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Sample records for del argon neutro

  1. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon; Compilacion de resultados de secciones eficaces de excitacion para niveles del Argon neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-07-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Ramos, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  3. El envase neutro de los productos de tabaco: una nueva estrategia para el control del tabaquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rey-Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia de que las políticas de control del tabaquismo integrales contribuyen a reducir la prevalencia del tabaquismo, por lo que es necesaria la implementación de las distintas medidas de manera conjunta. El empaquetado y etiquetado neutro del tabaco es una de las medidas recomendadas por el Convenio Marco de Control del Tabaco propuesto por la Organización Mundial de la Salud que contribuye a reducir la demanda de tabaco. En el momento actual, una serie de países están implementando esta medida de envasado neutro de los productos del tabaco, que implica desprender a los envases de los aspectos atractivos y promocionales, conservando el nombre de la marca, el cual debería aparecer en una fuente, tamaño, color y localización estándar en el envase. Australia fue el primer país que incorporó este envase en 2012 y recientemente otros países han aprobado la misma medida. En España, la legislación sobre tabaquismo (de 2005 y 2010 supuso un importante avance en las políticas de control del tabaquismo. La introducción de esta medida en España constituiría el siguiente paso en el desarrollo de una estrategia global para luchar contra este importante problema de salud. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir y presentar de manera estructurada la información disponible sobre el papel que tiene el envase en los productos de tabaco dentro de las estrategias de marketing y comunicación, y describir los potenciales efectos que produce el envase neutro sobre diversos aspectos relacionados con la conducta de fumar.

  4. Study of the active filter for the cancellation of currents of the neutral in three-phase systems; Estudio del filtro activo para la cancelacion de corrientes de neutro en sistemas trifasicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Saldierna, Luis Humberto

    2004-05-15

    operation of the current active filter. Simulations of the current active filter are also included using the PQ and DQ transformation for generation of references. In chapter III the analysis for the selection of the output inducer of the active filter is made, selection of the value of the capacitors of the DC bus, design and construction of the inverter and development of the control stage. Chapter IV presents the experimental results obtained by means of the implementation of a laboratory prototype. Ten different tests with the active filter were made and all the results are shown in the chapter. In chapter V a balance of results is performed; conclusions and other suggestions for future jobs. In Appendix A the blocks diagram of the main program that was generated in the DSP is presented, as well as the one of the control subroutines by hysteresis band and the compensation of the DC bus. Appendix B shows the scaling made for the input and output variables in the DSP. In appendix C the system diagram is presented. This thesis work was developed in the frame of the research project of CONACyT 485100-5-J37670-A Estudio de Inversores Multinivel para Aplicaciones en Filtros Activos de Corriente Trifasicos. [Spanish] La proliferacion de las llamadas cargas no lineales se ha incrementado de manera considerable en los ultimos anos. Dichas cargas generan formas de onda no senoidales en la corriente que consumen, produciendo efectos como bajo factor de potencia, generacion de potencia reactiva y armonicos, por mencionar algunos. Otro problema se presenta cuando existe desbalance de cargas en los sistemas trifasicos con conexion al neutro (conexion en estrella); el desbalance genera circulacion de corrientes a traves del conductor de neutro, las cuales puede llegar a ser de igual o mayor magnitud a las corrientes de fase; estos son problemas que degradan la calidad del suministro y consumo de energia electrica. Soluciones como los filtros pasivos y filtros activos son empleadas

  5. Efecto del argon en películas CNxHy depositadas mediante ECR-CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albella, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride films have been deposited by ECR-CVD, from Ar/CH4/N2 gas mixtures with different methane concentrations. Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA have been used for films characterisation and Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES for plasma analysis. Argon concentration in the gas mixture controls the growth rate as well as the composition of the film. In the proposed model, argon plays a key role in the activation of methane molecules. Also, during the growth of the film, two processes may be considered: i Film formation and ii Etching of the growing surface. Changing the gas mixture composition affects both processes, which results in films with different composition and structure as well as different deposition rates.Se ha estudiado el efecto del argon durante el proceso de CVD asistido por un plasma ECR para la síntesis de películas de nitruro de carbono (CNxHy a partir de mezclas gaseosas Ar/CH4/N2 con diferente contenido de metano. Las películas depositadas han sido analizadas mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (IRS y ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, y el análisis del plasma ha sido realizado utilizando la técnica de espectroscopía de emisión óptica (OES. La velocidad de deposición y la composición de las películas depositadas se encuentran determinadas por la concentración de argon en la mezcla gaseosa. Se propone un modelo, según el cual el argon juega un papel fundamental como activador de las moléculas de metano. El modelo propuesto incluye dos procesos simultáneos durante el crecimiento de las capas : i formación de la capa y ii ataque de la superficie de crecimiento. Según la composición de la mezcla gaseosa se favorece uno u otro proceso, lo que conduce a velocidades de deposición diferentes así como a depósitos con diferente composición y estructura atómica.

  6. Efecto de la aplicación de cuatro ácidos orgánicos y de un detergente neutro sobre la carga microbiana total y Escherichia coli en broza del café costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vargas Aguilar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia de la actividad cafetalera en Costa Rica, existe un gran número de beneficios de café que generan un considerable volumen de residuos contaminantes, como lo son las aguas de desecho, las mieles y la pulpa o broza. En la mayoría de los casos, dichos subproductos son vertidos directamente a los ríos y las tierras superficiales, lo que provoca una gran contaminación, especialmente en las épocas de cosecha. En el beneficio de café, la broza se trata como un desecho, por lo que contamina fuertemente, ya que el interés principal de esta industria no es la broza, sino el grano. Sin embargo, en numerosos estudios se ha demostrado que la broza del café es una fuente de polifenoles que podrían ser aprovechados, de alguna manera en la industria; por lo tanto, la presente investigación evalúa la calidad microbiológica de la broza del café proveniente de un beneficio del Valle Central y el efecto de varios ácidos orgánicos y de un detergente neutro sobre su carga microbiana, para evaluar la posibilidad de que este subproducto tenga un uso alternativo como materia prima para futuros productos alimenticios con valores nutracéuticos.El estudio dio como resultado que solamente dos de los ácidos utilizados disminuyen significativamente la carga microbiana inicial de la broza, pero que, aun así, dicha disminución no cumplió con los niveles establecidos para un producto alimenticio por el Reglamento Técnico Centroamericano (2009, (límite máximo 1000 UFC para la carga microbiana total como recuento total aerobio y

  7. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  8. Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea λ 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a Hɛ es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

  9. Reducción Selectiva de las Corrientes de Neutro en Instalaciones Eléctricas Mediante el Uso de Compensadores Activos Paralelo Selective Reduction of Neutral Currents in Electrical Installations by means of Shunt Active Compensators

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Muñoz; Fernando Villada; Jesús M López

    2013-01-01

    Se usa un compensador activo de potencia paralelo para la reducción de las corrientes que circulan por el neutro en instalaciones eléctricas trifásicas a cuatro hilos. Las corrientes que debe inyectar el compensador activo a la carga son deducidas obteniéndose expresiones para reducir de forma global y selectiva las corrientes del neutro. Se diferencian las corrientes provocadas por cargas lineales desequilibradas y las corrientes provocadas por cargas no lineales. Las corrientes que circulan...

  10. Consumo de fibra em detergente neutro por bovinos em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmann Edenio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN por bovinos em confinamento e os principais fatores que influenciam esta variável, correlacionado-a ao consumo de matéria seca (MS total. Foram avaliados dados publicados na Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia e Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, no período de 1991 e 2000, totalizando 45 trabalhos científicos e 181 médias de tratamentos. O nível de nutrientes digestíveis totais mostrou-se negativamente correlacionado ao nível de FDN nas dietas (r = -0,6006; P0,10. A descrição da relação entre consumo de MS e nível de FDN na dieta foi realizada de forma bifásica, buscando similaridade às curvas propostas por um modelo estático de predição do consumo. A interseção das curvas projetou consumo de FDN (CFDN de 11,93 g/kg PV. No entanto, a avaliação dos CFDN estimados durante a fase atribuída aos controladores físicos do consumo mostrou inconstância, gerando divergência entre os pontos de consumo máximo de MS e FDN, indicando ser a transição entre os mecanismos físicos e fisiológicos, possivelmente, determinada por um intervalo com interação entre mecanismos. A avaliação do CFDN em função do nível de volumosos nas dietas mostrou perfis estáveis em concentrações superiores a 60%, sendo de 13,53 g/kg PV no intervalo de 80 a 100%. Possíveis interações com a fração indigestível da FDN podem ditar a plasticidade do limite diário de CFDN.

  11. El español neutro en los discursos de especialidad: ¿mito, utopía o realidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Izquierdo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo refexiona acerca del español neutro o internacional, a partir del análisis de algunos factores que determinan la confguración actual de este idioma. Así, aun reconociendo las limitaciones y los inconvenientes, se defende su pertinencia, especialmente en el ámbito del español científco, como elemento homogeneizador de determinados usos, que puede facilitar la cohesión del idioma en algunos contextos y, como consecuencia, propiciar su consideración como lengua de prestigio. Además, se plantea cómo podría realizarse su conceptualización. En la conclusión se afirma que esta variedad no es todavía una realidad, pero que podría serlo si los diferentes agentes implicados en la normalización de los discursos de especialidad se pusieran de acuerdo en algunos criterios básicos.

  12. Caracterización de los aceites crudo, neutro y decolorado de la pulpa y cascara de la fruta silvestre Paraqueiba sericea tulasne «Umarí».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasquibol Silva, Nancy A.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude, neutro and blenched oil extracted from pulp and peel of jungle fruit Paraqueiba sericea tulasne «Umarí» were studied. The crude oil was extracted with hexane by the soxhlet method giving a 47.86% yield, a 31.72% yield in neutro oil and a 94.89% yield in blenched oil. Chemical and physical constants were determined. In addition, five methyl esters of fatty acids were quantitatively determined by GLC using DEGS as stationary phase. The results indicated that Umarí oil belongs to a not drying type with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids principaly oleic. The analytical values obtained confirm the convenience of using Umarí oil in food and cosmetic industries.

    Se estudian los aceites crudo, neutro y decolorado del fruto del Umarí. La extracción del aceite crudo se realizó mediante hexano por el método de soxhlet. El rendimiento fue de un 47,86% en aceite crudo, 31,72% en aceite neutro y 94,89% en aceite decolorado. Por métodos analíticos se determinaron constantes químicas y físicas. Además por cromatografía gas-líquido se cuantificaron cinco esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos, usando DEGS como fase estacionaria. Los resultados del estudio indican que el aceite de Umarí corresponde a un aceite del tipo no secante y con alto contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados principalmente oleico. Los índices analíticos obtenidos confirman la conveniencia de usar aceite de Umarí para aplicaciones en alimentos y cosmética.

  13. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a deca-valued representation of neutrosophic information in which are defined the following features: truth, falsity, weak truth, weak falsity, ignorance, contradiction, saturation, neutrality, ambiguity and hesitation. Using these features, there are constructed computing formulas for entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy.

  14. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  15. Thermophysical properties of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  16. Argon in action

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few days, the SPS has been accelerating argon ions, which have started to be sent to the NA61/SHINE experiment. This operating mode, using a new type of ion, required a number of modifications to the accelerator.   Picture 1: a “super-cycle” of the SPS, featuring a proton cycle for the LHC, followed by an argon ion cycle for the North Area. Today, the accelerators are once again juggling particles and even performing completely new tricks. The SPS is supplying beams of argon ions for the first time, at energies never before achieved for this type of beam. They are destined for the NA61/SHINE experiment (see box) located in the North Area, which began receiving the beams on 11 February. Argon ions have a relatively large mass, as they consist of 40 nucleons, so they can be used in a similar way to lead ions. The main difficulty in accelerating them lies in the SPS, where the variation in acceleration frequency is limited. “The SPS was designed for a...

  17. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Patrascu, Vasile

    2017-01-01

    This approach presents a multi-valued representation of the neutrosophic information. It highlights the link between the bifuzzy information and neutrosophic one. The constructed deca-valued structure shows the neutrosophic information complexity. This deca-valued structure led to construction of two new concepts for the neutrosophic information: neutro-entropy and anti-entropy. These two concepts are added to the two existing: entropy and non-entropy. Thus, we obtained the following triad: e...

  18. Los lípidos endonucleares poseen un alto porcentaje de lípidos neutros

    OpenAIRE

    Layerenza, Juan Pablo; García de Bravo, Margarita María; Polo, Mónica Patricia; Sisti, María Susana; Ves Losada, Ana

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la organización de los lípidos neutros nucleares (LN) teniendo en cuenta que representan fuentes alternativas ácidos grasos (AG) y de segundos mensajeros en los sistemas de trasducción de señales nucleares. Con este fin se determinó la composición química y la ubicación nuclear de estos pooles lipídicos.

  19. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  20. Liquid-argon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the viability of liquid-argon calorimetric techniques in the experimental environment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is briefly analyzed. The authors compare the required and achievable energy resolution with benchmark figures obtained using practical instruments. Comments on the desirable (i.e. required) temporal performance are made and compared with the state of the art. Some of the major engineering challenges are listed, for which solutions will have to be developed if such instruments are to find a place in an SSC experimental area

  1. Un sincretismo de género en la esfera de la cuantificación. Los problemas para analizar el "neutro de materia" como género en asturiano

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Álvaro

    2011-01-01

    Álvaro Arias. «Un sincretismo de género en la esfera de la cuantificación. Los problemas para analizar el “neutro de materia” como género en asturiano». El sincretismo en la gramática del español, ed. por Elisabeth Stark y Natascha Pomino. Madrid & Frankfurt: Iberoamericana / Vervuert, 2011, págs. 119-144. ISBN: 978-84-848-9581-7. http://personales.uniovi.es/web/ariasal/

  2. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  3. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  4. Testing a liquid Argon calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Physicists from Karlsruhe test a liquid argon calorimeter in the neutral beam b16 at the PS. The calorimeter was meant to supply some neutral particles identification at the Split-Field Magnet Facility for R416.

  5. Purification of Argon from a Diluted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, D. [Princeton U.; Alton, A.; Back, H. O. [Fermilab; Davis, R. P. [Fermilab; Galbiati, C. [Princeton U.; Hardin, K. L. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Kendziora, C. L. [Fermilab; Loer, B. [Princeton U.; Miner, W. E. [Fermilab; Mosteiro, P. J. [Princeton U.; Pordes, S. H. [Fermilab; Subbarao, P. [Princeton U.

    2012-07-23

    We report on the design, performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon purification that has been constructed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The plant accepts a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen with low argon concentration and is designed to return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. During the commissioning, the distillation column in a continuous mode produced argon 99.9% pure. After running in batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The argon production rate was about 1 kg/day.

  6. [Argon laser trabeculoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, F

    1991-01-01

    There is currently a general consensus to perform argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) onto the 360 degrees of the trabecular ring to obtain the best long term results; but in two sessions a month apart with, during each session, 50 burns of a true 50 mu laser spot on 180 degrees, a 0.1 sec exposure time and a power high enough to create a tiny but visible trabecular reaction on the anterior edge of the posterior trabecular meshwork. During the first three hours after treatment, the main complication is raised intraocular pressure (IOP) which occurs in between 14% and 33% of the cases with a 10 mmHg rise above the initial IOP. In end stage glaucomas, a very close monitoring is mandatory during these first hours. Pretreatment with apraclonidine drops can dramatically reduce this complication. Our results and those of the literature with the same follow-up show that ALT seems effective in phakic chronic open-angle glaucomas (COAG) in half of the cases for about five years with a 10% new failure rate per year. The youngest patients, the aphakic patients and all the cases with trabecular severe disorganisation display the worst results. ALT must be considered to be a physical treatment - initially powerful but with decreasing efficacy in the long term. It should be used in presurgical glaucomas when IOP does not exceed 30 mmHg with intensive medical treatment and in intermediate stages of the disease where it is more effective.

  7. The DarkSide direct dark matter search with liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, E.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Okounkova, M.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-11-01

    The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter detector is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) surrounded by a liquid scintillator neutron veto (LSV) and a water Cerenkov muon veto (WCV). Located under 3800 m.w.e. at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, it is the only direct dark matter experiment currently operating background free. The atmospheric argon target was replaced with argon from underground sources in April, 2015. The level of 39Ar, a β emitter present in atmospheric argon (AAr), has been shown to have been reduced by a factor of (1.4 ± 0.2) x 103. The combined spin-independent WIMP exclusion limit of 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (mχ = 100 GeV/c2) is currently the best limit on a liquid argon target.

  8. O neutro em psicanálise: da técnica à ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Alves de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo retoma a noção de neutralidade proveniente da técnica clínica psicanalítica, confrontando-a com noções próximas, tais como a neutralidade científica e o neutro na semiologia de Barthes. Procuramos demonstrar como tal noção descreve bem a postura analítica, exigida tanto do paciente (associação livre quanto do analista (atenção flutuante, e como ela nasce na prática clínica freudiana, respondendo a problemas decorrentes dela. Assim, abordaremos os temas da hipnose e da sugestão, como também aqueles ligados à contra-transferência. Defenderemos, ainda, que a neutralidade não é apenas questão de técnica, mas é central para o entendimento da própria ética da psicanálise.

  9. DETERMINACIÓN DE CONGÉNERES EN ALCOHOL EXTRA NEUTRO RECTIFICADO EMPLEADO EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE BEBIDAS ALCOHÓLICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO JOSÉ HERNÁNDEZ

    Full Text Available La Norma Técnica Colombiana NTC 4118 establece la presencia de 19 congéneres en bebidas alcohólicas, donde se incluyen ácidos, aldehídos, ésteres y alcoholes superiores. La concentración de estos compuestos debe ser < 80 mg.L-1, para que el producto pueda ser distribuido comercialmente. El aumento en la concentración de éstos compuestos involucra cambios en el aroma, el gusto, y hasta problemas en la salud del consumidor. Se presenta la estandarización y validación de una técnica analítica cromatográfica (GC/FID para la determinación de congéneres en alcohol extra neutro rectificado para la elaboración de bebidas alcohólicas, llevado a cabo en la Industria Licorera del Cauca (I.L.C.. La sensibilidad de la técnica con límites de detección (entre 0,2 y 0,9 mg.L-1 y cuantificación (0,7 y 2,8 mg.L-1, la repetibilidad y precisión intermedia (Shapiro Wilk W(5gl<0,986 y W(12gl <0,979 respectivamente, junto con la linealidad (correlación de Pearson 0,998N=40 y 0,977N=96 permitieron validar la metodología con alta exactitud y con ello obtener resultados con alta precisión sobre la ausencia de congéneres (concentración< LOD y en el caso particular del sec-butil acetato (<80 mg.L-1 el control de calidad y la certeza de un producto en excelentes condiciones.

  10. The DarkSide-50 Experiment: a Liquid Argon Target for Dark Matter Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2017-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment, located at the “Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (INFN)”, is based on low-radioactivity argon double phase time projection chamber, surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto, designed for the zero background achievement. The liquid argon features sufficient self shielding and easy scalability to multi-tons scale. The impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope (compared to the atmospheric argon), along with the excellent pulse shape discrimination, make this technology a possible candidate for the forthcoming generation of multi-ton Dark Matter experiments.

  11. Neutralidad del diálogo y neutralidad política en B. Ackerman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Monserrat, Josep

    2011-01-01

    teoría de diálogo neutro en derecho y en democracia. A continuación se introduce la teoría de la neutralidad del Estado en Carl Schmitt, respetando siempre las enormes diferencias entre ambos autores, como posible elemento esclarecedor, desde la divergencia sustancial, de la teoría del diálogo neutro en...... diálogo. Asimismo, se enfatiza que el concepto de diálogo neutro, tal y como lo establece Ackerman, no es viable en el campo de la política o del derecho, ya que no se está ante una ciencia exacta. En el campo del derecho, cuando dos posiciones se oponen, las partes utilizan todo tipo de argumentaciones...

  12. Localización de faltas en sistemas de distribución de energía eléctrica con neutro puesta a tierra mediante método basado en el modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Corrionero Salinero, Quintín

    2015-01-01

    1) Tema abordado: se trata de definir e implementar un sistema de localización de faltas para redes de distribución de energía eléctrica, con un régimen de neutro puesto a tierra a través de una resistencia limitadora. Un porcentaje elevado del tiempo necesario para reponer una avería en este tipo de redes es la localización de la falta en la línea eléctrica. En muchas ocasiones el propio trazado de la línea a través de una orografía muy montañosa, como el caso de la zona norte de España, y ...

  13. Influences of argon gas shielding on diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy to aluminum; Influencia del argón como gas protector en la difusión durante el proceso de unión de la aleación Ti6Al4V con el aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcaa, A.; Gursela, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a diffusion bonding process of commercially pure aluminum to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Prepared samples were exposed to temperature of 560, 600 and 640 °C for the bonding time of 30, 45 and 60 min at the atmosphere of argon gas and non-argon. Diffusion bonding is a dissimilar metal welding process which can be applied to the materials without causing any physical deformations. The processed samples were also metallographically prepared, optically examined followed by Vickers microhardness test in order to determine joint strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used in this work to investigate the compositional changes in order to observe the influence of atmosphere shielding in the transition zone. The result of tests and analyses were tried to be compared with the effect of argon shielding. The significant influences have been observed in the argon shielding during diffusion bonding process. [Spanish] Este estudio presenta los procesos de difusión durante la unión de aluminio puro con la aleación Ti6Al4V. Se expusieron probetas a las temperaturas de 560, 600 y 640 ºC durante un tiempo de unión de 30, 45 y 60 min en una atmósfera en presencia y ausencia de gas argón. La unión por difusión es un proceso de soldadura entre metales distintos que puede ser aplicado a los materiales sin causar deformaciones físicas. Las probetas procesadas fueron preparadas también metalográficamente, examinadas por miscroscopía óptica, seguido de ensayos de microdureza Vickers para determinar el límite elástico. Se utilizó microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) y espectroscopía de energias dispersivas (EDS) para determinar los cambios en la composición y estudiar la influencia del argón como gas protector en la zona de transición. La influencia más importante se ha observado durante el proceso de difusión en estado sólido.

  14. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  15. Nitrogen and argon doped zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C; Costa, A R G; Cruz, M M; Borges, R P; Godinho, M [Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Da Silva, R C; Alves, L C [Laboratorio de Feixe de Ioes, Departamento Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    In this work argon and nitrogen were implanted into ZnO single crystals in order to compare the influence of these non-magnetic elements in the magnetic and electrical behaviour of zinc oxide. The results indicate that both nitrogen and argon implantations induce magnetic defects in ZnO, although these do not remain stable upon annealing. The comparison between the electrical behaviour of argon and nitrogen implanted crystals indicates that mobile charge carriers exist in the argon implanted sample after annealing, but were not detected in the nitrogen implanted sample.

  16. Dynamics of imploding argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Richardson, R.; Brannon, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Katzenstein, J.

    1982-01-01

    The BLACKJACK 5 pulse generator has been used to implode annular argon plasmas to form dense Z pinches. Visible streak photography, framing photography, and laser shadowgraphy were used to observe the radial position and velocity of the plasmas as they imploded. The measured position and velocity of the imploding plasmas have been compared with the results of calculations based on a one-dimensional snowplow model. Good agreement is obtained between the snowplow calculations and the optical measurements. Empirically determined optimum implosion parameters are also found to agree with those predicted by the model

  17. Continuum radiation of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Yachkov, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple completely analytical method of the calculation of radiative continuum of plasmas is derived and an analysis of experimental data on continuum radiation of argon plasma is made. The method is based on the semiclassical quantum defect theory. To calculate radial matrix elements of dipole transitions the asymptotic expansion in powers of E c /ω 2/3 , with an accuracy to the linear term, where E, is the arithmetic mean of the initial and final energies of the transition, is used. This expansion has the same form for free-free, free-bound and bound-bound transitions. If the quantum defects are also approximated by a linear function of energy, the integration over the electron energy (the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is assumed) can be performed in analytical form. For Rydberg states the sum of photoionization continua can be replaced by an integral. We have calculated the absorption coefficient pf argon plasma. The photoionization cross section is calculated for all the states of 4s, 5s, 6s, 4p, 5p, 3d, 4d, 4s', 5s', 6s', 4p', 5p', 3d' and 4d' configurations taking into account P-coupling and multiplet splitting (56 states). Other excited states are allowed for by the integral formula together with free-free transitions

  18. Costa Rica: una agenda ambiental más allá de carbono neutro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela García Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se hace una sinopsis del concepto y sus implicaciones desde el punto de vista de la economía ecológica, tomando el caso de la agenda ambiental de Costa Rica para hacer una revisión de las acciones gubernamentales encaminadas hacia esta meta de la carbono-neutralidad.

  19. Vascular anastomosis by Argon Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, O.M.; Macruz, R.; Armelin, E.; Brum, J.M.G.; Ribeiro, M.P.; Mnitentog, J.; Verginelli, G.; Pileggi, F.; Zerbini, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four mongrel dogs, wheighing 13 to 24 kilograms were studied. After anesthesia, intubation and controlled ventilation, they were submitted to three types of vascular anastomosis: Group I - eight dogs with saphenous vein inter-carotid arteries by-pass: Group II - eight dogs with left mammary artery - left anterior descending coronary artery by-pass; Group III - eight dogs with venovenous anastomosis. In all groups 0.8 to 15 watts of Argon Laser power was applied to a total time of 90 to 300 seconds. The lower power for venovenous anastomosis and the greater for the arterial ones. The mean valves of resistence of the Laser anastomosis to pressure induced rupture was 730 mmHg in the immediate post operative study, and superior to 2.500 mmHg 30 days after. No signs of occlusion was demonstrated at the anastomosis sites by the angiographic and anathomo-patological study performed. (Author) [pt

  20. Structures of mixed argon-nitrogen clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Serdaroglu, Ertugrul; Flesch, Roman; Rühl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2012-12-07

    The structures of mixed argon-nitrogen clusters of different compositions are investigated by analyzing core level shifts and relative intensities of surface and bulk sites in the Ar 2p(3/2) regime in soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These structures are confirmed by core level shift calculations taking induced dipole interactions into account, in which several model structures of the mixed clusters are considered by Monte Carlo simulations. These results suggest that the mixed argon-nitrogen clusters show partial core-shell structures, where an argon core is partially covered by nitrogen molecules.

  1. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoranova, A.; Zahoran, M.; Bucek, A.; Cernak, M.; Bosko, J.

    2004-01-01

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF 6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF 6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF 6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  2. Argon gas atoms trapping by carbon dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilaev, M. P.; Bogoslov, E. A.; Polskii, Y. E.

    2017-11-01

    The conditions of argon gas atoms trapping by carbon dendrites, which growing in atmospheric pressure gas-discharge plasma, are considered in that paper. It’s showing that the argons atoms trapping by the carbon diamond-like cell can occur in arc gas discharge with current density more than j 0 ∼ 45 mA/sm2 and provided that the eximer molecules of noble gas and carbon atoms (e.g., ArC) can be formed.

  3. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  4. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, P.

    1967-01-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10 13 neutrons/cm 2 sec -1 and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [fr

  5. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  6. Two-photon excitation of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon

  7. Argon isotopes as recorders of magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P. W.; Gardner, J. E.; Mora Chaparro, J. C.; Arce, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Argon isotopic ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow short time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other isotopic methods. A mineral's ability to retain "excess" argon (40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric value and apparent ages older than the known eruption age) during post-eruption cooling is key to Ar studies. Previous work shows that both phenocrysts (crystallizing in the magma chamber; e.g. Mt St. Helens; Layer and Gardner, 2001) and xenocrysts (introduced into the magma chamber; e.g Toba; Gardner et al., 2002) preserve excess argon, which enables magma chamber processes to be deciphered through the variable diffusion rates between crystal phases. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of biotite from the 10.5 ka eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico indicates that they are xenocrystic and resided for only a short (< 1 year) time in the magma before it erupted. The biotite has reaction rims of hornblende, orthopyroxene and plagioclase, and failed to grow experimentally at pressure-temperature conditions of the magma, confirming the xenocrystic nature of this phase. Single-step fusion of plagioclase phenocrysts from eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, shows evidence of excess (mantle) argon, whereas hornblende from the same eruptions contains little or none. In this case, faster diffusion of Ar in plagioclase than in hornblende allow plagioclase to incorporate excess argon during magma recharge; hornblende does not. Combining such results with other isotopic systems may in fact better determine magma chamber processes. At El Chichon, Sr isotopes suggest magma recharges ocurred (Tepley et al., 2000), whereas the argon isotopes suggest such pulses occurred just before each eruption. The fast and

  8. Diffusion of argon (1); cyclohexanol (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) argon; (2) cyclohexanol

  9. Silicon compounds of neon and argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    -, č. 46 (2009), s. 8788-8790 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others:ERC(XE) Adg HORIZOMS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : argon * bond formation * dications * neon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.829, year: 2009

  10. On the primoridal abundance of argon-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, F.; Weber, H.W.; Hintenberger, H.

    1976-01-01

    Argon trapped in graphite-diamond-kamacite inclusions from the Havero ureilite has a 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of (1.4 +- 0.6) x 10 -3 , which is close to the estimated primordial abundance ratio of 2 x 10 -4 . Some implications are discussed

  11. Experience with argon laser trabeculoplasty in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Aim: To report the safety and efficacy of Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) in reducing intraocular pressure. (IOP). Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study performed on 25 eyes of 25 patients. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria for ALT were recruited from the.

  12. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime.

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-36 - Argon or nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Argon or nitrogen. 151.50-36 Section 151.50-36 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-36 Argon or nitrogen. (a) A cargo tank that contains argon or nitrogen and that has a maximum allowable working pressure of 172 kPa (25...

  14. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  15. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter back end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bán, J; Bellachia, F; Blondel, A; Böttcher, S; Clark, A; Colas, Jacques; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dinkespiler, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Escalier, M; Fayard, Lo; Gara, A; He, Y; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hubaut, F; Ionescu, G; Karev, A; Kurchaninov, L; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; La Marra, D; Laplace, S; Le Dortz, O; Léger, A; Liu, T; Martin, D; Matricon, P; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Oberlack, H; Parsons, J A; Pernecker, S; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Repetti, B; Rosselet, L; Riu, I; Schwemling, P; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Strässner, A; Stroynowski, R; Tisserant, S; Unal, G; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Xiang, A; Yang, J; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeters play a central role in the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment. The environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) imposes strong constraints on the detectors readout systems. In order to achieve very high precision measurements, the detector signals are processed at various stages before reaching the Data Acquisition system (DAQ). Signals from the calorimeter cells are received by on-detector Front End Boards (FEB), which sample the incoming pulse every 25ns and digitize it at a trigger rate of up to 75~kHz. Off-detector Read Out Driver (ROD) boards further process the data and send reconstructed quantities to the DAQ while also monitoring the data quality. In this paper, the ATLAS Liquid Argon electronics chain is described first, followed by a detailed description of the off-detector readout system. Finally, the tests performed on the system are summarized.

  16. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  17. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  18. On the OES line-ratio technique in argon and argon-containing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepa, Sarah; Tsankov, Tsanko V; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Danko, Stephan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to investigate capacitively coupled argon and argon–hydrogen–silane plasmas. The argon collisional–radiative model (CRM) used to extract the electron density and temperature from the spectra is presented. The electron energy distribution function, which is an input parameter to the model, is discussed in detail. Its strong variation with pressure is found to significantly influence the results for the (effective) temperature. For the analysis of the spectra the common line-ratio technique is applied. Special attention is paid to the choice of lines and a pair of line-ratios for optimum accuracy is suggested. For the argon gas mixture at high partial pressure of the admixed molecular gases the CRM reduces to a corona-like model, extended by a quenching term. The line-ratio method is found to fail under these conditions due to the strong depopulation of the argon 1s states. As a consequence, individual line intensities have to be used and an absolute calibration is required. An easy calibration method, which relies on the results obtained by the line-ratio method in pure argon, is proposed and applied. (paper)

  19. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripson, P.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  20. [Argon--a biologically active component of atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, N B

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the literary and author's own data denies physiological effects of argon in normobaric normoxic atmosphere that could impact human performance, and embryogenesis of lower vertebrates. In hypoxic atmosphere, argon keeps up the normal oxygen consumption by human and rodent organisms, augments the working ability of humans, and exacerbates the hypoxia-driven depression of lower vertebrates embryogenesis. Potential anti-hypoxia benefits from argon introduction into artificial atmosphere are considered.

  1. Comparison between a radio-frequency and direct current glow discharge in argon by a hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model for electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; W. Goedheer,

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model has been developed for the electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms in an argon glow discharge, either operated in the de mode or the capacitively coupled rf mode. Typical working conditions for rf GD-OES are considered, i.e. approximately 6 torr argon gas pressure

  2. Study of argon-oxygen flowing afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon-oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon-oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  3. Argon laser treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting- Bing Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of the argon laser photocoagulation treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy(CSC. METHODS: The treatment groups: 18 patients(18 eyes, argon laser photocoagulation and oral jolethin, vitamin B1, inosine and venoruton tablets. Control group: 18 patients(18 eyes, oral lecithin complex iodine, vitamin B1, inosine, venoruton tablets. Foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range were measured by optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore treatment, after 1 month and 3 months post-operation to compare the decline in value of foveal thickness and neuroepithelial layer detachment range of the two groups. RESULTS: After 1 month of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 256±72μm; the value of the control group was 82±57μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05; the decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 3 548±168μm, the value of the control group was 1 520±143μm, And the difference of the two groups, P<0.05. After three months of treatment, the decline in value of the center foveal thickness: the value of treatment group was 383±75μm, the value of the control group was 312±67 μm, and the difference of the two groups, P<0.05; decline in value of neuroepithelial layer detachment range: the value of the treatment group was 4 908±172μm, the value of the control group was 4 211±153μm, and the difference of the two groups, P <0.05. The differences were statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups(two independent samples t-test. CONCLUSION:Argon laser photocoagulation treatment of CSC is an effective treatment method and can significantly shorten the course.

  4. Sterile searches with Liquid Argon at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Raselli, Gian Luca

    2017-01-01

    A new Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment is in preparation at FNAL to definitely prove or exclude the existence of non-standard neutrino oscillations into sterile states. The program foresees the deployment along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) of three detectors, all based on the liquid-argon time projection chamber technique. This technology has been taken to full maturity with ICARUS T600, which will act as far detector after the completion of the overhauling at CERN and its transportation to FNAL. The program foresees the data taking for three years.

  5. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  6. POLARIS: Portable Liquid Argon Imaging Scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanyu; Kovacs, Benjamin; Kamp, Nicholas; Aidala, Christine; Polaris Team

    2017-09-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have become widely used in nuclear and particle physics, in particular for detecting neutrinos and in dark matter searches. However, their potential for neutron detection in low-energy nuclear physics has not yet been realized. The University of Michigan has been constructing a hybrid scintillating time projection chamber for detection of neutrons in the 200 keV 10 MeV range. The scintillation material is argon, and various dopants to improve detector efficiency are being explored. With collection of both scintillation light and ionization charge, improved energy resolution for neutrons is expected compared to existing measurement techniques.

  7. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Martin, P; Merkel, B; Puzo, P; Sauvage, D; Wielers, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the neutron facility installed at SARA is to investigate the behavior of various materials to be used in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, when submitted to fast neutron radiation. The samples are placed in a liquid argon cryostat a few cm away from the neutron source. Various pieces of the electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested in order to evaluate the rate of pollution of the liquid and consequently the possible signal loss in energy measurements. The average fluence was equivalent to the maximum expected in the calorimeter in about 10 years. The most striking feature of the results is that the pollution is not due to oxygen, at least for most of it. Using a particular value of the absorption length derived from these data, a simulation was carried out and the energy signal loss in the calorimeter could be predicted. Within the limits of our present knowledge, the conclusion is that damages due to this pollution will not be a problem. (17 refs).

