined (or not) with 150 mM NaCl, or on soil grown with 150 mM NaCl alone. Plants were grown up to maturity (four months after sowing), and then plant biomass and concentrations of Na, Cr, and other elements (e.g., Fe and P) were evaluated in the plant organs. Soil Cr content (total and available fractions) was analysed at the start of the experiment, one week after the last addition of Cr and/or NaCl, and at the end of the trial. No visible toxic effects were observed under the different culture conditions. Results revealed that Cr was mainly accumulated in roots, while Na+ was translocated to the aerial parts. In order to compare plant stress responses under the different treatments (Cr, NaCl, Cr+NaCl), expression levels of several stress-related genes, together with those of a potential Cr transporter, were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Chenopodium murale in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of drugs has its roots in medicinal plants that appeal researchers to identify new therapeutical entities from plants. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity. The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Chenopodium murale (200 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.001 decrease in paracetamol induced increased levels of liver enzymes (alanin transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These findings were further supported by histopathological investigations by microscope and detection of phytoconstituents having hepatoprotective potential e.g. qurecetin, kaempferol and gallic acid by HPLC. Conclusively aqueous methanolic extract of C. murale possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

  17. Invloed oogsttijdstip, stikstofbemesting en ras op kwaliteit Quinoa-GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    De eenvoudige teelt, groeisnelheid, conservering en opname werden als positief ervaren. Om te onderzoeken in hoeverre de kwaliteit kan worden beonvloed door managementfactoren als oogsttijdstip, bemesting en rassenkeuze is in 2001 het onderzoek met quinoa

  18. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a feeding experiment with the aim to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of wilted grass-clover silage by quinoa whole crop silage on feed intake and milk production and milk composition of dairy cows.

  19. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, A.Z.; Miranda, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN 3 , MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  20. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  1. Quinoa in Bolivia - Food Sovereignty and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovska, Kalina; Yusuf, Ayaann; Viera da Silva, Yasmin; Fredskild Pedersen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Within this project, the main objective is to investigate the effects of the quinoa boom in Bolivia. Most importantly - to examine the understanding, use and implementation of the concept of Food Sovereignty, and the related concept of Food Security, by means of two actors - The Government and the Quinoa Producers. By utilizing a theoretical framework consisting of Food Sovereignty, Food Security, Moral Economy and Globalization, an inductive approach has been taken to research the problem fo...

  2. Detection and incidence of Pernospora variabilis in quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, A.M.; Backman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This poster describes the research undertaken to determine the level of imported quinoa contamination with quinoa downy mildew, caused by Pernospora variabilis, as well as to develop a rapid method of detection by DNA primers. The majority of lots coming from a wide variety of sources were found to have been contaminated with the pathogen, indicating it is more widespread than anticipated. Additionally, DNA primers for P. variabilis were shown to be effective in identifying most cases of cont...

  3. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  4. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  5. Modelo de gestión agrícola de la cadena agroproductiva de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), como herramienta de sostenibilidad de la agricultura familiar en las comunidades del Carmen y San Agustín parroquia de Píntag

    OpenAIRE

    Granja Guerra, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    El Presente proyecto tuvo como objetivo diseñar un Modelo de Gestión para mejorar la cadena agroproductiva de la quinua variedad Tunkahuan como herramienta para la sostenibilidad de la agricultura familiar, en dos comunidades productivas San Agustín y El Carmen, de la parroquia de Píntag. Esta investigación exploratoria-descriptiva, no experimental, y prospectiva estratégica, se la realizó en cuatro fases: diagnóstico de las comunidades, diseño de instrumentos para recolección de información ...

  6. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pflour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  8. EFECTOS DE LA INGESTA DE UN ALIMENTO FUNCIONAL ELABORADO CON QUINOA Y DEL ACIDO ALFA LINOLENICO SOBRE EL DETERIORO QUE PRODUCE EL ESTRES CRONICO EN EL HIPOCAMPO DE RATA

    OpenAIRE

    TERREROS HERNANDEZ, GONZALO BENJAMIN

    2012-01-01

    El estrés es una reacción biológica orientada a restablecer la homeostasis y producir la adaptación a los cambios ambientales. Sin embargo, cuando el estrés se vuelve crónico e incontrolable se producen varios efectos adversos en la salud, los cuales son factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades crónicas con alto impacto social y económico. Un modelo de estudio del estrés psicosocial es el estrés por restricción de movimiento, en el cual las ratas sometidas a este model...

  9. Infected wound healing and antimicrobial effects of Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopdiaceae) and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. (Rubiaceae) are herbal medicinal plants. They are commonly used in Togolese folk medicine to treat skin infections such as infected wounds, dermatoses, and scabies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the wound healing and ...

  10. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Er kan worden geconcludeerd dat quinoa-GPS goed wordt opgenomen maar dat de voederwaarde laag is, hetgeen zich uit in een lagere melk(eiwit)productie. Toekomstig onderzoek zal gericht moeten zijn op verbetering van het eiwitgehalte en de verteerbaarheid met behoud van de goede eigenschappen zoals

  11. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  12. Calling for a reappraisal of the impact of quinoa expansion on agricultural sustainability in the Andean highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Thierry; Alvarez-Flores, R.; Bertero, D.; Cruz, P.; Del Castillo, C.; Joffre, R.; Peredo Parada, S.; Sáez Tonacca, L.

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the environmental and social sustentainability of quinoa in its area of major world production (southern highlands of Bolivia) revived with the acceptance by the United Nations of the Bolivian proposal to declare in 2013 as the Year of the Quinoa. Public debate focused on local impacts of quinoa expansion in the Southern highlands of Bolivia, denouncing several negative impacts of quinoa culture such as land degradation, socioeconomic disrupts and biodiversity loss. However, the...

  13. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v14i10.11. Original Research Article. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells In vitro. Wang Ya-Nan*, Wu Jia-Liang, Ma Dan-Wei, Li Jiao and Zhang Du-Yu. College of Life Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610101, ...

  14. Biological and chemical study of paico (Chenopodium chilense, Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R; Lemus, I; Rivera, P; Erazo, S

    1997-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial portion of Chenopodium chilense Schrad., used in Chilean traditional medicine as a remedy for stomach-ache, has been found to exert the major spasmolytic activity in acetylcholine contracted rat ileum. This extract, with a complex flavonoid patterns on thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, is practically non-toxic both for rats and brine shrimp Artemia salina in acute toxicity test.

  15. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing ...

  17. Characterization of the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase I Gene in Chenopodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglass C. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L. is a relatively under-studied genus that includes the cultivated seed crop quinoa ( Willd.. Quinoa is an allotetraploid (2 = 4 = 36, AABB genomes that is cultivated by subsistence farmers and commercial growers in the Andean regions of South America. Approximately 60% of a quinoa seed is starch, a glucose polymer that is an important carbohydrate energy source in the human diet. Seed starch is normally composed of amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio. The accumulation of the amylose fraction of starch is controlled by a single dominant gene in quinoa, . We report the sequencing and characterization of the gene in 18 accessions of , including Andean quinoa and the related Mesoamerican chenopod domesticate, subsp. Saff. Two distinct homeologs ( and were identified in the tetraploid accessions, and 19 different alleles were identified, including three null mutants—one in an accession of quinoa and two in a waxy landrace of subsp. . Expression analysis of the null mutants revealed that and were both strongly expressed late in seed development. sequences were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships between quinoa and other members of the genus. This study and the discovery of null-mutants will assist in the development of new crops with novel starches.

  18. Molecular dynamics in germinating, endophyte-colonized quinoa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aims The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach. Cellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities of bacteria were assessed biochemically, and cellular movement, biofilm, elicitor and antimicrobial compound synthesis genes sequenced. GyrA-based, cultivation-independent studies provided first insight into endophyte diversity. Results Quinoa seeds and seedlings exhibit remarkably complex and dynamic MAPK activity profiles. Depending on seed origin, variances exist in MAPK patterns and probably also in endophyte assemblages. Mucilage-degrading activities enable endophytes to colonize seed surfaces of a non-host species, chia, without apparent adverse effects. Conclusions Owing to their motility, cell wall-loosening and elicitor-generating abilities, quinoa endophytes have the potential to drive cell expansion, move across cell walls, generate damage-associated molecular patterns and activate MAPKs in their host. Bacteria may thus facilitate rapid germination and confer a primed state directly upon seed rehydration. Transfer into non-native crops appears both desirable and feasible. PMID:29416180

  19. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  20. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  1. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    , and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase...... in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended...

  2. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...... parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity...

  3. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  4. Climate change adaptation: Boosting quinoa production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    In the battle to help developing countries overcome threats from declining food production caused by climate change, one species of edible grain-like crop has caught international attention because of its unique nutritional value. New and improved varieties of quinoa, historically grown in the highlands of South America, will be made available to farmers in mutations adapted to challenging environments in Bolivia and Peru. Increased genetic diversity is the result of the use of nuclear techniques in collaboration with the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), said L. Gomez-Pando, Principal Professor and Head of the Cereals and Native Grains Research programme at the National Agrarian University of La Molina in Peru. “There are 64 mutant lines of quinoa selected by yield potential and quality for the market,” he said. “These mutant lines will be further evaluated and the best lines will be released as new varieties in 2015–2016.”

  5. Cellular and molecular aspects of quinoa leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Rizzo, Axel Joel; Martínez-Tosar, Leandro Julián; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-09-01

    During leaf senescence, degradation of chloroplasts precede to changes in nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles, RuBisCO stability is progressively lost, grana lose their structure, plastidial DNA becomes distorted and degraded, the number of plastoglobuli increases and abundant senescence-associated vesicles containing electronically dense particles emerge from chloroplasts pouring their content into the central vacuole. This study examines quinoa leaf tissues during development and senescence using a range of well-established markers of programmed cell death (PCD), including: morphological changes in nuclei and chloroplasts, degradation of RuBisCO, changes in chlorophyll content, DNA degradation, variations in ploidy levels, and changes in nuclease profiles. TUNEL reaction and DNA electrophoresis demonstrated that DNA fragmentation in nuclei occurs at early senescence, which correlates with induction of specific nucleases. During senescence, metabolic activity is high and nuclei endoreduplicate, peaking at 4C. At this time, TEM images showed some healthy nuclei with condensed chromatin and nucleoli. We have found that DNA fragmentation, induction of senescence-associated nucleases and endoreduplication take place during leaf senescence. This provides a starting point for further research aiming to identify key genes involved in the senescence of quinoa leaves. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Development of novel quinoa-based yoghurt fermented with dextran producer Weissella cibaria MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Jeske, Stephanie; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel beverage fermented with Weissella cibaria MG1 based on aqueous extracts of wholemeal quinoa flour. The protein digestibility of quinoa based-milk was improved by applying complex proteolytic enzymes able to increase protein solubility by 54.58%. The growth and fermentation characteristics of Weissella cibaria MG1, including EPS production at the end of fermentation, were investigated. Fermented wholemeal quinoa milk using MG1 showed high viable cell counts (>10 9 cfu/ml), a pH of 5.16, and significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC, 100%), viscosity (0.57mPas) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amount (40mg/l) than the chemical acidified control. High EPS (dextran) concentration in quinoa milk caused earlier aggregation because more EPS occupy more space, and the chenopodin were forced to interact with each other. Microstructure observation indicated that the network structures of EPS-protein improve the texture of fermented quinoa milk. Overall, Weissella cibaria MG1 showed satisfactory technology properties and great potential for further possible application in the development of high viscosity fermented quinoa milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoperiodic effects on short-pulse 14C assimilation and overall carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns in contrasting quinoa cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding of the range of environmental influence on source-sink relationships in quinoa is important to streamlining future crop improvement and efforts concerning geographic expansion of cultivation areas. In the present study a photoperiod sensitive quinoa cv. 'Achachino' and photo......Further understanding of the range of environmental influence on source-sink relationships in quinoa is important to streamlining future crop improvement and efforts concerning geographic expansion of cultivation areas. In the present study a photoperiod sensitive quinoa cv. 'Achachino...

  8. Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah Desempenho agronômico de quinoa selecionada no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six breeding lines, selected from individual plant progenies of hybrids among varieties Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real, and Salares-Roja, had their agronomic characters evaluated, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil (15º36'S and 47º12'W, 1,000 masl, in randomized complete blocks, on a Ferralsol, previously limed and fertilized. Grain yield was positively associated with plant height, inflorescence length and diameter, and plant cycle. Genetic gain can be attained by selection based in these characters for commercial production of quinoa in tropical regions.Vinte e seis linhagens, selecionadas em progênies de plantas individuais de híbridos entre as variedades Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real e Salares-Roja, foram avaliadas quanto ao desempenho agronômico, em Planaltina, DF, Brasil (15º36'S e 47º12'W, 1.000 m de altitude, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, previamente corrigido e adubado. O rendimento foi associado positivamente com altura de plantas, comprimento e diâmetro da inflorescência e ciclo da planta. Ganho genético pode ser obtido na seleção baseada nessas características, para o cultivo comercial da quinoa em regiões tropicais.

