WorldWideScience

Sample records for deicing fluid recovery

  1. 14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095 Section 23.1095 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system...

  2. 14 CFR 121.225 - Propeller deicing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing fluid. 121.225 Section 121.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Propeller deicing fluid. If combustible fluid is used for propeller deicing, the certificate holder...

  3. 14 CFR 125.123 - Propeller deicing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing fluid. 125.123 Section 125.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Requirements § 125.123 Propeller deicing fluid. If combustible fluid is used for propeller deicing,...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  5. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  6. Aerodynamic Effects Of Deicing And Anti-Icing Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents results of wind-tunnel tests of aerodynamic effects of deicing and anti-icing fluids on airplane wings. Tests conducted on three-dimensional half-model airplane and two-dimensional airfoil model at temperatures ranging from -29 to +10 degrees C. Fluids used included three commercial fluids available for use during 1987-1988 winter season, one discontinued commercial fluid, and eight newer fluids experimental at time of test.

  7. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    and hazardous proprietary additive materials such as corrosion inhibitors . Specifically, the test objectives were as follows: 1. Illustrate...concentrations of deicing fluids are known to cause acute aquatic toxicological effects, due mainly to additives (e.g., to improve corrosion inhibition... coats the aircraft surface in a smooth and consistent manner with no foam. Fluid has good wetting characteristics and exhibits no pitting

  8. Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulati...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. 23.1099 Section 23.1099 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor...

  10. Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulation is executed on the basis of the mathematical model of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system, which is built in this paper, according to a number of data collected by experiments which are operated on the experimental platform of deicing fluids rapid heating system. The simulation results show that the single neuron PID control strategy perform effectively on the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system. Experiments are conducted to vertify the single neuron PID control strategy, the results of which show that the single neuron PID control strategy can achieve the request in practical application of the aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system.

  11. Evaluation of activated sludge for biodegradation of propylene glycol as an aircraft deicing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, Justin D; Racz, LeeAnn

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft deicing fluid used at airport facilities is often collected for treatment or disposal in order to prevent serious ecological threats to nearby surface waters. This study investigated lab scale degradation of propylene glycol, the active ingredient in a common aircraft deicing fluid, by way of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor containing municipal waste water treatment facility activated sludge performing simultaneous organic carbon oxidation and nitrification. The ability of activated sludge to remove propylene glycol was evaluated by studying the biodegradation and sorption characteristics of propylene glycol in an activated sludge medium. The results indicate sorption may play a role in the fate of propylene glycol in AS, and the heterotrophic bacteria readily degrade this compound. Therefore, a field deployable bioreactor may be appropriate for use in flight line applications.

  12. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing proce...

  14. Kinetics of anaerobic degradation of glycol-based type I aircraft deicing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, T; Veltman, S; Switzenbaum, M

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic degradation of glycol-based Type I aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) were characterized using suspended-growth fill-and-draw reactors. Both Type I ADFs tested showed near-complete anaerobic degradability. First-order degradation rate constants of 3.5 d(-1) for the propylene glycol-based Type I ADF and 5.2 d(-1) for the ethylene glycol-based Type I ADF were obtained through continuous-culture means under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Fill-and-draw operation at lower temperatures affected anaerobic degradability only minimally down to 25 degrees C but substantially below 25 degrees C. High Type I ADF feed concentrations substantially affected degradability. Batch testing of fill-and-draw reactors resulted in first-order degradation rate constants of 1.9 d(-1) for propylene glycol-based Type I ADF and 3.5 d(-1) for ethylene glycol-based Type I ADF.

  15. 飞机除冰液稳定性研究%Study on stability test of aircraft deicing fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华乔; 王强; 曾萍; 吴海涛; 张亚博; 张帆; 赵芯; 苏正良; 夏祖西

    2015-01-01

    在SAE AMS 1424和SAE AMS 1428的基础上,分析了I型、II型、III型和IV型飞机除冰液稳定性试验要求和步骤。建议我国积极开展飞机除冰液稳定性检测和研究工作,为除冰液的适航审定提供技术支持。%Based on SAE AMS 1424 and SAE AMS 1428 ,the requirements and procedures of stability test for aircraft deicing fluids type I,II,III and IV are introduced. In order to provide the technical support for deicing fluids airworthiness certification,the corresponding test and research shall be improved.