  8. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  9. Estimativa de consumo de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro por vacas leiteiras sob pastejo, suplementadas com diferentes quantidades de alimento concentrado

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,B.M.; Saturnino,H.M.; Borges,A.L.C.C.; Lopes,F.C.F.; Silva,R.R.; Campos,M.M.; Pimenta,M.; Campos,W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Estimou-se o consumo de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro por vacas leiteiras mestiças em pastejo de gramíneas do gênero Brachiaria. Foram utilizadas 24 vacas em lactação, distribuídas em três tratamentos com oito vacas cada, suplementadas com 4, 6 ou 8kg de matéria natural de alimento concentrado/vaca/dia, no momento da ordenha, duas vezes ao dia. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, sendo oito blocos com três vacas em cada um, cada vaca sendo alimentada com um dos t...

  10. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... The residual beam was focussed by a spherical silver mirror. (f = 60 mm) inside a vacuum chamber (2 × 10−11 mbar) onto a supersonic argon jet. The cold target argon gas beam density in the interaction region was estimated to be ∼108 particles/cm3. The reaction volume along the pulse propagation was ...

  11. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in argon generated in parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge ... Keywords. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge; argon glow discharge; electron density; hydrophobicity. PACS No. ... alcohol for 10 min and then dried in air. The effect of the treatment time on the ...

  12. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed

  13. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  14. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  15. Cleaning of diffusion bonding surface by argon ion bombardment treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airu; Ohashi, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Norio; Aoki, Masanori; Higashi, Yasuo; Hitomi, Nobuteru

    2003-05-01

    The specimens of oxygen-free high conductivity copper, SUS304L stainless steel and pure iron were treated by argon ion bombardment and then were bonded by diffusion bonding method. The effects of argon ion bombardment treatment on faying surface morphology, tensile strength of bonding joints and inclusions at the fracture surface were investigated. The results showed that argon ion bombardment treatment was effective to remove the oxide film and contamination at the faying surface and improve the quality of joints. The tensile strength of the bonded joints was improved, and minimum bonding temperature to make the metallic bonding at the interface was lowered by argon ion bombardment treatment. At the joints with argon ion bombardment treatment, ductile fractured surface was seen and the amount of inclusions was obviously decreased.

  16. Photoassociative spectroscopy of ultracold metastable argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, M. K.; Ranjit, G.; Sukenik, C. I.; Walhout, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of photoassociative spectroscopy performed on ultracold metastable argon atoms in a magneto-optical trap. Ion spectra are obtained with laser detuning up to a few gigahertz below the 4s[3/2] 2 →4p[5/2] 3 trapping transition at 811 nm and with intensities in a range of ∼(10 2 -10 5 )I Sat . We also compute dipole-dipole potentials for both singly and doubly excited diatomic molecules and use a Leroy-Bernstein analysis to determine the approximate vibrational spacings in the (s+p) and (p+p) manifolds. Based on this theoretical framework, we explain a broad background feature in our data and suggest that double-excitation mechanisms are likely responsible for sharp dips in the ion signal.

  17. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    degrees C and evidence was found for the solidification of the melt at 380-440 degrees C, i.e. simultaneously with the onset of decomposition. Between 400 degrees C and 520 degrees C (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2) decomposes in two main steps, first into BaCO3 with release of C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone), whereas final......The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  18. Formation of argon-boron bonds in the reactions of BFn+/2+ cations with neutral argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levee, L.; Calogero, C.; Barbieri, E.; Byrne, S.; Donahue, C.; Eisenberg, M.; Hattenbach, S.; Le, J.; Capitani, J. F.; Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 323, 1 Jun (2012), s. 2-7 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) AdG HORIZOMS Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : argon compound * boron fluoride * dication * gas phase reactivity * mass spectrometry * neon compound Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2012

  19. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  20. ArgonCube: a Modular Approach for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors for Near Detector Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Sinclair, JR

    2017-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are an ideal detector candidate for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently under consideration at the future LBNF/DUNE facility in the United States. That particular endeavor would be on the very large mass scale of 40~kt. Following diverse and long standing R\\&D work conducted over several years, with contributions from international collaborators, we propose a novel LAr TPC based on a fully-modular, innovative design, ArgonCube. ArgonCube will demonstrate that LAr TPCs are a viable detector technology for high-energy and high-multiplicity environments, such as the DUNE near detector. Necessary R\\&D work is proceeding along two main pathways; the first, aimed at the demonstration of modular detector design and the second, at the exploration of new signal readout methods. This two-pronged approach has provided a hig...

  1. Transmission of the Neutral Beam Heating Beams at TJ-II; Transmision del Haz de Neutros de Calentamiento en TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Lopez, C.

    2007-09-27

    Neutral beam injection heating has been development for the TJ-II stellarator. The beam has a port-through power between 700-1500 kW and injection energy 40 keV. The sensibility of the injection system to the changes of several parameters is analysed. Beam transmission is limited by losses processes since beam is born into the ions source until is coming into the fusion machine. For the beam transmission optimization several beam diagnostics have been developed. A carbon fiber composite (CFC) target calorimeter has been installed at TJ-II to study in situ the power density distribution of the neutral beams. The thermographic print of the beam can be recorded and analysed in a reliable way due to the highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of the target material. With the combined thermographic and calorimetric measurements it has been possible to determine the power density distribution of the beam. It has been found that a large beam halo is present, which can be explained by the extreme misalignment of the grids. This kind of halo has a deleterious effect on beam transport and must be minimized in order to improve the plasma heating capability of the beams. (Author) 155 refs.

  2. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps. The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read...

  3. Production of readout boards for H1 liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antos, J.; Ban, J.; Ferencei, J.; Kurca, T.; Murin, P.; Seman, M.; Spalek, J.; Stefan, P.

    1990-03-01

    Technical details of the technology used by the Institute of Experimental Physics in Kosice for the production of readout boards for the H1 liquid argon calorimeter are described. (author). 2 figs., 2 refs

  4. Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made

  5. Recurrence Spectroscopy of Autoionizing Rydberg Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Walker, P. A.; Gurian, J. H.; van Lier-Walqui, M.; Lambert, J. M.; Flores-Rueda, H.; Morgan, T. J.

    2004-05-01

    We have extended scaled energy spectroscopy of meta-stable argon to measure Rydberg states above the first ionization limit. Prior measurements [1] showed a principal Rydberg series converging to the ground state of the Ar+ ion. The spectra also showed strong perturbing resonances of the Rydberg electron orbiting an excited ion core. New experiments show that single uv-photon excitation of the meta-stable state can produce strong transitions to doubly excited states above the first ionization limit. In this auto-ionizing regime the electron escapes leaving behind an excited ion core. The excitation creates an electron-hole pair which interacts with the rest of the atom. This three body system provides an opportunity to test extensions of closed orbit theory [2,3] and experimentally probe the classical dynamics using recurrence spectroscopy. Work supported by National Science Foundation. [1] M.L. Keeler, J.D. Wright, H. Flores-Rueda, and T.J. Morgan, J. Phys. B (to be published) [2] B.E. Granger and C.H. Green, PRA 62, 12511 (2000) [3] W. Huang and T.J. Morgan, PRA 65 033409 (2002)

  6. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  7. Simulation of an active filter for compensation of reactive power and suppression of harmonic currents in the phases and in the neuter of an unbalanced three-phase system of 4 wires; Simulacion de un filtro activo para compensacion de potencia reactiva y supresion de corrientes armonicas en las fases y en el neutro de un sistema trifasico de 4 kilos desbalanceado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino Aguilar, Gerardo

    1999-05-01

    conocimiento en filtros activos de potencia usados en los puntos de acoplamiento comun entre las fuentes de C.A. y las cargas no lineales formadas por convertidores estaticos de CA/CD, para la supresion de corrientes armonicas y compensacion instantanea de la potencia reactiva. Partiendo de los filtros activos que solo afectan las tres corrientes balanceadas de los sistemas trifasicos de 3 hilos, se llega al tema de esta tesis, cuyo objetivo es resolver el problema de la compensacion reactiva y supresion de corrientes armonicas tanto en las tres fases como tambien en el neutro de los sistemas trifasicos de 4 hilos. La contribucion principal de esta tesis es el diseno, analisis y simulacion de un filtro activo que ademas de suprimir corrientes armonicas y compensacion del factor de potencia en las tres fases de un sistema trifasico desbalanceado, tambien tiene la capacidad para remover la corriente que circula en el neutro, debido al desbalance de las corrientes de fase. Este diseno se basa en la extension de la teoria de la potencia reactiva instantanea que incluye la existencia de los componentes de secuencia cero en las corrientes de fase. Se propone en la tesis un novedoso filtro basado en un inversor trifasico de 4 ramas, 3 ramas de fase y una rama de neutro, que hasta el mejor conocimiento del autor no ha sido reportado en la literatura. Se hace uso de un numero extenso de resultados de simulacion para probar la validez de este filtro, cuyo comportamiento es superior a los filtros para supresion de corrientes en el neutro existentes en la literatura, de los cuales tambien se presenta un estudio comparativo. La tesis tambien incluye un analisis matematico y grafico de los componentes simetricos en sistemas balanceados y desbalanceados a efecto de conocer la naturaleza de las corrientes armonicas de secuencia cero. Se incluye un apartado sobre causas y efectos del problema de la contaminacion armonica.

  8. Avaliação da determinação da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido pelo sistema ANKOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchielli Telma Teresinha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e os de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA obtidos com o equipamento ANKOM e pelo método convencional (Van Soest. No primeiro ensaio foram analisados cinco materiais diferentes (cana-de-açúcar, capim-braquiária, silagem de milho, polpa cítrica e fezes bovina e testados quatro tipos de saquinhos para filtragem de amostra. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em um fatorial 5x4 (cinco materiais diferentes e quatro tipos de saquinhos de filtragem, com três repetições. As médias obtidas foram comparadas àquelas obtidas com método convencional. No segundo ensaio procurou-se avaliar o efeito da quantidade de amostra por saquinho (0,5; 0,8 e 1,0 g sobre os teores de FDN e FDA em três tipos de alimentos, utilizando o ANKOM. Neste ensaio, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3x3 (três alimentos x três quantidades, com três repetições. Os tipos de saquinhos de filtragem utilizados não influenciaram os teores de FDN nos diferentes alimentos, com exceção das fezes, cujos saquinhos de náilon resultaram em concentrações de FDN inferiores. Não houve diferença entre os valores de FDN e FDA, obtidos pelo equipamento ANKOM ou pelo convencional, para os alimentos estudados, com exceção da polpa cítrica, cujo valor médio de FDA pelo ANKOM foi inferior àquele obtido pelo método convencional. A quantidade não exerceu efeito sobre a concentração de FDN dos alimentos analisados no equipamento ANKOM.

  9. Developing Detectors for Scintillation Light in Liquid Argon for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Bruce [Fermilab

    2016-12-22

    The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events. In pursuit of these studies, the experiment will deploy four 10kt fiducial mass liquid argon time projection chambers underground in Lead, South Dakota. Liquid argon time projection chambers allow high-resolution tracking and energy measurements. A precise timing signal is needed to provide the necessary time stamp to localize events in the drift direction. As liquid argon is a natural scintillator, a photon detection system will be deployed to provide such a signal, especially for non-beam events. In the baseline design for the single-phase time projection chamber, the detectors are contained within the anode plane assemblies. The design of two prototypes utilizing wavelength shifters and light guides are presented, and aspects of the research and development program are discussed.

  10. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.; Fabre, R.

    1958-01-01

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [fr

  11. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  12. The mechanism of liquid copper deoxidation during argon blowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of argon (with specified oxygen content blowing, the possibility of copper deoxidation has been considered on the basis of specific thermodynamic data. Despite the oxygen exceeding its equilibrium content in argon, a significant copper deoxidation during blowing has been experimentally observed. The explanation of this phenomenon can be the reaction of oxygen with the crucible material. In the present study, graphite and Al2O3 crucibles were used. The stirring effect of gaseous bubbles promotes passing the substrates to and removing the products from the reaction zone.

  13. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  14. Aging tests of ethylene contaminated argon/ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bauer, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on aging tests of argon/ethane gas with a minor (1800 ppM) component of ethylene. The measurements were first conducted with the addition of alcohol to test the suppression of aging by this additive, with exposure up to ∼1.5 C/cm. Tests have included: a proportional tube with ethanol, another with isopropyl alcohol, and for comparison a tube has also been run with ethanol and argon/ethane from CDF's old (ethylene-free) ethane supply. The aging test with ethanol showed no difference between the ethylene-free and the ethylene tube. Furthermore, raw aging rates of argon/ethane and argon/ethane/ethylene were measured by exposing tubes without the addition of alcohol to about 0.1 C/cm. Again, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, we see no evidence that ethylene contamination up to 1800 ppM has any adverse effect on wire aging. However, this level of ethylene does seem to significantly suppress the gas gain

  15. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon. V Sharma N Camus B Fischer M Kremer A Rudenko B Bergues M Kuebel N G Johnson M F Kling T Pfeifer J Ullrich R Moshammer. Invited Talks Volume 82 Issue 1 January 2014 ...

  16. Thermal decomposition of Yttrium(III) isovalerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of yttrium(III) isovalerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, FTIR-spectroscopy, hot-stage optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a laboratory Cu-tube source as well as with a synchrotron radiation source...

  17. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Suarez Guevara, Maria Josefina; Attique, Fahmida

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) hexanoate (Y(C5H11CO2)3)·xH2O in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction at a laboratory Cu-tube source and in-situ experiments at a synchrotron radiation source as well as hot...

  18. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76 Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m 3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m 3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42 Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  19. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  20. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 80, No. 3. — journal of. March 2013 physics pp. 507–517. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by dielectric barrier discharge .... note that the change in current waveform is also due to the change in capacitance of the ... By taking the ratio of R1 and R2 we then obtain the expression: R1. R2.

  1. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) in argon generated in parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge system is investigated by means of electrical and optical measurements. Using a high voltage (0–20 kV) power supply operating at 10–30 kHz, homogeneous and steady APGD has been observed ...

  2. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  3. 21 CFR 868.1075 - Argon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon gas analyzer. 868.1075 Section 868.1075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  4. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  5. Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...

  6. An integrated calibration system for liquid argon calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkowski, E; Mense, T; Nürnberger, H A; Schäfer, U

    1999-01-01

    A novel technical solution for an integrated version of the pulse generator of a calibration system for liquid argon calorimeters is presented. It consists of a differential amplifier with automatic offset compensation, a current mirror and a switching logic. These components are integrated on an ASIC chip in CMOS technology. The technical realisation as well as results on the performance are presented. (author)

  7. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  8. Behavior of Excited Argon Atoms in Inductively Driven Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hebner, G A

    1999-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the two lowest energy argon excited states, 1s sub 5 and 1s sub 4 , in inductively driven plasmas containing argon, chlorine and boron trichloride. The behavior of the two energy levels with plasma conditions was significantly different, probably because the 1s sub 5 level is metastable and the 1s sub 4 level is radiatively coupled to the ground state but is radiation trapped. The argon data is compared with a global model to identify the relative importance of processes such as electron collisional mixing and radiation trapping. The trends in the data suggest that both processes play a major role in determining the excited state density. At lower rfpower and pressure, excited state spatial distributions in pure argon were peaked in the center of the discharge, with an approximately Gaussian profile. However, for the highest rfpowers and pressures investigated, the spatial distributions tended to flatten in the center of the disch...

  9. The second Born approximation of electron–argon elastic scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by electron in the presence of a bichromatic laser field in the second Born approximation. The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential and the continuum states of the impinging and emitting electrons are described as Volkov states. We evaluate the S-matrix ...

  10. The second Born approximation of electron–argon elastic scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by electron in the presence of a bichro- matic laser field in the second Born approximation. The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential and the continuum states of the impinging and emitting electrons are described as Volkov states. We evaluate ...

  11. Dissociative Ionization of Argon Dimer by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Xie, Xiguo; Yuan, Zongqiang; Zhong, Xunqi; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang; Wu, Chengyin

    2017-05-25

    We experimentally and theoretically studied dissociative ionization of argon dimer driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses. In the experiment, we measured the ion yield and the angular distribution of fragmental ions generated from the dissociative ionization channels of (1,1) (Ar 2 2+ → Ar + + Ar + ) and (2,1) (Ar 2 3+ → Ar 2+ + Ar + ) using a cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The channel ratio of (2,1)/(1,1) is 4.5-7.5 times of the yield ratio of double ionization to single ionization of argon monomer depending on the laser intensity. The measurement verified that the ionization of Ar + is greatly enhanced if there exists a neighboring Ar + separated by a critical distance. In addition, the fragmental ions exhibit an anisotropic angular distribution with the peak along the laser polarization direction and the full width at half maximum becomes broader with increasing laser intensity. Using a full three-dimensional classical ensemble model, we calculated the angle-dependent multiple ionization probability of argon dimer in intense laser fields. The results show that the experimentally observed anisotropic angular distribution of fragmental ions can be attributed to the angle-dependent enhanced ionization of the argon dimer in intense laser fields.

  12. Experience with argon laser trabeculoplasty in Nigerians | Olawoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report the safety and efficacy of Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study performed on 25 eyes of 25 patients. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria for ALT were recruited from the ophthalmic ...

  13. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 565–573. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to strong low-frequency elliptical laser field. TATJANA B MILADINOVI ´C and VIOLETA M ... There are two laser field polarizations, linear and circular, as ... is the electron momentum [1], expressed using the field strength F and the parabolic.

  14. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  15. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... physics pp. 79–85. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon. V SHARMA1,∗. , N CAMUS2, B FISCHER2, M KREMER2, ... Furthermore, a meaningful recipe for experimentally tracing the time of two elec- trons in .... tions we define the ionization time difference between the two electrons.

  16. Optical emission spectroscopy of argon and hydrogen-containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepa, Sarah; Danko, Stephan; Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) on neutral argon is applied to investigate argon, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas. The spectra are analyzed using an extensive collisional-radiative model (CRM), from which the electron density and the electron temperature (or mean energy) can be calculated. The CRM also yields insight into the importance of different excited species and kinetic processes. The OES measurements are performed on pure argon plasmas at intermediate pressure. Besides, hydrogen and hydrogen-silane plasmas are investigated using argon as a trace gas. Especially for the gas mixture discharges, CRMs for low and high pressure differ substantially. The commonly used line-ratio technique is found to lose its sensitivity for gas mixture discharges at higher pressure. A solution using absolutely calibrated line intensities is proposed. The effect of radiation trapping and the shape of the electron energy distribution function on the results are discussed in detail, as they have been found to significantly influence the results. This work was supported by the Ruhr University Research School PLUS, funded by Germany's Excellence Initiative [DFG GSC 98/3].

  17. Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Aluminum Hydride in Argon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismail, Ismail M; Hawkins, Tom W

    2005-01-01

    ...) in argon atmosphere and to shed light on the mechanism of alane decomposition. Two kinetic models have been successfully developed and used to propose a mechanism for the complete decomposition of alane and to predict its shelf-life during storage...

  18. Structure of large argon clusters ArN, 10 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, B.W.; Torchet, G.; de Feraudy, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to expectation, large argon clusters ArN,103

  19. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.

    2012-11-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ~ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  20. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  1. Observations of acoustic-wave-induced superluminescence in an argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramyan, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that in an argon discharge plasma it is possible to obtain overpopulation of certain electronic levels of atomic argon under the influence of acoustic waves. When the specified threshold is exceeded, then a superluminescence (in the form of light flashes) from the overpopulated electronic levels of atomic argon is observed

  2. 21 CFR 874.4490 - Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and... Argon laser for otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (a) Identification. The argon laser device for use in otology, rhinology, and laryngology is an electro-optical device which produces coherent...

  3. Fracionamento dos carboidratos e cinética de degradação in vitro da fibra em detergente neutro da extrusa de bovinos a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Ricardo Augusto Mendonça

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos, em amostras de extrusa de animais mantidos em pastagem natural da Zona da Mata (MG, nas estações chuvosa e seca do ano. Para obtenção de amostras representativas, foram usados quatro animais fistulados no esôfago durante dois períodos experimentais na estação chuvosa, e três destes animais por dois períodos experimentais na estação seca, do ano de 1996. Foi efetuado o fracionamento dos carboidratos de acordo com o sistema Cornell e determinadas as taxas de degradação da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, a partir dos perfis de degradação in vitro deste componente. Foram determinadas as frações potencialmente degradável (B2 e indegradável (C da FDN, corrigida para proteína e cinzas, e as taxas de latência dinâmica, degradação e crescimento específico dos microrganismos, a partir da fração B2, além dos coeficientes de degradabilidade e do efeito de repleção ruminal da FDN. Observou-se que os carboidratos não-estruturais compreenderam pequena fração dos carboidratos totais nas amostras do pasto, em ambas as estações. Os carboidratos estruturais foram responsáveis pelo aumento no teor de carboidratos totais da extrusa, com a mudança da estação chuvosa para a estação seca; contudo, por causa do aumento da fração C e da menor taxa de crescimento específico dos microrganismos durante a estação seca, foi possível notar redução da degradabilidade e aumento do efeito de repleção ruminal da FDN da extrusa.

  4. The electronics, trigger and data acquisition system for the liquid argon time projection chamber of the DarkSide-50 search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Rosa, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Dionisi, C.; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-12-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a search for dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber with 50 kg of low radioactivity argon as target. Light signals from interactions in the argon are detected by a system of 38 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), 19 above and 19 below the TPC volume inside the argon cryostat. We describe the electronics which processes the signals from the photo-multipliers, the trigger system which identifies events of interest, and the data-acquisition system which records the data for further analysis. The electronics include resistive voltage dividers on the PMTs, custom pre-amplifiers mounted directly on the PMT voltage dividers in the liquid argon, and custom amplifier/discriminators (at room temperature). After amplification, the PMT signals are digitized in CAEN waveform digitizers, and CAEN logic modules are used to construct the trigger, the data acquisition system for the TPC is based on the Fermilab "artdaq" software. The system has been in operation since early 2014.

  5. The electronics, trigger and data acquisition system for the liquid argon time projection chamber of the DarkSide-50 search for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Filippis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Dionisi, C.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-12-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a search for dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber with 50 kg of low radioactivity argon as target. Light signals from interactions in the argon are detected by a system of 38 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), 19 above and 19 below the TPC volume inside the argon cryostat. We describe the electronics which processes the signals from the photo-multipliers, the trigger system which identifies events of interest, and the data-acquisition system which records the data for further analysis. The electronics include resistive voltage dividers on the PMTs, custom pre-amplifiers mounted directly on the PMT voltage dividers in the liquid argon, and custom amplifier/discriminators (at room temperature). After amplification, the PMT signals are digitized in CAEN waveform digitizers, and CAEN logic modules are used to construct the trigger; the data acquisition system for the TPC is based on the Fermilab artdaq software. The system has been in operation since early 2014.

  6. Estudio del valor nutritivo de las hojas y tallo del maíz híbrido de tallo azucarado E-10

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño, J.; Hernández, Mª T.; Caballero, R.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio sobre el valor nutritivo de las hojas y tallos del maíz de tallo azucarado E-10, a dos diferentes estados de maduración de la planta: grano en estado pastoso y grano en estado maduro (35 % humedad).En las muestras se determinó: proteína bruta, extracto etéreo, fibra neutro y ácido detergentes, celulosa, lignina y azúcares solubles. A partir de los datos analíticos se estimó la digestibilidad de la materia orgánica aplicando la ecuación sumativa de VAN SOEST. El valo...

  7. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  8. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; 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Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; 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Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  9. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  10. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs

  11. Effects of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciarri, R.; Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Benetti, P.; Calaprice, F.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Canci, N.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cocco, A.G.; Di Pompeo, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Gallo, V.; Grandi, L.; Meng, G.; Modena, I.

    2009-01-01

    Two dedicated and distinct tests of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination effects in liquid Argon (LAr) have been performed within the WArP R and D program. Purpose of the tests is to detect the reduction of the LAr scintillation light emission as a function of the contaminant amount injected in the Argon volume. The rate constant of the light quenching processes has been found to be k(N 2 )=0.11μs -1 ppm -1 for Nitrogen and k ' (O2)=0.54±0.03μs -1 ppm -1 for Oxygen. Direct PMT signals acquisition allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations and from O(0.1ppm) of Oxygen concentrations.

  12. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  13. Níveis de fibra em detergente neutro em dietas para eqüinos Neutral detergent fiber levels in diet of equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro César Braga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos de dois níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN da dieta (25 e 35%, provenientes de duas proporções de volumoso/concentrado (50:50 e 60:40, sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, o pH fecal e os parâmetros sangüíneos de lactato, glicose, uréia, creatinina e fosfatase alcalina, visando estabelecer os níveis mínimos e seguros de fibra em dietas para eqüinos. Utilizaram-se cinco eqüinos sem raça definida, com 6 a 8 anos de idade e peso médio de 300 kg, alojados em gaiolas próprias para estudos de metabolismo. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento de quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco tratamentos (dois níveis de FDN, 25 e 35%, duas relações volumoso:concentrado, 50:50 e 60:40, e uma dieta controle, com relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado e cinco períodos. Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação e 5 de coleta de fezes e sangue e determinação do pH fecal. Os níveis de FDN utilizados neste experimento (25 e 35% reduziram a digestibilidade dos componentes fibrosos (fração parede celular da dieta, entretanto, não influenciaram os níveis sangüíneos de lactato, glicose, uréia, creatinina e fosfatase alcalina e o pH fecal. A dieta com 25% de FDN promoveu alteração no teor plasmático de fibrinogênio, portanto, pode aumentar a predisposição dos animais a quadros de laminite e cólica.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF of the diet (25 and 35% from two forage to concentrate (50:50 and 60:40 ratio on nutrient digestibility, fecal pH and blood parameters as lactate, glucose, urea, creatinine, fibrinogen and alkaline phosphatase, to establish minimum and safe levels of fiber in equines diets. Five horses without defined race, with 6 to 8 years old and average 300 kg BW, were housing in metabolism cages. The animals were distributed to 5 × 5 Latin square design

  14. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate...

  15. Treatment of Mallory-Weiss syndrome using argon plasma coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAŞ, Mehmet; KORKUT, Esin; İDİLMAN, Ramazan; KESKİN, Onur; ÜSTÜN, Yusuf; GUPTA, Vikas; BAHAR, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic hemostatic method has been introduced as a safe and effective mechanical approach to hemostasis for upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. A 62-year-old male patient with chronic cough and a 27-year-old 10-week pregnant female were admitted to our clinic with gross hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and Mallory-Weiss syndrome was diagnosed. Coagulum and visible vessels were observed during the procedure. Argon plasma coagul...

  16. Argon laser photocoagulation of cyclodialysis clefts after cataract surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B. [Univ. of Lund, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    Three patients with cyclodialysis clefts, hypotony and hypotonic retinopathy subsequent to cataract surgery were treated with argon laser photocoagulation. The hypotony was reversed in each patient and their visual acuity was normalized. Laser photocoagulation is a noninvasive treatment that can be repeated easily and safely. The complications of the treatment are minor. A hypertensive episode commonly occurs in the early postoperative period. (au) 8 refs.

  17. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  18. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  19. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  20. Two dimensional condensation of argon adsorbed on lamellar halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millot, Francis.

    1976-03-01

    Lamellar halides such as NiCl 2 , FeCl 2 , NiBr 2 , MnBr 2 , MgBr 2 , CdBr 2 , CoI 2 , FeI 2 , MnI 2 , CaI 2 and PbI 2 were sublimed in a rapid stream of dry nitrogen. The adsorption of argon on such materials shows stepped isotherms which reveal two dimensional condensations. From sets of isotherms the Helmholtz free energy, the internal energy and the entropy of the successive layers are determined. From the entropy of the first layer the role of the potential relief of the adsorbent surface on the structure of the adsorbed layer may be determined while the Helmholtz free energy reveals how the ionic character of the adsorbent governs the attractive force of adsorption. The study of the second third and fourth layers shows that their growth follows quite a different behaviour depending on whether the Van der Waals diameter of argon is greater or smaller than the distance between adjacent anions on the crystal surface. A proposition is made to account for the difference in the critical temperatures of the first and second dense layers in terms of the vibrationnal state of their respective substrate. The occurence for the maximum critical temperature observed of corresponding to a triangular layer 3% more expanded than the (111) plane of solid argon is discussed [fr

  1. A pixelated charge readout for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Hänni, R.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Sinclair, J.; Stocker, F.; Tognina, C.; Weber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are ideally suited to perform long-baseline neutrino experiments aiming to measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and determine the ordering of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. LArTPCs have used projective wire readouts for charge detection since their conception in 1977. However, wire readouts are notoriously fragile and therefore a limiting factor in the design of any large mass detectors. Furthermore, a wire readout also introduces intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Within the ArgonCube concept—the liquid argon component of the DUNE near detector—we are developing a pixelated charge readout for LArTPCs. Pixelated charge readout systems represent the single largest advancement in the sensitivity of LArTPCs. They are mechanically robust and provide direct 3D readout, serving to minimise reconstruction ambiguities, enabling more advanced triggers, further reducing event pile-up and improving background rejection. This article presents first results from a pixelated LArTPC prototype built and operated in Bern.

  2. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  3. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kočišek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.; Slavíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H 2 O) n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar + and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar + * and water opens leading to new products Ar n H + and (H 2 O) n H + . On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H 2 O) n H 2 2+ and (H 2 O) n 2+ ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent

  4. Wear and Tribological Properties of Silicon-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon (Si-DLC) Coatings Synthesized with Nitrogen, Argon Plus Nitrogen, and Argon Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountzoulas, Costas

    1998-01-01

    ... in the average coating growth rate. The Knoop microhardness and nanohardness values of the coatings synthesized by the mixed argon and nitrogen ion beam were higher than the values for the coatings synthesized with 100% nitrogen or 100% argon ion beams...

  5. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  6. Composición química del grano de maíz (Zea mays Chococito del municipio de Quibdó, Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Martínez Guardia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la composición química de granos de maíz Chococito, de material vegetal obtenido en cuatro parcelas rurales del municipio de Quibdó. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la composición química del grano es similar a otros tipos de maíz, no obstante, difiere en el bajo contenido de almidón comparado con otras variedades. Los valores medios porcentuales de almidón, proteína cruda, grasa, fibra cruda, fibra neutro detergente, fibra ácido detergente, fósforo, potasio y azúcares totales obtenidos fueron: 68,5; 11,95 a 12,1; 3,4; 1,3; 7,6; 3,6; 1,2; 0,26 y 1,1 respectivamente y su contenido de calcio fue de 102 mg.

  7. CP Violation and K0 decays revelation: study and simulation of neutral Trigger in NA48 experiment -- Violazione di CP e rivelazione dei decadimenti del K0: studio e simulazione del Trigger neutro nell'esperimento NA48

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico

    2007-01-01

    At the INFN laboratory in Pisa I have prepared my dissertation, which essentially concerned Montecarlo simulation of subnuclear particles decays and investigation of low-noise electronic devices for analyzing high-frequency signals. The team-work was part of NA48/EPSI experiment jointly carried out with European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva. ----- Nell'ambito dell'esperimento NA48 in corso al CERN Super Proton Syncrothon (SPS) finalizzato a misurare la violazione diretta di CP in sistemi di particelle K0 attraverso il doppio rapporto R = [N(K_L->Pi0Pi0)]/[N(K_S->Pi0Pi0)] / [N(K_L->Pi+Pi-)]/[N(K_S->Pi+Pi-)] = 1 - 6 Re(e1/e) con una precisione di Re(e1/e) superiore a 2 * 10^-4, il lavoro di tesi si propone di effettuare una simulazione per la rivelazione dei decadimenti neutri dei K0 ed una successiva analisi dei dati raffrontando l'evento fisico generato con metodo Montecarlo e quello ricostruito. Per la misura di e1/e occorre isolare tra i vari modi di decadimento dei K quelli K_S->Pi0Pi0, K...

  8. Argon implantation gettering for a ''through-oxide'' arsenic-implanted layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, K.; Harada, H.

    1977-01-01

    Argon implantation gettering was investigated to improve p-n junctions made by high-dose arsenic implantation through oxide film. Arsenic was implanted into p-type silicon through 520 A oxide at 2 x 10 15 to 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , 100--110 keV. When argon was implanted on the wafer back side at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , 200 keV following arsenic implantation, all junctions showed hard breakdown. However, many junctions without argon implantation showed soft breakdown with large leakage current. Argon implantation reduced etch pits appearing in the arsenic-implanted region

  9. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF TOTAL ENERGY RADIATED FROM AN ARGON ARCJET

    Science.gov (United States)

    to the 7.2 power when the peak (centerline) temperature at the arcjet exit plane was 23,000 R. Total radiated energy from the arcjet , including the...downstream-directed component from the cathode face, was found to be less than 0.8% of the net jet power under these conditions. This rather low level...The total energy radiation of an argon arcjet was measured by a simple collimated thermopile. Radiation from the luminous jet was found to vary as T

  11. Relaxation rates studies in an argon cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Dengra, A.; Colomer, V.

    1986-01-01

    The single Langmuir probe method has been used to determine the relaxation rates of the electron density and temperature in an argon afterglow dc cylindrical plasma. The ion-electron recombination was found to be the fundamental mechanism of density decay during the early afterglow while the ambipolar diffusion controlles the density decay for later afterglow. Electron temperature cooling curves have been interpreted via electron-neutral collisons. Measurements of the electron-ion recombination and the ambipolar diffusion coefficients have been made, as well as of the electron-neutral collision frequency and the momentum transfer cross sections. Good agreement is obtained with previously published data. (author)

  12. The main properties of microwave argon plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E; Pencheva, M

    2010-01-01

    Plasma torch sustained by surface wave at atmospheric pressure is theoretically studied by means of 1D model. A steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge is numerically solved together with Maxwell's equations for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The axial dependences of the electrons, excited atoms, atomic and molecular ions densities as well as the electron temperature, the mean power per electron and the effective electron-neutral collision frequency are determined. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

  13. Near-threshold electron impact excitation of argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, P.C.; Burke, P.G.; Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury; Taylor, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical cross sections are reported for the elastic and inelastic scattering of low-energy electrons (10.8-13.4eV) from the ground state of argon atoms. The calculations are carried out in the LS coupling scheme and include nine target states in the expansion of the total wavefunction. The energies and shapes of the resonances are found to agree well with the experiments of Brunt et al (J. Phys. B.; 9:2195 (1976), 10:1289 and 3781 (1977)) in most cases and their grandparent model is also confirmed although some of the present resonant assignments are different. (author)

  14. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N

    2010-01-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  15. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  16. The High Voltage Feedthroughs for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botchev, B; Finocchiaro, G; Hoffman, J; McCarthy, R L; Rijssenbeek, M; Steffens, J; Talalaevskii, A; Thioye, M; Zdrazil, M; Farrell, J; Kan, S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose, design specifications, construction techniques, and testing methods are described for the high voltage feedthrough ports and filters of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters. These feedthroughs carry about 5000 high voltage wires from a room temperature environment (300 K) through the cryostat walls to the calorimeters cells (89 K) while maintaining the electrical and cryogenic integrity of the system. The feedthrough wiring and filters operate at a maximum high voltage of 2.5 kV without danger of degradation by corona discharges or radiation at the Large Hadron Collider

  17. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  18. Laser induced fluorescence in a pulsed argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl; Biloiu, Costel; Compton, Christopher; Doss, Forrest; Venture, Daniel; Heard, John; Choueiri, Edgar; Spektor, Rostislav

    2005-01-01

    A time-resolved laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for pulsed argon plasmas is described. A low power, tunable diode laser pumps a three level Ar II transition sequence at a wavelength of 668.6138 nm. With a standard LIF system designed for steady-state plasmas (e.g., 4 kHz optical chopper, 20 kHz band-width detector, and a lock-in amplifier), we demonstrate that the evolution of the ion velocity distribution can be resolved with a time resolution of 1 ms through a combination of time-series averaging and post-acquisition digital signal processing

  19. Electron drift velocity in argon-methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, N.El; Mathieson, E.

    1978-01-01

    Described are the results of a series of measurements of electron drift velocity taken with samples of chemically pure grade gas mixture of Ar-10% CH 4 (N 2 2 2 2 O<2 ppm). The measured drift velocity is plotted as a function of the ratio of electric field to pressure in the range from 0.05 to 0.8 V/cmxtorr. The measurements are reproducible only to within 4%. The results of numerical calculations employing the well-established argon elastic and methane elastic and inelastic cross sections are also included. The disagreement from the present experimental results, and from those obtained elsewhere, is rather puzzling

  20. Diffraction experiments of argon or helium on polluted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, J.P.; Constans, A.; Daury, G.; Lostis, P.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering patterns of molecular beams of argon or helium from metal surfaces (bulk metal or thin films) are reported. The pressure in the scattering chamber is about 10 -6 torr. So, the surfaces are polluted. Diffraction peaks are observed which can be interpreted very well by assuming that nitrogen, oxygen or carbon atoms are adsorbed of the surface. On the other hand, diffraction peaks from a silicon crystal have been observed which can be reproduced very well by using silicon crystal lattice. These experiments are not interpreted accurately, but show that molecular reflection can be used for some surface studies [fr

  1. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N2). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  2. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  3. Separation of argon isotopes by porous membrane method, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fujine, Sachio; Matsuda, Yuji; Maruyama, Yoichiro

    1978-09-01

    In the research program of uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion process at JAERI, an engineering-scale cascade in argon isotopes separation experiment has been constructed to study the cascade performance under different conditions assuming the practical plant. This report describes design phylosophy and specifications of the facility. Results of test operation of the whole system revealed the following: (1) Cascade components, vacuum systems, sampling system and auxiliary systems are operable under experimental conditions. (2) The cascade system is excellent in ease of operation and controllability. (3) Leakage of the cascade is below the level of 5 x 10 -5 atm-cm 3 (He)/sec. (author)

  4. Study of a Novel Concept for a Liquid Argon Calorimeter \

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD33 \\\\ \\\\ The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter prototype is proposed as a generic R\\&D project for a novel concept of calorimetry in proton-proton and electron-positron collider detectors: the $^{\\prime$Thin Gap Turbine$^{\\prime}$ (TGT). The TGT calorimeter has a modular construction, is flexible in its longitudinal and transverse granularity, and offers a uniform energy response and resolution, independent of the production angle of incident particles. An important aspect of the project is the development of fast, radiation-hard front-end electronics which is operating in the cold.