  9. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  10. Influence of quinoa roasting on sensory and physiochemical properties of allergen-free, gluten-free cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is a valuable source of quality protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and micronutrients. The objective of this study was to roast quinoa and characterize it with regard to particle size, proximate, fatty acid, starch digestion, and total phenolics analyses, as well as pasting propert...

  11. PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN GRANOS TRES CULTIVARES DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) SOMETIDOS A TRES TIPOS DE PROCESAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    LARICO VERA, JUAN; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano

    2014-01-01

    Granos perlados de tres cultivares de quinua, Pasankalla, Negra Collana y Salcedo INIA, fueron sometidos a tres procesos de transformación: cocción húmeda /(CH), expandido por explosión (EPE) y cocción por extrusión (CPE). El contenido de ácidos grasos en los productos transformados yen granos perlados no procesados fueron obtenidos con el método de cromatografía de gases. En granos perlados sin procesar, el porcentaje de ácidos grasos saturados fue en promedio 12.93% mientras que los ácidos ...

  12. Quinoa and flaxseed: potential ingredients in the production of bread with functional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Alcântara Santos Calderelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the physicochemical characteristics of quinoa and flaxseed bread. Sensory acceptance, color and texture were also appraised. They showed appropriate balances between their content of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids and low levels of trans fatty acids. Flaxseed bread had larger amounts of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3, as well as a more balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Quinoa bread, on the other hand, had the advantage of presenting smaller contents of saturated fatty acids. With regard to color and texture, quinoa bread had similar characteristics to the flaxseed bread. The quinoa bread was well accepted by the consumers, who expressed high interest in buying it.Grãos de linhaça e quinoa podem oferecer constituintes com efeitos fisiológicos, como os ácidos graxos (ômega-3 e ômega-6, que são importantes na prevenção de algumas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as propriedades físico-químicas dos pães de quinoa e de linhaça. Foram também avaliados a aceitação sensorial, cor e textura. Os dois produtos se destacaram pelo adequado balanço na razão entre concentração de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados pelos saturados e baixos níveis de ácidos graxos trans. O pão de linhaça apresentou maior teor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, ômega-6 e ômega3, bem como razão ômega-6/ômega 3 mais balanceada. O pão de quinoa, por sua vez, ofereceu como vantagens quantidades menores de ácidos graxos saturados. Com relação a cor e textura, verificou-se que o pão de quinoa tinha características semelhantes ao de linhaça. O pão de quinoa apresentou ainda boa aceitação sensorial e elevada intenção de compra pelos consumidores.

  13. Evaluation of the functionality of bread loaves prepared with quinoa flakes through biological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Flach Gewehr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa flakes and bread prepared with the pseudocereal with regard to nutritional aspects by determining chemical composition, content of tocopherols and fatty acid composition as well as to possible beneficial effects in Wistar rats given commercial feed supplemented or not with quinoa flakes and cholesterol. The following parameters were determined: weight gain, food intake, liver weight, fat in liver and lipid profile in blood and liver. The results showed that processing affected the nutritional characteristics of bread because there was a significant increase in dietary fiber content but reduction in soluble fiber. Increased fiber did not influence food intake or weight gain. Regarding fat in liver of rats, the group that consumed bread without quinoa but with cholesterol showed higher lipid content. The addition of quinoa increased significantly the level of all types of tocopherols, especially in the group of animals that consumed 20% quinoa bread, improving the lipid profile both in blood and liver, largely due to a reduction in oxidized LDL.

  14. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    . This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis...... of saponins. GC–MS led to the identification of three main aglycones, oleanolic acid (Ole), hederagenin (Hed), and a phytolaccagenic acid (Phy), while LC–MS enabled characterization of 24 SAPs with varying sugar moieties. Hed was the most abundant aglycone, followed by Phy and Oledepending on the genotype....... Saponin distribution and relative abundances are discussed in the light of genotype provenance and agronomic features. Improved knowledge on the phytochemicals present in quinoa varieties might help in finding valuable and sustainable uses for quinoa SAPs in agroindustry as biopesticides as well...

  15. Quinoa - Adaptive Computational Fluid Dynamics, 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-22

    Quinoa is a set of computational tools that enables research and numerical analysis in fluid dynamics. At this time it remains a test-bed to experiment with various algorithms using fully asynchronous runtime systems. Currently, Quinoa consists of the following tools: (1) Walker, a numerical integrator for systems of stochastic differential equations in time. It is a mathematical tool to analyze and design the behavior of stochastic differential equations. It allows the estimation of arbitrary coupled statistics and probability density functions and is currently used for the design of statistical moment approximations for multiple mixing materials in variable-density turbulence. (2) Inciter, an overdecomposition-aware finite element field solver for partial differential equations using 3D unstructured grids. Inciter is used to research asynchronous mesh-based algorithms and to experiment with coupling asynchronous to bulk-synchronous parallel code. Two planned new features of Inciter, compared to the previous release (LA-CC-16-015), to be implemented in 2017, are (a) a simple Navier-Stokes solver for ideal single-material compressible gases, and (b) solution-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), which enables dynamically concentrating compute resources to regions with interesting physics. Using the NS-AMR problem we plan to explore how to scale such high-load-imbalance simulations, representative of large production multiphysics codes, to very large problems on very large computers using an asynchronous runtime system. (3) RNGTest, a test harness to subject random number generators to stringent statistical tests enabling quantitative ranking with respect to their quality and computational cost. (4) UnitTest, a unit test harness, running hundreds of tests per second, capable of testing serial, synchronous, and asynchronous functions. (5) MeshConv, a mesh file converter that can be used to convert 3D tetrahedron meshes from and to either of the following formats: Gmsh

  16. Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Fernandez, J.A.; Poulsen, H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponin-containing feed additives have shown positive effects on pig performance. Quinoa hull has high saponin content and may be of interest as a feed additive. This study aimed to evaluate quinoa hull meal (QHM) as a feed additive in a pig diet. The effects of QHM were assessed for three dosage...... that consumed 100 or 300 mg/kg SA-QHM. The secretory response to 5-HT was not affected (p = 0.59) by dietary treatments, but the theophylline-induced secretion decreased (p = 0.02) with increasing dietary SA-QHM. The changes in epithelial physiology mea...

  17. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  18. Daily profile of melatonin levels in Chenopodium rubrum L. depends on photoperiod

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Witters, E.; Dongen, W.; Onckelen, H.; Macháčková, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 11 (2001), s. 1491-1493 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * circadian rhythms * melatonin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.018, year: 2001

  19. Regulation of photosynthesis and energy dissipation in triazine-resistant and susceptible Chenopodium album

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwiel, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of the intensive use of herbicides during crop growth, many herbicideresistant biotypes have evolved. One of the first examples is the resistance of Chenopodium album against triazine-type herbicides. About ten years after this discovery, it was

  20. How genome size variation is linked with evolution within Chenopodium sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Lomonosova, M. N.; Habibi, Farzaneh; Lei, Wang; Jellen, E.N.; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, DEC 2016 (2016), s. 18-32 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * genome size evolution * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.123, year: 2016

  1. The effect of humic substances on germination and early growth of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Novák, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2011), s. 470-476 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Chenopodium album * growth stimulation * humic substance * lignite * seed germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  2. Experiments on the extraction and photoconversion of chenopodium chlorophyll protein CP 668

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1966-01-01

    1. 1. The amount of extractable, photoconvertible, protein-chlorophyll complex CP 668 from Chenopodium album leaves was found to be very variable, depending on site and day of leaf collection. 2. 2. Photoconversion of CP 668 into a 740-nm absorbing form probably does not occur in intact leaves;

  3. Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2016), s. 1-22, č. článku e0161063. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * allopolyploidy * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  4. Verkenning haalbaarheid glutenvrije keten : focus op graansoorten amaranth, quinoa en teff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.R.M.; Berg, van den I.; Leeuwen, van M.A.E.; Jukema, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    This report covers an exploratory study into the feasibility of gluten%free chains. This study focuses on amaranth, quinoa and teff grains. Besides the possibilities for the cultivation of these ancient grain varieties in the Netherlands, the con% secutive links of the chain are also described in

  5. The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, María; Conesa, Carlos Manuel; Gil-Gómez, Alejandro; Haros, Claudia Mónika; Pérez-Casas, Miguel Ángel; Briones-Labarca, Vilbett; Bolaños, Luis; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Álvarez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Katherine; Mujica, Ángel; Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality. Thus, aiming to evaluate the effect of the agroecological conditions on the nutritional profile of quinoa seeds we analyzed three quinoa cultivars (Salcedo-INIA, Titicaca and Regalona) at different locations (Spain, Peru and Chile). The results revealed that several nutritional parameters such as the amino acid profile, the protein content, the mineral composition and the phytate amount in the seeds depend on the location and cultivar while other parameters such as saponin or fiber were more stable across locations. Our results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds may be determined by seed's origin and further analysis are needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties.

  6. The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reguera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food’s quality. Thus, aiming to evaluate the effect of the agroecological conditions on the nutritional profile of quinoa seeds we analyzed three quinoa cultivars (Salcedo-INIA, Titicaca and Regalona at different locations (Spain, Peru and Chile. The results revealed that several nutritional parameters such as the amino acid profile, the protein content, the mineral composition and the phytate amount in the seeds depend on the location and cultivar while other parameters such as saponin or fiber were more stable across locations. Our results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds may be determined by seed’s origin and further analysis are needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties.

  7. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  8. Chemical characterization, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Antonela CURTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quinoa can be used as a functional ingredient in food formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on proximate composition, stability during storage, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour at 1, 3 and 5 g 100 mL-1. A product without supplementation was used as control. Products were assessed for moisture, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, total dietary fibre (TDF, ashes and minerals. The pH, acidity and syneresis of yogurts were measured after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage and a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA was carried out. Applying hedonic scale, 102 consumers analyzed the overall acceptability, color, texture, flavor and aroma of yogurts. Supplemented products showed significant higher protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. Hardness and adhesiveness showed a negative association whereas a positive one was found between springiness and cohesiveness. Yogurt is not necessarily the adequate matrix for hauling quinoa compounds since the addition of greater amounts of 1 g 100 mL-1 quinoa flour had undesirable effects on gel stability (syneresis and increases in total acidity and consumer acceptability.

  9. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  10. The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Carlos Manuel; Gil-Gómez, Alejandro; Haros, Claudia Mónika; Pérez-Casas, Miguel Ángel; Briones-Labarca, Vilbett; Bolaños, Luis; Bonilla, Ildefonso; Álvarez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Katherine; Mujica, Ángel; Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food’s quality. Thus, aiming to evaluate the effect of the agroecological conditions on the nutritional profile of quinoa seeds we analyzed three quinoa cultivars (Salcedo-INIA, Titicaca and Regalona) at different locations (Spain, Peru and Chile). The results revealed that several nutritional parameters such as the amino acid profile, the protein content, the mineral composition and the phytate amount in the seeds depend on the location and cultivar while other parameters such as saponin or fiber were more stable across locations. Our results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds may be determined by seed’s origin and further analysis are needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties. PMID:29576944

  11. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects...

  12. The sustainability of quinoa production in Southern Bolivia : from misrepresentations to questionable solutions. Comments on Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390-399)

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Thierry; Bertero, H. D.; Bommel, P.; Bourliaud, J.; Lazo, M. C.; Cortes, G.; Gasselin, P.; Geerts, S.; Joffre, R.; Leger, F.; Avisa, B. M.; Rambal, S.; Rivière, G.; Tichit, M.; Tourrand, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of quinoa production in southern Bolivia, Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390) argues that the booming export market has a negative effect on the environment and on the home consumption of quinoa, thereby leading to an environmental disaster in the region. In view of the scarcity of scientific knowledge on the rapid social and environmental dynamics in the region, we consider that Jacobsens review misrepresents the situation of quinoa production in southern Bo...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Sabrina N; Carneiro, Bruno M; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigated the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour as an option to increase probiotic activity during fermented milk production and storage. Fermented milk products were produced with increasing concentrations of quinoa flour (0, 1, 2, or 3g/100g) and submitted to the following analyses at 1, 14, and 28 d of refrigerated storage: postacidification, bacterial viability, resistance of probiotics to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, and adhesion of probiotics to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The kinetics of acidification were measured during the fermentation process. The time to reach maximum acidification rate, time to reach pH 5.0, and time to reach pH 4.6 (end of fermentation) were similar for all treatments. Adding quinoa flour had no effect on fermentation time; however, it did contribute to postacidification of the fermented milk during storage. Quinoa flour did not affect counts of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage, it did not protect the probiotic strains during simulated GI transit, and it did not have a positive effect on the adhesion of probiotic bacteria to Caco-2 cells in vitro. Additionally, the adhesion of strains to Caco-2 cells decreased during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Although the addition of up to 3% quinoa flour had a neutral effect on probiotic activity, its incorporation to fermented milk can be recommended because it is an ingredient with high nutritive value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Kaempferol Glycoside with Antioxidant Activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides Growing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mosad Ahmed Ghareeb; Amal Mohamed Saad; Allia Mahmoud Abdou; Laila Abdel-Ghany Refahy; Wafaa Sabry Ahmed; Wafaa Sabry Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linn.), and the assessment of the in vitro antioxidant activity of the different extracts and pure isolates. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated via free radical scavenging and Phosphomolybdenum assays. Structure elucidation of pure compounds was achieved via UV, IR, 1H & 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC, spectroscopy. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of the n-butanol fraction ...