  16. Efficient on-site degradation of high concentration of spent deicing fluids: A laboratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Waltz, M. [REMTECH, Bridgeville, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The on-site treatment of antifreeze compounds and aircraft deicing fluids (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) will reduce disposal costs, decrease environmental impact, minimize the potential for additional spills/contamination and meet the goals of pollution prevention by reducing the amount of hazardous materials generated. The authors have identified bacteria that can degrade 1-10% glycol waste at room temperatures of ca. 23C. A second subculture was isolated that could degrade glycol waste at ca. 4C.

  17. Best management practices for airport deicing stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenbaum, M S; Veltman, S; Mericas, D; Wagoner, B; Schoenberg, T

    2001-06-01

    With the advent of new regulations concerning aircraft deicing and management of spent aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs), many airports now face the dual challenges of simultaneously maintaining public safety and protecting the environment. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the potential environmental impact of stormwater runoff and offers detailed current information on alternative deicing fluid application methods and materials, collection and treatment practices.

  18. 机场使用除冰液的应急监测%Airport De-icing Fluid Emergency Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雄星; 韩中豪

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the emergency monitoring for airport de-icing fluid contamination in Shanghai, China The study included development of monitoring program, monitoring sites, analysis project, tracking monitoring, data analysis, etc. The results showed that de-icing waste liquid directly discharging into rivers had polluted water environment seriously in the short term, but the water would gradually return to normal over time. The environmental impact assessment of airport de-icing fluid contamination could be conducted by monitoring the chemical oxygen demand for water.%介绍了机场除冰液污染的应急监测,包括监测方案制订、监测点位设置、分析对象确定、跟踪监测、数据分析等.监测结果表明,除冰液废液直排入河道在短期内对水环境造成了严重影响,但随着时间推移水体逐步恢复正常.机场除冰液污染的应急监测可通过监测水体中的化学需氧量进行.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of aircraft deicing fluid wastes: interactions and toxicity of corrosion inhibitors and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruden, Cyndee L; Hernandez, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitors and surfactants are present in aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) at significant concentrations (> 1% w/w). The purpose of this research was to study the interactions of a common nonionic surfactant with the commercially significant corrosion inhibitors used in modern ADF (4- and 5-methylbenzotriazole [MeBT]), and to determine the effects of their mixture on the conventional anaerobic digestion process. In mesophilic anaerobic microcosms codigesting wastewater solids, propylene glycol, and MeBT, increasing surfactant levels resulted in enhanced MeBT sorption on digester solids. As judged by anaerobic toxicity assays, responses from digesters containing surfactant concentrations below their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggested that low nonionic surfactant concentrations could facilitate a reduction in the apparent toxicity of MeBT. In microcosms exposed to surfactant concentrations above their CMC, no increase in MeBT solubility was observed, and the anaerobic toxicity response corresponded to control systems not containing surfactant. Direct microscopic measurements of digesting biomass using fluorescent phylogenetic probes (fluorescent in situ hybridization) revealed that members of the domain Bacteria were more sensitive to MeBT in the presence of surfactant than were members of the domain Archaea.