  5. Gastric explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, John Saul; Hampe, Toni

    2014-12-01

    We describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation in a 70-year-old man undergoing gastroscopy. Combustible gases in the stomach may have been released by bacterial overgrowth as a result of partial gastric outlet obstruction (caused by a gastric tumor) and reduced acidity (from proton pump inhibitor therapy). We propose a stepwise process during upper endoscopy to prevent this devastating complication, comprising aspiration, preinsufflation with CO2, and then coagulation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Níveis de fibra em detergente neutro forrageiro na alimentação de ovelhas Santa Inês gestantes Level of fiber on feeding of Santa Ines pregnant ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Macedo Junior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e o comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas no terço final de gestação com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro forrageiro (FDNf. Foram utilizadas 16 ovelhas adultas da raça Santa Inês, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos: 9, 17, 26 e 35% de FDNf. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, energia bruta, energia digestível e energia metabolizável não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA aumentaram com maiores níveis de FDNf. As digestibilidades do FDN e FDA e o tempo gasto pelos animais com ruminação também aumentaram com maiores níveis de FDNf na dieta. Dietas com maior quantidade de FDNf influenciaram comportamento ingestivo e digestibilidade de ovelhas em fase final de lactação.The intake, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes ped diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF were evaluated. Sixteen Santa Inês ewes were randomly assigned to four treatments with 9, 17, 26 e 35% of NDF. Dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein, crude energy, digestible energy and metabolizable energy intake were not affected by the level of NDF in the diet, however, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF intake increased with the increase of NDF diet levels. The apparent digestibility of the NDF and ADF and rumination time increased with the NDF diet level. Higher NDF diet levels influenced feeding behavior and apparent digestibility of ewes at the end of the lactation period.

  7. Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.

    2008-01-01

    The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power θ necessary for sustaining an electron - ion pair, electron - neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer v en , and gas temperature T g . The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency ω/2π = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature T g are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L ≅ 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W - the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number

  8. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  9. Effect of accelerated argon ions on the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, W.; Krebs, I.; Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Worgul, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    It has been postulated that high energy heavy ions cause a unique form of damage in living tissue, which results from the high linear energy transfer of accelerated single particles. We have searched for these single-particle effects, so-called microlesions, in composite electron micrographs of retinas of rats which had been irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy of 570 MeV/amu argon ions. The calculated rate of energy deposition of the radiation in the retina was about 100 keV/micron and the influence was four particles per 100 micron 2. Different areas of the irradiated retinas which combined would have been expected to be traversed by approximately 2400 particles were examined. We were unable to detect ultrastructural changes in the irradiated retinas distinct from those of controls. The spatial cellular densities of pigment epithelial and photoreceptor cells remained within the normal range when examined at 24 h and at 6 months after irradiation. These findings suggest that the retina is relatively resistant to heavy-ion irradiation and that under the experimental conditions the passage of high energy argon ions does not cause retinal microlesions that can be detected by ultrastructural analysis

  10. The thermal accommodation of helium and argon on hot tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the momentum flux of gas atoms, remitted normal to the surface of a hot clean tungsten ribbon immersed in a low pressure of helium or argon, is measured with a torsion balance and the thermal accommodation coefficient deduced. Data are presented in which the tungsten temperature range was 700 to 1900 K for helium and 1100 to 1700 K for argon. A model is proposed which assumes that atoms impinging on and remitted from the hot tungsten ribbon conserve momentum in directions parallel to the surface. This results in a remitted flux, in the direction of the normal, greater than the cosine emission relation would predict. The resulting accommodation coefficients are then of the same order as those found using the total heat loss method. The accuracy of the reported method increases with the temperature of the hot solid. Measurement of translational thermal accommodation is possible without relying on the temperature coefficient of resistance of the solid and hence is applicable to alloys and to non-metals. For metals, which have a normal temperature coefficient of resistance, the method allows translational accommodation to be measured and internal energy accommodation to be deduced. (U.K.)

  11. LArIAT: Liquid Argon TPC in a Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-02-28

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the LArIAT collaboration who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out starting during the 2013 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocation for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this TSW to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. This TSW fulfills Article 1 (facilities and scope of work) of the User Agreements signed (or still to be signed) by an authorized representative of each institution collaborating on this experiment. Precision neutrino physics has entered a new era both with pressing questions to be addressed at short and long baselines, and with increasing interest and development of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). These open volume liquid argon TPCs drift ionization electrons from passing charged particles to readout wire chamber planes at the edge of the detector. The Signals are then combined to form 2D and 3D pho-quality like millimeter scale images of the charged particles tracks and to provide calorimetric measurements of the deposited energy in the detector.

  12. VALOR NUTRICIONAL DEL HENO DE TRANSVALA INOCULADO CON EL HONGO Pleurotus ostreatus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el valor nutricional del heno de Transvala utilizado en la producción del hongo comestible Pleurotus ostreatus. El heno fue analizado antes de inocular el hongo y después de la cosecha. Se determinó: materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, extracto etéreo (EE, ceniza (Ce, digestibilidad in vitro de la MS (DIVMS, carbohidratos no fibrosos (CNF, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, lignina, nitrógeno ligado a la fibra detergente neutro (N-FDN y a la fibra detergente ácida (N-FDA, nutrimentos digestibles totales (NDT (1X, energía digestible (ED, energía metabolizable (EM, energía neta de lactancia (ENl, energía de mantenimiento (ENm y energía neta de ganancia (ENg. Sobresalen niveles bajos de PC, DIVMS y NDT; y valores altos de lignina, FDN y FDA. El contenido de MS, FDN, hemicelulosa (He, lignina, CNF y EE presentó diferencias significativas, debidas al crecimiento del hongo. La variación en calidad en estas variables fue de (- 48,75%, (- 24,76%, (- 80,22%, (- 27,94%, (+ 51,52% y (- 26,13%, respectivamente. La mejoría en la calidad nutricional del heno, después de la cosecha del hongo, no es tan significativa como para cambiar la perspectiva en su uso dentro de la ración total de rumiantes, por lo que el beneficio del heno se basa más en aspectos físicos que nutricionales.

  13. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation: filling of a 6 m^3 vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    OpenAIRE

    Curioni A.; Epprecht L.; Gendotti A.; Knecht L.; Lussi D.; others

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 m$^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to {\\it all} sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  14. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  15. The ICARUS Front-end Preamplifier Working at Liquid Argon Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Casagrande, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Curioni, A; Meng, G; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Sergiampietri, F; Ventura, S

    2011-01-01

    We describe characteristics and performance of the low-noise front-end preamplifier used in the ICARUS 50-litre liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber installed in the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility during the 1997-98 neutrino runs. The preamplifiers were designed to work immersed in ultra-pure liquid Argon at a temperature of 87K.

  16. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2017-07-18

    A Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon. These results rely on the accurate simulation of the detector response to the liquid argon scintillation, its ionization, and electron-ion recombination processes. This work provides a complete overview of the DarkSide Monte Carlo and of its performance, with a particular focus on PARIS, the custom-made liquid argon response model.

  17. Teeming stream protection using an argon shroud during casting of steel ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-jie; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min; Zhang, Le-chen

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of argon shroud protection devices with two different basic structures were designed and investigated. Industrial experiments and numerical simulations were used to examine the protection effect, and the mechanism of air entrapment during the casting of steel ingots was analyzed. The influence of the structure of the argon shroud protection device on the protection effect was investigated. An argon shroud protection device mounted to the nozzle holder on the bottom of the ladle does not provide a good protection effect because air can easily flow into the teeming system and cause reoxidation of molten steel during teeming. By contrast, an argon shroud protection device seated on the top of the central trumpet provides an excellent protection effect, where air has little chance of flowing into the teeming system during casting. The feasibilities of the argon shroud protection devices are discussed.

  18. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  19. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019-2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance

  20. Retrospective analysis for detecting seismic precursors in groundwater argon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the groundwater Argon content data sampled from 1988 to 2001 at two wells in Kamchatka (Russia and anomalous increases appeared clearly during June-July 1996. On 21 June, a shallow (1km earthquake with M=7.1 occurred at a distance less than 250km from the wells and so the previous increases could be related to this earthquake and, in particular, could be considered premonitory anomalies. In order to support this raw interpretation, we analysed the data collected in details. At first we smoothed out the high frequency fluctuations arising from the errors in a single measurement. Next we considered the known external effects on the water of a well that are the slow tectonic re-adjustment processes, the meteorology and the gravity tides and we separated these effects applying band-pass filters to the Argon content raw trends. Then we identified the largest fluctuations in these trends applying the 3 σ criterion and we found three anomalies in a case and two anomalies in other case. Comparing the time occurrence of the anomalies at the two wells we found out that a coincidence exists only in the case of the premonitory anomalies we are studying. The simultaneous appearance of well definite anomalies in the residual trends of the same parameter at two different sites supports their meaning and the possibility that they are related to some large scale effect, as the occurrence of a strong earthquake. But, other earthquakes similar to the June 1996 event took place during the Argon content measurements time and no anomaly appeared in this content. In the past, some of the authors of this paper studied the Helium content data collected in three natural springs of the Caucasus during seven years. A very similar result, that is the simultaneous appearance of clear premonitory anomalies only on the occasion of a strong (M=7.0 but shallow (2–4km earthquake, was obtained. The correspondence with the case of the Caucasus validates the

  1. Grid pattern Argon Laser photocoagulation for diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkhane R

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of Grid pattern laser photocoagulation on diabetic diffuse macular edema with assessment of visual outcome. Patients & Methods: The author reviewed the medical records of 84 eyes of 62 patients with diabetic diffuse macular edema treated with Grid pattern green Argon laser photocoagulation in Farabi Eye Hospital between the years 1992-1995, the follow-up period was 16-48 months (average 24.55±6.42, median 28 mounths. Results: Visual acuity was improved in 11.9%; unchanged in 65.4% and worsened in 22.7% of eyes. Conclusion: In assessing long-term visual outcome, Grid laser photocoagulation is an effective modality in maintaining or improving visual acuity.

  2. Properties of radio-frequency heated argon confined uranium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to aid in determining the characteristics of uranium plasma core reactors. Pure uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) was injected into an argon-confined, steady-state, rf-heated plasma, within a fused-silica peripheral wall test chamber. Exploratory tests conducted using an 80 kW rf facility and different test chamber flow configurations permitted selection of the configuration demonstrating the best confinement characteristics and minimum uranium compound wall coating. The test chamber selected was 10-cm-long and 5.7-cm-inside diameter; operating pressures were up to 12 atm. A UF 6 handling and feeder system to provide a controlled and steady flow of heated UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 0 K and mass flow rates up to 0.21 g/s was employed

  3. The liquid argon TPC for the ICARUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F

    1997-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realisation of a large liquid argon TPC to be run at the Underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso in Italy. An intense R&D; activity has put on firm grounds this new detector technology and experimentally confirmed its feasibility on a few ton scale. Based on these solid achievements, the collaboration is now confident of being able to build and safely operate a multi-kton detector. The reseach program of the experiment involves the systematic study of a wide spectrum of physical phenomena covering many orders of magnitude in the energy deposited in the detector: from the few MeV of solar neutrino interactions, to the about one GeV of the proton decay and atmospheric neutrinos, up to the higher energies of neutrinos from accelerators.

  4. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafrouni, Hanna.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values [fr

  5. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  6. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  7. Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  8. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  9. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Tang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) valerate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, in-situ synchrotron diffraction and hot-stage microscopy as well as room temperature optical microscopy. Melting...... takes place around 90 °C and evidence was found for solidification of the melt at 260–300 °C, i.e. close to the onset of decomposition. Between 300 °C and 450 °C, Y(C4H9CO2)3 decomposes in a single step into Y2O2CO3 with release of gaseous CO2 and C4H9COC4H9 (5-nonanone). Final conversion to Y2O3 takes...

  10. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at ∼89 K) are discussed.

  11. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory; Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J.; Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  12. Controlled argon beam-induced desulfurization of monolayer molybdenum disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quan; Odenthal, Patrick M; Mann, John; Le, Duy; Wang, Chen S; Zhu, Yeming; Chen, Tianyang; Sun, Dezheng; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Tran, Tai; Wurch, Michelle; McKinley, Jessica L; Wyrick, Jonathan; Magnone, KatieMarie; Heinz, Tony F; Rahman, Talat S; Kawakami, Roland; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-06-26

    Sputtering of MoS2 films of single-layer thickness by low-energy argon ions selectively reduces the sulfur content of the material without significant depletion of molybdenum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows little modification of the Mo 3d states during this process, suggesting the absence of significant reorganization or damage to the overall structure of the MoS2 film. Accompanying ab initio molecular dynamics simulations find clusters of sulfur vacancies in the top plane of single-layer MoS2 to be structurally stable. Measurements of the photoluminescence at temperatures between 175 and 300 K show quenching of almost 80% for an ~10% decrease in sulfur content.

  13. Liquid argon calorimetry with LHC-performance specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, F.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Ferrari, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Lebeau, M.; Leflour, T.; LeMarec, J.C.; Maire, M.; Petitpas, P.; Thion, J.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Franz, A.; Farthouat, P.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Willis, W.J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.L.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hrisoho, A.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Veillet, J.J.; Fuglesang, C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geometry liquid argon calorimeter with accordion-shaped electrodes and converter plates has been recently conceived. Such a design allows for a fast readout and for a high granularity over large volumes with minimal dead spaces, properties which are considered essential for operation at the future hadron colliders. The first electromagnetic prototype based on this scheme has been built and tested at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of 140 ns an energy resolution of 10%/√E(GeV) and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E(GeV) with 2.7 cm cell size were achieved for electrons. A few preliminary results from a test with fast readout (response peaking time of less than 40 ns) are also presented. (orig.)

  14. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  15. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  16. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2001-01-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  17. Atmospheric dispersion of argon-41 from anuclear research reactor: measurement and modeling of plume geometry and gamma radiation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent; Astrup, Poul; Drews, Martin

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine release of argon-41 from the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Simultaneous measurements of plume geometry and radiation fields for argon-41 decay were performed as well as measurements of the argon...

  18. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  19. Argon-Doped Capsule Implosion Experiments on the Shenguang-II Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhimin; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Miao, Wenyong; Chen, Jiabin; Yang, Guohong; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun; Zhang, Baohan

    2017-10-01

    Argon is often doped in the hydrogen isotope capsule as the tracer for diagnosing the status of the hot spot in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. Implosion performance could be affected by the doped argon. For instance, it could bring about the concentration of the heavier argon ions in the center of hot spot, thus degrading the implosion performance. Moreover, implosion mix could be investigated by doping heavier elements in hydrogen isotope capsule, and the atomic-mix effects have been investigated in the pioneering studies. In this talk, we present the performance of argon-doped implosion experiments, in which D-D reaction was used for the substitute of D-T fuel. The experiments were conducted on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The doping-fraction of argon was set as 1%, 2% and 10% (atomic fraction). The temperature and density of electrons are determined by the K-shell emission spectra of the highly-ionized argon. The size of hot spot was recorded by a time-resolving x-ray monochromatic imaging system. The neutron yield were detected by both BF3 and scintillator detectors. A strong correlation between argon x-ray line intensity and neutron yields have been found in the experiments, and the convergence ratios deduced from the hot-spot imaging agree well with numerical simulation for the difference doping fraction which brings about the change of the equations of states and radiative opacity. NSFC Grant under Contract No. 11675158.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation on explosive boiling of liquid argon film on copper nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Hao, Feng; Chen, Haimu; Yuan, Wei; Tang, Yong; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive boiling of liquid argon on parallel nanochannels is studied by MD simulation. • Nanochannels significantly facilitate heat transfer resulting in violent explosive boiling. • Larger channel heights increase the separation temperature and accelerate equilibrium. • A non-vaporized layer always exists near the bottom surface with constant number density. - Abstract: Phase change from liquid to vapor of the working fluid has been widely used in thermal control for microelectronic devices. In this study, the effects of nanochannels on the explosive phase transition of ultrathin liquid argon film on the copper substrate in confined space are investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that nanochannels significantly facilitate the thermal energy transfer from solid copper surface to the liquid argon which leads to a much more violent explosive boiling than the plain surface. Liquid argon atoms adjacent to the solid surface are instantly overheated and consequently a cluster of liquid argon detaches from the surface once the explosive boiling occurs. The temperature of the liquid argon when it separates from the solid surface increases with respect to the increasing nanochannel heights, while the time for the system to reach equilibrium decreases distinctly. Furthermore, though continuous heat transfers to the liquid argon, a non-vaporized layer always exists near the bottom surface of the solid copper base with a stable number density of about 0.025 1/Å 3 .

  1. Tissue gas and blood analyses of human subjects breathing 80% argon and 20% oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Wells, C. H.; Guest, M. M.; Hart, G. B.; Goodpasture, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Eight human volunteers, individually studied in a hyperbaric chamber, breathed: (1) air at 1 ATA; (2) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min; (3) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (4) 100% O2 at 1 ATA for 30 min; (5) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (6) 100% O2 at 2 ATA for 60 min; and (7) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon tensions were measured in muscle and subcutaneous tissue by mass spectroscopic analyses. Venous blood obtained at regular intervals was analyzed for coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. Inert gas narcosis was not observed. After breathing argon for 30 min, muscle argon tensions were almost three times the subcutaneous tensions. Argon wash-in mirrored nitrogen wash-out. Argon wash-in and wash-out had no effect on tissue PO2 or PCO2. Coagulation and fibrinolytic changes usually associated with vascular bubbles were absent.

  2. Simulation of argon response and light detection in the DarkSide-50 dual phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A. V.; Rosa, G. De; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Sablone, D.; Sands, W.; Sanfilippo, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    Geant4-based Monte Carlo package named G4DS has been developed to simulate the response of DarkSide-50, an experiment operating since 2013 at LNGS, designed to detect WIMP interactions in liquid argon. In the process of WIMP searches, DarkSide-50 has achieved two fundamental milestones: the rejection of electron recoil background with a power of ~10^7, using the pulse shape discrimination technique, and the measurement of the residual 39Ar contamination in underground argon, ~3 orders of magnitude lower with respect to atmospheric argon.

  3. Carbon and chromium oxidation kinetics on argon-oxygen refining of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolotskij, D.Ya.; Zyryanov, S.V.; Kirilenko, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made into the process of carbon and chromium oxidation when refining stainless steels with 14.5-17.9 % Cr in a 100 t electric furnace. During argon-oxygen refining the oxidation of carbon is shown to proceed under varying kinetic conditions at carbon contents about 0.2 %. At low carbon contents a mixed regime of internal and external diffusion takes place. Oxidation rate is defined by carbon concentration, oxygen consumption and oxidation potential of argon-oxygen mixture. Chromium is oxidized concurrently with carbon. Its oxidation rate is dependent on the consumption of the oxygen blow in combination with argon. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Directional modulation of electron-ion pairs recombination in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataudella, V.; de Candia, A.; De Filippis, G.; Catalanotti, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Lissia, M.; Rossi, B.; Galbiati, C.; Fiorillo, G.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the ongoing study of a possible directional signal in liquid argon dark matter detectors, we introduce a new model describing the recombination of electron-ion pairs in ionizing tracks in liquid argon in the presence of a drift field. The emphasis is on the three-dimensional distribution of electrons and ions and on their orientation relative to that of the electric field. We successfully apply our model to describe the angular dependence of the ionization signal of protons recently reported in measurements performed by the ArgoNeuT Collaboration with a liquid argon time projection chamber.

  5. El rol de los centros educativos en la prevención del abandono escolar : una aproximación desde la perspectiva micropolítica

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabini-Castellani, Aina

    2015-01-01

    España y Cataluña presentan unos niveles muy elevados de abandono escolar prematuro (AEP) que se sitúan muy lejos de los objetivos establecidos por la estrategia europea Education and Training 2020. Dada la relevancia del fenómeno, se han desarrollado numerosas políticas para abordar el fenómeno y avanzar en su prevención y combate. Los centros de educación secundaria no son agentes neutros en la adopción de dichas políticas, sino que tienen un rol activo en su implementación y recontextualiz...

  6. Discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges with argon/nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in γ mode with argon/nitrogen as the plasma-forming gas using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz are achieved. The preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics show that, induced by the α-γ coexisting mode or γ mode discharge of argon, argon-nitrogen mixture with any mixing ratios, even pure nitrogen, can be employed to generate the stable γ mode radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges and the discharge voltage rises with increasing the fraction of nitrogen in the argon-nitrogen mixture for a constant total gas flow rate

  7. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  8. Liquid argon pollution tests of ATLAS detector materials at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Merkulovm L; Minashkin, V F; Golikov, V V; Kulagin, E N; Luschikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Borzunov, Yu T; Chumakov, V; Tsvinev, A P; Shalyugin, A N

    2002-01-01

    aA cold irradiation test facility operated at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna, is used to investigate the behaviour under neutron and gamma irradiations of samples of materials and equipments to be used in the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and the hadronic end cap (HEC) liquid argon calorimeters. The samples under study are immersed in a liquid argon cryostat and exposed to fast neutron (E/sub n/ >or= 100 keV) fluences of about 10/sup 16/ n cm/sup -2/ equivalent to the neutron fluence accumulated in FCAL during ten years of LHC operation. An alpha -cell is used to check for possible outgassing due to irradiation of the samples immersed in liquid argon and to monitor the liquid argon purity. The results of various irradiation tests performed at this facility are reported. (6 refs).

  9. Comparison of krypton and argon laser photocoagulation. Results of stimulated clinical treatment of primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiddy, W E; Fine, S L; Quigley, H A; Hohman, R M; Addicks, E A

    1984-07-01

    We compared the clinical and histological effects of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), argon green laser (AGL), and krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation on the primate retina. Burns were produced in juxtafoveal and papillomacular bundle and in nonmacular areas in a manner simulating treatment of a choroidal neovascular membrane (NVM). In the juxtafoveal and papillomacular bundle areas, ABGL photocoagulation caused extensive inner retinal damage while KRL photocoagulation spared inner retinal structures. The effects of AGL photocoagulation in the fovea were intermediate in extent between KRL and ABGL photocoagulation. Axonal transport studies also showed differential effects of these wavelengths on retinal ganglion cell function. Nonmacular effects were similar for all three modalities. These results suggest that the krypton red wavelength may be more suitable than the argon green or argon blue-green wavelengths in treating choroidal NVMs near the fovea.

  10. Thermal information regarding the cooldown and operation of liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Cooper, W.E.; Dixon, K.D.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Primdahl, K.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Three liquid argon calorimeters were cooled down and operated as part of the D-Zero detector at Fermi National Accelerator laboratory. The largest vessel contains 248 metric tons of uranium and copper plates and 19 kL (5000 gal.) of liquid argon. The other two vessels are mirror images, each containing 185 metric tons of uranium and stainless steel plates and 12.1 kL (3200 gal.) of liquid argon. The cool down was accomplished by convection heat transfer between boiling liquid nitrogen filled finned heat exchangers and argon gas inside the vessels. Information regarding the general internal geometry of the calorimeters, cool down, operation, and steady state heat loads will be presented

  11. The radiolytic formation of nitric acid in argon/air/water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.; Stinchcombe, D.; White, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The extent of nitric acid formation in the γ-radiolysis of argon/air/water mixtures has been assessed. The yields of nitric acid are found to increase as water vapour pressure is increased but are lower in the presence of a discrete water phase. G values for the formation of nitric acid from argon/air mixtures based on energy absorbed in the air are increased in the presence of argon but the yields in an atmosphere of argon containing small amounts of moist air are smaller than from an atmosphere of moist air alone. The G value for nitric acid formation from pure air in the presence of a distinct water phase is 2, based on energy absorbed in the air. (author)

  12. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  13. Aluminium Morphological Modification by Nitrogen-Argon Mixture PIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munnoz-Castro, A.E.; Valencia Alvarado, R.; Penna-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Rodriguez-Mendez, B.G.; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la

    2011-01-01

    With incident fluences of ∼ 10 12 atoms/cm 2 aluminium samples have been plasma immersion ion implanted with either pure nitrogen or argon/nitrogen mixtures at temperatures around 450 o C. X-ray diffraction studies have validated the formation of the cubic phase of AlN, in samples treated with both the gas mixtures and pure nitrogen. Likewise, the presence of the hexagonal phase of AlN has been detected when either pure nitrogen or a 70% N/30% Ar mixture have been used. The signature peak of AlN has also been confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy. The maximal microhardness values were found in samples treated with the mixture. The maximal roughness was achieved with the equal part mixture in all cases, although increasing with the implantation pulse width up to a 300 nm peak at 150 μs. The latter critical value remains invariant under the pure nitrogen plasma treatment, provided that implantation periods in the order of 4.5 h are carried out. (author)

  14. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium effects in an argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Departures from thermal (translational), ionization, and excitation equilibrium in an axisymmetric argon plasma jet have been studied by two-dimensional numerical simulations. Electrons, ions, and excited and ground states of neutral atoms are represented as separate chemical species in the mixture. Transitions between excited states, as well as ionization/recombination reactions due to both collisional and radiative processes, are treated as separate chemical reactions. Resonance radiation transport is represented using Holstein escape factors to simulate both the optically thin and optically thick limits. The optically thin calculation showed significant underpopulation of excited species in the upstream part of the jet core, whereas in the optically thick calculation this region remains close to local thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with previous experimental observations. Resonance radiation absorption is therefore an important effect. The optically thick calculation results also show overpopulations (relative to equilibrium) of excited species and electron densities in the fringes and downstream part of the jet core. In these regions, however, the electrons and ions are essentially in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium with the excited state at the electron temperature, even though the ionized and excited states are no longer in equilibrium with the ground state. Departures from partial local thermodynamic equilibrium are observed in the outer fringes and far downstream part of the jet. These results are interpreted in terms of the local relative time scales for the various physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasma

  15. Calculation of the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascarelli, G.

    1986-01-01

    A model calculation is carried out in which we evaluate the mobility of electrons injected in liquid argon. Scattering by both phonons and static density fluctuations is taken into account. The calculation for the mobility limited by phonon scattering differs from the usual calculation in crystals by considering both the local changes in the deformation potential and the changes of the amplitude of the phonons that are caused by the existence of density fluctuations. The calculation of the mobility limited by scattering from density fluctuations is carried out with the assumption that they give rise to a square-well (or barrier) potential that will scatter the electrons. The above perturbation ΔV 0 is related to a density fluctuation Δn by ΔV 0 = V 0 (n-bar+Δn)-V 0 (n-bar). The scattering volumes Ω, where the density fluctuation Δn is located, are weighted by exp(-r/xi) where xi is the correlation length and r is the radius of Ω. The magnitude of the different density fluctuations is weighted by exp[-(Δn) 2 Ω/2nS(0)], where S(0) = nk/sub B/TK/sub T/, K/sub T/ is the isothermal compressibility. The calculation of the mean free path is carried out using partial waves. Both scattering mechanisms, scattering by phonons and static density fluctuations, give comparable contributions to the mobility

  16. Recurrence Spectroscopy of Autoionizing Rydberg Argon in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Previously, we have performed single uv-photon excitation of metastable argon to spin-orbit autoionizing states between the first and second fine structure ionization limits. [1] A pulsed frequency-doubled dye laser excites the valence electron to a Rydberg state and excites the ionic core from j=1/2 to j=3/2. The core then relaxes and ejects the Rydberg electron. We have developed a new apparatus that allows us to measure these autoionizing states in an electric field using a fast beam. Using this apparatus we have extended the field-free measurements to probe the semi-classical dynamics of this system in an electric field using the method of recurrence spectroscopy [2]. Recurrence spectra for the autoionizing states in an electric will be compared to the corresponding spectra in the bound state region. Work supported by National Science Foundation. [1] J.D. Wright, P.A. Walker, J.H. Gurian, M. van Lier-Walqui, J.M. Lambert, H. Flores-Rueda, and T.J. Morgan; Bulletin of the American Physical Society (2004) [2] M L Keeler, H Flores-Rueda, J D Wright, and T J Morgan; J. Phys. B. 37, 809-815 (2004)

  17. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Carmen J.

    1998-10-01

    The history of science is full of stories that exhibit scientific methodology to an exemplary degree. Such stories can be vehicles for the teaching of scientific thought to non-science majors in general-education science courses, particularly if they do not involve much technical background and are told in ordinary language. This paper illustrates the kind of lessons that can be gleaned from such stories by examining the discovery of argon, an episode replete with examples of how scientists pursue knowledge. Lord Rayleigh's use of multiple methods to determine the density of nitrogen; his persistent tracking down of a small but real anomaly in those measurements; his and William Ramsay's eventual realization that the anomaly was due to a previously unknown but relatively plentiful component of the atmosphere, an inert, monatomic gas; and Ramsay's subsequent successful search for other members of the inert gas family all illustrate the scientific approach to knowledge. This story can be presented to students in Rayleigh's words, annotated to supply background material and to pose questions.

  18. Isomerization dynamics and thermodynamics of ionic argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F.; Gadéa, F. X.; Lombardi, A.; Aquilanti, V.

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics and thermodynamics of small Arn+ clusters, n =3, 6, and 9, are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) and exchange Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A diatomic-in-molecule Hamiltonian provides an accurate model for the electronic ground state potential energy surface. The microcanonical caloric curves calculated from MD and MC methods are shown to agree with each other, provided that the rigorous conservation of angular momentum is accounted for in the phase space density of the MC simulations. The previously proposed projective partition of the kinetic energy is used to assist MD simulations in interpreting the cluster dynamics in terms of inertial, internal, and external modes. The thermal behavior is correlated with the nature of the charged core in the cluster by computing a dedicated charge localization order parameter. We also perform systematic quenches to establish a connection with the various isomers. We find that the Ar3+ cluster is very stable in its linear ground state geometry up to about 300K, and then isomerizes to a T-shaped isomer in which a quasineutral atom lies around a charged dimer. In Ar6+ and Ar9+, the covalent trimer core is solvated by neutral atoms, and the weakly bound solvent shell melts at much lower energies, occasionally leading to a tetramer or pentamer core with weakly charged extremities. At high energies the core itself becomes metastable and the cluster transforms into Ar2+ solvated by a fluid of neutral argon atoms.

  19. Free electron lifetime achievements in Liquid Argon Imaging TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cieslik, K; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Meng, G; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Varanini, F; Ventura, S

    2010-01-01

    A key feature for the success of the Liquid Argon TPC technology is the industrial purification against electro-negative impurities, especially Oxygen and Nitrogen remnants, which have to be initially and continuously kept at an exceptional purity. New purification techniques have been applied to a 120 litres LAr-TPC test facility in the INFN-LNL laboratory. Through-going muon tracks have been used to monitor the LAr purity. The short path length used (30 cm) is compensated by the high accuracy in the observation of the specific ionization of cosmic rays muons at sea level. A free electron lifetime of (21.4+7.3-4.3) ms, namely > 15.8 ms at 90 % C.L. has been observed under stable conditions over several weeks, corresponding to about 15 ppt (part per trillion) of Oxygen equivalent. At 500 V/cm, where the electron speed is approximately of 1.5 mm/us, the free electron lifetime >15 ms corresponds to an attenuation <15 % for a drift path of 5 m, opening the way to reliable operation of LAr TPC for exceptionall...

  20. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  1. The Simulation of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niess, V.

    2006-01-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is aimed at measuring electromagnetic energy deposit from pp collision produced at the Large Hadron Collider. It was designed to allow rare electromagnetic final states detection and jet spectroscopy in a high-background environment. The simulation of the calorimeter has a long history and is now a component of an integrated GEANT 4 based simulation of ATLAS. Its sophistication has increased during its development. At present it models many effects which significantly affect shower development and response. Step by step, the accuracy of the simulation is tested and tuned to beam test data accumulated in dedicated runs from 2001 to present. The framework in which it runs allows users to switch simulation configuration between pp collisions, cosmic rays and single particle data taking, with the full ATLAS detector or with the various beam test setups. For the purpose of hadronic and electromagnetic calibration, a detailed accounting scheme of energy flow, allowing energy deposits tracking in upstream dead material for example, is implemented. Fast parameterization of electromagnetic shower development has also recently become available. The software is developed by many experts around the world and works at a very high level of reliability because of the constant scrutiny it receives from a large community of developers and users, as well as a dedicated validation team

  2. Effects of uranium bombardment by 20-40 KeV argon ions, Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, T.; Jurela, Z.

    1966-01-01

    This paper shows the results of argon ions interaction with the polycrystal natural uranium. Thin foil of uranium about 200 μ was bombarded by 20-40 KeV argon ions. Coefficients of cathode scattering δ and secondary electrons emission γ were measured, during the process A + →U. The foil was then studied by transmission method and method of single step replica using an electron microscope [sr

  3. A correction to Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations for highly ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, Sergey; Horbatsch, Marko; Taylor, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the performance of Birks' Law in liquid argon ionization chamber simulations as applied to highly ionizing particles, such as particles with multiple electric charges or with magnetic charge. We used Birks' Law to model recombination effects in a GEANT4 simulation of heavy ions in a liquid argon calorimeter. We then compared the simulation to published heavy-ion data to extract a highly ionizing particle correction to Birks' Law.

  4. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the lesions induced by retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairambault, P.; Pairault, C.; Droy-Lefaix, M.T.; Magnier, B.; Magnier, M.

    1986-01-09

    In rabbits, retinal argon laser photocoagulation disrupts the arrangement of cell layers and produces interstitial edema. Photochemical and thermal energy is released with production of free oxygenated radicals that are responsible for destruction of cell membranes. Retinal argon laser photocoagulation in rabbits was used as a pharmacologic model to evaluate the protective effect of EGB 761 against membrane lesions and edema. As a strong free radicals scavengers, EGB 761 confirms its protective action on cells membranes and its anti-edema effect.