  15. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  16. Appliquer à grande échelle la chaîne de valeur du quinoa pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Appliquer à grande échelle la chaîne de valeur du quinoa pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire dans les communautés pauvres/rurales du Maroc. Au Maroc, la pauvreté rurale demeure un problème et l'on s'attend à ce qu'il s'accentue. Les ressources hydriques deviennent de plus en plus rares, une situation qui est ...

  17. In vivo antioxidant activity of methanol extract from quinoa fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masako

    2005-12-01

    Previously, this author reported that the fermentation of quinoa with Rhizopus oligosporeus increased antioxidant activity, and the antioxidant activity of the 80% methanol extract of the fermented quinoa (Q-tempeh) was higher than the other extracts with n-hexane and water in vitro. In this paper, to clarify a beneficial effect of the fermentation of quinoa with R. oligosporus, the antioxidant activity of 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh was investigated in rats ex vivo and in vivo. In the ex vivo experiment, the 80% methanol extract from Q-tempeh increased both activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver, and accelerated the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) in the lung. In rats fed vitamin E-free diets with 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh, the alpha-tocopherol concentration, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value, and activities of GSH-Px and SOD in serum showed a similar concentration to those of the control rats fed a vitamin E-supplemented diet. However, the hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities were higher than those in the control rats. On the other hand, in rats fed a vitamin E-free diet with the 80% methanol extract of quinoa, the serum alpha-tocopherol level was lower, and both TBARS values of serum and liver were higher than those in the control rats. From these results, the 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh was inferred to be an active superoxide scavenger and peroxide reducer in vivo.

  18. Thymol nanoemulsions incorporated in quinoa protein/chitosan edible films; antifungal effect in cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Nancy; Vera, Paola; López, Luis; Yazdani-Pedram, Mehrdad; Tapia, Cristian; Abugoch, Lilian

    2018-04-25

    Thymol nanoemulsions were produced by spontaneous emulsification, ultrasound, and a combination of both methods. The best result in terms of size and polydispersion was spontaneous emulsification where thymol was efficiently encapsulated, the nanoemulsions inhibited Botrytis cinerea at 110 ppm of thymol. A 10% dilution of this nanoemulsion in water was used to prepare quinoa-chitosan films. The film microstructure was porous and heterogeneous. The tensile strength of the film was significantly lower but its mean elongation at break was similar to that of the control film. The water vapour permeability was similar to that of the control film. The effect of nanoemulsion-thymol-quinoa protein/chitosan coating on mould growth in inoculated cherry tomatoes was evaluated. Compared with control samples (tomatoes without coating and those coated with quinoa protein/chitosan), tomatoes with this coating and inoculated with B. cinerea showed a significant decrease in fungal growth after 7 days at 5 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiversity and technological-functional potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented quinoa sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Cocconcelli, P S; Fontana, C; Saavedra, L; Vignolo, G; Hebert, E M

    2016-05-01

    To analyse lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and technological-functional and safety properties of strains present during spontaneous fermented quinoa sourdoughs. Fermentation was performed by daily backslopping at 30°C for 10 days. Autochthonous LAB microbiota was monitored by a biphasic approach combining random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and rRNA gene sequencing with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Identification and intraspecies differentiation allowed to group isolates within nine LAB species belonging to four genera. A succession of LAB species occurred during 10-days backslopping; Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis were detected as dominant species in the consortium. The characterization of 15 representative LAB strains was performed based on the acidifying capacity, starch and protein hydrolysis, γ-aminobutyric acid and exopolysaccharides production, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance. Strains characterization led to the selection of Lact. plantarum CRL1905 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CRL1907 as candidates to be assayed as functional starter culture for the gluten-free (GF) quinoa fermented products. Results on native LAB microbiota present during quinoa sourdough fermentation will allow the selection of strains with appropriate technological properties to be used as a novel functional starter culture for GF-fermented products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE QUINOA COM DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage periods and the number of days to the germination of quinoa seeds. The seeds were obtained from plants cultivated under field conditions in the agricultural year of 2012/2013, in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. The survey was conducted in the Seeds Technology Laboratory, at the State University of West Paraná - UNIOESTE. The treatments consisted of the association between six storage periods (36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days and eight days of germinated seeds counting, kept at 25 °C without photoperiod in four replicates of 100 seeds each. Germinating boxes (Gerbox were used, containing germination paper on which the seeds were disposed. The quinoa seeds germination decreases with storage time increase, which also slows the germination. The count of the number of germinated seeds has to be performed on the eighth day after the assembly of the Standard Germination Test in quinoa.

  1. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Quinoa Flour for Manufacturing Novel Yogurt-Like Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lorusso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1, an exopolysaccharides (EPS-producing (Weissella confusa DSM 20194, and one isolated from quinoa (Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10. During the 20 h of fermentation, W. confusa caused the highest viscosity increase. All the strains had improved concentration of free amino acids and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, polyphenols availability, antioxidant activity (up to 54%, and protein digestibility. The nutritional index (NI was the highest when L. rhamnosus SP1 was used. The starch hydrolysis index in vitro ranged from 52 to 60. During storage at 4 °C, viscosity and water holding capacity decreased with the exception of the beverage fermented with W. confusa, while all the nutritional characteristics remained stable or slightly increased. Sensory analyses showed that beverages had good textural and organoleptic profiles. Besides the well-known positive properties of the raw matrix, fermentation allowed the obtainment of beverages with different features. Due to the nutritional and functional characteristics conferred to the quinoa beverages, the use of the probiotic and EPS-producing strains showed adequate potential for the industrial application.

  3. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-11-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  4. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  5. Cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant paico (chenopodium multifidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; Nigro López, M; López, P; Gratti, A; van Baren, C; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2000-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium multifidum L. (Paico) were determined by addition of the extracts and fractions to human lymphocyte cultures. Toxicity was evaluated by analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic (MI) and replication (RI) indexes. The results showed an increase in CA frequency in cultures exposed to infusion decoction, no modification in the CPK values either in the decoction or in the infusion, and a decrease in the MI of lymphocyte cultures exposed to the decoction. These results suggested genotoxic effects of "Paico" aqueous extracts.

  6. Does cold plasma affect breaking dormancy and seed germination? Study on seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Šerý, M.; Straňák, V.; Špatenka, P.; Tichý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2009), s. 750-754 ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chenopodium album * low-pressure discharge * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2009

  7. Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Nance, Marcelina R; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

    2011-02-01

    In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.7 and 12.4 microg/mL. However, a lower cytotoxicity was displayed by the essential oil extracted from fresh green vegetable material, which was statistically different (P essential oils from C. ambrosioides but did change their cytotoxicity, which should be taken into account in further studies.

  8. Chenopodium murale L., a long-day plant as a model for physiological and biochemical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović, B.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium murale L. genus Chenopodium family Chenopodiaceae is a weedy annual widely distributed in Serbia. This is a long-day plant and an early flowering species. We used culture of intact plants in vitro and antioxidative enzymes detection in order to examine the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 on two key processes during ontogenesis – germination and flowering. Our results showed a sequential expression of antioxidative enzymes during germination. In dry seeds and during early imbibition catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities showed no changes, while peroxidase (POD activity was under the level of delectability. During radicule protrusion CAT and SOD activity increased. Early seedling development correlates with decrease in SOD, increase in CAT and appearance of POD activity. GA3 delayed and synchronized germination. C. murale photoperiodic sensitivity for flowering shows age-dependant oscillatory changes. Glucose and GA3 have cumulative stimulatory effect on its flowering in vitro. The exposure of 2 months old vegetative plants to continuous darkness, in the presence of GA3 in culture media, resulted in flowering. Therefore transferring to darkness canceled photoperiodic control in C.murale and flowering occurred under autonomous mechanism. We suggest C.murale as a suitable model for investigation of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of growth and developmental processes.

  9. Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sha Sha; Feng Hu, Jin; Liu, Zhi Long

    2011-06-01

    In a screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was found to possess strong fumigant activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the constituents were determined by GC-MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay-directed fractionation. Five active compounds [(Z)-ascaridole, 2-carene, ρ-cymene, isoascaridole and α-terpinene] were isolated and identified from the essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides. The LC₅₀ values (fumigation) of the crude essential oils and the active compound (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 3.08 and 0.84 mg L⁻¹ air respectively. The LD₅₀ values (contact toxicity) of the crude essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 2.12 and 0.86 µg g⁻¹ body weight respectively. The findings suggested that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main active constituent, (Z)-ascaridole, may be explored as a natural potential fumigant. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Agglutinating activity of alcohol-soluble proteins from quinoa seed flour in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzi, M; Silano, M; Luchetti, R; Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Pogna, N E

    1999-01-01

    The edible seeds of the quinoa plant contain small quantities of alcohol-soluble protein which, after peptic-tryptic digestion, are unable to agglutinate K562(s) cells. When separated by affinity chromatography on sepharose-6B coupled with mannan, peptic-tryptic digest separated in two fractions. Fraction B peptides (about 1% of total protein) were shown to agglutinate K562(s) cells at a very low concentration, whereas peptides in fraction A and in the mixed fraction A+B were inactive, suggesting that fraction A contains protective peptides that interfere with the agglutinating activity of toxic peptides in fraction B.

  11. Possibilities in the International Trade of Quinoa: An Analysis from the Perspective of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Andrea Cely Torres

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role and importance of the production and marketing of quinoa in the international market, due to the immense possibilities of processing it into finished products and the benefits offered by this crop. In the light of theoretical references such as competitiveness and competitive advantages, it was possible to carry out a descriptive study which evidenced the importance of this issue in exports realized mainly by countries like Bolivia and Peru, and imports from the EU and Asia. Thus, Andean countries could play an important role if they take advantage of their traditions and turn them into business and welfare opportunities for the world population.

  12. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  13. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  14. Eficacia antibacteriana in vitro de marco (Ambrosia arborescens Mill.) y paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) en una formulación cosmética

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Martínez, Marco Vinicio; Paredes Paredes, Erika Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of Ambrosia arborescens Mill. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in a cosmetic formulation. To carry out this investigation, the first step was to perform the quality control of drugs and later, to get the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. by steam distillation and to get the soft extract of Ambrosia arborescens Mill., by percolation. The test of disc diffusion sensitivity was performed by the use of different...

  15. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  16. Assessment of the prebiotic effect of quinoa and amaranth in the human intestinal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni K; Yáñez, Remedios

    2016-09-14

    Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 48 h of incubation, the total SCFAs were 106.5 mM for quinoa and 108.83 mM for amaranth, in line with the decrease in pH. Considerable differences (p < 0.05) were found in certain microbial groups, including Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. Our research suggests that these pseudocereals can have the prebiotic potential and that their intake may improve dysbiosis or maintain the gastrointestinal health through a balanced intestinal microbiota, although additional studies are necessary.

  17. Genetic parameters and productivity of quinoa in western Paraná

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    Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa has been gaining attention because of its nutritional quality, low cholesterol and lack of gluten; in Brazil, the cultivation efforts in the different regions are mainly related to breeding. This study aimed to determine the genetic parameters and evaluate the productivity of the different genotypes of quinoa for detecting genotypes amenable to selection. The experiment was conducted in crop years 2010/11 and 2011/12 in environment 1 and environment 2, respectively. In environment 1, the evaluation of 61 genotypes was performed, and in environment 2, 31 genotypes were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized block with two replications; each plot measured 2.0 x 5.0 m (10 m² and consisted of four rows spaced at 0.45 m. Data collected on the productivity, plant height at maturation and growth cycle were analyzed using an analysis of variance, average tests and estimates of the genetic parameters. The genotypes N24 and N08 were the only genotypes more productive than the other 46 genotypes, with values of productivity of 1446.23 and 1428.93 kg ha-1 and with a growth cycle of 117 and 111 days, respectively. The heritability values determined demonstrate the possibility of genetic gain using joint selection that involves two environments.