  20. 飞机除冰液地面除冰过程模型仿真与实验%Model Simulation and Experiment of Aircraft Deicing Process Using Deicing Fluids on Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 王立文

    2012-01-01

    描述了飞机地面除冰过程相关参数和热量损耗关系,选择机翼表面温度和积冰厚度作为描述该过程的状态变量,基于热平衡理论建立了该过程的数学模型。通过仿真研究,得出飞机地面除冰过程除冰效率的变化规律:提高除冰液温度,除冰效率明显提高;如果除冰液温度恒定,一味地增大除冰液流量,除冰效率提高不明显。在飞机地面除冰环境模拟装置上进行了模型验证实验,实验和仿真结果趋势一致,表明所建模型与实际过程匹配,可以为后续飞机地面除冰过程装备参数优化奠定基础。%Several parameters and thermal consumption associated with the deicing process were described,and then the airfoil temperature and the ice thickness on the airfoil were chosen as state parameters to depict the deicing process.The deicing process model was established and simulated based on thermal balance.The simulation results reveal that the deicing efficient is enhanced obviously with a high deicing fluids temperature,but the enhancement degree is small if the deicing fluids flow rate is raised only with the temperature constant.Finally,an experiment was done based on an aircraft deicing simulation equipment.Experiment results are consistent with simulation result,which shows that the model has a good match with practical process.So this model could be as the base for the further research on the aircraft deicing process parameters optimization.

  1. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... combustible fluid is used for propeller deicing, §§ 25.1181 through 25.1185 and 25.1189 apply....

  2. Brief survey of deicing/anti-icing fluid and techniques for aircraft%飞机除冰/防冰液及除冰技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2012-01-01

    本文主要介绍了飞机除冰/防冰液的四种类型及主要技术要求,包括材料组成与理化性能、稳定性、使用性能、对飞机材料及机场跑道材料的影响、对生态环境的影响等,并简述了飞机液体防冰技术、机械除冰技术和热力防冰技术等几大类除冰技术的发展情况。%The four types and chief requirements of deicing/anti-icing fluid for aircraft were intrduced,including fluid composition and physical properties,stability,performance properties,effect on aircraft materials and runway concrete scaling resistance,environmental information,etc.The development of deicing techniques for aircraft which include fluid deicing,mechanical deicing and hot deicing were summarized.

  3. 飞机除冰液在冰中的渗透性能影响因素分析%Research Aircraft Deicing Fluid Permeability of Ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元; 李志强; 张帆; 彭华乔; 于新华

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the ability of aircraft deicing fluid airworthiness certification, making a research and analysis of aircraft deicing fluid influence on the permeability of ice through temperature, freezing point, osmotic pressure and the molecular weight respectively, according to《AIR 6211 Ice Penetration Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-icing Chemicals》. The results show that the depth of aircraft deicing fluid on the penetration of ice decreases as the temperature is reduced. The permeability of Newtonian-fluid is better than non Newtonian-fluid at the same temperature. The permeability of aircraft deicing fluid has no direct relation to the freezing point and associated with osmotic pressure. Moreover, the higher pressure, the better permeability of ice.%为了提高飞机除冰液适航验证能力,根据《AIR 6211 Ice Penetration Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Dei-cing/Anti-icing Chemicals》标准试验方法,研究分析了温度、冰点、渗透压和分子大小对飞机除冰液渗透性能的影响。试验结果表明:随着温度的降低,飞机除冰液对冰的渗透性逐渐减小;在相同温度下,牛顿流体型除冰液的渗透性优于非牛顿流体型除冰液;飞机除冰液的冰点和渗透性无直接关系而与渗透压相关,且渗透压越大,对冰的渗透性越好。

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing process is depicted, and the dynamic model of the deicing process is provided based on the analysis of the deicing mechanism. In the dynamic model, the surface temperature of the deicing fluids and the ice thickness are regarded as the state parameters, while the fluid flow rate, the initial temperature, and the injection time of the deicing fluids are treated as control parameters. Ignoring the heat exchange between the deicing fluids and the environment, the simplified model is obtained. The rationality of the simplified model is verified by the numerical simulation and the impacts of the flow rate, the initial temperature and the injection time on the deicing process are investigated. To verify the model, the semi-physical experiment system is established, consisting of the low-constant temperature test chamber, the ice simulation system, the deicing fluid heating and spraying system, the simulated wing, the test sensors, and the computer measure and control system. The actual test data verify the validity of the dynamic model and the accuracy of the simulation analysis.