  5. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  6. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  7. Effect of Argon Laser on Enamel Demineralization around Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of argon laser irradiation on development and progress of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.Fifty caries-free, intact human premolars were randomly assigned to one of the following five equal groups: Groups 1 (control and 2: The brackets were bonded using conventional halogen light for 40s and argon laser for 10s, respectively. Teeth in group 3 were lased with argon laser for 10s before bracket bonding with halogen light. Group 4 was the same as group 3 except that brackets were also bonded with argon laser. In group 5 samples were bonded conventionally, immersed in an artificial caries solution for two days and then irradiated for 10s with argon laser. All samples were subjected to demineralization by artificial caries solution for 10 days. After bracket removal, samples were buccolingually sectioned and evaluated by polarized light microscopy. Decalcified lesion depth in each section was measured by a trained examiner in a blind fashion. Data were analyzed in SPSS 14 using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test.The control group showed the greatest mean lesion depth while group 5 revealed the lowest. The laser-treated groups had significantly lower mean lesion depth compared with the control group (P<0.05 except for group 4 (P=0.192.Argon laser irradiation for 10s before or during bracket bonding can increase caries resistance of intact and demineralized enamel.

  8. Condensed argon isentropic compression with ultrahigh magnetic field pressure: Experimental design. Post-shot report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, A.I.; Boriskov, G.V.; Dolotenko, M.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report continues the series of work devoted to experimental study of a high-dense condensed argon state. Remember that according to work of Kwon et. al., hexagonal close-packed structure is profitable in terms of energy rather than face-centered argon structure (stable with zero pressure). What is most interesting and intriguing here is the issue of possible argon metallization, when it is compressed up to the densities more than 9.17 g/cm{sup 3}. In the experiment of 1995 (the arrangement and data are described in a cited reference) the authors recorded appearance of conductivity in argon, which is non-conductive in the initial state, when it is compressed more than a factor of four. The peak value of argon specific conductivity recorded in this experiment did not exceed 10 (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. This value of conductivity is characteristic of semiconductors, but not metals, which have 10{sup 4} (Ohm x cm){sup {minus}1}. At this stage of the work the main attention is paid to recording of argon conductive state and studying the possibilities of multiframed radiography of the sample in the compressed state.

  9. Impacts of the CX neutrals on the Vacuum Vessel of TJ-II during NBI; Impactos de los Neutros de CX en la Camara de Vacio del TJ-II durante NBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical analysis of the impact patterns on the Vacuum Vessel produced by CX neutrals during the tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II Helical Axis Stellarator has been done. The results show periodical distributions with smooth maxima and mild loads, concentrated preferential on the HC plates. A certain preference of these neutral to emerge down wards from the plasma appears, as a consequence of a similar trend for the trapped particles. The differences between the impacts produced by the beam parallel to the magnetic field and the opposite one are small, once more as a consequence of the loss of memory of trapped particles to initial direction. The dependence of loads with plasma density and beam energy follows the trend of CX losses, decreasing strongly with increasing density and decreasing, more smoothly, with energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  10. Behaviour of direct and delayed fast ion losses during NBI on TJ-II; Comportamiento de las perdidas instantaneas y retardadas en la inyeccion de neutros del TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1995-07-01

    The dependence with density and beam energy of the different kind of fast ion losses, direct and delayed, during tangential balanced NBI injection in TJ-II helical axis stellarator has been analysed. Direct losses increase with energy and a strong difference between the two injection directions appears, are produced by passing particles that loss confinement in a few {mu}sec and the influence of birth profiles produces an increase with density. Delayed losses are very well separated in time from direct ones, are produced by particles experimenting pitch angle scattering and, most o them, correspond to trapped particles. Are much less important than the direct ones (about 1/3), decrease slowly with energy and, with C X, increase with density (an effect of initial profile). The absorption is rather independent of energy with low values at low density in reason of high shine through and C X losses, but recovers quickly with the density increase. (Author) 4 refs.

  11. Validación de la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sánchez-López

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El sesgo atencional para el alcohol se ha mostrado útil para identificar a personas con consumo patológico así como a personas dependientes con altas probabilidades de recaída. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol diseñado para evaluar el sesgo atencional en pacientes dependientes del alcohol. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 173 participantes divididos en dos grupos: Un grupo de pacientes (n = 88 cumpliendo criterios de dependencia alcohólica y un grupo control (n = 85 con riesgo bajo de consumo de alcohol, que realizaron el Test de palabras y colores de Stroop (Stroop clásico, el Test de Stroop neutro y el Test de Stroop de Alcohol. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las interferencias para el Stroop Clásico y el Stroop de Alcohol. Los pacientes con dependencia, en comparación a los participantes control, mostraron mayores interferencias para estímulos de contenido alcohólico que para estímulos de contenido neutro. Este efecto fue explicado por un sesgo atencional para información relacionada con el alcohol en pacientes con dependencia. Se calcularon curvas COR, observándose áreas bajo la curva estadísticamente significativas para las interferencias del Stroop clásico y del Stroop de alcohol. Este trabajo sirvió para validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol para evaluar sesgos atencionales hacia el alcohol en personas con problemas de consumo y dependencia alcohólica.

  12. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  13. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivel, J.-C., E-mail: jean@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhao, Y.; Tang, X.; Pallewatta, P.G.P.A. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Watenphul, A.; Zimmermann, M. von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • The dehydration of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O takes place between 50 °C and 120 °C. • La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} melts at 180 °C. • The decomposition of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3} to La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} involves a meta-butyrate intermediate. • CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COC{sub 3}H{sub 7} (4-heptanone) are released between 250 °C and 350 °C. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed as a final decomposition product. - Abstract: The thermal decomposition of La(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O (x ≈ 0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5 K/min. After the loss of bound H{sub 2}O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135 °C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180 °C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate is associated to a solidification process. The final decomposition to La{sub 2}O{sub 3} takes place via two intermediate products: La{sub 2}O(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sub 4} and La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with release of CO{sub 2} and the symmetrical ketone C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COC{sub 3}H{sub 7}.

  14. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  15. A generalização a partir do tratamento com fricativas: ambientes favoráveis versus ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros The generalization through the treatment with fricatives: favorable environments versus unfavorable and neutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar a ocorrência e os tipos de generalização observados a partir do tratamento das fricativas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ em dois grupos de crianças, um utilizando palavras com contextos fonológicos favoráveis e outro os contextos pouco favoráveis e neutros. Seis crianças com desvio fonológico e idades entre 4:7 e 7:8 participaram do estudo com a autorização dos responsáveis. Realizaram-se avaliações fonoaudiológicas e complementares para o diagnóstico do desvio fonológico. Os sujeitos foram pareados de acordo com a gravidade do desvio, sexo, faixa etária e aspectos do sistema fonológico em relação aos fonemas alterados. Metade das crianças foi tratada com palavras em que os fonemas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ encontravam-se em ambientes fonológicos favoráveis e a outra metade com ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros. Foram realizadas oito sessões e, após estas, nova avaliação de fala foi realizada para verificar os tipos de generalização obtidos. Os percentuais de generalizações foram comparados entre os grupos por meio do teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney (pThe aim of this study was to analyze and compare the occurrence and the types of generalization observed through the treatment of the fricatives /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ in two groups of children, one using words with favorable phonological contexts and another with unfavorable and neutral contexts. Six children with phonological disorder between 4:7 and 7:8 year-old participated in the study, with their parents' authorization. There were speech-language and complementary evaluations to diagnose the phonological disorder. The subjects were matched according to the severity of the phonological disorder, sex, age and aspects of the phonological system in relation to the altered phonemes. Half the children were treated with words in which the phonemes /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ were in favorable phonological environments and the other half with unfavorable

  16. Comparação de métodos in vitro para a quantificação da digestibilidade da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro de forragens e concentrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se comparar a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da fibra em detergente neutro (DIVFDN de forragens e concentrados obtidos por intermédio das incubadoras DaisyII e TE-150, combinadas com filter bags tipo F57 (Ankon® ou tecido não-tecido (TNT, 100g/m², em relação aos valores obtidos utilizando-se o método de Tilley e Terry (1963. Foram utilizadas 25 amostras de alimentos concentrados e 25 de forragens. Não houve diferenças entre filter bags (P>0,39 para a DIVMS de forragens. Maiores valores de DIVMS (P<0,01 foram verificados para a incubadora TE-150 em relação à DaisyII. As estimativas de DIVMS obtidas com incubadoras e filter bags foram superiores (P<0,01 àquelas obtidas com o método Tilley e Terry (1963. Observaram-se maiores valores de DIVFDN de forragens (P<0,01 com filter bags F57 em relação ao TNT e com a incubadora TE-150 em relação à DaisyII. Todos os valores de DIVFDN obtidos com incubadoras e filter bags foram superiores (P<0,01 aos obtidos com o método Tilley e Terry (1963. Todos os métodos apresentaram-se positiva e fortemente correlacionados (P<0,01, tanto para DIVMS como para DIVFDN. As repetibilidades e variâncias entre amostras para DIVMS e DIVFDN foram similares entre os métodos. Portanto, conclui-se que, em se tratando de avaliações comparativas entre alimentos, todos os métodos avaliados possuem capacidade similar de discriminação.

  17. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  18. Effect of cold argon plasma on eggs of the blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Boonyawan, Dheerawan; Umongno, Chanchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Leksomboon, Rattana; Sukontason, Kom

    2017-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma has been used in many medical applications, including treatment of living cells, blood coagulation, wound healing, and sterilization. The process uses an environmentally friendly gas (e.g., argon, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen) to destroy bacteria cells with no serious adverse effect on humans or animals. However, information on the effect of argon plasma on blow fly eggs is lacking. In this study, we explored the ability of cold argon plasma to destroy the eggs of the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830); its larvae are a myiasis-producing agent in both human and animals. We tested the effect of cold argon plasma exposure for 1, 2, 3 and 5min on L. cuprina eggs. Since the temperature of cold Ar plasma is around 30°C, to clarify the effect of temperature on the fly eggs, hot air from an electric dryer was tested for comparison. Cold argon plasma exposure in eggs significantly reduced the survival rates of second instar larvae at all exposures tested; the effects were time dependent, with a stronger effect at longer exposure (32% survival rate after a 1-min treatment; 20%, 2min; 20%, 3min; and 6%, 5min), compared to the control (86%). No significant differences were observed in larval survival rates from eggs treated with hot air (80-84%, after 1- to 5-min treatments) versus the control (86%). These results were supported by observing the treated eggshells under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found noticeable aberrations only in the plasma treated groups. The emission spectrum of the argon gas discharge revealed emission lines of hydroxyl radicals at 309.1nm; these may cause the deterioration of the treated L. cuprina eggs. Our results have shown the possibility of using cold argon plasma in medical applications, in particular treating myiasis wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. La teoría del ciclo económico de Friedrich von Hayek: causas monetarias, efectos reales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Betancourt Rebeca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura simultánea de dos textos: La Teoría monetaria y el ciclo económico (1929 y Precios y producción (1931, con el objetivo de presentar la teoría de los ciclos económicos del joven Hayek, como un conjunto teórico congruente. Ambos textos poseen una unidad temática complementaria, que representa el pensamiento del joven Hayek. Este artículo, subraya la distinción entre el rol que juegan los factores reales y los monetarios en la coherencia de su teoría. Aunque Hayek demuestre que el dinero no es neutro, ya que existe una variación de la estructura de los precios relativos, su propósito era probar su neutralidad.

  20. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  1. A Low Noise Lifetime Measurement of Electrons Drifting in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Shawn; Sobie, R

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed cryostat apparatus was built to operate a liquid argon ionization cell with very low acoustic noise. The cryostat was equipped with a system to damp out low frequency vibrations and thus reduce induced acoustic noise on the data transients. A liquid argon ionization cell was tested in the new cryostat by measuring the ionization of the argon by cosmic ray muons. Digital filtering of the individual data transients improved the purity of the data set used to generate ensemble averaged transients for different electric fields across the ionization cell. Transient waveform analysis was used on these averaged transients to extract the mean electron lifetime of the ionization electrons drifting in the liquid argon. A result for the free electron lifetime of 0.897 +/- 0.005 (stat) +0.023 - 0.032 (syst) micro seconds was found. The electron lifetime can be used as to determine the concentration of oxygen equivalent contamination in the liquid argon of this experiment. This value of the electron...

  2. Argon: Systematic Review on Neuro- and Organoprotective Properties of an “Inert” Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Höllig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Argon belongs to the group of noble gases, which are regarded as chemically inert. Astonishingly some of these gases exert biological properties and during the last decades more and more reports demonstrated neuroprotective and organoprotective effects. Recent studies predominately use in vivo or in vitro models for ischemic pathologies to investigate the effect of argon treatment. Promising data has been published concerning pathologies like cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, models applied and administration of the therapeutic gas vary. Here we provide a systematic review to summarize the available data on argon’s neuro- and organoprotective effects and discuss its possible mechanism of action. We aim to provide a summary to allow further studies with a more homogeneous setting to investigate possible clinical applications of argon.

  3. Rotational study on the van der Waals complex 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane-argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Junhua; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2018-03-15

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex formed between 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane and argon has been investigated by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Only one set of rotational transitions belonging to the lowest energy conformer has been observed and assigned, although theoretical calculations suggest six stable conformers that might be observed. The observed conformer, according to the experimental evidence from two isotopologues ( 35 Cl and 37 Cl), adopts a configuration in which the argon atom is located, close to the CF 2 Cl top, between the CCF and CCCl planes (the dihedral angle ∠ArCCCl is 65.2°). The distance between argon atom and the center of mass of CH 3 CF 2 Cl is 3.949(2) Å. The dissociation energy, with pseudo diatomic approximation, is evaluated to be 2.4kJmol -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of Gamble 2 argon gas puff experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, J.W.; Young, F.C.; Whitney, K.G.; Davis, J.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative MHD analysis of an imploding argon gas puff plasma is performed. The calculations are set up to approximate the conditions of a series of argon gas puff experiments that were carried out on the NRL Gamble II generator. Annular gas puffs (2.5 cm diameter) are imploded with a 1.2-MA peak driving current for different initial argon mass loadings. Comparisons are made with the experimental results for implosion times, K, L-shell x-ray emission, and energy coupled from the generator to the plasma load. The purpose of these calculations is to provide a foundation from which a variety of physical phenomena which influence the power and total energy of the x-ray emission can be analyzed. Comparisons with similar experimental and theoretical results for aluminum plasmas are discussed

  5. Plasma heating and acceleration in current sheets formed in discharges in argon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrie N.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to present notion, flares on the sun and other stars, substorms in magnetospheres of Earth and other planets, and disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasma are connected to development of current sheets in magnetized plasma. Therefore, current sheet dynamics and magnetic reconnection processes were studied actively during the last several decades. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of plasma heating and acceleration in current sheets formed in discharges in argon. The temperature and energy of directed motion of argon ions of different degrees of ionization were measured by spectroscopic methods. It was found that Ar II, Ar III and Ar IV ions are localized in different regions of the sheet. It was shown that Ampere forces applied to the sheet can accelerate the argon ions to observed energies.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of matrix deposition. III. Site structure analysis for porphycene in argon and xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, Alexander; Waluk, Jacek

    2005-08-08

    Porphycene (1) and porphyrin (2), two constitutional isomers, reveal completely different electronic spectral patterns in argon and xenon matrices. For the former the spectra recorded in the two solidified gases resemble each other, whereas for the latter they are completely different. This difference can be rationalized by molecular-dynamics simulations of the structure of the microenvironment carried out for the two chromophores embedded in argon and xenon hosts. For 1, the structure of the main substitutional site is the same for Ar and Xe and consists of a hexagonal cavity obtained by removing seven host atoms from the [111] crystallographic plane. An analogous structure is obtained for 2 in xenon. However, in argon the porphyrin chromophore environment is shared between several different sites, with the number of replaced host atoms ranging from seven to ten. These results demonstrate that a relatively minor structural alternation may lead to major changes in the spectral pattern of molecules embedded in rare-gas cryogenic matrices.

  7. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  8. Dynamics of the ions in liquid argon detectors and electron signal quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luciano; Santorelli, Roberto; Montes, Bárbara

    2017-06-01

    A study of the dynamics of the positive charges in liquid argon has been carried out in the context of the future massive time projection chambers proposed for dark matter and neutrino physics. Given their small mobility coefficient in liquid argon, the ions spend a considerably longer time in the active volume with respect to the electrons. The positive charge density can be additionally increased by the injection, in the liquid volume, of the ions produced by the electron multiplying devices located in gas argon. The impact of the ion current on the uniformity of the field has been evaluated as well as the probability of the charge signal quenching due to the electron-ion recombination along the drift. The study results show some potential concerns for massive detectors with drift of many meters operated on surface.

  9. Cleaning method of aluminium surface by argon discharge for photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Watabe, Hiromi; Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Mathewson, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In the Photon Factory program of High Energy Research Laboratory, in which the electron storage ring as a photon source stores the electron beam of 2.5 GeV and 500 mA, beam intensity the probability of gas discharge from the inner surface of doughnut wall due to electron bombardment (for 100 eV electorns) must be limited to 1 x 10 -6 or less, according to the estimation by A.G. Mathewson and others. The pressure inside the ring can be maintained at 1 x 10 -9 Torr only with the above probability value. The standard surface treatment of degreasing and evacuation for 24 hours with heating at 150 deg. C can be of no practical use. Since the ion bombardment of surfaces by argon glow discharge is effective for decreasing the probability, the reduction of the probability by argon discharge cleaning was measured with the surface of aluminium, which is planned to be used as the doughnut material. Two methods were employed for the measurement; the one is analysis of gases being discharged, by introducting them to the analyzing chamber during argon discharge and the other is the measurement of the probability when bombardment with electrons of 100 eV is applied, after stopping argon introduction and evacuating after argon discharge had been performed for a definite period. As a result, the probability of approximately 2 x 10 -5 at the beginning of electron beam incidence was obtained by adding argon discharge cleaning to the standard method. This is estimated to correspondent to approximately 25 mA of beam intensity, which is equivalent to 1/20 of the planned value. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. 40Ar/39Ar systematics and argon diffusion in amber: implications for ancient earth atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Argon isotope data indicate retained argon in bulk amber (matrix gas) is radiogenic [40Ar/39Ar ???32o] than the much more abundant surface absorbed argon [40Ar/39Ar ???295.5]. Neutron-induced 39Ar is retained in amber during heating experiments to 150?? -250??C, with no evidence of recoiled 39Ar found after irradiation. A maximum permissible volume diffusion coefficient of argon in amber (at ambient temperature) D???1.5 x 10-17 cm2S-1 is calculated from 39Ar retention. 40Ar/39Ar age calculations indicate Dominican Republic amber is ??? 45 Ma and North Dakota amber is ??? 89 Ma, both at least reasonable ages for the amber based upon stratigraphic and paleontological constraints and upon the small amount of radiogenic 40Ar. To date, over 300 gas analyses of ambers and resins of Cretaceous to Recent age that are geographically distributed among fifteen noted world locations identify mixtures of gases in different sites within amber (Berner and Landis, 1988). The presence of multiple mixing trends between compositionally distinct end-members gases within the same sample and evidence for retained radiogenic argon within the amber argue persuasivley against rapid exchange by diffusion of amber-contained gases with moder air. Only gas in primary bubbles entrapped between successive flows of tree resin has been interpreted as original "ancient air", which is an O2-rich end-member gas with air-like N2/Ar ratios. Gas analyses of these primary bubbles indicate atmospheric O2 levels in the Late Cretaceous of ??? 35%, and that atmospheric O2 dropped by early Tertiary time to near a present atmospheric level of 21% O2. A very low argon diffusion coefficient in amber persuasively argues for a gas in primary bubbles trapped in amber being ancient air (possibly modified only by O2 reaction with amber). ?? 1991.

  11. XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Krejčí, F.; Kroupa, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 370, č. 1 (2012), s. 012049 ISSN 1742-6588. [Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)/14/. Mar del Plata, 20.11.2011-25.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Laser plasma source of XUV radiation in water window range * RHMD Z* engine code Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/370/1/012049/pdf/1742-6596_370_1_012049.pdf

  12. Heat Transfer During Evaporation of Cesium From Graphite Surface in an Argon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespala Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on discussion of problem of graphite radioactive waste formation and accumulation. It is shown that irradiated nuclear graphite being inalienable part of uranium-graphite reactor may contain fission and activation products. Much attention is given to the process of formation of radioactive cesium on the graphite element surface. It is described a process of plasma decontamination of irradiated graphite in inert argon atmosphere. Quasi-one mathematical model is offered, it describes heat transfer process in graphite-cesium-argon system. Article shows results of calculation of temperature field inside the unit cell. Authors determined the factors which influence on temperature change.

  13. Liquid Argon Pollution Tests of the ATLAS Detector Materials at IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Cheplakov, A P; Chumakov, V; Golikov, V; Golovanov, L B; Golubyh, S M; Kukhtin, V; Kulagin, E; Luschikov, V; Minashkin, V F; Shalyugin, A N; Tsvinev, A P

    1999-01-01

    A cold test facility has been in operation since October 1998 at the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. During four measurement campaigns, various samples of the ATLAS forward (FCAL) and hadronic end cap (HEC) calorimeter materials have been exposed to a fast neutron ($E_n \\geq 100$ keV) fluence of about 10$^{16}$~n~cm$^{-2}$. The samples were immersed in a liquid argon cryostat, and an $\\alpha$-cell has been used as purity monitor. Results of the liquid argon pollution study obtained during these measurement campaigns are presented.

  14. Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, H; Aleksa, M; Aperio Bella, L; Archambault, JP; Arfaoui, S; Arnaez, O; Auge, E; Aurousseau, M; Bahinipati, S; Ban, J; Banfi, D; Barajas, A; Barillari, T; Bazan, A; Bellachia, F; Beloborodova, O; Benchekroun, D; Benslama, K; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Bernat, P; Bernier, R; Besson, N; Binet, S; Blanchard, JB; Blondel, A; Bobrovnikov, V; Bohner, O; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Bouchel, M; Bourdarios, C; Bozzone, A; Braun, HM; Breton, D; Brettel, H; Brooijmans, G; Caputo, R; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Caughron, S; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Chareyre, E; Chase, RL; Chekulaev, SV; Chen, H; Cheplakov, A; Chiche, R; Citterio, M; Cojocaru, C; Colas, J; Collard, C; Collot, J; Consonni, M; Cooke, M; Copic, K; Costa, GC; Courneyea, L; Cuisy, D; Cwienk, WD; Damazio, D; Dannheim, D; De Cecco, S; De La Broise, X; De La Taille, C; de Vivie, JB; Debennerot, B; Delagnes, E; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, L; Doan, O; Dudziak, F; Duflot, L; Dumont-Dayot, N; Dzahini, D; Elles, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Etienvre, AI; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farooque, T; Favre, P; Fayard, Louis; Fent, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, A; Fournier, D; Fournier, L; Fras, M; Froeschl, R; Gadfort, T; Gallin-Martel, ML; Gibson, A; Gillberg, D; Gingrich, DM; Göpfert, T; Goodson, J; Gouighri, M; Goy, C; Grassi, V; Gray, J; Guillemin, T; Guo, B; Habring, J; Handel, C; Heelan, L; Heintz, H; Helary, L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hervas, L; Hobbs, J; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, JY; Hoummada, A; Hrivnac, J; Hrynova, T; Hubaut, F; Huber, J; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Iengo, P; Imbert, P; Ishmukhametov, R; Jantsch, A; Javadov, N; Jezequel, S; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Ju, XY; Kado, M; Kalinowski, A; Kar, D; Karev, A; Katsanos, I; Kazarinov, M; Kerschen, N; Kierstead, J; Kim, MS; Kiryunin, A; Kladiva, E; Knecht, N; Kobel, M; Koletsou, I; König, S; Krieger, P; Kukhtin, V; Kuna, M; Kurchaninov, L; Labbe, J; Lacour, D; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lamarra, D; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Laskus, H; Le Coguie, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Lechowski, M; Lee, SC; Lefebvre, M; Leonhardt, K; Lethiec, L; Leveque, J; Liang, Z; Liu, C; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Loch, P; Lu, J; Ma, H; Mader, W; Majewski, S; Makovec, N; Makowiecki, D; Mandelli, L; Mangeard, PS; Mansoulie, B; Marchand, JF; Marchiori, G; Martin, D; Martin-Chassard, G; Martin dit Latour, B; Marzin, A; Maslennikov, A; Massol, N; Matricon, P; Maximov, D; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, T; McPherson, R; Menke, S; Meyer, JP; Ming, Y; Monnier, E; Mooshofer, P; Neganov, A; Niedercorn, F; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nugent, IM; Oakham, G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Odier, J; Oram, CJ; Orlov, I; Orr, R; Parsons, JA; Peleganchuk, S; Penson, A; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Perus, A; Petit, E; Pisarev, I; Plamondon, M; Poffenberger, P; Poggioli, L; Pospelov, G; Pralavorio, P; Prast, J; Prudent, X; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Quentin, M; Radeka, V; Rajagopalan, S; Rauter, E; Reimann, O; Rescia, S; Resende, B; Richer, JP; Ridel, M; Rios, R; Roos, L; Rosenbaum, G; Rosenzweig, H; Rossetto, O; Roudil, W; Rousseau, D; Ruan, X; Rudert, A; Rusakovich, N; Rusquart, P; Rutherfoord, J; Sauvage, G; Savine, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaffer, A; Schram, M; Schwemling, P; Seguin Moreau, N; Seifert, F; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Shalyugin, A; Shupe, M; Simion, S; Sinervo, P; Sippach, W; Skovpen, K; Sliwa, R; Soukharev, A; Spano, F; Stavina, P; Straessner, A; Strizenec, P; Stroynowski, R; Talyshev, A; Tapprogge, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, GF; Teuscher, R; Tikhonov, Yu; Tocut, V; Tompkins, D; Thompson, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Tomasz, F; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, Thi N; Trochet, S; Trocme, B; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsionou, D; Ueno, R; Unal, G; Urbaniec, D; Usov, Y; Voss, K; Veillet, JJ; Vincter, M; Vogt, S; Weng, Z; Whalen, K; Wicek, F; Wilkens, H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wulf, E; Yang, Z; Ye, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zarzhitsky, P; Zerwas, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Zhou, N; Zimmer, J; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. ATLAS includes electromagnetic and hadronic liquid argon calorimeters, with almost 200,000 channels of data that must be sampled at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz. The calorimeter electronics calibration and readout are performed by custom electronics developed specifically for these purposes. This paper describes the system performance of the ATLAS liquid argon calibration and readout electronics, including noise, energy and time resolution, and long term stability, with data taken mainly from full-system calibration runs performed after installation of the system in the ATLAS detector hall at CERN.

  15. Characterization of weakly ionized argon flows for radio blackout mitigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, L.; Koch, U.; Esser, B.; Gülhan, A.

    2017-06-01

    For reproducing the so-called E × B communication blackout mitigation scheme inside the L2K arc heated facility of the DLR in weakly ionized argon §ows, a §at plate model has been equipped with a superconducting magnet, electrodes, and a setup comprising microwave plasma transmission spectroscopy (MPTS). A thorough characterization of the weakly ionized argon §ow has been performed including the use of microwave interferometry (MWI), Langmuir probe measurements, Pitot probe pro¦les, and spectroscopic methods like diode laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS) and emission spectroscopy.

  16. Heat transfer from rarefied ionized argon gas to a biased wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzawa, A.; Honda, T.; Hayashi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The heat transfer rates from an argon plasma jet at 507 Pa to a 0.15-mm-i.d. tungsten wire to which various potentials are applied against the plasma jet were measured and compared with the theoretical calculation. The heat flow rate was obtained from the electric resistance change of the wire. When the wire is biased, the probe current obstructs the accurate measurement. Therefore, the current was cut off by a switching circuit. And, the accommodation coefficients of argon atoms and ions were determined 0.62 and 0.48. (author)

  17. Operation of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The DO calorimeter consists of three separate cryostats containing uranium modules in liquid argon. This odorimeter has transverse segmentation of 0.1 x 0.1 in η x 0 and consists of eight or nine longitudinal readout segments. The coverage in η extends to 4. As a result of the large coverage and fine segmentation there are 50,000 channels of electronics. After a brief description of the electronics, stability and noise aspects will be investigated. Results of the liquid-argon purity studies will be discssed. The backgrounds in the calorimeter due to the Fermilab main ring will also be examined

  18. Fast argon ion irradiation effect on the characteristics of silicon planar structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karatetskii, S S; Sokolov, V I

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV on the planar structures parameters is studied with the purpose of determining the possibilities of their controlled change. It is shown, that the planar structures irradiation by the argon ions with the energy of 40 MeV leads to decrease in the capacitance of the MOS-condensers and narrows the area of the photosensitivity of the p - n-transitions. The observed effects are explained by the specificity of violations, created by fast ions in the crystal

  19. Argon bubble behavior in slide-gate tundish nozzles during continuous casting of steel slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua

    2000-10-01

    Argon injection into a tundish nozzle is an efficient and widely employed method to reduce nozzle clogging in the continuous casting process. It also affects casting operation and product quality by changing the flow pattern in the nozzle and mold. The current work combines mathematical modeling and experiments to investigate the argon bubble behavior in slide-gate nozzles and to analyze phenomena related to product defects and operational problems during the continuous casting of steel slabs. Water model experiments are performed to study bubble formation behavior, including bubble size, frequency, mode and effects of variables such as liquid velocity, gas injection flow rate, gas injection hole size and gas density. An analytical model is developed to predict the average bubble size. Argon gas bubbles are predicted to be 1--5mm. This is larger than air bubbles in water, especially at low speed. A three-dimensional finite difference model is developed to study the turbulent flow of liquid steel and argon bubble in the slide-gate nozzles. Experiments are performed on a 0.4-scale "water caster" to verify the model by comparing the model prediction with the measurements using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technology. A weighted average scheme for the overall outflow is developed to quantify jet characteristics such as jet angle, jet speed, back flow zone fraction, turbulence and biased mass flow. Swirl is generated at nozzle ports. The validated model is employed to perform extensive parametric studies to investigate the effects of casting operation conditions such as gas injection, slide-gate orientation, casting speed, gate opening and bubble size and nozzle port design including port angle and port shape. The interrelated effects of nozzle clogging, argon injection, tundish bath depth, slide gate opening and nozzle bore diameter on the flow rate and pressure in tundish nozzles are quantified using an inverse model, based on interpolation of the numerical

  20. Flow properties in expansion tube with helium, argon, air, and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Test flow velocities from 5 to 7 km/sec were generated in a 6-in. expansion tube using helium, argon, air, and CO2 test gases. Pitot pressure profiles across the flow at the test section are presented for the four test gases, and measured flow quantities are compared to computer predicted values. Comparison of predicted and measured flow quantities suggests the expansion to be near thermochemical equilibrium for all test gases and implies the existence of a totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm. Argon, air, and CO2 flows were observed to attenuate while traversing the acceleration section, whereas no attenuation was observed for helium.

  1. Comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Feeding behaviour of lactating ewes fed diets containing different neutral detergent fiber levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Haetinger Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do fornecimento de dietas com diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 18 ovelhas 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel, confinadas 24 horas após o parto em baias individuais, sendo aleatoriamente distribuídas em três tratamentos: 34, 43 e 52% de FDN na dieta. As dietas, isoproteicas, foram compostas por silagem de milho (Zea mays L., milho triturado, farelo de soja (Glycine max L., calcário calcítico, fosfato bicálcico e sal comum, sendo fornecidas ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia, em horários pré-estabelecidos às 8h30min e 16h30min. O comportamento ingestivo dos animais foi determinado mediante apreciação visual. O aumento do nível de FDN na dieta influenciou significativamente os consumos de MS e FDN, a produção de leite e os tempos despendidos em ingestão, ruminação, ócio e mastigação total, que variaram de forma quadrática (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF levels in the diet on ingestive behavior of lactating ewes. Eighteen 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel ewes, housed in individual cage 24 hours postpartum, were used. Animals were assigned to one of three treatments: 34, 43 and 52% NDF in the diet, in dry matter (DM basis. The total mixed rations, composed by corn silage (Zea mays L., ground corn, soybean meal (Glycine max L., limestone, salt and dicalcium phosphate, were given twice a day, at 0830 AM and 0430 PM. Ingestive behavior was determined by visual appreciation. The increase of the NDF level in the diet significantly influenced (P<.05 DM and NDF intakes, milk yield, and the feeding, rumination, idleness resting and total chewing times, that varied quadratically (P<.05. The NDF feeding and rumination efficiency increased, whereas DM feeding and rumination efficiency linearly decreased (P<.05 as effect of the NDF increased, being necessary

  2. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  3. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  4. Mechanism of the immobilization of surfactants on polymeric surfaces by means of an argon plasma treatment: Influence of UV radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Spaay, B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of the immobilization of the surfactant sodium 10-undecenoate (C11(:)) on poly(ethylene) (PE) by means of an argon plasma treatment has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the argon plasma on the immobilization was

  5. Pressure effects on some argon spectral lines belonging to the 3p54p-3p5nd (n=5-7) transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnikowski, J.; Wawrzynski, J.; Bielski, A.; Szudy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Low pressure broadening and shift of four spectral lines of argon: 518.7 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d'), 522.1 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 7d), 549.6 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 6d) and 603.2 nm (3p 5 4p-3p 5 5d) have been investigated by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The values of the pressure broadening and shift coefficients for argon-argon, argon-neon and argon-helium interactions in the low-current glow discharge conditions are determined. For all lines in the pure argon a red shift and in the argon-neon and argon-helium mixtures a blue shift has been found. The results cannot be interpreted on the basis of the existing simple interaction potential models within the framework of the adiabatic impact broadening theory. (orig.)

  6. Proton and antiproton interactions in hydrogen, argon and xenon at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, P.

    1984-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the production of particles emitted into forward hemisphere in 200 GeV proton and antiproton interactions with hydrogen, argon and xenon targets is presented. Two-particle rapidity correlations and long-range multiplicity correlations are also discussed. (author)

  7. Accurate description of argon and water adsorption on surfaces of graphene-based carbon allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysilka, Jiří; Rubeš, Miroslav; Grajciar, Lukáš; Nachtigall, Petr; Bludský, Ota

    2011-10-20

    Accurate interaction energies of nonpolar (argon) and polar (water) adsorbates with graphene-based carbon allotropes were calculated by means of a combined density functional theory (DFT)-ab initio computational scheme. The calculated interaction energy of argon with graphite (-9.7 kJ mol(-1)) is in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The calculated interaction energy of water with graphene and graphite is -12.8 and -14.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The accuracy of combined DFT-ab initio methods is discussed in detail based on a comparison with the highly precise interaction energies of argon and water with coronene obtained at the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. A new strategy for a reliable estimate of the CBS limit is proposed for systems where numerical instabilities occur owing to basis-set near-linear dependence. The most accurate estimate of the argon and water interaction with coronene (-8.1 and -14.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) is compared with the results of other methods used for the accurate description of weak intermolecular interactions.

  8. Transport diffusion of argon in AIPO4-5 from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jacob; Tepper, H.L.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Briels, Willem J.

    2000-01-01

    Transport diffusion of argon in the unidirectional channels of the molecular sieve AlPO4-5 has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Using the Green–Kubo formalism, this nonequilibrium property is, for the first time, extracted from just one equilibrium simulation. Apart from the

  9. Liquid argon dielectric breakdown studies with the MicroBooNE purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Carls, B.; James, C.; Johnson, B.; Jostlein, H.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Raaf, J. L.; Rameika, R.; Rebel, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zuckerbrot, M.

    2014-11-01

    The proliferation of liquid argon time projection chamber detectors makes the characterization of the dielectric properties of liquid argon a critical task. To improve understanding of these properties, a systematic study of the breakdown electric field in liquid argon was conducted using a dedicated cryostat connected to the MicroBooNE cryogenic system at Fermilab. An electrode sphere-plate geometry was implemented using spheres with diameters of 1.3 mm, 5.0 mm, and 76 mm. The MicroBooNE cryogenic system allowed measurements to be taken at a variety of electronegative contamination levels ranging from a few parts-per-million to tens of parts-per-trillion. The cathode-anode distance was varied from 0.1 mm to 2.5 cm. The results demonstrate a geometric dependence of the electric field strength at breakdown. This study is the first time that the dependence of the breakdown field on stressed cathode area has been shown for liquid argon.

  10. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set ...... Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4742153]...