  18. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  19. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  20. Death of embryos from 2300-year-old quinoa seeds found in an archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Sanguinetti, Agustín; Michieli, Catalina Teresa; Bertero, Héctor Daniel; Maldonado, Sara

    2016-12-01

    In the 1970s, during excavations at Los Morrillos, San Juan, Argentina, quinoa seeds were found within ancient pumpkin crocks protected from the light and high temperatures, and preserved in the very dry conditions of the region. The radiocarbon dates confirmed the age of these seeds at around 2300 years. Sectioning of some of these seeds showed reddish-brown embryos, different from the white embryos of recently harvested quinoa seeds. The ancient seeds did not germinate. The structure of the embryo cells was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy; proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue and periodic acid Schiff staining and fatty acids by gas chromatography. The state of nuclear DNA was investigated by TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, ladder agarose electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Results suggest that, although the embryo tissues contained very low water content, death occurred by a cell death program in which heterochromatin density was dramatically reduced, total DNA was degraded into small fragments of less than 500bp, and some proteins were modified by non-enzymatic glycation, generating Maillard products. Polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased and became fragmented, which could be attributable to the extensive oxidation of the most sensitive species (linolenic and linoleic acids) and associated with a collapse of lipid bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides grown in Cuba against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Montalvo, Ana M; Almanonni, Salah; Scull, Ramón; Miranda, Migdalia; Abreu, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current therapy against leishmaniasis is unsatisfactory. Efficacious and safe new drugs are needed. In this study, we show the leishmanicidal effect of an essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against Leishmania amazonensis. The tested product had a potent inhibitory action against promastigote and amastigote forms, with 50% effective dose values of 3.7 and 4.6 microg/ml, respectively. The essential oil showed a moderate toxicity on macrophages from BALB/c mice. An optimal dose of 30 mg/kg/day was effective when administered during 15 days by intraperitoneal route to BALB/c mice infected experimentally. These studies revealed a potential source for the discovery of novel drugs to combat the leishmaniasis based on the traditional medicine.

  2. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; López, P; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2002-06-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 microg/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed (a) a statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both preparations of Paico, (b) a decrease in MI of both preparations assayed, although no modification in the CPK values either in the infusion or in the decoction was observed. These results suggest a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles.

  3. Potential for rhizofiltration of uranium using hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, Susan; Suseelan, K.N.; Tivarekar, Suchita; Kotwal, S.A.; Mitra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor were developed by genetic transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The stable, transformed root systems demonstrated a high growth rate of 1.5-3. g/g dry weight/day in Murashige and Skoog medium. In the present study, hairy root system was used for removal of uranium from the solution of concentration up to 5000 μM. The results indicated that the hairy roots could remove uranium from the aqueous solution within a short period of incubation. B. juncea could take up 20-23% of uranium from the solution containing up to 5000 μM, when calculated on g/g dry weight basis. C. amaranticolor showed a slow and steady trend in taking up uranium, with 13 uptake from the solution of 5000 μM concentration. Root growth was not affected up to 500 μM of uranium nitrate over a period of 10 days

  4. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lianet Monzote; Ana Margarita Montalvo; Ramón Scull; Migdalia Miranda; Juan Abreu

    2007-01-01

    To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...

  6. Příprava těstovin s různým podílem merlíkové mouky a jejich kvalitativní hodnocení

    OpenAIRE

    BIGASOVÁ, Věra

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a very nutritionally valuable crop with versatility. The aim of this work was a practical experiment to test the possibility of pasta production with different proportions of quinoa flour and evaluate their selected qualitative properties. The thesis includes also photos of pasta production and the results of questionnaires summarizing the views of consumers on pasta containing quinoa flour. We can advise to use of quinoa flour up to 30% share for the production...

  7. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Monzote,Lianet; Montalvo,Ana Margarita; Scull,Ramón; Miranda,Migdalia; Abreu,Juan

    2007-01-01

    To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...

  8. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yong-Han; Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cel...

  9. Effects of herbicides on 14CO2 fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) and Chenopodium album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Guenther, G.

    1979-01-01

    10 -4 - 10 -6 molar solutions of herbicides (atrazine, 2,4-D, desmetryne, diallate, diquat, feuron, lenacil, NaTa, paraquat, phenmedipham, prometryne, propham, pyrazone, and simazine) cause similar inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album and Beta vulgaris. Correlatdion between inhibition and herbicide resistance of the whole plants could be realized for lenacil only

  10. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  11. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  12. Perda de pressão estática em uma coluna de grãos de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana T. da S. Gratão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos do fluxo de ar sobre a queda da pressão estática em massa granular de quinoa, cultivar Real, com diferentes teores de impurezas; ajustar os modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais obtidos e selecionar o modelo que melhor represente o fenômeno. Inicialmente, o produto estava isento de impurezas e com teor de água de 17% base seco. Foram feitas adições de impurezas nos percentuais de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5. Utilizando-se um equipamento devidamente projetado e construído e fluxos de ar variando de 0,1 a 0,4 m³ s-1 m-2, foram determinadas as pressões estáticas da quinoa limpa e com impurezas. Os dados experimentais de perda de carga foram ajustados às equações comumente utilizadas para descrever o fenômeno. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: a a pressão estática em uma coluna com grãos de quinoa aumenta com o incremento de fluxo de ar; b O aumento do nível de impureza provocou redução da queda de pressão estática; c As equações que melhor representam os dados experimentais da queda de pressão no interior do leito com grãos de quinoa, sem e com impurezas, foram as equações de Shedd e de Guimarães, respectivamente.

  13. Comparison of different extraction methods to determine free and bound forms of B-group vitamins in quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälvin, Kristel; Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Paalme, Toomas

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of free and bound forms of B-group vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6) was quantified in quinoa seeds using LC-MS-TOF combined with a stable isotope dilution assay. The effectiveness of liberating thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine from the food matrix and cofactors was evaluated for a variety of extraction conditions, including the addition of enzymes. Phosphatase and protease inhibitors, as well as ultrafiltration, were evaluated for their ability to suppress vitamer liberation via enzymes endogenous to quinoa. Cold extraction, together with a mixture of phosphatase and protease inhibitors, is identified as the most efficient treatment to prevent the conversion of cofactors into simple vitamers. Overnight incubation at 37 °C both with and without additional hydrolytic enzyme preparations containing phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity was almost equally effective in releasing the bound forms of the vitamers. This indicates that the endogenous enzymes within quinoa seeds have high activity. β-Glucosidase should be used when the total pyridoxine content is to be determined, and thermal treatment followed by enzymatic treatment with phosphatase activity is recommended to liberate the bound forms of pyridoxal prior to quantification.

  14. Effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on different varieties of quinoa. I. Effects on morphology under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, M.L.; Prado, F.E.; González, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet UV-B (UVB) on different varieties of quinoa. I. Effects on morphology under controlled conditions. The effects of UV-B radiation (RUV-B) on growth parameters: plant height (H), stem diameter (SD), length x wide (LW), leaf number (LN), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific leaf mass (SLM) of five quinoa varieties are described. RUV-B effects were different according to analyzed variety and parameter. The H was increased in CICA (P ≤ 0,04) and Robura (P ≤ 0,02) varieties, while SD was increased in CICA (P ≤ 0,0002) and Faro Roja (P ≤ 0,017) varieties. The LW changed significantly in CICA (P ≤ 0,05) variety only. The LN showed positive changes in all quinoa varieties exposed to RUV-B. Highest changes were found in Faro Roja (P ≤ 0,003), CICA (P ≤ 0,003) and Ratuqui (P ≤ 0,015) varieties. The SLM positively changed in Faro Roja, Kancolla and Robura varieties (P ≤ 0,05). The CICA variety showed significant increases in all evaluated parameters, followed by Faro Roja and Robura varieties. Less parameter changes occurred in Kancolla and Ratuqui varieties. The observed changes were discussed in terms of adaptive evolution. (authors) [es

  15. Procesos de deterioro y mecanismos de protección y reparación involucrados en la pérdida diferencial de la viabilidad durante el almacenamiento en semillas de Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    OpenAIRE

    Castellión, Martina Laura

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió el deterioro producido durante el almacenamiento en semillas de seis cultivares de quínoa, originarios de dos regiones altamente contrastantes. Se evaluó la longevidad de las semillas y se aplicó la ecuación de la viabilidad de Ellis y Roberts (1980a). Aunque el cv. Chadmo mostró mayor longevidad que los demás cultivares estudiados, no se detectó una clara asociación entre la longevidad y las características de las regiones de origen de los cultivares. Se determinaron tiempos de re...

  16. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and main components: activity against Leishmania, their mitochondria and other microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Pastor, Jacinta; Gil, Lizette; Scull, Ramón; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Gille, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an aromatic herb used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. The aim of this work is to compare the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from C. ambrosioides and its major components (ascaridole, carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide) and study their mechanism of action and activity against a panel of microorganism. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the EO and major components was study. In addition, experiments to elucidate the mechanism of action were perform and activities against other microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and protozoa) were evaluate. All products were active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania. Ascaridole exhibited the better antileishmanial activity and the EO the highest selectivity index. The exploration of the mechanism suggests that the products cause a breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and a modification of redox indexes. Only EO showed antiprotozoal effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei; while no activity against bacteria and fungi was observed. Our results demonstrate the potentialities of EO in cellular and molecular system, which could be consider in future studies to develop new antileishmanial drugs with a wide anti-parasitic spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis

  18. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Scull, Ramón; Miranda, Migdalia; Abreu, Juan

    2007-01-01

    To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.

  19. Emission of Trimethylamine from Chenopodium vulvaria - first results from quantifiying plant emissions of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Neftel, Albrecht; Jörg, Sintermann; Derstroff, Bettina; Sauvage, Carina; Bohley, Katharina; Kadereit, Gudrun; Williams, Jonathan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Amines comprise a wide range of nitrogenous organic compounds such as aliphatic methylamines MA. TMA is the most common amine species emitted by various sources and the most abundant amine in the atmosphere (Ge et al., 2011a). Additionally, TMA has been found to be the dominant amine species in the gas-phase compared to MMA and DMA at agriculture sites (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). On the global scale, the knowledge about the fluxes of most amines is limited (Ge et al., 2011a). Furthermore, terrestrial vegetation is also assumed to be a potential source for amines (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). There are a few studies from the end of the 19th century until 1975, which described high amount of MA-emission from certain plant species, which was associated with their plant tissues or with blossoms during flowering (Smith, 1971). Despite the low atmospheric concentration of amines (DMA = 0.5 ppb (Okita, 1970), TMA = 0.6 -1.6 ppb (Fujii and Kitai, 1987)), previous studies have already shown that amines play an important role in the New aerosol Particle Formation (NPF) (Almeida et al., 2013, and summarized in Sintermann and Neftel, 2015). In the atmosphere, NPF occurs frequently from gas-phase precursors. High uncertainty exists in the estimation of the global secondary aerosols budget, which was cause to the uncertain contribution of the gas-phase precursors to the NPF (Spracklen et al., 2011). It becomes more clearly that instead of binary systems of sulfuric acid and water, ternary system of sulfuric acid, water and a neutralizing compound as NH3 or amines is a key system in NPF (Almeida et al., 2013, Kurten et al., 2014). Despite their low atmospheric concentrations amines may play, at least locally, a crucial role in aerosol formation. In this study, we focus on the plant species chenopodium vulvaria, which is well known as a strong TMA-emitter (Dessaignes, 1856). But TMA emission rates from that plant species was not determined systematically up to now. In this study, we

  20. Germination behaviour of seeds from herbicide treated plants of Chenopodium album L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The carry-over effect of sub-lethal herbicides was investigated on the germination of seeds collected from surviving Chenopodium album plants, which had received 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 doses of either pre-emergence ioxynil or post-emergence bentazone in a previous onion (Allium cepa crop. Seeds were also collected from surviving C. album plants, which had received 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of either pre-emergence pendimethalin, propachlor and linuron, or 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of post-emergence ioxynil or linuron in a previous leek (Allium porrum crop. Seeds of surviving plants were collected and tested for germination at temperature of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C. The effect of different temperatures on the total number of germinated seeds was significant. Germination was minimum at low temperatures (5°C or 10°C. Herbicides did not show any effect on germination of C. album and resulted in the same final germination percentage as seeds collected from the unsprayed control plots.Avaliou-se o efeito residual de doses sub-letais de herbicidas sobre a germinação de sementes de plantas de Chenopodium album sobreviventes em uma cultura prévia de cebola (Allium cepa, que recebeu 2x, 3x, 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de ioxynil em pré-emergência ou bentazone em pós-emergência. As sementes foram também coletadas de plantas de C. album sobreviventes de um campo de alho-porró (Allium porrum que havia sido tratado com 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de pendimethalin, propachlor e linuron em pré-emergência, ou ainda 2x, 3x, 1/4, 1/2 ou a dose recomendada de ioxynil ou linuron em pós-emergência. As sementes destas plantas sobreviventes foram coletadas e testadas quanto à germinação a temperaturas de 5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C e 25°C. Verificou-se que o efeito das temperaturas na germinação destas sementes foi significativa. A germinação foi mínima a baixas temperaturas (5°C e 10°C. Os herbicidas n