  5. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  6. Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    Air Force Petroleum Agency I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group Initiatives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid Partnership with Battelle Memorial Institute (lead agency), AFRL/ ASC, Army (CRREL), Navy (NAVAIR), Octagon, AMIL

  7. Laboratory-scale evaluation of a combined soil amendment for the enhanced biodegradation of propylene glycol-based aircraft de-icing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libisch, Balázs; French, Helen K; Hartnik, Thomas; Anton, Attila; Biró, Borbála

    2012-01-01

    A combined soil amendment was tested in microcosm experiments with an aim to enhance the aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol (PG)-based aircraft de-icing fluids during and following the infiltration of contaminated snowmelt. A key objective under field conditions is to increase degradation of organic pollutants in the surface soil where higher microbial activity and plant rhizosphere effects may contribute to a more efficient biodegradation of PG, compared to subsoil ground layers, where electron acceptors and nutrients are often depleted. Microcosm experiments were set up in Petri dishes using 50 g of soil mixed with appropriate additives. The samples contained an initial de-icing fluid concentration of 10,000 mg/kg soil. A combined amendment using calcium peroxide, activated carbon and 1 x Hoagland solution resulted in significantly higher degradation rates for PG both at 4 and 22 degrees C. Most probable numbers of bacteria capable of utilizing 10,000 mg/kg de-icing fluid as a sole carbon source were about two orders of magnitude higher in the amended soil samples compared to unamended controls at both temperatures. The elevated numbers of such bacteria in surface soil may be a source of cells transported to the subsoil by snowmelt infiltration. The near-surface application of amendments tested here may enhance the growth of plants and plant roots in the contaminated area, as well as microbes to be found at greater depth, and hence increase the degradation of a contaminant plume present in the ground.

  8. Microbial monitoring and most-probable number of microbes in soils capable of degrading aircraft deicing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, B.; Horváth, N.; Domonkos, M.; French, H. K.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive use of propylene glycol (PG) and potassium formate-(PF) based aircraft de-icing fluids (ADF) are sources of pollution in Northern airports for soil and groundwater. When the contaminated snow melts in the spring, the de-icing chemicals can infiltrate the sandy soil rapidly. The pollutants are known to be degradable by soil microbes, biodegradation however might vary temporally and spatially. Non-invasive monitoring tools are mainly used to outline areas affected by contaminants and to monitor the flow and transport processes. Field sampling and laboratory measurements are required to examine microbial differences in soils, and the activity of PG degraders. The objective of our work was to map this variability using techniques, such as the countable, colony-forming (CFU) aerobic and anaerobic microbial components (bacteria and fungi) in soils and their catabolic enzymatic activity, measured by fluorescein-diacetate (FDA) analysis. Ratio of potential PG degraders was studied by the most probable number (MPN) method. Soil samples from the Gardermoen Airport (Oslo, Norway) were collected during spring 2010, vertically at 0-110 cm below ground level, and horizontally at about 0-154 cm distance from the runway in 5 steps each. A 10-fold soil solution was done in basal medium at 10.000 ppm ADF, added to 96-wells microplates. Growth was tested after incubation at 22 °C for 2 and 4 weeks by iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT). Cochran table was applied to calculate the MPN values of PG degraders. There were an increasing abundance and activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi found further away from the highly contaminated runway, indicating toxic effects in this area. Also, below the 40cm soil layer a reduced microbial activity could be seen. The most probable number of microbes capable to degrade ADF correlates well with the CFU numbers and the measured FDA enzymatic activity of the soils. Near the most contaminated runway, 3% of the total

  9. Deicing/Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology Environment, Energy Security, & Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition Ernest N...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology 5a. CONTRACT...Issues C. PG Remediation Project D. Summary E. Questions 2 3 Background • Aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) work planes fly in the winter o Military

  10. 飞机除冰液加热系统单神经元PID控制仿真%Single Neuron PID Control Simulation of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 杨宏祯; 王立文

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing heating system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combines the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. By building the mathematical model of aircraft deicing fluids heating system on the basis of data gathered by experiments, simulation of single neuron PID control is executed. Results show that the single neuron PID control strategy performs effectively on the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing fluids heating system.%针对在飞机除冰液加热系统中管路流量脉动造成温度波动的问题,提出单神经元PID控制策略,建立飞机除冰液加热系统的数学模型,并使用Matlab进行仿真.结果表明,单神经元PID控制策略对飞机除冰液加热过程的控制,比常规的PID控制器速率快、稳定性高.