  11. Experimental study of a negative corona in atmospheric-pressure argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandaron, G.-N. B.; Baldanov, B. B.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of a negative point-to-plane dc corona in atmospheric-pressure argon. Several operating modes are identified: a hysteresis region, a repetitive mode, and a glow-discharge mode. The effect of gas-dynamic parameters on the characteristics of a repetitive negative corona is investigated

  12. Low-Temperature Positive Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Neat and Argon-Diluted Organic Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Harry T.; Michl, Josef; King, Robert N.; Andrade, Joseph D.

    1978-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry of neat solid propane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, and of propane imbedded in an argon matrix were observed at temperatures varying from 10 to 110 K and show fragmentation patterns similar to those known from ordinary electron impact mass spectrometry. The effects of

  13. The argon spectrum in the range of 1200-2000 cm.sup.-1./sup.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanozina, Ekaterina; Naskidashvili, A. V.; Chernov, V. E.; Civiš, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Ferus, Martin; Juha, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 5 (2016), s. 655-664 ISSN 0030-400X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : atomic argon * time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy * quantum-defect method Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2016

  14. Pilot study about dose-effect relationship of ocular injury in argon laser photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Zhang, C. P.; Fu, X. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Wang, C. Z.; Qian, H. W.; San, Q.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the injury effect of either convergent or parallel argon laser beam on rabbit retina, get the dose-effect relationship for the two types of laser beams, and calculate the damage threshold of argon laser for human retinas. An argon laser therapeutic instrument for ophthalmology was used in this study. A total of 80 rabbit eyes were irradiated for 600 lesions, half of which were treated by convergent laser and the other half were done with parallel laser beam. After irradiation, slit lamp microscope and fundus photography were used to observe the lesions, change and the incidence of injury was processed statistically to get the damage threshold of rabbit retina. Based on results from the experiments on animals and the data from clinical cases of laser treatment, the photocoagulation damage thresholds of human retinas for convergent and parallel argon laser were calculated to be 0.464 and 0.285 mJ respectively. These data provided biological reference for safely operation when employing laser photocoagulation in clinical practice and other fields.

  15. Fabrication of poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-switching diodes using thermal nanoimprint lithography and argon milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kettle, J.; Whitelegg, S.; Song, M.; Madec, M. B.; Yeates, S.; Turner, M. L.; Kotačka, L.; Kolařík, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2009), s. 2801-2804 ISSN 1071-1023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/2325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : argon * milling * nanolithography * organic semiconductors * semiconductor diodes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.460, year: 2009

  16. Gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-08-01

    A method of gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxygen, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a static system. Conditions for the application of the method in dynamic systems are specified. Sensibility of the method: 5 10 -4 cm 3 Ar per cm 3 of air. (author)

  17. Pollution of liquid argon after neutron irradiation measured at SARA: summary of raw data

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; de Saintignon, P; Ferrari, A; Hostachy, J Y; Martin, P; Wielers, M; Belymam, A; Hoummada, A; Merkel, B; Puzo, P M; Sauvage, D

    1998-01-01

    The SARA fast neutron facility has been used to irradiate various pieces of materials due to be used in the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, immersed in a liquid argon cryostat. The subsequent pollution was measured. The raw data have been summarized in this paper.

  18. Induced luminescence by charged particles on gaseous, liquid and solid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Torres, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A spectral and a kinetic study of the scintillation induced by β and α particles in gaseous, liquid and solid argon have been made in the wavelength region comprised between 1100 and 3000A. The radiative lifetimes and some spectroscopic parameters of the lowest dimer states ( 1 Σ + sub(u) and 3 Σ + sub(u)) have been determined: tau 0 ( 1 Σ + sub(u)) = 4.2ns; tau 0 ( 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 3.1μs; ΔE( 1 Σ + sub(u)- 3 Σ + sub(u)) = 52 meV; hω = 230 cm -1 . A non radiative de-excitation rate of the 3 Σ + sub(u) state has been measured: approximately 2x10 -17 cm 3 s -1 . By applying an electric field the contribution of the electron-ion recombination mechanism to the gaseous argon scintillation is studied. For condensed argon, the dependence of the ratio between the fluorescence and the phosphorescence intensities on the ionisation power of the impinging particle is verified. The continuum which extends from 1600 to 2900A and that is present only in the gas phase spectra, is ascribed to the radiative de-excitation of molecular ions. A time resolved study of the luminescence of high pressure (1-15atm) argon excited by a pulsed electric discharge has also been performed and is compared with that of the scintillation induced by nuclear particles [fr

  19. Contribution to the evaluation of diffusion coefficients in plasmas containing argon and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N V

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical values of the numerical evaluation of the electron and ion diffusion coefficients in plasmas from mixtures of argon and fluorine are presented. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for low-pressure (from 0.1 to 1.0 kPa) and low-temperature (from 500 to 5000 K) argon plasmas with 20% and 30% of added fluorine are investigated. These values are results of the applications of the specific numerical model to the evaluation plasma composition and transport coefficients in argon plasma with fluorine as additive. It is assumed that the system is kept under constant pressure and that a corresponding state of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) is attained. Since the LTE can be assumed, a Maxwellian electron distribution function will be adopted. The hypothesis of LTE, which is commonly used in most of the numerical evaluations, is analysed with the modified Debye radius r D *. The binary electron and ion diffusion coefficients are calculated with the equilibrium plasma composition and with the collision frequencies. Strictly speaking, Maxwellian distribution function (in the state LTE) is not valid for low pressure, but in this case with the aid of the modified Debye radius, a Maxwellian f e M is assumed correctly. It is shown that the electron diffusion coefficients are about four orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding overall diffusion coefficients of ions. Both diffusion coefficients are lower in argon plasma with 30% than with 20% of fluorine additives, in the whole temperature range examined

  20. Electronic excitation in XPS spectra of argon and potassium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, M.

    1988-01-01

    XPS (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy) spectra were obtained for argon and potassium implanted in aluminium to study the plasmons excitation which are produced during photoemission. It was found that in these systems it was produced more intrinsic plasmons than extrinsic. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Test beam results of a stereo preshower integrated in the liquid argon accordion calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, R; Greenious, G; Kitching, P; Olsen, B; Pinfold, James L; Rodning, N L; Boos, E; Zhautykov, B O; Aubert, Bernard; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Boniface, J; Colas, Jacques; Eynard, G; Jézéquel, S; Le Flour, T; Linossier, O; Nicoleau, S; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Van den Plas, D; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Chmeissani, M; Fernández, E; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Padilla, C; Citterio, M; Gordon, H A; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rescia, S; Stephani, D; Takai, H; Baisin, L; Berset, J C; Chevalley, J L; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Marin, C P; Nessi, Marzio; Poggioli, Luc; Richter, W; Vuillemin, V; Baze, J M; Delagnes, E; Gosset, L G; Lavocat, P; Lottin, J P; Mansoulié, B; Meyer, J P; Renardy, J F; Schwindling, J; Simion, S; Taguet, J P; Teiger, J; Walter, C; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Hostachy, J Y; Mahout, G; Barreiro, F; Del Peso, J; García, J; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Romero, P; Scheel, C V; Chekhtman, A; Cousinou, M C; Dargent, P; Dinkespiler, B; Etienne, F; Fassnacht, P; Fouchez, D; Martin, L; Miotto, A; Monnier, E; Nagy, E; Olivetto, C; Tisserant, S; Battistoni, G; Camin, D V; Cavalli, D; Costa, G; Cozzi, L; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Perini, L; Resconi, S; Sala, P R; Beaudoin, G; Depommier, P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Roy, P; Augé, E; Breton, D; Chase, Robert L; Chollet, J C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, Louis; Fournier, D; González, J; Hrisoho, A T; Jacquier, Y; Merkel, B; Nikolic, I A; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Pétroff, P; Puzo, P; Richer, J P; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Tisserand, V; Veillet, J J; Vichou, I; Canton, B; David, J; Genat, J F; Imbault, D; Le Dortz, O; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwemling, P; Eek, L O; Lund-Jensen, B; Söderqvist, J; Astbury, Alan; Keeler, Richard K; Lefebvre, M; Robertson, S; White, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an integrated preshower within the RD3 liquid argon accordion calorimeter. It has a stereo view which enables the measurement of two transverse coordinates. The prototype was tested at CERN with electrons, photons and muons to validate its capability to work at LHC ( Energy resolution, impact point resolution, angular resolution, $\\pi^o$/$\\gamma$ rejection ).

  2. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  3. Influence of argon on temperature modulation and neurological outcome in hypothermia treated rats following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Anne; Bleilevens, Christian; Föhr, Philipp; Nolte, Kay; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Fries, Michael; Derwall, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Combining xenon and mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) after cardiac arrest (CA) confers a degree of protection that is greater than either of the two interventions alone. However, xenon is very costly which might preclude a widespread use. We investigated whether the inexpensive gas argon would enhance hypothermia induced neurologic recovery in a similar manner. Following nine minutes of CA and three minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive MTH (33°C for 6h), MTH plus argon (70% for 1h), or no treatment. A first day condition score assessed behaviour, motor activity and overall condition. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated daily for seven days following the experiment before the animals were killed and the brains harvested for histopathological analysis. All animals survived. Animals that received MTH alone showed best overall neurologic function. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in the argon-augmented MTH group, where animals showed worse neurologic outcome being significant in the first day condition score and on day one to three and five in the NDS in comparison to MTH treated rats. Results were reflected by the neurohistopathological analysis. Our study demonstrates that argon augmented MTH does not improve functional recovery after CA in rats, but may even worsen neurologic function in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of a liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter with a cylindrical accordion geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.R.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype of a lead liquid argon accordion calorimeter with two types of cylindrical geometry was constructed and equipped with high speed readout electronics. The energy resolution for electrons is 10%/√E (GeV) with a local constant term of 0.65%. The resolutions obtained for position and angular measurements are given. (orig.)

  5. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  6. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Miller, J. D.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Sands, W.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ~2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  7. Self-selection in size and structure in argon clusters formed on amorphous carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; van de Waal, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Argon clusters formed on an amorphous carbon substrate as deposited from the vapor phase were studied by means of transmission high energy electron diffraction using the liquid helium cryostat. Electron diffractograms were analysed on the basis of assumption that there exist a cluster size

  8. Removal of pendant groups of vinyl polymers by argon plasma treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were treated with an argon plasma to create unsaturated bonds at the surface. By use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared measurements, it was shown that the pendant groups of these polymers are removed by the

  9. Implantation of keV-energy argon clusters and radiation damage in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    We show that for impacting argon clusters, both mean projected ranges of the constituents and depths of radiation damage in diamond scale linearly with momentum. The same dependence was earlier found for keV-energy cluster implantation in graphite, thus suggesting the universality of this scaling...

  10. Impact of keV-energy argon clusters on diamond and graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    the graphene planes, significant radiation damage is already introduced by impact of clusters with low kinetic energies (a few tens of eV/atom). However, collisions of the argon clusters cause very elastic response of the graphene planes that leads to efficient closure of the craters which could be formed...

  11. First Measurement of one Pion Production in Charged Current Neutrino and Antineutrino events on Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Scanavini,Giacomo [Yale U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a work done in the context of the Fermilab Neutrino Intensity Frontier. In this analysis, the cross section of single charged pion production in charged-current neutrino and antineutrino interactions with the argon nucleus target are measured. These measurements are performed using the Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT) detector exposed to the Fermilab Neutrino From The Main Injector (NuMI) beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The signal is a charged-current μ interaction in the detector, with exactly one charged pion exiting the target nucleus, with momentum above 100 MeV/c. There shouldn’t be any 0 or kaons in the final state. There is no restriction on other mesons or nucleons. Total and differential cross section measurements are presented. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum, outgoing pion angle and angle between outgoing pion and muon. The total cross sections, averaged over the flux, are found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 (stat) +0.9 -1.1 (syst) × 10-38 cm2 per argon nuclei and 2.5 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst) × 10-37 cm2 per argon nuclei for antineutrino and neutrino respectively at a mean neutrino energy of 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos) and 9.6 GeV (neutrinos). This is the first time the single pion production in charged-current interactions cross section is measured on argon nuclei.

  12. Plasma of Argon Increases Cell Attachment and Bacterial Decontamination on Different Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Genova, Tullio; Wang, Hom-Lay; Carossa, Stefano; Mussano, Federico

    This in vitro study tested the effects of argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) on different implant surfaces with regard to physical changes, bacterial decontamination, and osteoblast adhesion. Seven hundred twenty disks with three different surface topographies-machined (MAC), titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS), and zirconia-blasted and acid-etched (ZRT)-were tested in this experiment. Bacterial adhesion tests were performed repeatedly on a simplified biofilm of Streptococcus mitis. Bacteria were incubated in the presence of the samples, which were subsequently either left untreated as controls or treated with APDBD for 30, 60, and 120 seconds. Samples were then metalized, prior to the recurring acquisition of images using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Protein adsorption, surface wettability, and early biologic response were determined for both treated (120 seconds) and untreated implant surfaces. For depicting the eukaryotic cell behavior, preosteoblastic murine cells were used. Cells were conveniently stained, and nuclei were counted. Cell viability was assessed by a chemiluminescent assay at 1, 2, and 3 days. On all treated samples, values of the contact angle measurements were lower than 10 degrees. The untreated samples showed values of contact angle of 80, 100, and 110 degrees, respectively, for MAC, TPS, and ZRT. The protein adsorption on TPS and ZRT was significantly increased after the plasma of argon treatment. However, no significant effect was noted on the MAC disks. The number and the cell spreading area of adherent osteoblasts significantly increased in all treated surfaces. Nonetheless, argon treatment did not influence the osteoblast proliferation and viability at different time points. Bacteria adhesion was significantly reduced, even after 60 seconds of argon treatment. Preliminary data showed that argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge disinfected the implant surface, with potential to promote

  13. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.

    1975-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  14. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Ingestive behavior of lambs fed with a diet of different levels of fiber in neutrol detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ramos Cardoso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, na dieta sobre o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros Ile de France x Texel. Foram utilizados 20 cordeiros distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em um total de quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições, e alimentados à vontade com dietas que continham 25%, 31%, 37% e 43% de FDN. Foi utilizada uma ração em mistura completa de silagem de sorgo (AG 2005E e mistura concentrada constituída por farelo de soja, grão de milho quebrado e mistura mineral. As dietas eram isoprotéicas contendo 17% de PB. As dietas foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia, às 8:00 e às 16:00 horas. O comportamento ingestivo foi determinado mediante observação visual, ocorrido durante 24 horas, a intervalos de 5 minutos, para se determinar o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. O aumento do teor de fibra na ração não influenciou significativamente (P>0,05 os tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação, ócio e tempo de mastigação total. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre as variáveis eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação de FDN (P>0,05. Os ovinos confinados possuem hábito de alimentação predominantemente diurno e de ruminação noturno.The effect of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF levels in the diet on the Ile de France x Texel lambs ingestive behavior was evaluated. Twenty lambs distributed in a fully randomized experimental design were used, in a total of four treatments and five repetitions, fed ad libitum with 25%, 31%, 37% and 43% NDF diets. A ration in a complete mixing in sorghum silage (AG 2005 E and concentrate mixing of soybean meal, fragmented corn grains and mineral mixing was used. The diets were isoproteic (17% crude protein and were given twice a day, at 8 AM and 4 PM. The ingestive behavior was determined by observation, during 24 hours with 5 minutes intervals, to determine the time spent in

  15. Biotransformación del pelo residual de curtiembres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Viviana Numpaque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria de curtiembres genera una alta carga contaminante representada por residuos líquidos, sólidos y gaseosos. Entre los residuos sólidos, el pelo residual es vertido directamente al río Bogotá y/o en rellenos sanitarios, desencadenando serios conflictos de orden ambiental, social y económico. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de los microorganismos del EM y Agroplux en la transformación del pelo residual en compost. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos con pelo residual y materiales orgánicos de plaza en diferentes porcentajes y dos controles, utilizando el diseño completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones. Durante el compostaje se determinaron las variables temperatura, formación de agregados, pH y conductividad eléctrica. El desarrollo de la temperatura ocurrió en ciclos que concordaron con los volteos y re-inoculaciones. En el tercer ciclo el mayor incremento de temperatura fue obtenido en los tres tratamientos, cuando ya se había agotado la mayor parte de los residuos orgánicos. La formación de agregados indicó que el proceso se llevó a efecto principalmente en el tratamiento con 20% de pelo residual más 80% de residuos orgánicos. Además de su color oscuro y la ausencia de olor y fragmentos, el compost producido mediante dicho tratamiento mostró la conductividad eléctrica más baja y un pH casi neutro. Se concluye que los microorganismos del EM y Agroplux tienen capacidad para transformar el pelo residual en compost y por lo tanto representan una alternativa viable para la continuación del funcionamiento de la industria de curtiembres en Villapinzón (Cundinamarca y en otras regiones de Colombia.

  16. Reaction of coal in argon and argon--hydrogen plasmas. [Produces H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, C/sub 4/H/sub 2/, and oxides of C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, W.; Graves, R.D.; Hiteshue, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    Coals of various rank were reacted by the Bureau of Mines in plasma jets generated from argon and argon-hydrogen mixtures containing up to 33 volume-percent hydrogen. Average plasma temperatures ranged from about 3,400 to 12,000/sup 0/C. Products were a solid residue and a gas containing hydrogen, methane, acetylene, diacetylene, and oxides of carbon. The highest yield of acetylene obtained with argon plasmas was 15 percent by weight of moisture- and ash-free coal. The data indicated that acetylene yields of 40 percent of higher can be obtained from the reaction of coal in argon-hydrogen plasmas, although results from these experiments could not be correlated with operating variables because of low recoveries. The plasmas contained sufficient energy to heat the coal to temperatures as high as 9,000/sup 0/ or 10,000/sup 0/C, but complete devolatilization did not occur in any experiment.

  17. Un retrato de Eugenio García Ruiz, ministro de la Gobernación, por Casado del Alisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez García, José Luis

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este retrato, un óleo sobre lienzo de 64,4 x 53,4 cm, aparece firmado por Casado y con dedicatoria en el ángulo inferior izquierdo, de lectura incompleta pero suficiente como para haber permitido identificar al retratado, Eugenio García Ruiz, dentro de la colección a la que pertenece (Madrid. La efigie de García Ruiz, de busto largo, ante un fondo neutro, viste traje de diario, con la chaqueta abierta luciendo sólo la leontina por encima del chaleco. Compuesto de frente, envuelto por un suave aire entre melancólico e indiferente, subrayado por su mirada miope, con la frente despejada, bigote poblado y mosca; el pintor no omite el lobanillo que el político tenía en su mejilla derecha.…

  18. Argon-41 ALARA, or reduction of argon-41 released from the OSTR by use of a nitrogen purging system for the rotating rack facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    During a generally concurrent era, the NRC began emphasizing the concept of keeping all radiation doses and releases of radioactivity to the environment 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In much the same way as the physical security regulations were expanded, the ALARA idea was defined for a number of different NRC licensee categories, but the underlying principle remained the same, namely, reduce occupational doses and releases of radioactivity. In keeping with this NRC policy (i.e., regulatory requirement), the OSTR staff conducted a study of the argon-41 production sites throughout the facility, with the idea of minimizing the production without increasing the potential for higher occupational doses to the staff. The reduction in argon-41 production and release should, after a full year's implementation, result in the 41.68 curie value documented for the past reporting year (July 1, 1980 through June 30, 1981) being cut to about 9 curies per year. This value is based on the fact that the LN purging system was used about the last four months of the stated reporting period. From a dose commitment standpoint, this should reduce the maximum projected annual dose in the unrestricted area under the worst case hypothetical conditions from the currently estimated 1.04 mrem per year to about 0.23 mrem per year

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Aggregation and Cluster Formation in Argon Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, J. E.; Allamondola, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier-transform mid-infrared absorption spectra of mixed argon/naphthalene matrices at 5 K are shown with ratios of argon-to-naphthalene that vary from 1000 to 0. These spectra show the changes as naphthalene clustering and aggregation occurs, with moderate spectral shifts affecting the C-H vibrational modes and relatively small or no shifts to the C-C and C-C-C vibrational modes. The possible contribution of homogeneous naphthalene clusters to the interstellar unidentified infrared bands is discussed. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters to the 7.7 micron emission plateau and the blue shading of the 12.7 micron emission band are identified as promising candidates for future research. In addition, since PAH clusters are model components of Jupiter and Titan's atmospheres, the information presented here may also be applicable to the spectroscopy of these objects.

  20. Oxidized dahlia-like carbon nanohorns: adsorption of argon, methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2010-03-01

    Different types of nanohorns, and nanohorn aggregates, can be produced depending on the parameters used during their production. We used a sample consisting mainly of dahlia-like nanohorn aggregates. In the dahlia-like aggregates the individual nanohorns are aligned radially, forming a sphere, with their individual ends protruding from the outer surface of the spherule. Our sample was oxidized by flowing pure oxygen. This treatment opened entry ports into the spaces at the interior of the individual nanohorns. We measured volumetric adsorption isotherms at 77.3 K with argon, methane, and nitrogen. For argon and methane two distinct substeps are present in the adsorption data; the steps for each of these two gases are comparable in size. For nitrogen there is a clear step present at lower adsorbent loadings, and a more gradual growth in the amount adsorbed as saturation is approached.

  1. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    1996-01-01

    Argon L 2.3 -M 2.3 M 2.3 Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with Kα fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons

  2. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-05-01

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  3. Reparative processes of the iris after irradiation with the argon-ion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.K.; Zypen, E. van der; Fankhauser, F.

    1979-01-01

    The reparative processes of the pigmented iris of the rabbit were analysed with ultrastructural methods. Clearing of the damaged area by macrophages is the first step in the reparative processes. Clump cells are macrophages which are observed from the first day of the injury until the ninth week. Repair of the anterior surface of the iris is largely finished after 32 days. The repair of collagenous fibres reaches its maximum activity 32 days after irradiation. The pigment epithelium has only an insignificant regeneration potential. Irradiation of the iris by the argon-ion laser results in an atropic, hyperpigmented scar. The rapid regeneration of a lesion induced by the argon-ion laser in the rabbit iris casts doubt as to whether this method could be applied to the human eye with equal success. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

  4. Investigation of the continuum radiation from a high pressure argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, J.; Chapelle, J.

    1975-01-01

    At the high electronic densities existing in high temperature strongly correlated plasmas (with number of electrons in the Debye sphere Nd<<1) it is sometimes difficult to find lines for which Stark broadening allows determination of electronic density. Since the broadening effect is rather strong, the lines overlap or could not be easily extracted from the intense continuous background. The continuum emission in the UV, visible and near infra-red regions, principally due to the radiative recombination, could thus be widely used for the diagnostics of such plasmas. So far a limited number of data on the continuum emission of Argon plasma is available. At the same time certain discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experiments have also been found. The aim of this work is to obtain more elaborated data on the Argon continuum emission at high pressure, where the differences were found to be the largest. (Auth.)

  5. ATLAS endcap liquid argon calorimeters. Description and construction of the cryostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Guy; Prat, Serge; Veillet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-05-15

    All forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold and stable temperature. Taking into account all the constraints as detailed below, and the overall detector size, 5 meter diameter by 3 meter length this was quite a challenge. The design, construction and tests of these two cryostats, up to their delivery at CERN, are described in this document. These two cryostats are a joint 'in kind' contribution to the Atlas experiment of LAL (Orsay), Max Planck Institute (Muenchen) and Wuppertal University (Wuppertal) and have been designed and built under the responsibility of LAL (Orsay) with contributions of the technical groups of the above institutions and of ATLAS-CERN. (authors)

  6. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  7. Nanometer-scale sharpening and surface roughening of ZnO nanorods by argon ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal; Behera, Akshaya K.; Banerjee, Amarabha; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Som, Tapobrata; Ayyub, Pushan

    2012-07-01

    We report the effects of exposing a hydrothermally grown, single crystalline ZnO nanorod array to a beam of 50 keV argon ions at room temperature. High resolution electron microscopy reveals that the ion bombardment results in a nanometer-scale roughening of the nanorod sidewalls, which were almost atomically flat in the pristine sample. Ion bombardment further causes the flat, ≈100 nm diameter nanorod tips to get sharpened to ultrafine points less than 10 nm across. While tip sharpening is attributed to preferential sputtering, the formation of crystalline surface protuberances can be ascribed to surface instability due to curvature dependent sputtering and surface diffusion under argon-ion bombardment. Both the nanoscale roughening as well as the tip sharpening are expected to favorably impact a wide variety of applications, such as those involving catalysis, gas sensing, solar cells, field emission and gas discharge.

  8. Nanometer-scale sharpening and surface roughening of ZnO nanorods by argon ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal, E-mail: shyamal@iitbbs.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Behera, Akshaya K. [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Banerjee, Amarabha; Tribedi, Lokesh C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Som, Tapobrata [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-07-01

    We report the effects of exposing a hydrothermally grown, single crystalline ZnO nanorod array to a beam of 50 keV argon ions at room temperature. High resolution electron microscopy reveals that the ion bombardment results in a nanometer-scale roughening of the nanorod sidewalls, which were almost atomically flat in the pristine sample. Ion bombardment further causes the flat, Almost-Equal-To 100 nm diameter nanorod tips to get sharpened to ultrafine points less than 10 nm across. While tip sharpening is attributed to preferential sputtering, the formation of crystalline surface protuberances can be ascribed to surface instability due to curvature dependent sputtering and surface diffusion under argon-ion bombardment. Both the nanoscale roughening as well as the tip sharpening are expected to favorably impact a wide variety of applications, such as those involving catalysis, gas sensing, solar cells, field emission and gas discharge.

  9. Commissioning and Charge Readout Calibration of a 5 Ton Dual Phase Liquid Argon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2098555

    Dual phase time projection chambers with amplification of ionization electrons provide a novel technique for measuring and analyzing rare events with excellent spatial resolution and great calorimetric properties. This thesis describes the commissioning of the WA105 3 x 1 x 1 m3 dual phase liquid argon detector, built to demonstrate the performance of this kind of detector on large scales in order to determine the viability of giant dual phase time projection chambers in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The properties of the insulation and the main tank vessel are described and analyzed, such as the pressure, temperature and argon purity requirements during operation in order to guarantee stable conditions and good event tracking. As signals are induced due to electrons from ionizing radiation, crosstalk is caused by capacitive couplings between strips of the charge readout plane and in the electronics of the data acquisition. These induced signals are studied and compared to capacitance and pu...

  10. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; 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Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  11. Tensile strength of laser welded cobalt-chromium alloy with and without an argon atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Anna; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2010-06-01

    The tensile strength and depth of weld of two cobalt chromium alloys before and after laser welding with and without an argon gas atmosphere were investigated. Using two cobalt chromium alloys, rod shaped specimens (5 cm x 1.5 mm) were cast. Specimens were sand blasted, sectioned and welded with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding machine and tested in tension using an Instron universal testing machine. A statistically significant difference in tensile strength was observed between the two alloys. The tensile strength of specimens following laser welding was significantly less than the unwelded controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the micro-structure of the cast alloy was altered in the region of the weld. No statistically significant difference was found between specimens welded with or without an argon atmosphere.

  12. Mallory-Weiss sendromunun argon plazma koagülasyonu ile tedavisi

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAŞ, Mehmet; KORKUT, Esin; İDİLMAN, Ramazan; KESKİN, Onur; ÜSTÜN, Yusuf; GUPTA, Vikas; BAHAR, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Endoskopik hemostaz metotları Mallory-Weiss Sendromuna ba¤lı üst gastrointestinal kanamalarda güvenli ve etkin bir yaklaşım olarak kabul edilmektedir. Kronik öksürü¤ü olan 62 yaşındaki bir erkek hasta ve 27 yaşında 10 haftalık gebe hasta klini¤imize ciddi hematemez bulgularıyla başvurdu. Bu hastalara üst gastrointestinal endoskopi uygulandı ve Mallory Weiss sendromu tanısı kondu. İşlem sırasında koagülum ve visible vessel görüldü ve bu lezyonlara argon plazma koagülasyonu uygulandı. Argon pl...

  13. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of argon atoms in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeler, M L; Flores-Rueda, H; Wright, J D; Morgan, T J [Physics Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06457 (United States)

    2004-02-28

    We have measured the scaled-energy absorption spectra of argon Rydberg states in a uniform electric field. The experiment utilized laser spectroscopy from the metastable 4s[3/2]{sub 2} state in a fast atom beam. The scaled absorption spectra are Fourier transformed to obtain recurrence spectra that allow semiclassical analysis. Argon recurrence spectra reveal bias towards populating downhill-oriented classical trajectories and show large-scale modulations. A quantum calculation indicates that the asymmetric trajectory distribution is caused by the large p-quantum defect and that d-f excitation from the initial metastable state is influential in shaping the observed oscillations in the recurrence maps. The analysis serves to highlight the correspondence between quantum oscillator strengths and classical orbits.

  14. First results obtained from the Cello liquid argon end cap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Diberder, F.

    1981-05-01

    The Cello liquid argon calorimeter is presented in the first part of this thesis. The cryogenic system has to supply three cryostats filled with liquid argon: one cylindrical cryostat of 25 m 3 volume contains 2x8 separate modules; each of the two symmetric end cap cryostats contains two half cylindrical modules. Each module in the end cap part consists of 42 layers of lead strips interleaved with 43 full plates. The strips are alternatively vertical, horizontal and circular. In front of the lead calorimeter are 4 planes of copper foils glued on epoxy for dE/dx measurement. The electronics, signal processing and data acquisition system are described. In the second part, the performance and analysis of data measured by the end cap calorimeters are reported: study of Bhabha scattering e + e - → e + e - ; preliminary results obtained in two photon physics e + e - → e + e - γγ → e + e - X [fr

  15. Simulation of propagation of the HPM in the low-pressure argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigang, LI; Zhongcai, YUAN; Jiachun, WANG; Jiaming, SHI

    2018-02-01

    The propagation of the high-power microwave (HPM) with a frequency of 6 GHz in the low-pressure argon plasma was studied by the method of fluid approximation. The two-dimensional transmission model was built based on the wave equation, the electron drift-diffusion equations and the heavy species transport equations, which were solved by means of COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation results showed that the propagation characteristic of the HPM was closely related to the average electron density of the plasma. The attenuation of the transmitted wave increased nonlinearly with the electron density. Specifically, the growth of the attenuation slowed down as the electron density increased uniformly. In addition, the concrete transmission process of the HPM wave in the low-pressure argon plasma was given.

  16. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry and partly for hadronic calorimetry. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The different parts of the LAr calorimeter have been installed inside the ATLAS cavern between October 2004 and April 2006. Since October 2006 the detector has been operated with liquid argon at nominal high voltage, and fully equipped with readout electronics including a LVL1 calorimeter trigger system. First cosmic runs were recorded and used in various stages of commissioning. Starting in September 2008 beam related events were collected for the first time with single beams circulating in the LHC ring providing first beam-gas interactions and then beam-collimator splash events. The fir...

  17. Metastable decay of argon clusters after photoionisation at high excess energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.; Vries, J. de; Kamke, W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently Maerk and collaborators reported the metastable emission of large fractions from argon and neon cluster ions after electron impact ionisation at high excess energies. The decay was interpreted as the result of an intra-cluster excitation of a metastable state by one of the electrons involved in the ionisation process. Here we report the first direct observation of such a correlated two electron process during photoionisation of argon clusters using synchrotron radiation and the TPEPICO technique. We observe at least two distinct maxima of the metastable TPEPICO spectrum at around 27 eV and 28.5 eV, the former being consistent with the previously reported energetic threshold for electron impact ionisation. (orig.)

  18. Modelling of indium(I) iodide-argon low pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Truong, W; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2014-01-01

    A new collisional-radiative model for a mercury-free low pressure plasma based on an indium(I) iodide-argon system is presented. The electron impact cross sections and rate coefficients for ionization, excitation and dissociation, as well as de-excitation, three-body recombination and dissociative recombination, of studied fillings have been calculated. Additionally, the coefficients for free and ambipolar diffusion were determined. The rate balance equations for individual generation and loss processes have been created. Densities of ions, electrons and neutral particles (ground or metastable state) are presented as a function of electron temperature for varied lamp parameters, such as argon buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature (coldest point of discharge vessel). With the help of the presented model, the line emission coefficients of essential emission lines of indium for given electron temperatures and densities can be predicted. (paper)

  19. Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 μm were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV π 0 's is larger than 3; the precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 7 mrad above 40 GeV; the calorimeter performance behind the preshower (≅4X 0 ) is fully preserved. These results make such a detector attractive for future operation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  20. A simplified model for computing equation of state of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Caixia; Tian Yangmeng

    2006-01-01

    The paper present a simplified new model of computing equation of state and ionization degree of Argon plasma, which based on Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical model: the authors fitted the numerical results of the ionization potential calculated by Thomas-Fermi statistical model and gained the analytical function of the potential versus the degree of ionization, then calculated the ionization potential and the average degree of ionization for Argon versus temperature and density in local thermal equilibrium case at 10-1000 eV. The results calculated of this simplified model are basically in agreement with several sets of theory data and experimental data. This simplified model can be used to calculation of the equation of state of plasmas mixture and is expected to have a more wide use in the field of EML technology involving the strongly ionized plasmas. (authors)

  1. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  2. Surface modification of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens via low-temperature argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shiheng; Wang Yingjun; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna; Kuang Tongchun; Chen Hao; Qu Jia

    2008-01-01

    A fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was modified via argon plasma to improve surface hydrophilicity and resistance to protein deposition. The influence of plasma treatment on surface chemical structure, hydrophilicity and morphology of RGP lens was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The contact angle results showed that the hydrophilicity of the contact lens was improved after plasma treatment. XPS results indicated that the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups on surface and the transformation of silicone into hydrophilic silicate after plasma treatment are the main reasons for the surface hydrophilicity improvement. SEM results showed that argon plasma with higher power could lead to surface etching

  3. Proposal to Study a Large Liquid Argon-Uranium Absorber Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutts, D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Hoftun, J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Lanou, R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Partridge, R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Pilpovic, D. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Walker, J. K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); White, A. P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Belusevic, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Wolmelsey, W. J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tulsian, G. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bentley, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hagopian, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hagopian, V. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kramer, T. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lanutti, J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Linn, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Crittenden, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Dzierba, A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Martin, J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Zieminska, D, [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Zieminski, A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gerecht, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kononenko, W. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruland, R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Selove, W. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Theodosiou, G. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wocikiewicz, E. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Blazey, G. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Draper, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Ferbel, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Libonate, S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Slattery, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Till, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Barwick, S. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Forden, G. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Marx, M. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Neal, H. A. [SUNY of Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    1986-11-06

    This document proposes a comprehensive program to implement and study a large scale liquid argon-uranium absorber calorimeter sytem in a Fermilab beam. This system is modelled after and contains many of the components of the calorimeters being constructed for use in the D0 Detector at Fermilab. It is also a test bed for testing techniques for possible SSC calorimeters. This program involves the construction of calorimeter modules and supports: a 4000 gallon liquid argon cryostat and associated cryogenics; a transporter capable of precisely positioning a 100 ton load in three dimensions; a clean electronic environment: and prototype electronics and data acquisition system. It is expected that this system will be a permanent installation in a Fermilab test beam, allowing continued use as a reference for data being taken at D0.

  4. Cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Gong, D; Liu, C; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Hou, S; Su, D-S; Teng, P-K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the cryogenic functionality of the components of data links for the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC), a potential far site detector technology of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). We have confirmed that an LVDS driver can drive a 20-meter CAT5E twisted pair up to 1 gigabit per second at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). We have verified that a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) serializer, a laser diode driver, laser diodes, optical fibers and connectors, and field-programming gate arrays (FPGA's) continue to function at 77 K. A variety of COTS resistors and capacitors have been tested at 77 K. All tests we have conducted show that the cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber are promising.