  1. Effects of temporally biased watering on the nitrogen response of Chenopodium album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Hozumi, Yumi

    2017-07-01

    Plant growth responses to an increasing N deposition are stimulated by an increase in annual precipitation, but such a stimulation has not always been found. We hypothesized that the effect of precipitation on plant N responses can change with temporally biased precipitation: a plant N response will be suppressed when precipitation is lower in the late growing period because larger plants are more susceptible to water limitations. We grew Chenopodium album under a high and low N application level with three watering patterns while maintaining the total supplied watering amount during the experimental period: constant watering, low watering in the first period and high watering in the latter period, and high watering in the first period and low watering in the latter period. The watering pattern did not affect plant dry mass under low N conditions. The plant dry mass under high N conditions was reduced by low watering in the first period, but the reduction was fully compensated in the subsequent high watering period by the stimulation of photosynthesis. Low watering following high watering under high N conditions did not suppress plant growth, but partial leaf wilting was observed at the end of the experimental period. Finally, at the end of the experiment, the response of plant dry mass to N was not different among the watering patterns. We concluded that a plant's response to increasing N deposition could be affected by temporally biased precipitation, depending on the scale of the precipitation bias and the ability of the plant to compensate or mitigate growth inhibition due to a water deficit. Precipitation deficits later in the growing period may be more detrimental to plant growth and can reduce plant responses to an increasing N deposition.

  2. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  3. Desenvolvimento e produtividade de quinoa semeada em diferentes datas no período safrinha Development and productivity of quinoa sown on different dates the during off-season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Soares de Vasconcelos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de Quinoa variedade BRS-Piabiru semeada em diferentes datas dentro do período safrinha, em Campo Mourão, PR. Foram avaliadas seis datas de semeadura, a saber: 18/03/08, 02/04/08, 17/04/08, 02/05/08, 17/05/08 e 10/06/08. Os índices da cultura avaliados foram número de dias para a floração; número de dias para a maturação; altura das plantas na maturação e produtividade. O experimento foi realizado no delineamento experimental em blocos completos com os tratamentos ao acaso e em quatro repetições. Os resultados indicam que a data de semeadura teve influência no número de dias para a floração; número de dias para a maturação; altura das plantas na maturação e produtividade. A maior altura de plantas juntamente à maior produtividade de quinoa foram obtidas em 18 de março.This work was carried out with the aim of evaluating the development and productivity of the BRS-Piabiru variety of quinoa when sown on different dates during the off-season at Campo Mourao, PR. Six sowing dates were evaluated, namely: March 18, 2008; April 2, 2008; April 17, 2008; May 2, 2008; May 17, 2008; and June 10, 2008. The culture indices evaluated were the number of days to flowering, the number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, and productivity. The experiment was conducted in a complete-block design with random treatments and four replications. The results indicate that the seeding date had an influence on the number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, and productivity. The greatest plant height, together with the highest productivity for quinoa were obtained on March 18.

  4. Physical properties and microstructural changes during soaking of individual corn and quinoa breakfast flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Wenceslao T; de la Llera, Andrés A; Condori, Juan L; Aguilera, José M

    2011-04-01

    The importance of breakfast cereal flakes (BCF) in Western diets deserves an understanding of changes in their mechanical properties and microstructure that occur during soaking in a liquid (that is, milk or water) prior to consumption. The maximum rupture force (RF) of 2 types of breakfast flaked products (BFP)--corn flakes (CF) and quinoa flakes (QF)--were measured directly while immersed in milk with 2% of fat content (milk 2%) or distilled water for different periods of time between 5 and 300 s. Under similar soaking conditions, QF presented higher RF values than CF. Soaked flakes were freeze-dried and their cross section and surface examined by scanning electron microscopy. Three consecutive periods (fast, gradual, and slow reduction of RF) were associated with changes in the microstructure of flakes. These changes were more pronounced in distilled water than in milk 2%, probably because the fat and other solids in milk become deposited on the flakes' surface hindering liquid infiltration. Structural and textural modifications were primarily ascribable to the plasticizing effect of water that softened the carbohydrate/protein matrix, inducing partial collapse of the porous structure and eventually disintegration of the whole piece through deep cracks.

  5. Ancestral Andean grain quinoa as source of lactic acid bacteria capable to degrade phytate and produce B-group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Silvana L; Montes de Oca, Cecilia E; Laiño, Jonathan E; Suarez, Nadia E; Vignolo, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Rollán, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota of quinoa grains (QG) and spontaneous sourdough (QSS) was evaluated. Different strains of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum (7), L. rhamnosus (5), L. sakei (1), Pediococcus (Ped.) pentosaceus (9), Leuconostoc (Leuc.) mesenteroides (1), Enterococcus (E.) casseliflavus (2), E. mundtii (3), E. hirae (1), E. gallinarum (12), Enterococcus sp. (1), and E. hermanniensis (2) were isolated, identified and characterized. Only four strains isolated from QSS and eight strains isolated from QG showed amylolytic activity. L. plantarum CRL 1973 and CRL 1970, L. rhamnosus CRL 1972 and L. sakei CRL 1978 produced elevated concentrations of folate with strain CRL 1973 producing the highest concentration (143±6ng/ml). L. rhamnosus, isolated from QSS, was the LAB species that produced the most elevated concentrations of total riboflavin (>270ng/ml) with strain CRL 1963 producing the highest amounts (360±10ng/ml). Phytase activity, evaluated in forty-four LAB strains from quinoa, was predominantly detected in L. rhamnosus and Enterococci strains with the highest activities observed in E. mundtii CRL 2007 (957±25U/ml) followed by E. casseliflavus CRL 1988 (684±38U/ml), Leuc. mesenteroides CRL 2012 (617±38U/ml) and L. rhamnosus CRL 1983 (606±79U/ml). In conclusion, this study shows that a diverse LAB microbiota is present in quinoa with important properties; these microorganisms could be used as potential starter cultures to increase the nutritional and functional properties of Andean grains based foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A darklight transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2014), s. 2137-2146 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0300; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * CONSTANS-like * flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  7. Higher concentration of QB-nonreducing photosystem II centers in triazine-resistant Chenopodium album plants as revealed by analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plants resistant to triazine-type herbicides are known to be altered in their photosystem II reaction center. Serine at site 264 in D1 protein is replaced by glycine. The measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence excitations with a variable number of saturating flashes in Chenopodium album plants

  8. Is hybridization involved in the evolution of the Chenopodium album aggregate? An analysis based on chromosome counts and genome size estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Trávníček, Pavel; Paštová, Ladislava; Kořínková, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 7 (2012), s. 530-540 ISSN 0367-2530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * hybridization * polyploidization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.716, year: 2012

  9. Produção de cervejas com teor reduzido de etanol, contendo quinoa malteada como adjunto

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Henrique Hendges

    2014-01-01

    A legislação brasileira permite a substituição parcial do malte de cevada por adjuntos, malteados ou não, para produção de cervejas. Esses adjuntos proporcionam redução de custos de produção e a obtenção de bebidas com diferentes características sensoriais. A proposta deste trabalho foi a de produzir uma bebida com teor reduzido de etanol, utilizando quinoa malteada como adjunto. Foram avaliadas três linhagens de levedura, duas comerciais, S-23 e W-3470 (Fermentis - França) e uma do banco de ...

  10. La difficile prise en compte des inégalités socio-économiques par le commerce équitable: le cas du quinoa andin

    OpenAIRE

    Carimentrand, Aurélie

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that fair trade schemes in the quinoa market of south Bolivia are not an effective instrument to reduce social inequalities. Beyond the façade of fair trade marks and labels, the reality of Bolivia points to an important way in which customer expectations are disappointed.

  11. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids compounds from Chenopodium hybridum L. stem with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hu, H. B.; Wang, C. L.; Ma, S. R.; Zhang, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from the stem of Chenopodium hybridum L.(C.hybridum L.) was investigated in this paper. Significant technological parameters were screened and optimized by using Plackett-Burman (PB) design, Steepest ascent method and Box-Behnken (BB) design, respectively. A mathematical model with high correlation coefficient (R2=0.9896) was developed and showed good consistency between the experimental and predicted values. The optimum conditions for UAE were obtained by res- ponse surface methodology (RSM) as follows: volumn fraction of ethanol 76.62 %, extractive temperature 78.69°C, and liquid to solid ratio 58.43 for 30 min. Under these conditions, total flavo- noid content (TFC) of 9.4701 mg RE/100g were gained and it was closely related with predi- cted value (9.4640 mg RE/100g) and indicated the suitability of the developed model.

  13. Effect of oral treatment with the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, caused by Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Linares, Ramón; Scull, Ramón

    2009-10-01

    The aromatic herb Chenopodium ambrosioides is widely known for its antiparasitic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the antileishmanial effect of Chenopodium oil administered by the oral route at different doses and to compare its action to conventional, clinically used drugs. BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mg/kg of the essential oil for 15 days. A second experiment was performed to compare the antileishmanial effect of Chenopodium oil with glucantime (28 mg/kg), amphotericin B (1 mg/kg), and pentamidine (4 mg/kg), which were administered daily over 15 days by the intraperitoneal route. Statistically significant differences were observed between BALB/c mice treated with all the doses of the product compared with untreated animals and the mice treated with the vehicle. A dose of 150 mg/kg was the most effective and no macroscopic toxic effects were observed. The size of lesion showed a linear correlation at each point (R > 0.8322), with a 50% effective concentration of 51.4 mg/kg. At 150 mg/kg, the essential oil showed better activity compared with animals treated with glucantime, amphotericin B, and pentamidine. C. ambrosioides caused a promising therapeutic effect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis, which could be explored to develop a new alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Aceitabilidade e valor nutricional de chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de formular chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa (9% em substituição ao chocolate e avaliar a aceitabilidade (aceitação global, aparência e intenção de compra e o valor nutricional das formulações. Todos os chocolates, exceto o chocolate enriquecido com linhaça, foram considerados aceitos e apresentaram bons níveis de intenção de compra. Os chocolates apresentaram altos teores de fibras alimentares (27 a 40 g/100 g, e menor valor energético (385 a 413 kcal/100 g comparados a chocolates amargos convencionais contendo amêndoas (7 a 11 g de fibras alimentares /100 g e 500 a 550 kcal/100 g, constituindo uma alternativa mais saudável para os consumidores.

  15. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  16. ISOTERMAS E CALOR ISOSTÉRICO DE ADSORÇÃO DA ÁGUA DO AMIDO DE QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO PUMACAHUA RAMOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A quinoa possui mais de 60% de amido, sendo uma alternativa de extração e comercialização. Para isto é necessário conhecer o comportamento do amido frente à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as isotermas de adsorção do amido de quinoa em cinco temperaturas (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60ºC e dez atividades de água (0,036 a 0,907. Os pontos experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos matemáticos GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg e Ferro-Foltan. Foram determinadas as energias de ativação da adsorção da água pelas constantes do modelo GAB e o calor isostérico pelo modelo de Peleg. As isotermas mostraram ser do tipo II na classificação de Brunauer. Os teores de água da monocamada (Xm determinados pelo modelo de GAB variaram de 7,90% a 10,38% base seca (b.s. para temperaturas de 60 e 20°C e as energias de ativação obtidas pelas constantes Xm, C e K do modelo de GAB foram de 300; 160 e 6 kJ/kg, respectivamente. O calor isostérico de adsorção foi de 3732 kJ/kg para umidade de equilíbrio de 0,5% b.s. e diminuiu com o aumento da umidade até valor próximo ao calor latente de vaporização da água pura a 36% b.s. As propriedades determinadas são características de amidos com elevado teor de amilopectina.

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Mele, G.; Pulvento, C.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content provides valuable information about physiological status of plants; it is directly linked to photosynthetic potential and primary production. In vitro assessment by wet chemical extraction is the standard method for leaf chlorophyll determination. This measurement is expe...... of foliar chlorophyll content and had a lower amount of noise in the whole range of chlorophyll studied compared with SPAD and other leaf image processing based models when applied to quinoa and amaranth....... components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided...

  18. Análisis estadístico exploratorio de dos tipos de secado de quinua

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Reinoso, Angel Patricio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo “Análisis Estadístico Exploratorio de dos Tipos de Secado de Quinua” permite realizar una validación estadística del tipo de secador que posea una alta eficiencia, rendimiento en el secado de este tipo de cereal (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Para el efecto se empleó el secador de bandejas y un secador solar tipo invernadero, el experimento se llevó a cabo con tres tipos de muestras, una con cascara y las otras escarificadas. La quinua fue sometida a un secado ...

  19. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  20. Study on infestation levels and spatial distributions of Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum in corn field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elmira mohamad vand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For increasing the effectiveness of weed management and more understanding of weed population dynamics, spatial distribution needs to more attentions. Infestation levels and spatial distributions of Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum were studied in four 10x30 m corn fields. N-fertilizer was applied in two method of whole application at the time of corn planting (T1 and T2 and equal split application at the time of corn planting and at six-leaf stage (T3 and T4. One of either fields with the same method of N-fertilizer application, received herbicide too (T1 and T3. Weeds Samples were taken four times at the intersection of 2.5m square grids with 23days interval. The first sample was taken June 24, before top-dressing and herbicide application in related plots. For studying weed spatial distribution, the parameters of appropriate semivariogram model were calculated and weed contour maps were constructed by using kriging. The weed semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models, over four sampling times and fields and spatial autocorrelation during growing season, was moderate to strong. In early growing season, Amaranthus blitoides was the dominant weed species in all fields, but lower density was recorded for Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum. At the first sampling time, mean density of A. blitoides and S. nigrum in fields with split application of N-fertilizer was respectively more- and less than fields with whole application of N-fertilizer. In the case of C. album an evident difference wasn’t observed. Herbicide application in related plots considerably reduced the density of three mentioned species; however density never became zero. In the majority of cases the lack of herbicide application causes to increase in population density at the second sampling time. Spatial structure was observed in all three species and study on contour maps confirmed the existence of patches that the density was high in their

  1. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.

  2. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae) against Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Xiang; Zhao, Kun; Chu, Sha Sha; Liu, Zhi Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three main active ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults. Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluate contact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method. Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z)-ascaridole (29.7%), isoascaridole (13.0%), ρ-cymene (12.7%) and piperitone (5.0%). The essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole, isoascaridole and ρ-cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13, 0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds were toxic to male German cockroaches and (Z)-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 μg/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 μg/adult. Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches. PMID:23378965

  3. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL- 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP- 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  4. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Han; Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis ( Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150  μ g/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL-) 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW) were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10-100  μ M) could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  5. Analysis of gene expression by ESTs from suppression subtractive hybridization library in Chenopodium album L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lili; Xu, Dongsheng; You, Tianyu; Li, Xiuming; Yao, Shixiang; Chen, Shasha; Zhao, Juan; Lan, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2011-11-01

    To identify genes expression in Chenopodium album exposed to NaCl stress and screen ESTs related to salt stress, a subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) library of C. album under salt stress was constructed in the present study. Random EST sequencing produced 825 high-quality ESTs with GenBank ID GE746311-GE747007, which had 301 bp of average size and were clustered into 88 contigs and 550 singletons. They were classified into 12 categories according to their function annotations. 635 ESTs (76.97%) showed similarities to gene sequences in the non-redundancy database, while 190 ESTs (23.03%) showed low or no similarities. The transcriptional profiles of 56 ESTs randomly selected from 347 unknown or novel ESTs of SSH library under varying NaCl concentration and at different time points were analyzed. The results indicated that a high proportion of tested ESTs were activated by salt stress. Four in 56 ESTs responded to NaCl were also enhanced in expression level when exposed to ABA and PEG stresses. The above four ESTs were validated by northern blotting which was consistent with the results of RT-PCR. The results suggested that genes corresponded to these ESTs might be involved in stress response or regulation. The complete sequences and detailed function of these ESTs need to be further studied.

  6. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2016), s. 3065-3076 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359; GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rna-seq data * locus-t * ft homologs * functional evolution * floral initiation * reference genome * arabidopsis * protein * quantification * activation * transcriptome * flowering locus t * TERMINAL FLOWER1 gene family * evolution * flowering * gene rearrangement * Amaranthaceae * Chenopodium rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  7. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium Ambrosioides L. Var. Anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de misiones, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, Maria Lorena; Gamboa, Maria Inés

    2016-01-01

    En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la efi cacia de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum (Ka´aré) en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades...

  8. 1606-IJBCS-Article-Sebastien Adjolohoun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Genetic analysis of sexual and apomict. Panicum maximum. Communication to the XIIIth Congress of Genetic. Risi J, Galwey NW. 1989. The pattern of genetic diversity in the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). II. Multivariate methods. Euphytica, 41: 135-145. SAS. 1990. SAS user's guide : SAS STAT,.

  9. Famuwagun & Gbadamosi (12)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    On the functional properties of globulin and albumin protein fractions and flours of African locust beans. J. Food. Chem. 6, 51–65. Ogungbenle, H. N., Oshodi, A. A. and Oladimeji,. M. O. 2009. The proximate and effect of salt applications on some functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour Pak. J. of Nutri.

  10. Modélisation des dynamiques spatiales liées à la culture du quinoa dans le Nord chilien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bazile

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation graphique des dynamiques spatiales permet d’appréhender le rôle joué par le développement de la culture du quinoa au niveau régional et de visualiser les transformations futures. Cette plante cultivée depuis plus de cinq mille ans sur l’Altiplano par les Indiens Aymaras a été redécouverte récemment pour ses qualités nutritionnelles. Elle suscite aujourd’hui de nouveaux enjeux économiques, écologiques et scientifiques, sans oublier l’intérêt du tourisme international friand d’éthique, d’équité et d’authenticité culturelle. Ces nouveaux enjeux se traduisent par des changements de comportements et des mutations spatiales. La représentation graphique des modes d’organisation du territoire au Nord du Chili par la méthode des chorèmes permet de nous représenter les dynamiques spatiales passées et de nous questionner sur les évolutions à venir.

  11. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. (djulis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B Y; Lin, S W; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2017-01-05

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.), a traditional Chinese herb reported to possess vital biological activities. A high yield of phenolic acids and flavonoids was attained by employing 50% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent and shaking in a 60°C water bath for 3h. A total of 8 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were separated and identified within 55min by using a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with detection at 280nm, flow rate at 0.8mL/min, column temperature at 35°C, and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Two internal standards caffeic acid and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids ranged from 11.5±0.8μg/g (caffeoyl-putrescine-derivative (2)) to 1855.3±16.9μg/g (hydroxylphenylacetic acid pentoside), while the flavonoids ranged from 19.93±2.29μg/g (quercetin-3-O-(coumaryl)-rutinoside-pentoside (1)) to 257.3±2.05μg/g (rutin-O-pentoside (2)). A high recovery (89.68-97.20%) and high reproducibility was obtained for both phenolic acids and flavonoids with the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the latter ranging from 0.09-8.22% (intra-day variability) and 0.80-8.48% (inter-day variability). This method may be applied to determination of both phenolic acids and flavonoids in food products and Chinese herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Renzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones

  13. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C.

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  14. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  15. Estudio de factibilidad para la producción de Quinua en las comunidades del cantón Colta, provincia de Chimborazo y propuesta de plan de exportación al mercado francés.

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Romero, María Cristina; Martínez Rodríguez, Andrea Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Colta es una ciudad pionera en el desarrollo agrícola de la quinua, las familias trabajan la tierra como sostén de ingreso de su economía. El objetivo de la investigación es determinar la factibilidad de producción de quinua en las comunidades del cantón exportación al mercado francés. Los resultados alcanzados han sido : TIR de 23% y una VAN de $ 34950,48. Colta is a pioneer in agricultural development of quinoa city , families come together to make land income support of the economy. Th...

  16. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nirup B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration, CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The

  17. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shrabanti; Biswas, Shampa; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Mondal, Nirup B

    2011-07-29

    Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD) have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a) Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b) Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c) Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d) PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e) TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f) Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration), CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. The overall result evolved from the study strengthens the

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants on germination of windgrass [Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv.] and lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Synowiec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, and Urtica dioica containing allelopathic compounds on seed germination in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album and herbicide-resistant windgrass (Apera spica-venti. A Petri-dish experiment was carried out, in which the effects of five concentrations of aqueous extracts on the germination of weeds were assessed for 10 consecutive days. It was found that the dynamics of seed germination are closely related to the type and concentration of aqueous extract of medicinal plants. The 8% U. dioica aqueous extract posed the strongest inhibitory effect, limiting the germination of both lambsquarters and windgrass. Additionally, weed germination was delayed by 12–72 h in the presence of extracts, compared with the control. Summing up, the aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, especially their higher concentrations, pose a desirable inhibiting effect against the germination of lambsquarters and herbicide-resistant windgrass seeds.

  19. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the

  20. Purificação e propriedades do vírus do mosaico do quenopódio Purification and properties of chenopodium mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Silva

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do mosaico do quenopódio foi purificado por meio de centrifugações alternadas de baixa e alta velocidade, complementadas pelo tratamento com clorofórmio e álcool amílico. Foram obtidas preparações altamente ativas, que apresentaram as reações características das proteínas e um espectro de absorção da luz ultravioleta igual ao das nucleoproteínas, e que não apresentavam o fenômeno de anisotropia de fluxo. O sedimento dessas preparações purificadas, obtido na ultracentrífuga, retomado em um pequeno volume de solução de sulfato de amônio 0,2 saturada e guardado a 4°C, produz um grande número de microcristais. As partículas que compõem as preparações examinadas ao microscópio são de aspecto e dimensões bastante uniformes; são "esféricas" e de cerca de 30 milimicros de diâmetro. O material purificado se assemelha ao vírus do mosaico "southern bean", quanto ao aspecto dos cristais, mas os testes de hospedeiros e sorológicos indicaram tratar-se de dois vírus perfeitamente distintos.The Chenopodium mosaic virus was purified by means of alternated low and high speed centrifugations combined with chloroform N-amyl alcohol treatment. Such preparations have a high activity, give positive tests for protein and its ultra-violet absorption spectrum is that of a nucleoprotein solution. They do not show the phenomenon of anisotropy of flow. When examined in the electron microscope they showed to be constituted of "spherical" particles of uniform size having an approximate diameter of 30 mμ.. If a pellet of the purified virus is resuspended in a small volume of 0,2 saturated (NH42 SO4 solution and kept at 4°C for several hours, masses of roughly rhombic crystals are formed. As far as the size of particles and the form of crystals are concerned, the Chenopodium mosaic virus resembles the southern bean mosaic virus. They differ, however, in their host range and are not related serologically.

  1. Antileishmanial activity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main components against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, L; Pastor, J; Scull, R; Gille, L

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used during centuries by native people to treat parasitic diseases. To compare the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from C. ambrosioides and its major components (ascaridole, carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide). Anti-leishmanial effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with the EO, main compounds and artificial mix of pure components by intralesional route at 30 mg/kg every 4 days during 14 days. Diseases progression and parasite burden in infected tissues were determined. EO prevented lesion development compared (p<0.05) with untreated animals and treated with vehicle. In addition, the efficacy of EO was also statistically superior (p<0.05) compared with the glucantime-treated animals. No potential effects were observed with pure components treatment. Mix of pure compounds cause death of animals after 3 days of treatment. Our results demonstrate the superiority of EO against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium-An indicator of large river valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.