  5. Optimizing scintillation light collection in the CENNS-10 liquid argon neutrino-nucleus scattering detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Coello, Maria; Tayloe, Rex; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CENNS-10 detector is a liquid argon chamber currently running at the SNS at ORNL to observe nuclear recoils from Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEvNS) and is one of several technologies implemented by the COHERENT collaboration to measure the CEvNS process' dependence on nuclear size. The observation and measurement of CEvNS is vital to understanding energy propagation in supernovae, a test for physics beyond the standard model, an irreducible background for dark matter direct detection, and a probe into nuclear structure. The functioning of the detector depends on its ability to see light from the neutrino-nuclear scattering, which produces extreme UV radiation. To attain optimum light yield in the detector, several optical measurements and changes were necessary. This poster will discuss these measurements, as well as the future expansion of the liquid argon system.

  6. Vibrational Spectra of Linear BC3 and Linear B2C2 in Argon at 10K(a)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presilla-Marquez, Jose

    1998-01-01

    .... Mixtures of boron and carbon powders were vaporized in a resistively heated ( 3000 K) oven. BC3 was produced during co-deposition of the vapors with argon onto a CsI substrate maintained at 10 K...

  7. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  8. The influence of methane/argon plasma composition on the formation of the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Weng, Chih-Chiang; Hsieh, Jui-Fu; Chang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsien; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the a-C:H films was particularly correlated with the mixed ratio of methane/argon plasma. For a constant supply of energy and flowing rate, the optical emission from H α intensity linearly increased with the addition of methane in argon plasma, while that from intensities of radiation of diatmoic radicals (CH*and C 2 *) exponentially decreased. For the a-C:H films, the added methane in argon plasma tended to raise the quantity of hydrogenated carbon or sp 3 C-H structure, which exponentially decreased the nano-hardness and friction coefficient of the films. In contrast, the electric resistance of the films enlarged dramatically with the increase of the methane content in argon plasma. It is therefore advantageous to balance the mechanical properties and electrical resistance of the a-C:H film by adjusting plasma composition in the course of the film-growing process.

  9. Simulation of charged and excited particle transport in the low-current discharge in argon-mercury mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, G G; Fisher, M R; Kristya, V I

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of the electron, ion and metastable excited atom transport in the argon-mercury mixture low-current discharge is fulfilled. Distributions of the particle densities along the discharge gap under different mixture temperatures are obtained and it is demonstrated that the principal mechanism of mercury ion generation is the Penning ionization of mercury atoms by argon metastables, which contribution grows sharply with the mixture temperature due to mercury density increase. Calculations show that the mercury and argon ion flow densities near the cathode are of the same order already under the relative mercury content of about 10 −4 corresponding at the argon pressure 10 3 Pa to the mixture temperature 30 C. Therefore, at the room temperature the electrodes of mercury illuminating lamps at the stage of their ignition are sputtered predominantly by mercury ions.

  10. Diamond-like carbon and nanocrystalline diamond film surfaces sputtered by argon cluster ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Artemenko, Anna; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, Sep (2016), s. 37-41 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond-like carbon * nanocrystalline diamond * argon cluster ion beam * XPS * C sp2 * C sp3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2016

  11. Performance of the Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeters during the 2012 data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during 2012 data taking period, recording an integrated luminosity of 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8 TeV during the p-p run. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency of 99.1% and 99.6% respectively. This poster presents the overall status, operations, performance and shutdown plans for the calorimeters.

  12. Liquid Argon Calorimeters Operation and Data Quality During the 2015 Proton Run

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency, recording an integrated luminosity of 3.9fb^{-1} at \\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency of 99.4% . This poster highlights the overall status, performances and data quality of the LAr Calorimeters during the first year of Run-2 operations.

  13. Comparative charge-exchange mass spectrometric and argon-sensitized radiolytic studies on methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, B.-O.; Lind, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the formation of CO and CH 4 in the argon-sensitized γ-radiolysis of methanol is dependent on a mechanism of charge exchange with the species Ar + . On the other hand, the ion Ar + 2 formed from Ar* is of minor importance. The formation of CH + 3 from methanol after charge exchange with Ar + is a rapid process, taking about 10 -13 s. (author)

  14. EBR-II argon cooling system restricted fuel handling I and C upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Start, S.E.; Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The instrumentation and control of the Argon Cooling System (ACS) restricted fuel handling control system at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is being upgraded from a system comprised of many discrete components and controllers to a computerized system with a graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes the aspects of the upgrade including reasons for the upgrade, the old control system, upgrade goals, design decisions, philosophies and rationale, and the new control system hardware and software

  15. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  16. Performance Of A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Exposed To The WANF Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F.; Bonesini, M.; di Tigliole, A.Borio; Boschetti, B.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Casagrande, F.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, E.; Cline, D.; Curioni, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Ferrari, A.; Ghezzi, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Kisiel, J.; Mannocchi, G.; de la Ossa, A.Martinez; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Navas, S.; Negri, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Paganoni, M.; Palamara, O.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Mortari, G.Piano; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Puccini, A.; Pullia, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Redaelli, N.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Suzuki, S.; de Fatis, T.Tabarelli; Terrani, M.; Terranova, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Zalewska, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Amirkabir Plasma Focus (APF) Device for Neon and Argon Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam Sharak, M.; Goudarzi, S.; Raeisdana, A.; Jafarabadi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the experimental results in different working conditions in Amirkabir Plasma Focus (APF) Device have been compared with the numerical results of a two-dimensional simulation code based on Lee's model. The experiments were done with pure Neon and Argon as operating gases over a wide range of working conditions (gas pressures and discharge voltages). It is observed that by a proper choice for values of the efficiency factors, comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement.

  18. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijdag, Xavier Ce; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan Am; van Hulst, Robert A

    2013-06-03

    Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13 degrees C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1h in water at 13 degrees C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives.

  19. Irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Cheplakov, A.; Golikov, V.; Golubykh, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Lushchikov, V.; Minashkin, V.; Shalyugin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Various readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters have been exposed to high neutron fluences and γ doses at the irradiation test facility of the IBR-2 reactor of JINR, Dubna. Results of the capacitance and impedance measurements of coaxial cables are presented. Results of peeling tests of PC board samples (carton and copper strips) as a measure of the bonding agent irradiation hardness are also reported

  20. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit

  1. Hypoxia, gas narcosis, and metabolic response to argon and nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism of inert gas influence on metabolism are reported. The studies reported include: metabolic response of hamsters to argon and nitrous oxide, membrane fatty acids and susceptability to narcotic gas influence, narcosis-induced histotoxic hypoxia, biochemical study of inert gas narcosis, hypoxia-induced protection against cardiovascular deterioration in the weightless state, and acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis.

  2. Study of electromagnetic and hadronic showers with liquid-argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschnabel, K.

    1978-05-01

    High energy electrons, pions and protons have been detected by two liquid-argon calorimeters. Measurements of the linearity and energy resolution of the detectors have been performed. As one of the detectors consisted of 80 sections, the spatial development of hadronic cascades could be studied. The results are in reasonable agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. The spatial and angular resolutions of the detector have been evaluated. Using their different longitudinal shower development, electrons and hadrons could be separated. (orig.) [de

  3. LArIAT: Worlds First Pion-Argon Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Pip [Fermilab

    2016-11-02

    The LArIAT experiment has performed the world's first measurement of the total charged-current pion cross-section on an argon target, using the repurposed ArgoNeuT detector in the Fermilab test beam. Presented here are the results of that measurement, along with an overview of the LArIAT experiment and details of the LArIAT collaboration's plans for future measurements.

  4. Comparison of the Argon Triple-Point Temperature in Small Cells of Different Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Kowal, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.

    2017-06-01

    The argon triple point (T_{90} = 83.8058 \\hbox {K}) is a fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of Preston-Thomas (Metrologia 27:3, 1990). Cells for realization of the fixed point have been manufactured by several European metrology institutes (Pavese in Metrologia 14:93, 1978; Pavese et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Hermier et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research has in its disposal a few argon cells of various constructions used for calibration of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRT) that were produced within 40 years. These cells differ in terms of mechanical design and thermal properties, as well as source of gas filling the cell. This paper presents data on differences between temperature values obtained during the realization of the triple point of argon in these cells. For determination of the temperature, a heat-pulse method was applied (Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The comparisons were performed using three CSPRTs. The temperatures difference was determined in relation to a reference function W(T)=R(T_{90})/R(271.16\\hbox {K}) in order to avoid an impact of CSPRT resistance drift between measurements in the argon cells. Melting curves and uncertainty budgets of the measurements are given in the paper. A construction of measuring apparatus is also presented in this paper.

  5. Entropy and mobility of argon physically adsorbed on pure nickel oxide or containing chemisorbed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranc, Rene

    1960-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the adsorption thermodynamic mechanism. It reports the calculation of the variations of differential entropy in order to determine the adsorption model for argon on nickel oxide at low temperatures. It is based on the use of De Boer and Kruyer method. The result does not reveal any important difference between a naked surface and a surface containing chemisorbed elements. The author discusses the various application of this entropy calculation [fr

  6. Peculiarities of spectroscopic determination of the isotopic hydrogen composition in a mixture with neon and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemets, V.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Solov'ev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of the relative intensity of atomic lines of hydrogen isotopes in the mixture with neon and argon during excitation in a high-frequency discharge under medium and high pressures is investigated. A physical model is suggested for processes determining the isotopic effects in the atomic hydrogen spectrum due to isotopic differences in velocity constants of dissociation-association, transfer and ionic-molecular reactions in a gas discharge plasma

  7. A Purity Monitoring System for the H1 Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barrelet, E

    2002-01-01

    The ionization probes used for monitoring the liquid argon purity in the H1 calorimeter are described and results of their operation in tests at CERN and during the period 1992 to the end of 1998 at HERA are given. The high sensitivity of the charge measurements leads to refined charge collection models, and to the observation of a variation of the ionization yield of our electron sources with temperature.

  8. Parametric Study of Hybrid Argon-Water Stabilized Electric Arc under Subsonic and Supersonic Regimes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeništa, Jiří; Hrabovský, Milan; Nishiyama, H.; Takana, H.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-76 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : argon mass flow rate * divergence of radiation flux * partial characteristics * reabsorption * shock diamonds * water plasma torch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.189, year: 2010

  9. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is approximately 32% lower compared to that of air. This study evaluates the benefits of argon, compared to air, as a thermal insulation gas for a dry suit during a 1-h cold-water dive by divers of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Methods Seven male Special Forces divers made (in total) 19 dives in a diving basin with water at 13°C at a depth of 3 m for 1 h in upright position. A rubber dry suit and woollen undergarment were used with either argon (n = 13) or air (n = 6) (blinded to the divers) as suit inflation gas. Core temperature was measured with a radio pill during the dive. Before, halfway, and after the dive, subjective thermal comfort was recorded using a thermal comfort score. Results No diver had to abort the test due to cold. No differences in core temperature and thermal comfort score were found between the two groups. Core temperature remained unchanged during the dives. Thermal comfort score showed a significant decrease in both groups after a 60-min dive compared to baseline. Conclusions In these tests the combination of the dry suit and undergarment was sufficient to maintain core temperature and thermal comfort for a dive of 1 h in water at 13°C. The use of argon as a suit inflation gas had no added value for thermal insulation compared to air for these dives. PMID:24438580

  10. Comparison of Textural Information from Argon (87 K) and Nitrogen (77 K) Physisorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Matějová, Lenka; Topka, Pavel; Musilová, Zuzana; Schneider, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2011), s. 557-565 ISSN 1380-2224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694; GA ČR GP104/09/P290; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : nitrogen adsorption isotherm * argon adsorption isotherm * zsm-5 zeolite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2011

  11. Effect of argon on the performance of a fast-axial flow CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvani, S.; Amiri, Kh; Pazokian, H.; Montazerolghaem, M.; Mollabashi, M.; Naeimi, S. A.; Esmaeilpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a fast-axial flow (FAF) cw CO2 laser are described. The dependences of the output power, efficiency, and discharge voltage on the discharge current of a FAF cw CO2 laser with optimised composition of the CO2:N2:He=1:4.4:7.6 gas mixture with a small amount of argon are studied experimentally at two pressures of 50 and 60 mbar in open and closed cycle regimes of the laser system.

  12. Searches for Bound Neutron-Antineutron Oscillation in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Jeremy E.T. [Manchester U.

    2017-01-01

    The next-generation Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment’s liquid argon detector represents an opportunity to probe previously unexplored parameter space for beyond-Standard Model processes. One such process is baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation, the observation of which would have profound implications on our understanding of the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, and provide strong hints as to the nature of neutrino mass. A GENIE n

  13. The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axen, D.; Bougerolle, S.; Sobie, R.; Eigen, G.; De Jongh, F.; Hitlin, D.; Kelsey, M.; Klein, M.; Mincer, A.; Wisniewski, W.; Wolf, R.; Arroyo, C.; Au, Y.; Baltay, C.; Bolton, T.; Bazarko, A.; Camilleri, L.; Hyatt, E.; Manly, S.; Rabinowitz, S.; Rowson, P.C.; Seligman, S.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Smith, S.; Steiner, R.V.; Abt, I.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Barrera, F.; Bell, R.; Bes, S.C.; Bogart, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Candia, A.; Claus, R.; Cutler, H.; Davis, R.; Dubois, R.; Foss, M.; Fox, J.; Fox, M.; Gioumousis, A.; Grebenyuk, A.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, V.; Hodgson, J.; Huffer, M.; Junk, T.; Kim, P.; Labs, J.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nordby, M.; Paffrath, L.; Putallaz, G.; Rogers, H.; Russell, J.J.; Saez, P.; Seward, P.; Sherden, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Schindler, R.H.; Waite, A.P.; Watt, R.; Brau, J.; Bugg, B.; Weidemann, A.; Gurd, D.; Oram, C.; Astbury, A.; Beer, G.; Cross, G.; Hodges, T.; Honma, A.; Keeler, R.; Langstaff, R.; Mason, G.; Poffenberger, P.; Robertson, L.; Schenk, P.; Turcot, A.; Turcotte, M.; Cook, V.; Forbush, D.; Harrison, J.; Kim, H.; Ji Ma; Mockett, P.; Toevs, F.; Vella, E.

    1993-01-01

    The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector is one of the largest detectors employing cryogenic liquids now in operation. This paper details the design and performance considerations, the mechanical and cryogenic systems, the absorber design and tower segmentation, the data acquisition electronics, and the control systems of the detector. The initial operational performance of the device is discussed. Detailed resolution studies will be presented in a later paper. (orig.)

  14. Lead-silicate glass surface sputtered by an argon cluster ion beam investigated by XPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Jurek, Karel; Gedeon, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 469, Aug (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lead-silicate glass * XPS * BO * NBO * Argon duster ion beam sputtering * X-ray irradiation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2016

  15. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  16. Argon Shrouded Plasma Spraying of Tantalum over Titanium for Corrosion Protection in Fluorinated Nitric Acid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivendan, E.; Jayaraj, J.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2018-02-01

    Argon shrouded plasma spraying (ASPS) was used to deposit a Ta coating on commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) under inert argon, for dissolver vessel application in the aqueous spent fuels reprocessing plant with high plutonium content. Oxidation during plasma spraying was minimized by shrouding argon system. Porosity and oxide content were controlled by optimizing the spraying parameters, to obtain a uniform and dense Ta coating. The Ta particle temperature and velocity were optimized by judiciously controlling the spray parameters, using a spray diagnostic charge-coupled device camera. The corrosion resistance of the Ta coatings developed by ASPS was investigated by electrochemical studies in 11.5 M HNO3 and 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF. Similarly, the durability of the ASPS Ta coating/substrate was evaluated as per ASTM A262 Practice-C test in boiling nitric acid and fluorinated nitric acid for 240 h. The ASPS Ta coating exhibited higher corrosion resistance than the CP-Ti substrate, as evident from electrochemical studies, and low corrosion rate with excellent coating stability in boiling nitric, and fluorinated nitric acid. The results of the present study revealed that tantalum coating by ASPS is a promising strategy for improving the corrosion resistance in the highly corrosive reprocessing environment.

  17. Molecular dynamics investigation into the structural features and transport properties of C60 in liquid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuan-Chuan; Weng, Cheng-I

    2007-07-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the structural features and transport properties of C60 in liquid argon. The results reveal that an organized structure shell of liquid argon is formed close to the surface of a C60 fullerene molecule, thereby changing the solid/liquid interfacial structure. Furthermore, the simulation indicates that the C60-liquid argon fluid becomes structurally more stable as the C60 molecule volume fraction and the temperature increase. The viscosity of the fluid increases significantly as the C60 molecule loading is increased, particularly at a lower temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement of the fluid in the present simulations is anomalously an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical predictions from either the Maxwell or the Lu and Liu models, and is found to vary approximately linearly with the C60 molecule volume fraction. The increased thermal conductivity is attributed to the nature of heat conduction in C60 molecule suspensions and an organized structure at the solid/liquid interface.

  18. Investigation on the effect of nonlinear processes on similarity law in high-pressure argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangyang; Parsey, Guy M.; Verboncoeur, John P.; Christlieb, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of nonlinear processes (such as three-body collisions and stepwise ionizations) on the similarity law in high-pressure argon discharges has been studied by the use of the Kinetic Global Model framework. In the discharge model, the ground state argon atoms (Ar), electrons (e), atom ions (Ar+), molecular ions (Ar2+), and fourteen argon excited levels Ar*(4s and 4p) are considered. The steady-state electron and ion densities are obtained with nonlinear processes included and excluded in the designed models, respectively. It is found that in similar gas gaps, keeping the product of gas pressure and linear dimension unchanged, with the nonlinear processes included, the normalized density relations deviate from the similarity relations gradually as the scale-up factor decreases. Without the nonlinear processes, the parameter relations are in good agreement with the similarity law predictions. Furthermore, the pressure and the dimension effects are also investigated separately with and without the nonlinear processes. It is shown that the gas pressure effect on the results is less obvious than the dimension effect. Without the nonlinear processes, the pressure and the dimension effects could be estimated from one to the other based on the similarity relations.

  19. Estimation of aluminum and argon activation sources in the HANARO coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2010-01-01

    The activation products of aluminum and argon are key radionuclides for operational and environmental radiological safety during the normal operation of open-tank-in-pool type research reactors using aluminum-clad fuels. Their activities measured in the primary coolant and pool surface water of HANARO have been consistent. We estimated their sources from the measured activities and then compared these values with their production rates obtained by a core calculation. For each aluminum activation product, an equivalent aluminum thickness (EAT) in which its production rate is identical to its release rate into the coolant is determined. For the argon activation calculation, the saturated argon concentration in the water at the temperature of the pool surface is assumed. The EATs are 5680, 266 and 1.2 nm, respectively, for Na-24, Mg-27 and Al-28, which are much larger than the flight lengths of the respective recoil nuclides. These values coincide with the water solubility levels and with the half-lives. The EAT for Na-24 is similar to the average oxide layer thickness (OLT) of fuel cladding as well; hence, the majority of them in the oxide layer may be released to the coolant. However, while the average OLT clearly increases with the fuel burn-up during an operation cycle, its effect on the pool-top radiation is not distinguishable. The source of Ar-41 is in good agreement with the calculated reaction rate of Ar-40 dissolved in the coolant

  20. Theoretical Study of Plasma Parameters Dependence on Gas Temperature in an Atmospheric Pressure Argon Microwave Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The gas temperature is an important parameter in many applications of atmospheric pressure microwave discharges (MW). That is why it is necessary to study the influence of that temperature on the plasma characteristics. Our investigation is based on a self-consistent model including the wave electrodynamics and gas-discharge kinetics. We adopt a blocks' energy structure of the argon excited atom. More specifically, we consider 7 different blocks of states, namely 4s, 4p, 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, and 6s. Each block k is characterized by its effective energy uk (derived as an average energy of all levels in the block), as well as its effective g-factor and population. The argon dimmer, atomic and molecular ions are also taken into account in the model. We solve the Boltzmann equation in order to get the electron energy distribution function and the necessary rate constants of the elementary processes. The collisional-radiative part of the model is based on 87 processes. As a result we obtain the electron and ions' number densities, mean electron energy, mean power for sustaining an electron--ion pair in the discharge bulk, as well as the population of the excited blocks of states of the argon atom as functions of the gas temperature

  1. Impact of Argon gas on optical and electrical properties of Carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Arslan, E-mail: arslan.usman@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Shaukat, S.F. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Siraj, Khurram [Department of Physics, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Ashfaq, Afshan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL), 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Anjum, Safia [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University (Pakistan); Imran, Muhammad; Sattar, Abdul [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    Nanostructured thin films of carbon were synthesized and investigated for their electrical, optical, structural and surface properties. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique was used for the preparation of these films under Argon gas environment. A KrF Laser (λ=248 nm) was used as source of ablation and plasma formation. It was observed that the carbon ions and the background gas environment has deep impact on the morphology as well as on the microstructure of the films. Time of Flight (TOF) method was used to determine the energies of the ablated carbon ions. The morphology of film surfaces deposited at various argon pressure was analysed using an atomic force microscope. The Raman spectroscopic measurement reveal that there is shift in phase from sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} and a decrease in FWHM of G band, which is a clear indication of enhanced graphitic clusters. The electrical resistivity was also reduced from 85.3×10{sup −1} to 2.57×10{sup −1} Ω-cm. There is an exponential decrease in band gap E{sub g} of the deposited films from 1.99 to 1.37 eV as a function of argon gas pressure.

  2. The ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Detector Operation in the Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 Module is the largest liquid argon detector (760 t LAr mass) ever realized to study neutrino oscill ations and matter stability in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. One of t he key elements for the detector performance is the liquid argon purity: residual electronegative compounds in argon have to be kept as low as 0.1 part s per billion all over the detector run. The T600 Module design was finalized by the ICARUS Collaboration after years of R&D studies that brought to the viable and scalable industrial solutions necessary for sized experiments with severe safety prescriptions for the underground operation . We present the T600 Module successful commissioning and the 3-years efficient, stable and continuous operation with extraordinary LAr purity, high performance and zero dead time data taking . This result demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of activation and long-term run in safe conditions of sized cryogenic detectors even in a confined underground location and r...

  3. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its performance after one year of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    "Hoffman, J A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region η<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η=1.4 to η=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes with thin...

  4. A Supersonic Argon/Air Coaxial Jet Experiment for Computational Fluid Dynamics Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Chandler W.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    A non-reacting experiment is described in which data has been acquired for the validation of CFD codes used to design high-speed air-breathing engines. A coaxial jet-nozzle has been designed to produce pressure-matched exit flows of Mach 1.8 at 1 atm in both a center jet of argon and a coflow jet of air, creating a supersonic, incompressible mixing layer. The flowfield was surveyed using total temperature, gas composition, and Pitot probes. The data set was compared to CFD code predictions made using Vulcan, a structured grid Navier-Stokes code, as well as to data from a previous experiment in which a He-O2 mixture was used instead of argon in the center jet of the same coaxial jet assembly. Comparison of experimental data from the argon flowfield and its computational prediction shows that the CFD produces an accurate solution for most of the measured flowfield. However, the CFD prediction deviates from the experimental data in the region downstream of x/D = 4, underpredicting the mixing-layer growth rate.

  5. CAPTAIN-Minerνa. Neutrino-Argon Scattering in a Medium-Energy Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab is currently providing an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the NOνA, MINERνA and MINOS+ experiments. By installing the 5-ton CAPTAIN liquid argon TPC in front of the MINERνA detector in the NuMI beamline and combining the data from the CAPTAIN, MINERνA and MINOS+ detectors, a broad program of few-GeV neutrino cross section measurements on argon can be pursued. These measurements will be extremely helpful for future oscillation experiments. By directly comparing the cross sections on argon to MINERνA’s scintillator (CH) target, a new level of precision can be achieved in the measurements of the effects of the nucleus on neutrino interactions. These effects are of interest to not only the particle physics but also the nuclear physics community. This document describes in detail the physics goals of the CAPTAIN-MINERνA experiment, in addition to a first estimate of the technical resources required to install, commission and operate the CAPTAIN detector in front of the MINERVA detector.

  6. Application of argon-helium cryoablation in resection of intracranial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hao ZHOU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the curative effect of argon-helium cryoablation in resection of intracranial tumors.  Methods and Results A total of 11 patients with primary intracranial tumors, including 7 cases of glioma and 4 cases of meningioma, were enrolled in this study. The tumor was located in left frontal lobe in 4 cases, left fronto-parietal lobe in 2 cases, left temporal lobe in 2 cases and right temporo-parietal lobe in 3 cases. Argon-helium cryoablation was used to assist intracranial tumor resection. Among 7 cases of glioma, 4 cases were totally removed and 3 cases were partially resected. Four cases of meningioma were totally removed. The average intraoperative blood loss was 80 ml, and average operation time was 80 min. Postoperative clinical symptoms were improved, and head CT or MRI showed no rebleeding. Patients were followed up for an average of 4 years, and none of them suffered from operation-related or postoperative complications such as intracranial infection, or tumor recurrence.  Conclusions Argon - helium cryoablation is suitable for intracranial tumors with different diameters and in different locations. It is safe and effective, with few operation-related or postoperative complications, less rebleeding and low risk of recurrence, which is a highly efficient and relatively low?cost assistant surgical method. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.011

  7. Effect of a sound wave on the stability of an argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Karapetyan, D.M.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a sound wave on the stability of the positive column of an argon discharge has been studied experimentally in the range of pressures from 40 to 180 torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA in a tube with an interior diameter of 9.8 cm. It is shown that, depending on the intensity of the sound wave and the discharge parameters, sound can cause the positive column either to contract or to leave the contracted state. The electric field strength has been measured as a function of the sound intensity. An analogy between the effect of sound and that of longitudinal pumping of the gas on the argon discharge parameters has been established. The radial temperature of the gas has been studied in an argon discharge as a function of the sound intensity for different gas pressures. A direct relationship has been established between the sign of the detector effect produced by a sound wave in a discharge and the processes of contraction and filamentation of a discharge. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Two-dimensional self-consistent microwave argon plasma simulations with experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Gordon, M.H.; Roe, L.A.; Hassouni, K.; Grotjohn, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES), absorption measurements, and thermal energy rate analysis were used in tandem with numerical models to characterize microwave argon plasmas. A WAVEMAT (model MPDR-3135) microwave diamond deposition system was used to generate argon plasmas at 5 Torr. Three excited state number densities (4p, 5p, and 5d) were obtained from the OES measurements, and a fourth excited state number density (4s) was obtained from the absorption measurements. Further, power absorbed in the substrate was monitored. A self-consistent two-dimensional argon model coupled with an electromagnetic field model and a 25-level two-dimensional (2D)-collisional-radiative model (CRM) was developed and validated with the experimental measurements. The 2D model provides the gas and electron temperature distributions, and the electron, ion, and 4s state number densities, which are then iteratively fed into the electromagnetic and CRM models. Both the numerically predicted thermal energy rates and excited state densities agreed, within the experimental and numerical uncertainties, with the experimental results

  9. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  10. Role of argon laser as an adjunctive therapy for treatment of resistant infected corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mohammad M; Selima, Adel A; El-Shorbagy, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of argon laser as an adjunctive therapy in ten patients with resistant infected corneal ulcers with or without hypopyon. The study included 20 patients, split into two groups of ten, with resistant infected corneal ulcers with or without hypopyon. One group was considered as the control group and treated with local and systemic specific antimicrobial drugs guided with culture and sensitivity tests. The other group started with the same specific therapy as the control group for 1 week with no obvious improvement and then was further treated with argon laser. The ten patients in the control group included five cases of fungal ulcers, three mixed (fungal and bacterial) ulcers, and two viral ulcers. The ten patients in the other group included three cases of fungal ulcers, three mixed (fungal and viral) ulcers, three viral ulcers, and one bacterial ulcer as proven with microbial culture and sensitivity tests. Eight cases of the control group and seven cases of the other group were associated with hypopyon. Before laser treatment, a drop of benoxinate hydrochloride 0.4% and a single drop of fluorescein sodium 0.25% were instilled. Argon laser irradiation of the affected cornea was performed using an argon 532 nm wavelength (Carl Zeiss LSL 532s AG; Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). A spot size of 500 μm, pulse duration of 0.2 seconds, and power of 900 mW were used. All cases were followed up for 3 months after healing was achieved. During the first 4 weeks after laser treatment, all patients showed complete healing of the epithelial defect and resolution of stromal infiltration with no adverse effects. In the control group, four cases needed an amniotic membrane graft due to thinning and the other six cases were healed in a duration that ranged from 3 to 7 weeks. Argon laser phototherapy is useful as an adjunctive treatment for resistant infected corneal ulcers. More cases are needed to get more reliable results and to confirm our findings.

  11. A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur...Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Samuel G...Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride

  12. COMPOSICIÓN DE LA DIETA Y CAPACIDAD NUTRICIONAL DE CARGA DEL HÁBITAT DEL CONEJO DE LOS VOLCANES (Romerolagus diazi EN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Izta-Popo y Zoquiapan. Se estimaron los aportes nutriciona¬les, biomasa vegetal, capacidad nutricional de carga del hábitat y hábitos alimenticios del Romerolagus diazi. Para ello, las excretas y muestras vegetales se recolectaron y fueron analizadas microhistológi¬camente. Se determinaron la materia seca, proteína cruda y fibra detergente neutro de las plantas. A su vez, se realizó un ensayo de digestibilidad con conejos domésticos proporcionándoles dos tratamientos: Muhlenbergia macrura o Festuca tolucensis adicionadas con heno de alfalfa (80 % gramínea + 20 % de heno de alfalfa. En la mitad de los sitios predominó M. macroura y en la otra mitad F. tolucensis. El análisis microhistológico mostró la presencia predominante de los mismos forrajes. Hubo diferencias en biomasa y capacidad de carga entre sitios (P < 0.05. La inclusión de F. tolucensis incrementó (P < 0.05 la digestibilidad en comparación con M. macroura.

  13. Effect of argon plasma treatment on the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guang-Gui, E-mail: ggcheng@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Jiang, Shi-Yu; Li, Kai [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Zhang, Zhong-Qiang [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Wang, Ying; Yuan, Ning-Yi [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Ding, Jian-Ning, E-mail: dingjn@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Zhang, Wei [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Two different kinds of PDMS films were prepared by spin-coated. • The PDMS surface was plasma treated with different power and time. • The output performance of TENG was significantly enhanced by plasma treatment. • Plasma treatment effect has time-efficient, the output declines with store time. - Abstract: Physical and chemical properties of the polymer surface play great roles in the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Specific texture on the surface of polymer can enlarge the contact area and enhance the power output performance of TENG. In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with smooth and micro pillar arrays on the surface were prepared respectively. The surfaces were treated by argon plasma before testing their output performance. By changing treatment parameters such as treating time and plasma power, surfaces with different roughness and their relationship were achieved. The electrical output performances of the assembled TENG for each specimen showed that argon plasma treatment has a significant etching effect on the PDMS surface and greatly strengthen its output performance. The average surface roughness of PDMS film increases with the etching time from 5 mins to 15 mins when the argon plasma power is 60 W. Nevertheless, the average surface roughness is inversely proportional to the treatment time for the power of 90W. When treated with 90 W and 5 mins, many uniform micro pillars appeared on the both PDMS surface, and the output performance of the TENG for plasma treated smooth surface is 2.6 times larger than that before treatment. The output voltage increases from 42 V to 72 V, and the short circuit current increases from 4.2 μA to 8.3 μA after plasma treatment of the micro pillar array surface. However, this plasma treatment has time-efficient due to the hydrophobic recovery property of Ar plasma treated PDMS surface, both output voltage and short circuit current decrease significantly after 3

  14. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, N.; Palomares, J. M.; Iordanova, E. I.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, ne, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, Te, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the ne values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3, whereas the ne value (2 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (~1020 m-3). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the Te values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  15. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  16. Recoil Directionality Studies in Two-Phase Liquid Argon TPC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Matteo; Batignani, Giovanni; Marcello Bonivento, Walter; Bottino, Bianca; Campajola, Luigi; Caravati, Mauro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cicalò, Corrado; Cocco, Alfredo; Covone, Giovanni; De Rosa, Gianfranca; Devoto, Alberto; Dionisi, Carlo; Fiorillo, Giuliana; Giagu, Stefano; Gulino, Marisa; Kuss, Michael; Lissia, Marcello; Lista, Luca; Longo, Giuseppe; Pallavicini, Marco; Pandola, Luciano; Razeti, Marco; Rescigno, Marco; Rossi, Biagio; Rossi, Nicola; Testera, Gemma; Trinchese, Pasquale; Walker, Susan; Zullo, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Projects attempting the direct detection of WIMP dark matter share the common problem of eliminating sources of background or using techniques to distinguish background events from true signals. Although experiments such as DarkSide have achieved essentially background free exposures through careful choice of materials and application of efficient veto techniques, there will still be a high burden of proof to convince the greater scientific community when a discovery is claimed. A directional signature in the data would provide extremely strong evidence to distinguish a true WIMP signal from that of an isotropic background. Two-phase argon time projection chambers (TPCs) provide an experimental apparatus which can both be scaled to the ton-scale size required to accommodate the low cross-section expected for WIMP interactions and have an anisotropy that could be exploited to evaluate the polar angles of the resulting nuclear recoils from WIMP collisions with target nuclei. Our studies show that even a modest resolution in the polar angle reconstruction would offer a powerful tool to detect a directional signature. In this contribution, the status of the ReD experiment, which is under construction at Naples University, will be also shown. The aim of the project is to assess and enhance the directionality of two-phase argon TPCs. ReD will use a small TPC exposed to a beam of mono-energetic neutrons to study the so called "columnar recombination" in liquid argon. This development could have high impact on the future experiments in the field, opening up the potential to find conclusive evidence for dark matter or disprove the WIMP hypothesis at and above the mass range explored by planned accelerator experiments.

  17. Direct current microhollow cathode discharges on silicon devices operating in argon and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R.; Felix, V.; Stolz, A.; Aubry, O.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dzikowski, S.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Overzet, L. J.; Dussart, R.

    2018-02-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges have been produced on silicon platforms using processes usually used for MEMS fabrication. Microreactors consist of 100 or 150 μm-diameter cavities made from Ni and SiO2 film layers deposited on a silicon substrate. They were studied in the direct current operating mode in two different geometries: planar and cavity configuration. Currents in the order of 1 mA could be injected in microdischarges operating in different gases such as argon and helium at a working pressure between 130 and 1000 mbar. When silicon was used as a cathode, the microdischarge operation was very unstable in both geometry configurations. Strong current spikes were produced and the microreactor lifetime was quite short. We evidenced the fast formation of blisters at the silicon surface which are responsible for the production of these high current pulses. EDX analysis showed that these blisters are filled with argon and indicate that an implantation mechanism is at the origin of this surface modification. Reversing the polarity of the microdischarge makes the discharge operate stably without current spikes, but the discharge appearance is quite different from the one obtained in direct polarity with the silicon cathode. By coating the silicon cathode with a 500 nm-thick nickel layer, the microdischarge becomes very stable with a much longer lifetime. No current spikes are observed and the cathode surface remains quite smooth compared to the one obtained without coating. Finally, arrays of 76 and 576 microdischarges were successfully ignited and studied in argon. At a working pressure of 130 mbar, all microdischarges are simultaneously ignited whereas they ignite one by one at higher pressure.

  18. THE MYSTERIOUS CASE OF THE SOLAR ARGON ABUNDANCE NEAR SUNSPOTS IN FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recently we discussed an enhancement of the abundance of Ar xiv relative to Ca xiv near a sunspot during a flare, observed in spectra recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The observed Ar xiv/Ca xiv ratio yields an argon/calcium abundance ratio seven times greater than expected from the photospheric abundance. Such a large abundance anomaly is unprecedented in the solar atmosphere. We interpreted this result as being due to an inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect. In the published work, two lines of Ar xiv were observed, and one line was tentatively identified as an Ar xi line. In this paper, we report observing a similar enhancement in a full-CCD EIS flare spectrum in 13 argon lines that lie within the EIS wavelength ranges. The observed lines include two Ar xi lines, four Ar xiii lines, six Ar xiv lines, and one Ar xv line. The enhancement is far less than reported in Doschek et al. but exhibits similar morphology. The argon abundance is close to a photospheric abundance in the enhanced area, and the abundance could be photospheric. This enhancement occurs in association with a sunspot in a small area only a few arcseconds (1″ = about 700 km) in size. There is no enhancement effect observed in the normally high-FIP sulfur and oxygen line ratios relative to lines of low-FIP elements available to EIS. Calculations of path lengths in the strongest enhanced area in Doschek et al. indicate a depletion of low-FIP elements.