  3. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  4. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouam, Marc K.; Payne, Vincent K.; Miégoué, Emile; Tendonkeng, Fernand; Lemoufouet, Jules; Kana, Jean R.; Boukila, Benoit; Pamo, E. Tedonkeng; MNM, Bertine

    2015-01-01

    A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap) and a control (soap without essential oil) with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g) and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g) killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite. PMID:26770829

  5. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc K. Kouam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap and a control (soap without essential oil with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  6. Inhibition of the TetK efflux-pump by the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and α-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus IS-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaverde, Paulo W; Campina, Fábia F; da Cunha, Francisco A B; Crispim, Francidalva D; Figueredo, Fernando G; Lima, Luciene F; Datiane de M Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera; de Matos, Yedda M L S; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Menezes, Irwin R A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Tintino, Saulo R

    2017-11-01

    The use of natural products is crucial to suppress the development of these micro-organisms and to reduce the concentration necessary to inhibit these microrganisms, reducing the toxicity risks also. In this study, the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves and its main constituent α-Terpinene were used in the antibacterial and potentiating activity of antibiotics and ethidium bromide assays, against the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus IS-58, carriers of efflux pumps. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined using a microdilution method. The capacity of the aforementioned was also tested in combination with tetracycline and ethidium bromide, with the aim of improving the activity of the antibacterials. The MIC of the C. ambrosioides L. essential oil and of α-Terpinene were above 1024 μg/mL, comprising a clinically irrelevant value. However, when associated with the antibiotics, the C. ambrosioides L. essential oil, significantly decreased the MIC of tetracycline and ethidium bromide. The efflux pump is the only mechanism the bacteria possesses to reduce the toxicity of ethidium bromide, and thus this reduction in the MIC demonstrates that the C. ambrosioides L. essential oil is an effective option in the inhibition of the efflux pump present in these micro-organisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Construction of a Recombinant Allergen-Producing Probiotic Bacterial Strain: Introduction of a New Line for a Live Oral Vaccine Against Chenopodium album Pollen Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roozbeh Nasiraie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the fields of lactococcal genetics and protein expression. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis is an effective vector for protein expression and can be used as an antigen delivery system. Hence, L. lactis is an ideal candidate for mucosal immunotherapy. Profilin (Che a 2, the major allergen in Chenopodium album, is one of the most important causes of allergic diseases in desert and semi-desert areas, especially in Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait that was cloned and expressed in L. lactis for the first time. Methods: To construct L. lactis that expressed Che a 2, a DNA sequence was cloned and used to transform bacteria. Expression of Che a 2 was analyzed via monitoring of related RNA and protein. Hydrophobicity, adherence to HT-29 cells, antibiotic resistance, resistance to gastrointestinal contents, pH, and bile salt in recombinant and native L. lactis were evaluated. Results: Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that recombinant Che a 2 is expressed as a 32 kDa dimeric protein immunological studies showed it can bind human IgE. Both native and recombinant bacteria were sensitive to low pH and simulated gastric conditions. Bacterial survival was reduced 80-100% after 2 h of exposure to pH 1.5-2. Both native and recombinant bacteria were able to grow in 0.3 and 2% bile salts. After incubation of recombinant L. lactis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices for one and two hours, respectively, cell survival was reduced by 100%. Adhesion capability in both strains was minimal and there were no significant differences in any of our tests between native and recombinant bacteria. Conclusion: Successfully recombinant L. lactis with capability of expression Che a 2 was produced and revealed it is sensitive to gastrointestinal contents.

  8. Potential role of meflquine (antimalarial drug and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Wahab El-Emam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the efficacy of mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban (S. sesban as a combined therapy for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infected mice, and study the parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters of treated mice. Methods: Two groups of male Swiss Albino mice were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The first group untreated served as control. The second group was orally treated with a single dose (200 mg/kg of mefloquine 3 weeks post infection, then subsequently divided into 2 subgroups; the first orally retreated with the plant extracts 1 000 mg/kg of S. sesban followed by 1 250 mg/kg of C. ambrosioides with an 1 h interval, for 2 successive days. The second sub-group was re-treated with the same (dose and method plant extracts after 7 weeks post infection. Results: The results showed that S. mansoni infected mice treated with mefloquine and the plants’ extracts 3 weeks post infection significantly (P < 0.01 reduced the worm burden/ mouse by 95.5% and the few worms recovered from sacrificed mice in this treatment failed to lay ova. Moreover, no worms were recovered from infected mice treated with mefloquine (3 weeks post infection and re-treated by the plant’s extracts at 7 weeks post infection. Also, treatment of infected mice with mefloquine followed by the plants’ extracts either at 3 or 7 weeks post infection ameliorated the activities of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase as well as the hepatic granulomatous lesions compared to infected untreated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that successive treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides and S. sesban could be a promising device in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

  9. Effect of treatment with intranasal corticosteroid and oral antihistamine on cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with allergic rhinitis sensitive to chenopodium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Mousavi, Tahereh; Arshi, Saba; Javahertarash, Naser; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Falak, Reza; Rezaei, Nima; Salekmoghadam, Alireza

    2010-12-01

    Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC) and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a) pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate) and oral antihistamine (Loratadine). PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively). After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10). Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10). This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate) and oral antihistamine (Loratadine) have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  10. Leaf appearance rate and seed yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. as affected by interfering effects of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram mirshekari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of seed production index in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album, leaf appearance and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare under inter-specific competition a factorial experiment was conducted in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran, during 2011-2012. Treatments were weed densities of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter row and its relative emergence times of simultaneously, 10, 20 and 30 days after crop based on randomized complete blocks design in 3 replications. Dormancy in lambsquarters seeds was broken using gibberlic acid. Results indicated that 8th leaf in fennel appeared after 35.4 days. Time to appearance of 12th leaf in 0-4 weed plants per meter row was 50 days, while, in higher weed densities delayed averaged 11.5 days. With decreasing weed density and delaying it,s emergence time fennel seed yield increased. Essential oil yield of fennel reduced 25 mL ha-2, per weed plant. When lambsquarters density decreased and emerged after fennel, it,s seed production index reduced under competition with fennel. In those treatments which lambsquarters plants emerged along with the crop, seeds production weight was 9.8% of total plant weight, while, in other levels of lambsquarters emergence time were 5.8%, 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively. In this study, treatments with higher biomass production in lambsquarters had greater weed seed production per square meter and lower seed yield in fennel, that it could be used for lambsquarters management in fennel fields.

  11. The Effect of Relative Emergence Time and Density of Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. on Corn (Zea mays L. Grain and Biological Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    v Sarabi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the effect of competitive potential of corn (Zea mays, in competition with common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album an experiment was conducted in 2006, at the farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University. In this experiment the effect of relative emergence time of common lambsquarters on single Cross 704 corn yield was studied in different densitis of the weed. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized completed block design with three replications. The emergence time at 3 levels (emergence of the weed 14 days earlier, 7 days earlier and simultaneously with corn was considered as main plots and density of weed at 6 levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 plants m-2 as sub plots. The results showed a decrease in grain and biological yield of corn, as the emergence time of corn delayed in comparison with the emergence time of weed. The maximum yield reduction of 100 and 99% was observed respectively, in the earliest emergence time of common lambsquarters compared to corn and in the highest density of weed (20 plants m-2 where the corn plants were fully shaded by the weed canopy and no ear was produced. The yield loss of corn was higher when the earlier emergence time of weed was occurred in higher weed densities. based on the results of this research it can be concluded that the decrease of competitive potential of corn with increasing the relative emergence time of common lambsquarters was led to significant yield loss of corn crop. While the increase in weed density resulted in corn yield reduction, there was no difference in yield loss in high weed densities. Keywords: Biomass, Competition, Weed interference model, Yield loss

  12. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  13. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Luz Gomez, P.; Jorge Jimenez, D.; Agripina Roldan, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  14. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  15. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  16. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  17. Download this PDF file

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    Chenopodium quinoa (-8°C), the major staple crop of the tropical Andes which is grown at compara- ble altitudes (Jacobsen et al., 2005). Sensitivity of the Ethiopian barley landraces to subfreezing temperatures differentiated best at a test tem- perature of -5°C. A similar observation has been made with other crop cultivars ...

  18. Analysis of the essential oil from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... typhoides] and quinoa [Chenopodium quiona] flours.Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr. 50 (5): 325-331. Purseglove JW (1974). Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons, Longman,. London, pp. 430-435. Russel AD (1991). Mechanisms of bacterial resistance of non- antibiotics: food additives and food pharmaceutical preservatives.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05093-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T304 cqseed Chenopodium quinoa cDNA clone S02... 48 2e-06 3 ( GN101825 ) Sequence 6606 from Patent WO2009037...PvM16_D10 Pistacia male and female panicles Pista... 44 2e-06 2 ( CN782208 ) ES00

  20. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  1. 7 Capillas del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Morgado U.

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available 7 Capillas del Sur es un extracto de la Tesis de Grado del arquitecto Patricio Morgado Uribe "Reconstrucción de las Iglesias del Sur después del terremoto de 1960 por la Escuela de Arquitectura de la UCV. El caso de Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria".

  2. Activity, toxicity and analysis of resistance of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides after intraperitoneal, oral and intralesional administration in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Montalvo, Ana M; Scull, Ramón; Miranda, Migdalia; Abreu, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization has classified the leishmaniasis as a major tropical disease. Current therapy is toxic, expensive and cause several adverse effects. The majority of people in endemic areas of leishmaniasis depend of natural and traditional medicine. This study was developed to examine the activity of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. The infected animals received two cycle of treatment by different routes (intraperitoneal, oral or intralesional route). The intraperitoneal administration of the essential oil at dose of 30 mg/Kg prevented lesion development and decrease the parasite burden. Oral administration retarded the infection in the experimental model compared with untreated mice, although it was less effective that the intraperitoneal route. The administration by intralesional route did not show activity. Intraperitoneal and oral treatment at 30 mg/Kg with the essential oil had better antileishmanial effect that treatment with the reference drug, amphotericin B at 1 mg/Kg. Preliminarily, we examined the toxicity and the resistance after treatment. Signs of toxicity were evident only in the animals treated by intraperitoneal route. No resistance was detected in L. amazonensis isolates obtained from treated mice. These data clearly demonstrated that this natural product could be an alternative for the development of a new drug against cutaneous leishmaniasis based in the ethnomedical information.

  3. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl. Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knauth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml, Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml, and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml. The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 μg/ml; interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 μg/ml and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 μg/ml extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 μg/ml and CC50 = 250 μg/ml, resp.. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 μg/ml and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 μg/ml. In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  4. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  5. Del bit al qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Font, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aquest document pretén donar una visió del desenvolupament dels computadors electrònics i dels components que els han fet possibles. Dintre de les opcions de futur en computació, també intenta donar una visió de les bases en que es fonamenta la computació quàntica.

  6. Sindrome del túnel del carpo

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Gabriela Cristina; Gómez Eslava, Andrés Fernando; González Artunduaga, Eliana Andrea

    2009-01-01

    El Síndrome del Túnel de Carpo (STC) es un atrapamiento del nervio mediano en el túnel del carpo; es más común entre las mujeres y se considera como una enfermedad ocupacional. Su etiología es diversa, comprendiendo causas locales, regionales y sistémicas. Sin embargo, en la práctica clínica esta se desconoce hasta en el 50% de los casos. Sobre su fisiopatología poco se conoce; se proponen tres teorías para explicarla: la compresión, la insuficiencia microvascular y la teoría vibratoria, las ...

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  8. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  9. SULL'ORIGINE DEL ROMBO DEL TUONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    g. zanotelli

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Si interpretano le cause fisiche di due fra le più singolari caratteristichedel rombo del tuono, e cioè la sua lunga persistenza ed iltimbro eminentemente ricco di suoni bassi. Per quanto altri autoriavessero in passato localizzato l'origine di questi fatti in svariate edoccasionali circostanze di ambiente, si è potuto dimostrare teoricamentenel presente lavoro come gli ammassi di goccioline di acqua checostituiscono le formazioni nuvolose esercitino una riflessione selettivasulle onde sonore incidenti: precisamente tale riflessione avviene inmisura apprezzabile solo per le componenti della perturbazione sonora,originata dallo scoppio del fulmine, di frequenza inferiore acerte due frequenze di taglio, proprie, l'ima del fenomeno di alternacondensazione ed evaporazione delle goccioline sotto l'azione delle variazionidi pressione sonora, e l'altra del parziale trascinamento dellegoccioline stesse nel moto dell'onda sonora per effetto della viscositàdell'aria. In base a questi risultati e tenuta anche presente la eventualitàdi più riflessioni successive si giustifica come, a causa dellabassa velocità del suono nell'atmosfera e della relativamente grandedistanza delle nubi, il rumore del tuono possa persistere a lungo; sipuò inoltre prevedere che il timbro sonoro debba farsi sempre piùcupo, via via che il rimbombo si prolunga.

  10. Teleopio del Pueblo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temas trascendentes de este número son Historia del Nuevo Periodismo, Derecho Social a la información y La televisión: Teleopio del pueblo. Se agregan otros como la investigación en el trabajo popular, LA mujer rural , El audiovisual en el Ecuador y Cambios en la comunicación a raíz del NOMIC.

  11. Historia del Nuevo Periodismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temas trascendentes de este número son Historia del Nuevo Periodismo, Derecho Social a la información y La televisión: Teleopio del pueblo. Se agregan otros como la investigación en el trabajo popular, LA mujer rural , El audiovisual en el Ecuador y Cambios en la comunicación a raíz del NOMIC.

  12. Carta del editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Braun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temas trascendentes de este número son Historia del Nuevo Periodismo, Derecho Social a la información y La televisión: Teleopio del pueblo. Se agregan otros como la investigación en el trabajo popular, LA mujer rural , El audiovisual en el Ecuador y Cambios en la comunicación a raíz del NOMIC.

  13. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  14. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  15. del queso edam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FELIPE OSORIO TOBÓN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento reológico y textural del queso Edam fue obtenido mediante pruebas de relajación, creep y análisis de perfil de textura (TPA. Los resultados mostraron que el queso es un material de naturaleza viscoelástica, donde los modelos generalizados de Kelvin y Maxwell resultaron ideales para predecir el comportamiento reológico del producto. Los parámetros texturales tales como la dureza, cohesividad, adhesividad y masticabilidad son dependientes del tiempo de maduración pero no la resortabilidad del producto.

  16. Riesgos laborales en trabajadores del sector informal del Cauca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Muñoz-Caicedo; Pilar Mirely Chois-Lenis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. Un estudio a nivel nacional permitió establecer los riesgos a los cuales estaban expuestos los trabajadores del sector informal del comercio. Sin embargo, no fue incluido el Departamento del Cauca. Objetivo. Describirlos riesgos laborales de las personas ocupadas en el sector informal del comercio, en cinco municipios del departamento del Cauca, durante el 2011. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, desarrollado con 223 sujetos a quienes se les aplicó una encue...

  17. Desenvolvimento de um chocolate meio amargo com maior percentual de proteína

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bordin Schumacher

    2008-01-01

    O chocolate tem apresentado crescente consumo, boa digestibilidade devido a sua composição e tem sido amplamente estudado por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Por outro lado, este alimento possui altos percentuais de carboidratos e gordura e baixo conteúdo de proteínas. Neste contexto, foram desenvolvidas formulações de chocolate meio amargo com objetivo de aumentar o valor protéico deste produto. Para isto foi utilizado o pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild) como adição ao chocolate...

  18. El efecto perverso del simulacro del consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo De Tarso Riccordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los domingos las Redes Globo y S.B.T. retienen entre el 60 y 70% de la audiencia nacional de Brasil. El autor resume la distribución de la pauta publicitaria entre los medios. Los marginados de la economía pueden acceder al consumo a través del simulacro televisivo o de la apropiación violenta. La televisión es uno de los componentes del proceso Deseo-Frustración-Revuelta, que forma parte de la historia urbana contemporánea de Brasil. El acceso casi mágico al producto publicitario, el simulacro del consumo que ofrecen los programas tipo "Silvio Santos" los múltiples sorteos y loterías oficiales y clandestinas, simultáneamente apaciguan y exaltan el deseo de consumir lo inaccesible.

  19. La luz del origen del universo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in 1965. The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary. At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored.En 1965 se descubrió el fondo de radiación de microondas, un eco luminoso de la Gran Explosión (Big Bang. La cantidad de información contenida en esta reliquia del universo primitivo es verdaderamente extraordinaria. En la actualidad los datos más precisos sobre el origen y estructura del universo provienen del estudio de esta luz primigenia, que aún no ha sido explorada en todo su potencial.

  20. Displasias del seno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrade Valderrama

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available En general, las Displasias no se presentan antes de la iniciación del estímulo Gonadal y tienden a desaparecer con el climaterio. Se definen entonces como las afecciones benignas del Seno, de origen endocrino.

  1. Archivo del Duelo

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Photos taken from the Archive of Mourning following the March 11 terrorist attacks El Archivo del Duelo. Creación de un archivo etnográfico de los Atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia HUM2005-03490.

  2. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    'importanza assunta nel romanzo dal piano dell'enunciazione come luogo privilegiato di manifestazione del soggetto quale esperiente una vicenda di maturazione. Il protagonista, qui, non solo si rappresenta in ciò che enuncia e riferisce, ma anche e soprattutto si svela nelle modalità specifiche del proprio discorso...

  3. Cartas del Observatorio N° 2

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Edmon; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Mora, Yaneth

    2011-01-01

    El boletín del OAN, "Cartas del Observatorio", es una pieza de comunicación desarrollada entre el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) y el Área de Comunicación del SPM. El boletín periódico forma parte de los aportes del SPM al Bicentenario de la Independencia (2010) de Colombia. Este segundo número de Cartas del Observatorio, describe la construcción del edificio, el plan museológico por parte del SPM, una de las piezas importante del OAN, la publicación de la infografía y la partici...

  4. La crisi del diritto del lavoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto - L’Autore ripercorre in chiave critica l’evoluzione delle politiche legislative in materia di lavoro, alla luce dell’attuale fase di crisi economico finanziaria. Nell’esaminare i principali interventi normativi attuati da inizio secolo, l’Autore mette in evidenza le scelte di metodo e gli elementi di continuità che accomunano i vari provvedimenti, individuandoli nell’affannosa ricerca del punto di equilibrio tra flessibilità e garantismo. La riflessione si chiude con alcuni interrogativi sulle ultime linee di riforma del mercato del lavoro e con l’auspicio che, anche al cospetto delle imprescindibili ragioni dell’economia, il diritto del lavoro possa continuare a svolgere il proprio tradizionale ruolo di disciplina di tutela della persona.   Abstract - The author analyzes, with a critically oriented approach, the development of the employment law, in the light of the current economic and financial crisis. In examining the main regulatory measures implemented since the beginning of the century, the author highlights the methodological choices and the elements of continuity that unite the various measures, focusing them in a hard research of a point of balance between flexibility and security. The discussion concludes with some questions about the last lines of the reform of the labor market and with the hope that, even in the face of compelling reasons of economy, labor law can continue to play its traditional role of governing the protection of person.

  5. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  6. OBJETIVO DEL DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M. Pérez O.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, también conocidos como los Objetivos del Milenio, constituyeron las metas finales que aprobaron los dirigentes mundiales, 189 jefes de estado y de gobierno en la Cumbre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas celebrada en Nueva York en el año 2000, en la cual los Estados miembros de la organización reafirmaron su compromiso de luchar por un mundo en el que el desarrollo sostenible y la eliminación de la pobreza tuvieran máxima prioridad1 . En la cumbre se definió la Declaración del Milenio, la cual detalla los objetivos, principios, valores, metas y acciones para erradicar la pobreza Mundial hacia el año 2015, todos ellos ratificados con alto interés y acción estratégica de carácter global, como marco para la medición de los progresos en materia de desarrollo.

  7. Co-administration of chenopodium album allergens and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Allergic Rhinitis treated with intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Mousavi, Tahereh; Arshi, Saba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Rezaei, Nima; Salekmoghadam, Alireza

    2011-06-01

    Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic diseases in the developed countries. This study was performed to investigate the effect of CpG-ODN in alteration of T-helper (Th)1/Th2 balance of patients with AR treated with intranasal corticosteroids (INCs) and antihistamines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 patients with AR were isolated before and after 45 days therapy. Cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ) and specific Ch.a IgE in response to CpG co-administration of natural chenopodium album (CpG/Ch.a) or recombinant Ch.a (CpG/rCh.a) allergen were investigated in supernatants.of cultured PBMCs using ELISA Intracellular IL-10 was also assessed in CD4+ cells using flow cytometry. Significant increase in production of IFN-γ and IL-10 and decrease in production of IL-4 were found in supernatants of cultured PBMCs activated with CPG/ch.a and CPG/rch.a. of both CpG/Ch.a and CpG/rCh.a compared to allergens alone, before and after therapy. After therapy, IFN-γ production with CpG/Ch.a was significantly increased in comparison with before (237 vs. 44 pg/ml, p=0.001). IFN-γ and IL-10 production with CpG/rCh.a was significantly increased after therapy compared to before (407.6 vs. 109 pg/ml, p=0.01 for IFN-γ; 171.7 vs. 52.6 pg/ml, p=0.008 for IL-10), whilst IL-4 was significantly decreased (2.1 vs. 5.8 pg/ml, p=0.02). Intracellular IL-10 expression was also significantly increased in response to either CpG/Ch.a or CpG/rCh.a that showed intracellular assay could be more sensitive than ELISA. Also, treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines could enhance this CpG effect, in vitro.

  8. Perspectivas del turismo rural

    OpenAIRE

    Szmulewicz Espinosa, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    El documento plantea las tendencias y modalidades actuales del turismo del turismo rural y las condiciones para su desarrollo en Chile. Propone la Acción por un turismo rural integrado y sustentable y analiza la situación de oferta y demanda actual para identificar los desafíos tácticos del turismo rural y las orientaciones estratégicas que conformen una política concreta de fomento para convocatoria y participación de los actores interesados. Fil: Szmulewicz Espinosa, Pablo. Universidad A...

  9. Los muertos del Floreanismo

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-01-01

    El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del c...

  10. Fractura del ahorcado

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Roig Fabré; Jorge Lerma; Juan Carlos Correa Barrios; Ivón González Varcárcel

    2003-01-01

    Con el nombre de "fractura del ahorcado" se conocen 2 tipos de lesiones del axis de igual apariencia radiológica, de las cuales la más frecuente es la espondilolistesis traumática del axis. Estas lesiones son afecciones relativamente infrecuentes, que crean problemas de manejo a ortopédicos y neurocirujanos por su comportamiento biomecánico particular. Se hace una revisión de la clasificación y fisiopatología de la lesión, y se describen los métodos actuales de diagnóstico por imagen y de tra...

  11. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  12. La muerte del mito

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1990-01-01

    Habría de ser de nuevo John Ford quien sentenciará la defunción del western en cuanto mito, su imposibilidad de construirse en el vacío de la historia. Y habría de ser en uno de los más lúcidos films de la historia del cine: The Man who shot Liberty Valance (El hombre que mató a Liberty Valance, 1962). Todo en este film posee un reverso: un viaje en ferrocarril abre paso al pueblecito de Shinbone. Pero, en el interior del relato, otro emprendido por el antes pionero y ho...

  13. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  14. El asunto del Juno Trader

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la Sentencia del Tribunal Internacional de Derecho del Mar en el asunto del Juno Trader. El trabajo centra sobre todo su atención en el análisis del procedimiento de pronta liberación de buques, así como en lo que hay que entender como 'fianza razonable' en estos casos.

  15. La escritura del Yo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Landaeta Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Si la creación de una imagen fidedigna del mundo fue la condición de la conquista cognitiva y económica de la tierra, las imágenes mediáticas circulan hoy en día a la manera de un montaje que organiza los sujetos como elementos de un territorio. En esta presentación abordaremos el cruce entre estos dos hechos, entre la escritura del mundo y la de los sujetos, a partir de la idea de Fabulación para mostrar otra escritura del mundo y del yo, leyendo textos e imágenes de la Primera buena Corónica y Buen Gobierno de Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala.

  16. Las identidades del dinero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELSO SÁNCHEZ CAPDEQUÍ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo del trabajo se ha pretendido desvelar los momentos sociales y simbólicos que constituyen la extensa biografía del dinero. En ausencia de una racionalidad económica diferenciada, el dinero nace, de forma no deliberada, en el templo bajo la atmósfera sacrificial, comparece en la modernidad como medio técnico que representa la esperanza del individuo propietario en la bonhomía del mercado como elemento pacificador de las costumbres sociales, y arriba a nuestra posmodernidad como fin en sí mismo que, convertido en bit desmaterializado, aspira a no dejar de circular por el nuevo espacio virtual.

  17. Carta del Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    El artículo de fondo busca esclarecer una posible manipulación de la información por parte del gobierno de Aznar sobre el ataque terrorista del 11 de marzo en Madrid, cuál fue la participación de los partidos políticos y cual la reacción del pueblo español. En otro tema se resalta la actividad cumplida por el CIESPAL en sus 45 años de labor. El tema de la lectura y el libro es abordado ante la aparición del e-book. Se habla sobre el ciberperiodismo, la prensa gratuita, las nuevas modalidades ...

  18. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La millonaria contratación del futbolista David Beckham, un fenómeno del mercado, ha provocado cuestionamientos a los que se busca respuesta. Es tema de análisis el por qué el betseller "Harry Potter" ha causado tanta conmoción en la opinión pública. Respecto al periodista cibernético, se señalan los contornos del presente y atisban las posibilidades del futuro de esta nueva profesión. El tratamiento de los mitos de la prensa, los temores de la Ley mordaza venezolana y la brutalidad de los video juegos e Internet son temas de enorme interés. Se comenta las pocas veces que la prensa reflexiona sobre la comunicación corporal y la anorexia.

  19. Los muertos del Floreanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del crimen político un “vicio de nacimiento”. El asesinato del general Antonio José de Sucre, la muerte de los miembros de la sociedad El Quiteño Libre, el homicidio de Juan Otamendi, entre otros, hicieron patente esta característica.

  20. Diario del General Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hernández De Alba

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available El doctor Rafael Martínez Briceño, eminente médico legista y abogado con notables títulos en la cultura colombiana como humanista y bibliófilo de rara erudición, posee una de las bibliotecas privadas más ricas del país, donde están representados en ediciones príncipes o rarísimas, los ingenios del Renacimiento y de la cultura universal del Barroco, así como las más raras ediciones impresas en hispanoamérica a partir del siglo XVI, especialmente relacionadas con las letras neogranadinas y colombianas.