  19. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic measurement of air entrainment in argon plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, J.R.; Rodriquez, R.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The concentration and temperature of air entrained into an argon plasma jet has been measured using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The flow field is characterized by a short region of well behaved laminar flow near the nozzle exit followed by an abrupt transition to turbulence. Once the transition to turbulence occurs, air is rapidly entrained into the jet core. The location of the transition region is thought to be driven by the rapid cooling of the jet and the resulting increase in Reynolds number. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. On the influence of aluminium and iron impurities on the thermal contraction of an argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porytsky, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of metal impurities on the process of contraction (self-constriction) of an arc discharge is considered in the ambient atmosphere of argon. The calculations are carried out, and it is shown that the degree of constriction of an arc discharge is determined by both the thermal characteristics of the gaseous medium and the characteristics of electron-atom collisions. It is shown the possibility to neutralize the influence of the Ramsauer effect on a character of the contraction of an arc

  1. Computer Simulation of the Cool Down of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Korperud, N; Fabre, C; Owren, G; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter consists of a liquid argon detector with a total mass of 120 tonnes. This highly complicated structure, fabricated from copper, lead, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy will be placed in an aluminum cryostat. The cool down process of the detector will be limited by the maximum temperature differences accepted by the composite structure so as to avoid critical mechanical stresses. A computer program simulating the cool down of the detector by calculating the local heat transfer throughout a simplified model has been developed. The program evaluates the cool down time as a function of different contact gasses filling the spaces within the detector.

  2. Convolutional neural networks applied to neutrino events in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Fernandez, R. Castillo; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anad?n, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Sanchez, L. Escudero; Esquivel, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C. -M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; S?ldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Weston, J.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-03-01

    We present several studies of convolutional neural networks applied to data coming from the MicroBooNE detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). The algorithms studied include the classification of single particle images, the localization of single particle and neutrino interactions in an image, and the detection of a simulated neutrino event overlaid with cosmic ray backgrounds taken from real detector data. These studies demonstrate the potential of convolutional neural networks for particle identification or event detection on simulated neutrino interactions. We also address technical issues that arise when applying this technique to data from a large LArTPC at or near ground level.

  3. Argon used as dry suit insulation gas for cold-water diving

    OpenAIRE

    Vrijdag, Xavier CE; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan AM; van Hulst, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection should be based on physical activity, the temperature of the water, and the duration of exposure. A dry suit, a diving suit filled with gas, is the most common diving suit in cold water. Air is the traditional dry suit inflation gas, whereas the thermal conductivity of argon is ap...

  4. Deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium in a cesium-seeded argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, B.; Zarkova, L.

    1985-11-01

    The possibility of deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium of a cesium seeded argon plasma has been analyzed. A four level model of cesium has been employed. Overpopulations of the ground state and the first excited state as well as the corresponding reduction of the electron density are calculated for cylindrical discharge structures by solving stationary rate equations. Numerical results are presented. These results indicate that in a large regime of plasma conditions the LTE assumption is valid for electron temperatures larger than 3000 K. (orig.)

  5. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  7. Photoionized argon plasmas induced with intense soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), s. 014009 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-plasma * plasma radiation * photoionization * Argon plasma * Nd:YAG laser * PALS iodine laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/1/014009

  8. Temperature rise and tissue damage in the primate retina from argon laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polhamus, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Temperatures from argon laser irradiation were measured in vivo in Macaca mulatta retinae for exposure durations .002s to 100s with a microthermocouple probe specially designed for measuring transient tissue temperatures. Measured temperatures were compared to predicted temperatures from a mathematical model of temperature for the retina and choroid. Radiant energy levels required to produce retinal lesions were determined by both ophthalmoscopic and microscopic examination of the ocular fundus. Temperatures associated with retinal lesion formation were measured, for macular and paramacular exposures. Measured temperatures were used to improve a rate process model for predicting thermal damage to the retina

  9. Electric fields in the sheath formed in a 300 mm, dual frequency capacitive argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnat, E V; Miller, P A; Hebner, G A; Paterson, A M; Panagopoulos, T; Hammond, E; Holland, J

    2007-01-01

    The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the electric fields in a sheath formed in a dual frequency, 300 mm capacitive argon discharge are measured as functions of relative mixing between a low frequency current and a high frequency current. It is found that the overall structure of the sheath (potential across the sheath and the thickness of the sheath) are dominated by the lower frequency component while (smaller) oscillations in these quantities are dictated by the higher frequency component. Comparisons of the measured spatial and temporal profiles are made for Lieberman's and Robiche et al sheath model and with a particle in a cell calculation

  10. High enthalpy, hypervelocity flows of air and argon in an expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, A. J; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    1991-01-01

    An expansion tube with a free piston driver has been used to generate quasi-steady hypersonic flows in argon and air at flow velocities in excess of 9 km/s. Irregular test flow unsteadiness has limited the performance of previous expansion tubes, and it has been found that this can be avoided by attention to the interaction between the test gas accelerating expansion and the contact surface in the primary shock tube. Test section measurements of pitot pressure, static pressure and flat plate heat transfer are reported. An approximate analytical theory has been developed for predicting the velocities achieved in the unsteady expansion of the ionizing or dissociating test gas.

  11. Effects of argon laser on atheromatous plaques. A preliminary study on post-mortem arterial specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernes, J.M.; Angel, C.Y.; Brenot, P.; Bruneval, P.; Camilleri, J.P.; Gaux, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of argon laser radiation of human atheroma were studied in vitro. Lesions produced were craters from total tissue volatilization surrounded by a thin zone of coagulation. The degree of tissue destruction was related to the energy used and the direction of the laser beam in relation to the atheromatous stenotic lesion. These findings confirm that it is possible to destroy the atheroma under controlled conditions, but a the non-negligeable risk of perforation. By allowing visual control, the angioscope should ensure increased safety in use and provide hope for future applications of this method by the percutaneous route in the treatment of established atheromatous disease [fr

  12. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219286; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  13. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389433; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12bit precision at 40MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  14. Preparation of a primary argon beam for the CERN fixed target physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, D; O'Neil, M; Scrivens, R; Thomae, R

    2014-02-01

    The fixed target experiment NA61 in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron is studying phase transitions in strongly interacting matter. Up to now they used the primary beams available from the CERN accelerator complex (protons and lead ions) or fragmented beams created from the primary lead ion beam. To explore a wider range of energies and densities a request was made to provide primary argon and xenon beams. This paper describes the results of the setting up and 10 week test run of the Ar(11+) beam from the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source and the linear accelerator (Linac3) at CERN.

  15. Energy-Calibration of the ATLAS Hadronic and Electromagnetic Liquid-Argon Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the first combined beam test of the hadronic and electromagnetic liquid-argon endcap calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment took place at the SPS test beam at CERN. A total of 15 million events from electrons, muons and pions in the energy range from 6 to 200 GeV were recorded. The entire calibration chain, from digital filter weights, over calibration constants, to clustering and energy weights, as is relevant for the energy calibration of hadronic and electromagnetic showers in ATLAS was tested and applied to the beam test data. The calibration methods and first results for the combined performance of the two calorimeters are presented.

  16. The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Ines; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019-2020. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize 34000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling with 12 bit precision after the bipolar shaper at the front-end system, and transmit to the LAr Digital Processing system in the back-end to extract the transverse energies. Results of ASIC developments including QA and radiation hardness evaluations, and performances on prototypes will presented with the overall system design.

  17. Effects of radiation damage to TMP [tetramethylpentane], TMS [tetramethylsilane] and liquid argon solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of exposure of calorimeter liquids like tetramethylsilane (TMS), 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane (TMP) and liquid argon solutions to the large doses of ionizing radiation expected in the SCC environment is examined. Like other organic liquids TMS and TMP are decomposed by radiation to various products; thus, we must consider the effects these products may have on the calorimeter operation. Questions considered include how will radiation effect electron drift velocity and lifetime? Will gaseous products produce significant pressure buildup? Are dose rate effects significant? Do we expect different effects from neutrons compared to minimum ionizing radiation? 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters At The Dawn Of LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Camincher, Clement; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are key sub-detectors of ATLAS. They are essential to detect and measure the properties of electrons, photons and are also crucial for jets and missing transverse energy measurements. During the LHC shutdown in 2013-2014, the hardware and the software have been optimized to improve their reliability. The first collisions allows to assess the performance of the detector in the LHC Run-2 real conditions. In view of the next LHC Run in 2020, an upgrade of the level-1 trigger system is also under test. A status at the restart of the LHC Run-2 is presented in this document.

  19. Performance of a liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter with an 'accordion' geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Vialle, J.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Willis, W.J.; Camin, D.V.; Costa, G.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Pessina, G.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first prototype of a lead-liquid-argon e.m. calorimeter with accordion-shaped absorber and electrode plates has been built and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. This novel geometry combines good granularity with high readout speed and minimal dead space. For a response peaking time of 140 ns, an energy resolution of 10%/√E[GeV] and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E[GeV] with a 2.7 cm cell size have been achieved for electrons. The position accuracy for muons is better than 2 mm. (orig.)

  20. Using Quantum Defect Theory in the (e,2e) ionization of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazevet, S.; Fakhreddine, K.; Vien, G. Nguyen; Tweed, R.J.; Langlois, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum Defect theory is a well established theoretical concept in modern spectroscopy that was found particularly powerful in the study of Rydberg states and photoionization of various atomic and molecular species. We show that this approach can also be useful in electron impact ionization problems where state of the art theoretical methods are presently restricted mostly to simple atomic targets. We found that this approach leads to significant improvements over previous calculations for the well documented case of the ionization of argon in equal energy sharing geometry

  1. Assessment of argon ion laser dispersive Raman spectroscopy for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of high-level waste tank materials at Hanford is conducted to support safety assessments and waste treatment activities. Raman spectroscopy is expected to give chemical species information which may assist in defining layering in tank waste. This report describes the dispersive Raman system used in this year's investigation and the methology used to collect and evaluate data taken on tank waste samples. The current argon-ion Raman system was found not to be suitable for screening of tank cores, owing to silica interference, fluorescence interferences, and the extensive time required to collect and treat the data. Recommendations are given for further development

  2. Radiation hard micro-coaxial cables for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Imbert, P; de La Taille, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has chosen for the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and for all the end-cap calorimeters a sampling technique, with liquid argon as the active medium. The read-out electronics and the calibration pulsers are located in boxes outside the cryostats housing the detectors. Signals are transmitted between the detectors and the electronic boxes through custom-designed micro- coaxial cables, which are the subject of this paper. These cables have to satisfy very stringent tolerances in terms of signal transmission, dimensions and radiation hardness. Following a successful pre-series production, these cables have been selected for equipping the ATLAS calorimeter. (16 refs).

  3. Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000A: hydrogen through argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    A critical tabulation of observed spectral lines below 2000 angstroms has been prepared from the published literature up to July 1978. It is intended principally as an aid to those physicists and astronomers who deal with the spectra of highly stripped atoms. This report includes the first 18 elements, from hydrogen (including deuterium) through argon. The tabulation is divided into two main sections: the spectrum lines by spectrum, and a finding list. The entries for each element give the ionization species, ground state term, and ionization potential, as well as the best values of vacuum wavelength, intensity, and classification. A list of the pertinent references is appended at the end

  4. Changes of the surface composition of glass during reactive and argon ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, C.; Bastl, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Removal of a radioactive implant ( 212 Pb + 212 Bi) from the glass surface was measured during reactive (CF 4 ) and argon ion etching and accompanying changes in the surface composition were determined using ESCA. During reactive etch in CF 4 the formation of fluoride (Na, Ca, Mg) surface layer was observed. High etching rate at low pressure of CF 4 can be explained by the combined action of the reactive etch of the silica component and RF sputtering of the residual non-volatile fluorides. (author)

  5. Reactive ion etching of tellurite and chalcogenide waveguides using hydrogen, methane, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, K. T.; Madden, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report in detail on the reactive plasma etching properties of tellurium and demonstrate a high quality etching process using hydrogen, methane, and argon. Very low loss planar ridge waveguides are demonstrated. Optical losses in tellurium dioxide waveguides below 0.1 dB/cm in most of the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and at 1550 nm have been achieved--the lowest ever reported by more than an order of magnitude and clearly suitable for planar integrated devices. The etch process is also shown to be suitable for chalcogenide glasses which may be of importance in applications such as phase change memory devices and nonlinear integrated optics.

  6. Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000A: hydrogen through argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    A critical tabulation of observed spectral lines below 2000 angstroms has been prepared from the published literature up to July 1978. It is intended principally as an aid to those physicists and astronomers who deal with the spectra of highly stripped atoms. This report includes the first 18 elements, from hydrogen (including deuterium) through argon. The tabulation is divided into two main sections: the spectrum lines by spectrum, and a finding list. The entries for each element give the ionization species, ground state term, and ionization potential, as well as the best values of vacuum wavelength, intensity, and classification. A list of the pertinent references is appended at the end.

  7. On the application of probability representations for estimation of the argon method resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol'tsova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    By considering the dating of amphiboles and biotites by the argon method, it is shown that there is a possibility to use the common F and t criteria for revealing any meaning difference in their ages. The dependence of the alternative inference of possible variations of the active parameters is considered, and a graphical procedure for selecting the optimum number of determinations for a given accuracy of analysis is suggested. The meaning difference in the age of amphiboles and biotites from the Northern Ladoga Lake region permits interesting conclusions to be made on the paleothermal history of the investigated rocks

  8. The design of an optical link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present the design of an optical link for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter upgrade. Challenging requirements are high data bandwidth (over 150 Gb/s raw data rate per board), radiation tolerance, low power consumption, high reliability, and low transmission latency. We discuss the link system design and component developments, especially those for the transmitting side that has to operate in the radiation environment. This presentation also serves as a summary of a few other presentations that detail in a particular function block of this link.

  9. Effects of argon ion irradiation on nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gangopadhyay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores an experimental study for nucleation and non-equilibrium growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix. Ion-irradiation induced recoiling of silver atoms with argon ions (at energy 100 keV facilitates nucleation as well as growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix. Small growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been experimentally observed after the irradiation with higher fluences of the argon ions. Role of the argon ions for the evolution of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been elucidated in the present report. With increase of the argon-ion fluences, while slight athermal growth of the silver nanoparticles has been estimated, drastic increase in the optical responses and Rutherford backscattering (RBS yields of the silver nanoparticles have been observed in the sample with the maximum fluences. Possible correlations of increase of argon-ion fluences and the observed experimental results (optical and RBS, in particular have been explained in this article. Although it has been demonstrated using the silver metal film on a soda-glass substrate as a model example, the non-equilibrium approach of nucleation and ion-beam controlled growth of metal nanoparticles in a matrix should be applicable to other immiscible systems as well.

  10. Validation of myocardial blood flow estimation with nitrogen-13 ammonia PET by the argon inert gas technique in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Glatting, G.; Neumaier, B.; Reske, S.N.; Hoff, J. van den; Hoeher, M.; Woehrle, J. n

    2001-01-01

    We simultaneously determined global myocardial blood flow (MBF) by the argon inert gas technique and by nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) to validate PET-derived MBF values in humans. A total of 19 patients were investigated at rest (n=19) and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (n=16). Regional coronary artery stenoses were ruled out by angiography. The argon inert gas method uses the difference of arterial and coronary sinus argon concentrations during inhalation of a mixture of 75% argon and 25% oxygen to estimate global MBF. It can be considered as valid as the microspheres technique, which, however, cannot be applied in humans. Dynamic PET was performed after injection of 0.8±0.2 GBq 13 N-ammonia and MBF was calculated applying a two-tissue compartment model. MBF values derived from the argon method at rest and during the hyperaemic state were 1.03±0.24 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.64±1.02 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. MBF values derived from ammonia PET at rest and during hyperaemia were 0.95±0.23 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.44±0.81 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. The correlation between the two methods was close (y=0.92x+0.14, r=0.96; P 13 N-ammonia PET. (orig.)

  11. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  12. Ionization of liquid argon by x-rays: effect of density on electron thermalization and free ion yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.S.-S.; Gee, N.; Freeman, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free ion yields were measured in liquid argon as a function of electric field strength at densities 736-1343 kg/m 3 (temperatures 149-95 K). The field dependence of the yields was parametrized using the extended Onsager and box models. Over the present density range the total ion yield was constant within 1% and was taken as 4.4, the average of earlier values at 87-91 K. The absence of internal vibrational modes in argon makes its electron thermalizing ability smaller than that of methane. The electron thermalization distance b GP in liquid argon is 3-5 times longer than that in liquid methane at a given d/d c (d c = critical fluid density). (author)

  13. Study of the low-energy ER/NR discrimination and its electric-field dependence with liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washimi, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Tanaka, M.; Yorita, K.

    2018-02-01

    A two-phase argon detector is generally suitable for the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter owing to its high rejection power against electron recoil background events. However, ionization signal (S2) has not been effectively used for argon in current experiments because its basic properties and discrimination power from S2 signal in the low-energy region are not well known, as compared with xenon. The scope of this study is evaluation of S2 properties at a low-energy region of about 40 keVnr and its discrimination power between electron recoils and nuclear recoils based on results from a prototype LAr time projection chamber. The drift-field was varied from null to 3 kV/cm. The detection feasibility for low-mass WIMP with argon is also discussed.

  14. Microwave spectra of 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and 2-phenylethyl methyl ether-argon: Conformation-dependent tunneling and complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded for 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and the 2-phenylethyl methyl ether - argon complex using a cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The spectra were assigned to the aao and g-ao monomer conformations and the g-ao - argon complex. Small tunneling splittings arising from more than one internal motion were resolved for eight transitions of the aao conformer; no tunneling splittings were observed in the spectra of the g-ao conformer or the argon complex. The calculated barriers (ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)) for methyl and phenyl internal rotations were found to be very similar for both conformers. The observation of tunneling splittings is limited to the aao conformer by relatively large barriers for the internal motions and sensitivity to the rotor axis angles within the two conformers.

  15. First test of a high voltage feedthrough for liquid Argon TPCs connected to a 300 kV power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, C; Bueno, L Molina; Murphy, S; Radics, B; Regenfus, C; Rigaut, Y-A; Rubbia, A; Sergiampietri, F; Viant, T; Wu, S

    2016-01-01

    Voltages above a hundred kilo-volt will be required to generate the drift field of future very large liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers. The most delicate component is the feedthrough whose role is to safely deliver the very high voltage to the cathode through the thick insulating walls of the cryostat without compromising the purity of the argon inside. This requires a feedthrough that is typically meters long and carefully designed to be vacuum tight and have small heat input. Furthermore, all materials should be carefully chosen to allow operation in cryogenic conditions. In addition, electric fields in liquid argon should be kept below a threshold to reduce risks of discharges. The combination of all above requirements represents significant challenges from the design and manufacturing perspective. In this paper, we report on the successful operation of a feedthrough satisfying all the above requirements. The details of the feedthrough design and its manufacturing steps are provided. Very high voltages...

  16. A comparative study of carbon plasma emission in methane and argon atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, H.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Ouamerali, O.; Dekhira, A.

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between laser produced plasma (LPP) and an ambient gas is largely investigated by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). The analysis of carbon plasma produced by an excimer KrF laser was performed under controlled atmospheres of methane and argon. For each ambient gas, the features of produced species have been highlighted. Using the time of flight (TOF) analysis, we have observed that the C and C2 exhibit a triple and a double peaks respectively in argon atmosphere in contrast to the methane atmosphere. The evolution of the first peaks of C and C2 follows the plasma expansion, whereas the second peaks move backward, undergoing reflected shocks. It was found that the translational temperature, obtained by Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann distribution function is strongly affected by the nature of ambient gas. The dissociation of CH4 by electronic impact presents the principal approach for explaining the emission of CH radical in reactive plasma. Some chemical reactions have been proposed in order to explain the formation process of molecular species.

  17. Strength, anisotropy, and preferred orientation of solid argon at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ho-kwang; Badro, James; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J.; Singh, Anil K.

    2006-06-01

    The elasticity and plasticity of materials at high pressure are of great importance for the fundamental insight they provide on bonding properties in dense matter and for applications ranging from geophysics to materials technology. We studied pressure-solidified argon with a boron-epoxy-beryllium composite gasket in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Employing monochromatic synchrotron x-radiation and imaging plates in a radial diffraction geometry (Singh et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2157; Mao et al 1998 Nature 396 741), we observed low strength in solid argon below 20 GPa, but the strength increases drastically with applied pressure, such that at 55 GPa, the shear strength exceeded 2.7 GPa. The elastic anisotropy at 55 GPa was four times higher than the extrapolated value from 30 GPa. Extensive (111) slip develops under uniaxial compression, as manifested by the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220) in the compression direction. These macroscopic properties reflect basic changes in van der Waals bondings under ultrahigh pressures.

  18. Strength, anisotropy, and preferred orientation of solid argon at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Ho-kwang; Badro, James; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J; Singh, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    The elasticity and plasticity of materials at high pressure are of great importance for the fundamental insight they provide on bonding properties in dense matter and for applications ranging from geophysics to materials technology. We studied pressure-solidified argon with a boron-epoxy-beryllium composite gasket in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Employing monochromatic synchrotron x-radiation and imaging plates in a radial diffraction geometry (Singh et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2157; Mao et al 1998 Nature 396 741), we observed low strength in solid argon below 20 GPa, but the strength increases drastically with applied pressure, such that at 55 GPa, the shear strength exceeded 2.7 GPa. The elastic anisotropy at 55 GPa was four times higher than the extrapolated value from 30 GPa. Extensive (111) slip develops under uniaxial compression, as manifested by the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220) in the compression direction. These macroscopic properties reflect basic changes in van der Waals bondings under ultrahigh pressures

  19. Ultraviolet transitions from the 2 3P states of helium-like argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.A.

    1976-09-01

    This thesis describes the observation of two allowed electric dipole transitions in helium-like argon. The transitions are 2 3 P 2 --2 3 S 1 and 2 3 P 0 --2 3 S 1 . These transitions were observed by using a vacuum ultraviolet monochromator to collect photons from decays-in-flight of a beam-foil excited argon ion beam. The ion beam was generated by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) and had a beam energy of 138 MeV with a charge current of roughly 500 nanoamperes. After initial observation, the lifetimes and absolute wavelengths of these transitions were measured. The results are tau(2 3 P 2 ) = 1.62 +- 0.08 X 10 -9 sec, tau(2 3 P 0 ) = 4.87 +- 0.44 X 10 -9 sec, lambda(2 3 P 2 --2 3 S 1 ) = 560.2 +- 0.9A, and lambda(2 3 P 0 --2 3 S 1 ) = 660.7 +- 1.1A. This work has demonstrated the observability of these transitions in high-Z ions using beam-foil excitation. Employing a new grazing-incidence spectrometer this work will be pursued in ions of higher Z. Accuracies of at least one part in a thousand should be attainable and will probe the radiative contributions to these transitions to better than 10 percent in a previously unstudied region

  20. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic EndCap Calorimeter Construction and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rodier, S; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis has been carried out within the ATLAS collaboration. ATLAS is one of the two multipurpose experiments approved for data taking at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main goals of this experiment are, to find the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the otherwise so succesful Standard Model of Particle Physics, and to look for physics beyond the Standard Model up to a scale of 1TeV. For this purpose, electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry play a key role. The ATLAS Collaboration has chosen a Liquid Argon (LAr) option with lead as passive material. The liquid Argon Calorimeter is divided into two main subdetectors, the barrel and the end caps (EC). The design and construction of the LAr EM EC calorimeter is the responsability of the groups at Centre de Physique de Marseille (CPPM) and the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)following the guideline developed by the research and development working, group 3 for LHC detectors (RD3). The sharing of responsabilities is such that CPPM provides spacers an...

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  2. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions pro- duced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterised by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform az- imuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as pas- sive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical elec- trodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic ra...

  3. Status of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lampl, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo- rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and s...

  4. Monitoring Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers With A Raspberry Pi Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, Crystal

    2016-03-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is the first of three liquid argon (LAr) time projection chambers (TPCs) that are central to the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab. These chambers consist of thousands of stainless steel or beryllium-copper sense wires that detect ionization electrons produced when neutrinos interact with liquid argon nuclei inside the detector. The wires are several hundred microns in diameter to several meters in length. The construction of such LAr TPCs often takes place in an assembly hall, which is different from the detector hall where the experiment will operate, as was the case with MicroBooNE. Since in situ access to the chamber and its wires in the beamline enclosure can be limited, we investigate the possibility of using a Raspberry Pi single-board computer connected to a low-cost camera installed inside the cryostat as a cost-efficient way to verify the integrity of the wires after transport. We also highlight other benefits of this monitoring device implemented in MicroBooNE, including detector hall surveillance and verification of the status of LED indicators on detector electronics. The author would like to thank Dr. Matthew Toups for his encouragement and guidance on this research project.

  5. Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur - 208016 (India)

    2014-12-09

    Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters.

  6. Argon-plasma treatment in benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bugalho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign metastasizing leiomyomas of the lung are rare smooth muscle cells tumours. We report the case of a 48 year-old female who was evaluated due to persistent cough, progressive dyspnoea and constitutional symptoms. Chest computed tomography revealed a left endobronchial mass, multiple parenchyma nodules and a pleural effusion. Bronchial biopsy histological features were consistent with benign metastasizing leiomyoma. The patient was successfully treated with argon-plasma and mechanical debulking. There was no disease relapse in the last four years. Resumo: Os leiomiomas benignos metastizantes pulmonares são tumores raros de células musculares lisas. Uma doente de 48 anos foi avaliada devido a tosse persistente, dispneia progressiva e sintomas constitucionais. A tomografia computorizada do tórax revelou uma massa endobrônquica à esquerda, múltiplos nódulos do parênquima pulmonar e derrame pleural. As características histológicas da biopsia brônquica foram consistentes com o diagnóstico de leiomioma benigno metastizante. A doente foi submetida a coagulação árgon-plasma e desobstrução mecânica com eficácia terapêutica. Verificou-se estabilidade clínica nos últimos quatro anos. Keywords: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma, Lung neoplasms, Diagnosis, Bronchoscopy, Management, Argon-plasma treatment, Palavras-chave: Leiomioma benigno metastizante, Neoplasias pulmonares, Diagnóstico, Broncoscopia, Tratamento, Tratamento árgon-plasma

  7. Resource Review Board Celebrates the Magnet and Liquid Argon Barrel Tests in Hall 180

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2004-01-01

    Address by the Director-General, R. Aymar, in front of the barrel cryostat. On 25th October 2004 many RRB delegates and guests, ATLAS National Contact Physicists, and colleagues from far and from CERN working on the Liquid Argon calorimeter and the magnet system were gathering in Hall 180 to celebrate the major milestones reached during the past months in this hall: the successful cold tests of the first barrel toroid coil, of the solenoid, and of the barrel Liquid Argon calorimeter. About 250 people spent a relaxing evening after the speeches by the Director-General R. Aymar and by the spokesperson who gave the following address: 'It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here in Hall 180 in the name of the ATLAS Collaboration! With a few words I would like to recall why we are actually here today to share, what I hope, is a relaxed and joyful moment. To concentrate it all in one sentence I could say: To thank cordially all the main actors for the enormous work accomplished here over many years,...

  8. Argon and Nd:YAG lasers for caries prevention in enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Julieta Gomes; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Boff, Teonas Renato; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nd:YAG and argon laser irradiations on enamel demineralization after two different models to induce artificial caries. It is believed that the use of the high-intensity laser on the dental structure can lead to a more acid-resistant surface. Twenty-one extracted human third molars were sectioned into tooth quarters. The quarters were distributed in three groups: Group I (control), untreated; Group II, Nd:YAG laser (60 mJ, 15 pps, 47.77 J/cm(2), 30 sec); and Group III, argon laser (250 mW, 12 J/cm(2), 48 sec). Tooth quarters from each group were subjected to two different demineralization models: cycle 1, a 14 day demineralization (pH 4.5; 6 h) and remineralization (pH 7.0; 18 h) solutions, 37 °C and cycle 2, 48 h in demineralization solution (pH 4.5). Samples were prepared in slices (60-100 μm thick) to be evaluated under polarized light microscopy. Demineralization areas were measured (mm(2)) (n=11). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (plaser was more effective for caries preventive treatment than Nd:YAG laser, showing a smaller demineralization area in enamel.

  9. Argon laser iridoplasty : A primary mode of therapy in primary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal H

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Argon laser iridoplasty was performed in 40 eyes of 33 patients of primary angle closure glaucoma. There were 12 male and 21 female patients. The mean ages of the male and female patients were 51 years and 48.4 years respectively. Forty eyes were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of ten eyes of subacute angle closure glaucoma and group II included thirty eyes of chronic angle closure glaucoma. Argon laser iridoplasty was performed with Coherent 9000 model using laser settings of spot size 200 micron, duration 0.2 second and power 0.7 watt. A total of 80 spots were applied over 360 degree circumference. The intraocular pressure control (below 22 mm Hg was achieved after iridoplasty in all the eyes (100% in group I, where as in group II the intraocular pressure was controlled in 70% eyes. The follow up period varied from 3 months to one year with a mean of eight months. The success rate with iridoplasty was directly related to the extent of peripheral anterior synechiae, optic disc cupping and presence of visual field changes.

  10. Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.

    1989-11-01

    Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ∼ 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10 -5 torr from an initial value of 10 -8 torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs

  11. Neutralization and equilibration of highly charged argon ions at grazing incidence on a graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winecki, S.; Cocke, C.L.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Fry, D.

    1996-01-01

    Final charge state distributions of argon ions, scattered grazingly from a smooth highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, have been measured as a function of initial charge state (q=4-17) and impact velocity (v=0.15-0.62 a.u.). The final charge state distribution changes strongly with the impact velocity, but is almost independent of the initial charge state. The neutralization during grazing-angle scattering is compared to the charge state equilibration experienced by ions passing through a solid (carbon foil), and these two processes seem to have common properties. A K x-ray spectrum from the K-shell vacancy decay of 51 keV Ar 17+ projectiles was obtained as a function of the angle between the ion beam and the surface. First measurements of x-ray spectra in coincidence with grazingly scattered ions are reported. A simple model for argon neutralization near and below the surface is proposed. The model assumes a direct side-feeding into the Ar M-shell followed by Auger and radiative L and K-shell filling

  12. Spectroscopic study of atmospheric pressure 915 MHz microwave plasma at high argon flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotk, R; Hrycak, B; Jasinski, M; Mizeraczyk, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper results of optical emission spectroscopic (OES) study of atmospheric pressure microwave 915 MHz argon plasma are presented. The plasma was generated in microwave plasma source (MPS) cavity-resonant type. The aim of research was determination of electron excitation temperature T exc gas temperature Tg and electron number density n e . All experimental tests were performed with a gas flow rate of 100 and 200 l/min and absorbed microwave power PA from 0.25 to 0.9 kW. The emission spectra at the range of 300 – 600 nm were recorded. Boltzmann plot method for argon 5p – 4s and 5d – 4p transition lines allowed to determine T exc at level of 7000 K. Gas temperature was determined by comparing the measured and simulated spectra using LIFBASE program and by analyzing intensities of two groups of unresolved rotational lines of the OH band. Gas temperature ranged 600 – 800 K. The electron number density was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of hydrogen H β line. The measured n e rang ed 2 × 10 15 − 3.5×10 15 cm −3 , depending on the absorbed microwave power. The described MPS works very stable with various working gases at high flow rates, that makes it an attractive tool for different gas processing.

  13. Characterization of CdZnTe after argon ion beam bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensalah, H., E-mail: hakima.bensalah@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, V. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Plaza, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, O. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Crocco, J.; Zheng, Q.; Carcelen, V.; Dieguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After argon irradiation using low fluence, the defects on surface were removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL intensity increases after irradiation. This increase should be related to the improved quality of the CdZnTe surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation process lead to an elimination of Te precipitates from the surfaces of the CdZnTe samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of argon ion irradiation process on the structure and distribution of Te inclusions in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals. The samples were treated with different ion fluences ranging from 2 to 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The state of the samples before and after irradiation were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cathodoluminescence, Photoluminescence, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the irradiation on the surface of the samples was clearly observed by SEM or AFM. Even for small fluences a removal of polishing scratches on the sample surfaces was observed. Likely correlated to this effect, an important enhancement in the luminescence intensity of the irradiated samples was observed. An aggregation effect of the Te inclusions seems to occur due to the Ar bombardment, which are also eliminated from the surfaces for the highest ion fluences used.

  14. Long-term spatio-temporal evolution of the dust distribution in dusty argon rf plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, Carsten; Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Benjamin; Melzer, André

    2016-10-01

    The 3D dust distribution in dense dust clouds confined in argon rf plasmas is measured by a computed tomography (CT) technique based on the extinction of visible light. On the one hand, clouds of micron-sized particles were created by injecting standardized plastic particles into the plasma. On the other hand, sub-micron sized dust with well-defined properties is grown in situ in an argon acetylene mixture. Once created, both kinds of dust clouds decay in the course of minutes to hours. This decay is monitored by CT measurements. It is revealed that micro-dust clouds feature a drastic change of the dust distribution due to a size reduction of the dust. Dust clouds of sub-micron particles, in contrast, show a strong variation of the overall dust density while the relative dust distribution remains nearly unchanged. The evolution of the overall dust density is subject to two effects: the loss of particles due to an imperfect confinement and the reduction of the dust size via etching.

  15. Cryosorption of helium on argon frost in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.; Garzotto, V.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Martin, G.D.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Kim, J.

    1990-01-01

    Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ∼25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, >20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a twofold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 Torr l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10 -5 Torr from an initial value of 10 -8 Torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 Torr l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity

  16. Cryotherapy of employing Argon/Helium assisted with TACE in treating unresectable primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiliang; Yang Xuedong; Cao Yongwei; Lin Xiangyang; Zhang Yongping; Liu Yayuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of cryotherapy of employing Argon/Helium assisted with TACE for the unresectable primary liver carcinoma. Methods: 124 cases with primary liver carcinoma were randomly divided into two groups: 60 cases were treated by TACE and cryotherapy; the other 64 cases were simply done by TACE as control. In general, TACE was undertaken once a month and altogether three times for a course. Cryotherapy was undergone 1-3 times for a course. Results: The total effective rates (CR + PR) were 45.3% for the control group and 68.3% for the combined therapy group, with an obvious difference between the two groups, 0.5, 1, 1.5 years survival rate were 81.3%, 62.5%, 43.8% respectively in the control group; 93.3%, 83.3%, 63.3% respectively for the combined group. There was an obvious difference between the two groups of 1, 1.5 years of survival rates. Conclusions: Cryotherapy of employing Argon/Helium assisted with TACE for the unresectable primary liver carcinoma is feasible with raising the effective rate and prolonging survival time. (authors)

  17. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|$ < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=$1.5 to $|\\eta|=$4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 $\\times 10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$ is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate,...

  18. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |eta|=1.5 to |eta|=4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitizedand processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primi...

  19. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2020, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm-2s-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is proposed, t...

  20. Upgrade of the Trigger System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and build to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm^-2s^-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals, which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for each triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums, called trigger towers, to the first-level trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2019, instantaneous luminosities of (2-3)×1034 cm^-2s^-1 are expected, far beyond that for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is pro...

  1. Results from pion calibration runs for the H1 liquid argon calorimeter and comparisons with simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Ban, J.; Barrelet, E.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Besancon, M.; Binder, E.; Blume, H.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Colombo, M.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; DelBuono, L.; Devel, M.; Dingus, P.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Duenger, O.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Egli, S.; Ellis, N.N.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Flieser, M.; Gamerdinger, K.; Gayler, J.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Haguenauer, M.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hartz, P.; Haustein, V.; Haydar, R.; Hildesheim, W.; Huot, N.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jaffre, M.; Jung, H.; Just, F.; Kiesling, C.; Kirchhoff, T.; Kole, F.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Krasny, W.; Kubenka, J.P.; Kuester, H.; Kurzhoefer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Laporte, J.F.; Lenhardt, U.; Loch, P.; Lueers, D.; Marks, J.; Martyniak, J.; Merz, T.; Naroska, B.; Nau, A.; Nguyen, H.K.; Niebergall, F.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Pyo, H.B.; Rauschnabel, K.; Ribarics, P.; Rietz, M.; Royon, C.; Rusinov, V.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; Schlippe, W. von; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Shekelyan, V.; Shooshtari, H.; Sirois, Y.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Vallee, C.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wagener, A.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H.P.; Yiou, T.P.; Zacek, J.; Zeitnitz, Ch.; Zomer, F.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on calibration runs performed with pions at CERN SPS for different modules of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter which consists of an electromagnetic section with lead absorbers and a hadronic section with steel absorbers. The data cover an energy range from 3.7 to 205 GeV. Detailed comparisons of the data and simulation with GHEISHA 8 in the framework of GEANT 3.14 are presented. The measured pion induced shower profiles are well described by the simulation. The total signal of pions on an energy scale determined from electron measurements is reproduced to better than 3% in various module configurations. After application of weighting functions, determined from Monte Carlo data and needed to achieve compensation, the reconstructed measured energies agree with simulation to about 3%. The energies of hadronic showers are reconstructed with a resolution of about 50%/√E + 2%. This result is achieved by inclusion of signals from an iron streamer tube tail catcher behind the liquid argon stacks. (orig.)

  2. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  3. The CENNS-10 liquid argon detector to measure CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayloe, R.

    2018-04-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is deploying a suite of low-energy detectors in a low-background corridor of the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on an array of nuclear targets employing different detector technologies. A measurement of CEvNS on different nuclei will test the N2-dependence of the CEvNS cross section and further the physics reach of the COHERENT effort. The first step of this program has been realized recently with the observation of CEvNS in a 14.6 kg CsI detector. Operation and deployment of Ge and NaI detectors are also underway. A 22 kg, single-phase, liquid argon detector (CENNS-10) started data-taking in Dec. 2016 and will provide results on CEvNS from a lighter nucleus. Initial results indicate that light output, pulse-shape discrimination, and background suppression are sufficient for a measurement of CEvNS on argon.

  4. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of 39 Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of 39 Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with 37 Ar and 85 Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish 39 Ar from the fission product 85 Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of 85 Kr can be mistaken for that of 39 Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of 37 Ar. Measured values for the 39 Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Study of a contracted glow in low-frequency plasma-jet discharges operating with argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minotti, F.; Giuliani, L.; Xaubet, M.; Grondona, D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires - UBA, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we present an experimental and theoretical study of a low frequency, atmospheric plasma-jet discharge in argon. The discharge has the characteristics of a contracted glow with a current channel of submillimeter diameter and a relatively high voltage cathode layer. In order to interpret the measurements, we consider the separate modeling of each region of the discharge: main channel and cathode layer, which must then be properly matched together. The main current channel was modeled, extending a previous work, as similar to an arc in which joule heating is balanced by lateral heat conduction, without thermal equilibrium between electrons and heavy species. The cathode layer model, on the other hand, includes the emission of secondary electrons by ion impact and by additional mechanisms, of which we considered emission due to collision of atoms excited at metastable levels, and field-enhanced thermionic emission (Schottky effect). The comparison of model and experiment indicates that the discharge can be effectively sustained in its contracted form by the secondary electrons emitted by collision of excited argon atoms, whereas thermionic emission is by far insufficient to provide the necessary electrons.

  6. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetized Argon Plasma Flow Through Small Mechanical Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam B. Sefkow and Samuel A. Cohen

    2009-04-09

    Motivated by observations of supersonic argon-ion flow generated by linear helicon-heated plasma devices, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to study whether stationary electrostatic layers form near mechanical apertures intersecting the flow of magnetized plasma. By self-consistently evaluating the temporal evolution of the plasma in the vicinity of the aperture, the PIC simulations characterize the roles of the imposed aperture and applied magnetic field on ion acceleration. The PIC model includes ionization of a background neutral-argon population by thermal and superthermal electrons, the latter found upstream of the aperture. Near the aperture, a transition from a collisional to a collisionless regime occurs. Perturbations of density and potential, with mm wavelengths and consistent with ion acoustic waves, propagate axially. An ion acceleration region of length ~ 200-300 λD,e forms at the location of the aperture and is found to be an electrostatic double layer, with axially-separated regions of net positive and negative charge. Reducing the aperture diameter or increasing its length increases the double layer strength.

  7. Nanoparticle formation in a low pressure argon/aniline RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, C.; Kovacevic, E.; Hussain, S.; Dias, A.; Lecas, T.; Berndt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticles in low temperature plasmas is of high importance for different fields: from astrophysics to microelectronics. The plasma based synthesis of nanoparticles is a complex multi-scale process that involves a great variety of different species and comprises timescales ranging from milliseconds to several minutes. This contribution focuses on the synthesis of nanoparticles in a low temperature, low pressure capacitively coupled plasma containing mixtures of argon and aniline. Aniline is commonly used for the production of polyaniline, a material that belongs to the family of conductive polymers, which has attracted increasing interest in the last few years due to the large number of potential applications. The nanoparticles which are formed in the plasma volume and levitate there due to the collection of negative charges are investigated in this contribution by means of in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. In addition, the plasma is analyzed by means of plasma (ion) mass spectroscopy. The experiments reveal the possibility to synthesize nanoparticles both in continuous wave and in pulsed discharges. The formation of particles in the plasma volume can be suppressed by pulsing the plasma in a specific frequency range. The in-situ FTIR analysis also reveals the influence of the argon plasma on the characteristics of the nanoparticles.

  8. Design considerations for teleoperation systems operating in gas-tight argon cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, mechanical engineers spend a significant portion of their time designing equipment such as manipulators, bogies, mechanical grippers, and so on. Some customized designs can be considered as standard mechanical equipment in this area, although it is not unusual to find that an existing design cannot simply be copied from one project to another. Varied performance requirements can dictate that redesign, often quite extensive redesign, is required. However, if something similar has been done before, engineers could use that as a starting point for the new project. In this regard, this study presents several guidelines inspired by previous design knowledge for similar development cases. Moreover, this study presents more detailed suggestions such as design guidelines for an argon-based hot cell atmosphere and design experience for a large-scale practical hot cell facility. Design considerations and case studies dealt with in this study are dedicated to teleoperation manipulators that are used at a large-scale argon cell facility for pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration (PRIDE, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In particular, for case studies to support the suggested recommendations, a fabricated telemanipulator system for PRIDE is introduced, and several kinds of experimental results associated with it are presented.

  9. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2015-01-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs. (paper)

  10. Modification of polypropylene in the afterglow of the atmospheric pressure discharges in air and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkin, D. P.; Shikova, T. G.; Titov, V. A.; Smirnov, S. A.; Khomyakova, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    Polypropylene films were modified in the flowing afterglow of the atmospheric pressure DC discharge in argon and in air. The modification was carried out at a discharge current of 15 mA, a gas flow rate of 24 and 105 m/s and a treatment time of 3 - 30 s. Polymer samples were placed on the distance of 5 - 15 mm downstream the plasma Contact angles for water and ATR-FTIR spectra were used for the film surface characterization. Concentrations of oxygen containing groups in modified polymer layer were estimated on the base of ATR-FTIR data. Modification in the both plasma forming gases results in the decrease of the contact angles and in the formation of oxygen containing groups in the polymer surface layer. Dependencies of contact angles on treatment time, gas flow rate and plasma - polymer distance were obtained. Increasing the treatment time and the gas flow rate results in a higher oxidation degree of the PP. Treatment in the afterglow of the argon plasma has been shown to give the less water contact angles and more densities of oxygen containing groups in polypropilene at the gas flow rate of 105 m/s and the treatment time of 30 s.

  11. Noise Characterization and Filtering in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2017-05-20

    The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Current induced on each TPC wire is amplified and shaped by custom low-power, low-noise ASICs immersed in the liquid argon. The digitization of the signal waveform occurs outside the cryostat. Using data from the first year of MicroBooNE operations, several excess noise sources in the TPC were identified and mitigated. The residual equivalent noise charge (ENC) after noise filtering varies with wire length and is found to be below 400 electrons for the longest wires (4.7 m). The response is consistent with the cold electronics design expectations and is found to be stable with time and uniform over the functioning channels. This noise level is significantly lower than previous experiments utilizing warm front-end electronics.

  12. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton ($pp$) collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $|\\eta|< 3.2$, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range $1.5 < |\\eta| < 4.9$. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5~K. The 182,468 cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigger and t...

  13. The monitoring and data quality assessment of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simard, O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|< 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.5<|η|<4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform response without azimuthal gaps. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; while a classic parallel-plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative design based on cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps is employed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flux is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats maintained at about 88.5K. The approximately 200K cells are read out via front-end boards housed in on-detector crates that also contain monitoring, calibration, trigg...

  14. Electroluminescence pulse shape and electron diffusion in liquid argon measured in a dual-phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2018-02-05

    We report the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant in liquid argon with the DarkSide-50 dual-phase time projection chamber. The measurement is performed at drift electric fields of 100 V/cm, 150 V/cm, and 200 V/cm using high statistics $^{39}$Ar decays from atmospheric argon. We derive an expression to describe the pulse shape of the electroluminescence signal (S2) in dual-phase TPCs. The derived S2 pulse shape is fit to events from the uppermost portion of the TPC in order to characterize the radial dependence of the signal. The results are provided as inputs to the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant DL, which we find to be (4.12 $\\pm$ 0.04) cm$^2$/s for a selection of 140keV electron recoil events in 200V/cm drift field and 2.8kV/cm extraction field. To study the systematics of our measurement we examine datasets of varying event energy, field strength, and detector volume yielding a weighted average value for the diffusion constant of (4.09 $\\pm$ 0.09) cm$^2$ /s. The measured longitudinal diffusion constant is observed to have an energy dependence, and within the studied energy range the result is systematically lower than other results in the literature.

  15. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    AbouZeid, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 87 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LH...

  16. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  17. An Intensified Photodiode Array for Characterizing Argon Plasma Jets on the Plasma Liner Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. S.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Case, A.

    2011-10-01

    The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) will merge 30 high Mach number plasma jets to form an imploding spherical plasma liner for high energy density physics and magneto-inertial fusion studies. The peak stagnation pressures achieved will be highly dependent on the implosion velocity of the liner, which is in turn dependent on the velocities of the merging plasma jets. For initial experiments characterizing single jet propagation, an array of three intensified photodiode (gain of roughly 25 dB and a spectral range of 350-1100 nm) will be used to measure the jet's velocity (up to 50 km/s) and acceleration (if any) as it travels from the chamber wall toward the center of a 9 ft. diameter spherical vacuum chamber. By adding filters to the photodiodes, it will be possible to correlate stages of jet evolution to specific argon emission lines, thus providing information on the state of the argon plasma as it propagates. Alignment and light collection are achieved via an aperture, lens, and fiber optic chain with the photodiodes themselves situated in an electromagnetically shielded ``screen cage.'' This poster will discuss the detailed design, setup, alignment, and initial experimental data of the photodiode array. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences.

  18. Electronic Readout of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Calibration and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter is a key detector component in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHC is a proton-proton collider with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The machine has been operated at energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV in 2009 and is expected to reach the energy of 7 TeV in 2010. The LAr calorimeter is designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. It consists of a set of sampling calorimeters with liquid argon as active medium kept into three separate cryostats. The LAr calorimeters are read out via a system of custom electronics. The electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters is divided into a Front End (FE) system of boards mounted in custom crates directly on the cryostat feedthroughs, and a Back End (BE) system of VME-based boards located in an off-detector underground counting room where there is no radiation. The FE system includes Front End boards (FEBs), which perform the readout and dig...

  19. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  20. Noise Characterization and Filtering in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bullard, B.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; De Geronimo, G.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, S.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Radeka, V.; Rafique, A.; Rescia, S.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Yu, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-08-01

    The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Current induced on each TPC wire is amplified and shaped by custom low-power, low-noise ASICs immersed in the liquid argon. The digitization of the signal waveform occurs outside the cryostat. Using data from the first year of MicroBooNE operations, several excess noise sources in the TPC were identified and mitigated. The residual equivalent noise charge (ENC) after noise filtering varies with wire length and is found to be below 400 electrons for the longest wires (4.7 m). The response is consistent with the cold electronics design expectations and is found to be stable with time and uniform over the functioning channels. This noise level is significantly lower than previous experiments utilizing warm front-end electronics.

  1. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Wilcox Freeburg, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50-1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  2. Calorimetry by immersion into liquid nitrogen and liquid argon: a better way to determine the internal surface area of micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ricardo; Llewellyn, Philip; Rouquerol, Françoise; Denoyel, Renaud; Rouquerol, Jean

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the internal surface area of a set of samples (either carbons or oxides, either porous or nonporous, either microporous or mesoporous) by microcalorimetry via immersion into liquid nitrogen or argon. We have made use of an isothermal, heat-flux microcalorimeter, initially designed and built in our laboratory for the sake of gas adsorption experiments at 77 or 87 K. It seems that immersion calorimetry into liquid nitrogen and argon makes it possible to go one step further in the determination of the internal surface area of micropores.

  3. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for in Situ Geochronology Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    KArLE (Potassium-­-Argon Laser Experiment) has been developed for in situ planetary geochronology using the K - Ar (potassium-­-argon) isotope system, where material ablated by LIBS (Laser-­-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is used to calculate isotope abundances. We are determining the accuracy and precision of volume measurements of these pits using stereo and laser microscope data to better understand the ablation process for isotope abundance calculations. If a characteristic volume can be determined with sufficient accuracy and precision for specific rock types, KArLE will prove to be a useful instrument for future planetary rover missions.

  4. Generation of stable and low-divergence 10-MeV quasimonoenergetic electron bunch using argon gas jet

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mori; K. Kondo; Y. Mizuta; M. Kando; H. Kotaki; M. Nishiuchi; M. Kado; A. S. Pirozhkov; K. Ogura; H. Sugiyama; S. V. Bulanov; K. A. Tanaka; H. Nishimura; H. Daido

    2009-01-01

    The pointing stability and divergence of a quasimonoenergetic electron bunch generated in a self-injected laser-plasma acceleration regime using 4 TW laser is studied. A pointing stability of 2.4 mrad root-mean-square (rms) and a beam divergence of 10.6 mrad (rms) were obtained using an argon gas-jet target for 50 sequential shots, while these values were degraded by a factor of 3 at the optimum condition using helium. The peak electron energies were 8.5±0.7 and 24.8±3.6  MeV using argon and ...

  5. Enhanced Field Emission from Argon Plasma-Treated Ultra-sharp α-Fe2O3Nanoflakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JX

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hematite nanoflakes have been synthesized by a simple heat oxide method and further treated by Argon plasmas. The effects of Argon plasma on the morphology and crystal structures of nanoflakes were investigated. Significant enhancement of field-induced electron emission from the plasma-treated nanoflakes was observed. The transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the plasma treatment effectively removes amorphous coating and creates plenty of sub-tips at the surface of the nanoflakes, which are believed to contribute the enhancement of emission. This work suggests that plasma treatment technique could be a direct means to improve field-emission properties of nanostructures.

  6. Percepción del estrés competitivo y cultura en futbolistas profesionales de Brasil y Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Regina F. Brand\\u00E3o

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar jugadores de fútbol con diferentes perspectivas culturales y similar nivel de experiencia, en la percepción del estrés. Fueron evaluados 18 jugadores Brasileños de la Selección Nacional Brasileña, y 20 jugadores Portugueses de la Selección Nacional Portuguesa, con una media de edad de 26,69 + 4,1 y 26,05 + 2,3 años respectivamente, mediante el Inventario de Estrés en Fútbol. Aparece una tendencia resulta muy marcada, los ítems que son evaluados como positivos por los dos grupos, los Brasileños tienden a evaluarlos significativamente más positivos que los Portugueses y en los evaluados como negativos por las dos nacionalidades, los Brasileños tienden a evaluarlos como más negativos. Quizás más interesante aún resulta la gran cantidad de ítems que son evaluados como influyentes en tendencias totalmente inversas, lo que los Brasileños consideran negativo es considerado por los Portugueses como positivo o neutro. Muy probablemente la variable cultural puede explicar la variabilidad de percepción del estrés.

  7. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  8. Experimental behaviour of a argon plasma, which is passed by a high current intensity, with different magnetic field configurations; Comportamiento experimental de un plasma de argon en diferentes configuraciones de campo magnetico y a elevadas corrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J.

    1964-07-01

    In a lineal discharge, the longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current through the tube and the returning conductors, which have 4 different forms, are determined with a magnetic probe, which has a radial and longitudinal displacement. The plasma is produced discharging a 135{mu}F and 9 KV capacitor bank through Argon at 10{sup -}1 Torr. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Electronic relaxation dynamics of a metal atom deposited on argon cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awali, Slim

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study on the interaction between electronically excited atomic states and a non-reactive environment. We have theoretically and experimentally studied situations where a metal atom (Ba or K) is placed in a finite size environment (argon cluster). The presence of the medium affects the electronic levels of the atom. On the other side, the excitation of the atom induces a relaxation dynamics of the electronic energy through the deformation of the cluster. The experimental part of this work focuses on two aspects: the spectroscopy and the dynamics. In both cases a first laser electronically excites the metal atom and the second ionizes the excited system. The observable is the photoelectron spectrum recorded after photoionization and possibly information on the photoion which are also produced. This pump/probe technique, with also two lasers, provide the ultrafast dynamic when the lasers pulses used are of ultrashort (60 fs). The use of nanosecond lasers leads to resonance spectroscopic measurement, unresolved temporally, which give information on the position of the energy levels of the studied system. From a theoretical point-of-view, the excited states of M-Ar n were calculated at the ab initio level, using large core pseudo-potential to limit the active electrons of the metal to valence electrons. The study of alkali metals (potassium) is especially well adapted to this method since only one electron is active. The ab-initio calculation and a Monte-Carlo simulation where coupled to optimize the geometry of the KAr n (n = 1-10) cluster when K is in the ground state of the neutral and the ion, or excited in the 4p or 5s state. Calculations were also conducted in collaboration with B. Gervais (CIMAP, Caen) on KAr n clusters having several tens of argon atoms. Absorption spectra were also calculated. From an experimental point-of-view, we were able to characterize the excited states of potassium and barium perturbed by the clusters. In both cases a

  10. Hot climate inhibits volcanism on Venus: Constraints from rock deformation experiments and argon isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Sami; Heap, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    The disparate evolution of sibling planets Earth and Venus has left them markedly different. Venus' hot (460 °C) surface is dry and has a hypsometry with a very low standard deviation, whereas Earth's average temperature is 4 °C and the surface is wet and has a pronounced bimodal hypsometry. Counterintuitively, despite the hot Venusian climate, the rate of intraplate volcano formation is an order of magnitude lower than that of Earth. Here we compile and analyse rock deformation and atmospheric argon isotope data to offer an explanation for the relative contrast in volcanic flux between Earth and Venus. By collating high-temperature, high-pressure rock deformation data for basalt, we provide a failure mechanism map to assess the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). These data suggest that the Venusian BDT likely exists between 2 and 12 km depth (for a range of thermal gradients), in stark contrast to the BDT for Earth, which we find to be at a depth of ∼25-27 km using the same method. The implications for planetary evolution are twofold. First, downflexing and sagging will result in the sinking of high-relief structures, due to the low flexural rigidity of the predominantly ductile Venusian crust, offering an explanation for the curious coronae features on the Venusian surface. Second, magma delivery to the surface-the most efficient mechanism for which is flow along fractures (dykes; i.e., brittle deformation)-will be inhibited on Venus. Instead, we infer that magmas must stall and pond in the ductile Venusian crust. If true, a greater proportion of magmatism on Venus should result in intrusion rather than extrusion, relative to Earth. This predicted lower volcanic flux on Venus, relative to Earth, is supported by atmospheric argon isotope data: we argue here that the anomalously unradiogenic present-day atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar ratio for Venus (compared with Earth) must reflect major differences in 40Ar degassing, primarily driven by volcanism. Indeed

  11. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of argon and methane: a test of a transient hot-wire apparatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2002), s. 147-163 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : thermal conductivity * argon * methan Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2002

  12. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  13. Surface temperature distributions in carbon dioxide, argon, and KTP (Nd:YAG) laser ablated otic capsule and calvarial bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, B. J.; Neev, J.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial and temporal surface temperature distribution was measured after laser irradiation in fresh porcine otic capsule and calvarial bone tissue using an HgCdTe (mercury-cadmium-tellurium) infrared camera. Carbon dioxide (CO2) (lambda = 10.6 mm), argon (lambda = 514 nm), and

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karthikeya Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE. This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied.

  15. In vitro and in vivo microbial adhesion and growth on argon plasma-treated silicone rubber voice prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, EPJM; Van de Belt-Gritter, B; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Verkerke, GJ; Dijk, F; Mahieu, HF; Reitsma, A

    Patients who undergo a total laryngectomy usually receive a silicone rubber voice prosthesis for voice rehabilitation. Unfortunately, biofilm formation on the esophageal side of voice prostheses limits their lifetime to 3-4 mon on average. The effects of repeated argon plasma treatment of medical

  16. Experimental behaviour of a argon plasma, which is passed by a high current intensity, with different magnetic field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.

    1964-01-01

    In a lineal discharge, the longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current through the tube and the returning conductors, which have 4 different forms, are determined with a magnetic probe, which has a radial and longitudinal displacement. The plasma is produced discharging a 135μF and 9 KV capacitor bank through Argon at 10 - 1 Torr. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Giant Liquid Argon Observatory for Proton Decay, Neutrino Astrophysics and CP-violation in the Lepton Sector (GLACIER)

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Lazzaro, C; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Otiougova, P; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Strabel, C; Ulbricht, J; Viant, T

    2010-01-01

    GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) is a large underground observatory for proton decay search, neutrino astrophysics and CP-violation studies in the lepton sector. Possible underground sites are studied within the FP7 LAGUNA project (Europe) and along the JPARC neutrino beam in collaboration with KEK (Japan). The concept is scalable to very large masses.

  18. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhmadaliev, S.; Albiol, F.; Amaral, P.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 449, - (2000), s. 461-477 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : liquid argon * calorimeter * hadronic scintillating- tile * CERN SPS * ATLAS * LHC * energy resolution * pions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  19. A new argon gas-based device for the treatment of keloid scars with the use of intralesional cryotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.C.E.; Bulstra, A.E.J.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Niessen, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a new promising technique for the treatment of keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Multiple devices are available, mostly based on a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar system, which have a limited freezing capacity. Argon gas-based systems

  20. Possible wave formation and martensitic transformation of iron particles in copper single crystals during argon ion bombardment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thölén, Anders Ragnar; Li, Chang-Hai; Easterling, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    Thin single crystal copper specimens (thickness ~250 nm) containing coherent iron particles (diameter 40–50 nm) have been bombarded with argon ions (5, 80, and 330 keV). During this process some of the iron particles transform to martensite. The transformation was observed near the exposed surface...

  1. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J; Odic, Emmanuel; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O; DuBow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H 2 O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ∼5.5 and ∼5 log 10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 10 6 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H 2 O 2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C; the contribution of heating, along with that of H 2 O 2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions. (paper)

  2. Direct observation of muon-pair production by high-energy muons in the liquid-argon calorimeter BARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anikeev, VB; Gurzhiev, SN; Denisov, SP; Zolina, OS; Kelner, [No Value; Kirina, TM; Kokoulin, RP; Lipaev, VV; Petrukhin, AA; Rybin, AM; Sergiampietri, F; Yanson, EE

    Experimental data accumulated over a long-term exposure of the big liquid-argon spectrometer BARS at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, Protvino) in a horizontal flux of cosmic rays are analyzed with the aim of selecting events that correspond to muon-pair production by mucus in the

  3. On the effect of treating poly(acrylic acid) with argon and tetrafluoromethane plasmas: kinetics and degradation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlingen, Johannes G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Takens, G.A.J.; Takens, Gijsbert A.J.; van der Gaag, Frederik J.; van der Gaag, F.J.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Feijen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) films were treated with either an argon or a tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma and subsequently analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PAAc films were decarboxylated during both types of plasma treatments. In addition, during the CF4 plasma treatment, the PAAc

  4. Attenuation of slow (10-40 eV) electrons in soft nanoparticles: Size matters in argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mathias; Børve, Knut J.

    2018-01-01

    Electron attenuation due to inelastic and elastic scattering in condensed media can often be described in terms of the effective attenuation length (EAL) of the electron. The EAL is thus an important parameter for describing electron transport processes as exemplified by dissipation of energy following radiolysis. Focusing on electrons at low electron kinetic energies (10-40 eV) in condensed argon, we determine EAL from x-ray photoelectron spectra of argon nanoparticles and compare to values obtained from valence ionization in thin argon films as well as from gas-phase electron-scattering data. EAL determined from argon clusters shows variation with cluster size. Moreover, the values are significantly lower than those obtained in valence-ionization studies and from scattering data. Our results corroborate recent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-based determination of EALs of water showing large differences to the EALs determined by other methods in amorphous ice at low kinetic energies of the photoelectron [Y.-I. Suzuki, K. Nishizawa, N. Kurahashi, and T. Suzuki, Phys. Rev. E 90, 010302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.010302], underlining that care must be taken when using EAL values from other sources for core-level electrons.

  5. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose,

  6. Botanical and Geological Significance of Potassium-Argon Dates from the Juan Fernandez Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuessy, Tod F.; Foland, K. A.; Sutter, John F.; Sanders, Roger W.; Silva O., Mario

    1984-07-01

    Potassium-argon dating of five basalts from the three main islands of the Juan Fernandez (or Robinson Crusoe) Islands of Chile in the southeastern Pacific gives ages of 1.01 ± 0.12 and 2.44 ± 0.14 million years for Masafuera 3.79 ± 0.20 and 4.23 ± 0.16 for Masatierra, and 5.8 ± 2.1 for Santa Clara. These ages are much younger than that of the underlying oceanic plate and are consistent with the origin of the island-seamount chain from a mantle hot spot beneath the eastward moving Nazca plate. The young age for the archipelago suggests that speciation within endemic genera has occurred within the past 4 to 5 million years. Endemic genera of apparently more ancient origins, such as Lactoris and Thyrsopteris, have apparently dispersed to the islands and survive refugially.

  7. Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the L2 ,3 edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Andrew; Douguet, Nicolas; Cariker, Coleman; Li, Jie; Lindroth, Eva; Ren, Xiaoming; Yin, Yanchun; Argenti, Luca; Hill, Wendell T.; Chang, Zenghu

    2018-03-01

    Progress in high-harmonic generation has led to high-energy attosecond pulses with cutoff above the carbon 1 s edge (283.8 eV). These pulses are essential to extend time-resolved spectroscopies to the water window in order to control electron dynamics in solvated organic species. Here we report a step towards this goal: the measurement, with subcycle time resolution, of the attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the 2 p-1 L2 ,3 edge (˜250 eV) in the presence of a short-wave infrared control pulse. The measurements, supported by theoretical simulations, demonstrate the concurrent role of Auger decay and tunnel ionization in the driven evolution of inner-valence holes of polyelectronic atoms.

  8. Fluorescein angiography and changes in aqueous humor protein after argon laser photomydriasis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denffer, H. v.; Erhardt, W.; Neiss, A.

    1979-01-01

    In brown-eyed and blue-eyed rabbits, irises treated with argon laser photomydriasis (ALP) were studied by using fluorescein angiography and by evaluating the aqueous humor protein concentration. The following results were obtained. Immediately after ALP, a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier is demonstrated by a marked influx of fluorescein into the ciliary processes and into the anterior and posterior chambers. The dye flow into the aqueous humor decreases to normal values within 3 days. There is no fluorescein leakage from laser impacts themselves. Peripupillary capillary loops are permanently occluded, but in a few cases, recanalization occurs. Neovascularization did not occur during 56 days of observation. ALP initially leads to a six- to eightfold increase in normal aqueous humor protein concentration, which returns to normal values within 3 days. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  9. Soft error rate estimations of the Kintex-7 FPGA within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthlin, M J; Harding, A; Takai, H

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the radiation testing performed on the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA in an effort to determine if the Kintex-7 can be used within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter. The Kintex-7 device was tested with wide-spectrum neutrons, protons, heavy-ions, and mixed high-energy hadron environments. The results of these tests were used to estimate the configuration ram and block ram upset rate within the ATLAS LAr. These estimations suggest that the configuration memory will upset at a rate of 1.1 × 10 −10 upsets/bit/s and the bram memory will upset at a rate of 9.06 × 10 −11 upsets/bit/s. For the Kintex 7K325 device, this translates to 6.85 × 10 −3 upsets/device/s for configuration memory and 1.49 × 10 −3 for block memory

  10. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  11. A large liquid-argon shower detector for an ISR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Iwata, S.; Raim, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Harris, M.; Lindsay, J.; Mannelli, I.; Nakamura, K.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Lankford, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large liquid-argon shower detector system has been constructed for the detection of photons and electrons at the CERN ISR. The calorimeter system is built in a modular way such that eight modules would cover phi=2π azimuthally with a total solid angle of Ω=8 sr. Each module consists of 1.5 mm thick lead plates, spaced 2mm apart. Longitudinal grouping and transversal division into strip-like sections of the charge-collecting electrodes provides the required spatial resolution and hadron discrimination. Measurements on energy and space resolution and electron/hadron discrimination are described. The signal-processing system, designed to minimize electronics noise, can handle event rates up to 0.5 MHz and provides energy information for trigger purposes. The performance of this calorimeter system during two years of ISR operation is reported. (Auth.)

  12. γ irradiation of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin in atmospheres of air and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchala, M.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Leyko, W.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, the degrees of destruction of hemoglobin irradiated in atmospheres of air and argon were compared. Hemoglobin preparations were irradiated in the forms: oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) deoxyhemoglobin (Hb 2+ ) and methemoglobin (MetHb) applying doses of 0.5 to 5 Mrad. The degree of hemoglobin destruction was estimate on the basis of changes in the values of the absorption coefficient at the Soret band, the absorption ratio A 505 /A 563 determined after conversion of irradiated preparations into MetHb, absorption coefficinets for pyridine hemochromogen obtained from irradiated preparations, and changes in parameters characterizing the hemoglobin oxygenation reaction (log p/sub 1/2/O 2 and the Hill n coefficient). The calculated oxygen enhancement ratios S were generally higher than 1 for the parameters estimated. This indicates that the presence of oxygen during irradiation enhances hemoglobin destruction

  13. Silicon nanostructures in silicon oxynitride for PV application: effect of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, Fabien; Ferblantier, Gerald; Muller, Dominique; Slaoui, Abdelilah [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes, UMR CNRS-UdS 7163, 23 Rue du Loess, BP20, 67034 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR CNRS-UdS 7504, 23 Rue du Loess, BP43, 67034 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Silicon rich silicon oxynitride (SRSON) were deposited by ECR-PECVD to form silicon nanostructures. The effect of argon flow during the deposition was investigated. The silicon nanoparticles were fabricated by a classical thermal treatment of SRSON films. The structural properties of the SRSON films were investigated by RBS and FTIR measurements. We show that the silicon excess in the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} matrix changes slightly with Ar flow but it has a significant impact on the silicon nanoparticles morphology embedded in the silicon oxynitride layer. Different shapes for silicon nanostructures ranging from separated Si nanocrystals to Si nanocolumns were formed as studied by energy-filtred transmission electron microscopy analysis (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Comparison of various NLTE codes in computing the charge-state populations of an argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, S.R.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1984-11-01

    A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theroy was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV and ion densities vary from 6 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ to 6 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -3/. At these conditions most ions have three or fewer bound electrons. The calculated populations of 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-electron ions differ from code to code by typical factors of 2, in some cases by factors greater than 300. These differences depend as sensitively on how may Rydberg states a code allows as they do on variations among computed collision rates. 29 refs., 23 figs.

  15. Emission Spectroscopy of OH Radical in Water-Argon Arc Plasma Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mašláni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission spectra of OH radical are studied in the plasma jet generated by a plasma torch with hybrid water-argon stabilization. Plasma jet is located in a chamber with pressures 4 kPa and 10 kPa. In spite of high temperatures of produced plasma, OH spectra are observed in a large area of the jet. OH spectra are used to obtain rotational temperatures from the Boltzmann plots of resolved rotational lines. Due to line-of-sight integration of radiation, interpretation of the temperatures is not straightforward. It seems that excited OH molecules can be formed by various mechanisms, mainly in the outer parts of the jet, where thermal processes are not as dominant as in the hot central region.

  16. First Detection of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Corey James [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    Electron neutrino appearance is the signature channel to address the most pressing questions in neutrino oscillations physics, at both long and short baselines. This includes the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector, which the U.S. flagship neutrino experiment DUNE will address. In addition, the Short Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab (MicroBooNE, SBND, ICARUS-T600) searches for new physics, such as sterile neutrinos, through electron neutrino appearance. Liquid argon time projection chambers are the forefront of neutrino detection technology, and the detector of choice for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This work presents the first experimental observation and study of electron neutrinos in the 1-10 GeV range, the essential oscillation energy regime for the above experiments. The systematic uncertainties for an electron neutrino appearance search for the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program are carefully quantified, and the characterization of separation between electrons and high energy photons is examined.

  17. Measurements of ion mobility in argon and neon based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00507268

    2017-01-01

    As gaseous detectors are operated at high rates of primary ionisation, ions created in the detector have a considerable impact on the performance of the detector. The upgraded ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will operate during LHC Run$\\,3$ with a substantial space charge density of positive ions in the drift volume. In order to properly simulate such space charges, knowledge of the ion mobility $K$ is necessary. To this end, a small gaseous detector was constructed and the ion mobility of various gas mixtures was measured. To validate the corresponding signal analysis, simulations were performed. Results are shown for several argon and neon based mixtures with different $\\textrm{CO}_2$ fractions. A decrease of $K$ was measured for increasing water content.

  18. Mesoporous silica thin films prepared by argon plasma treatment of sol-gel-derived precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Su Xiaodi; Tay, Francis E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Argon plasma is used to generate the mesoporous silica thin films from sol-gel-derived precursor. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW = 400) is employed as the template, i.e., the pore-directing agent as well as the binder. The influence of the plasma parameters (plasma power and processing time) on the mesoscopic properties of silica films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, low-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. It is concluded that the plasma treatment is a promising way to remove organic templates and generate mesoporous thin films. Compared to the conventional thermal calcination methods, the plasma treatment provides a promising low-temperature, low-cost and time-saving preparation process

  19. Some metals determination in beers by atomic emission spectrometry of induced argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushige, I.

    1990-01-01

    It was made the identification and determination of metals in brazilian bottled and canned beer, using atomic emission spectrometry with d.c. are and argon coupled plasma excitation sources. The elements Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in beer samples, after treatment with HNO sub(3) conc. /H sub(2) O sub(2) (30%). In the determination of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn and alternative method using HNO sub(3) conc. /O sub(3) was proved be useful. The results obtained for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were below the limits established by brazilian legislation, showing the good quality of the beer concerning the metals. The results of this work were requested by the previous Ministerio do Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo in order to contribute to review the brazilian legislation in foods and beverages about metals contents. (author)

  20. Expansion phenomena of aerosols generated by laser ablation under helium and argon atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.; Waelle, M.; Schlamp, S.; Roesgen, T.; Guenther, D.

    2008-01-01

    Specific expansion phenomena of aerosols generated by near infrared femtosecond laser ablation (NIR-fs-LA) of brass under helium and argon atmosphere were studied. For this purpose, particles were visualized by light scattering using a pulsed laser source. Aerosols were found to be captured in symmetric vortices when striking a solid boundary during their kinetic stage of expansion. Furthermore, high-repetitive LA resulted in the formation of a complex, macroscopic flow pattern driven by a pressure gradient locally built up. Our data indicate that aerosols released under those conditions experience only minor losses of around 1% if they get in contact with the inner walls of ablation cells operated at atmospheric pressures