  11. 飞机除冰/防冰液的流变特性研究%Rheological properties of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚博; 赵芯; 于新华; 张帆; 陈元

    2015-01-01

    The non-Newton aircraft deicing/anti-icing fIuid rheoIogicaI property through use of BrookfieId viscometer. By means of the aircraft deicing/anti-icing fIuid shear rate and shear stress measurement and data caIcuIation,found that under the condition of medium shear rate,the aircraft deicing/anti-icing fIuid conforms to the power Iaw. The shear rates tend to be zero and tend to infinity,the aircraft deicing/anti-ic-ing fIuid viscosity is cIose to a constant vaIue. The new rheoIogicaI equation can describe the rheoIogicaI properties of the aircraft deicing/anti-icing fIuid within the fuII scope of the shear rate.%使用BrookfieId粘度计对非牛顿流体型飞机除冰/防冰液的流变性进行了研究,通过对飞机除冰/防冰液剪切速率和剪切应力的测量和数据拟合,发现在中等剪切速率条件下,飞机除冰/防冰液符合幂律流体的流变特性;在剪切率趋近于0和趋近于无穷大时,飞机除冰/防冰液的粘度都是趋近于一个固定值,据此推导出新的流变方程,新流变方程能在整个剪切速率范围内很好的反应飞机除冰/防冰液的流变特性。

  12. Design and characteristic research of double-acting aircraft deicing fluid pump%双作用式飞机除冰液泵设计及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚淼; 邢志伟; 王立文

    2014-01-01

    除冰液的加注速度是影响机场除冰作业效率的重要因素。设计了一种面向飞机除冰装备领域的双作用式大流量往复泵,给出了设计原理、主要部件设计计算书及总体设计图。通过建模仿真分析双作用泵的压力流量特性;通过改变活塞间隙的仿真实验得到系统阻尼和流量输出的折中优化方案,并依据仿真得到的最佳参数进行实验,验证仿真分析的合理性。结果表明:根据除冰液的粘度,活塞间隙在3 mm条件下,系统阻尼、流量、脉动到达最优关联,流量输出平稳,验证了设计方案的合理性和可行性。泵在工况压力范围内,输出流量和脉动抑制均达到预期效果,性能超越现有同类除冰加液设备性能,为行业应用和相关设备的设计提供参考。%Fil ing speed of deicing fluid is an important factor that affects the efficiency of airport deicing operation.In this paper,we design a double-acting large flow reciprocating pump for air-craft deicing equipment.We demonstrate the principle,the design drawing and the design calcu-lation of key components.The pressure-flow characteristics of double-acting pump are analyzed through modeling and simulation methods;the optimal program of system damping and flow out-put are obtained by the simulation experiment of changing piston clearance.We implement a practical experimental analysis,which is based on the optimal parameters obtained from the sim-ulation,to test the rationality of the simulation experiment.The result is shown that,according to the viscosity of the deicing fluid,the system damping,flow and pulsation are optimal relevance and the flow steady output when the piston clearance is 3mm.This verifies the rationality and fea-sibility of the design.Within the operating pressure range of the pump,the output flow and ripple suppression achieve the desired effect,and the performance is better than the existing similar de-icing

  13. 汽车自备防滑用融雪液喷洒装置的设计%Self-provided antiskid with de-icing fluid spraying device design in the car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 王兴

    2014-01-01

    “汽车风窗玻璃洗电动涤器”进行适当技术改进,使其“一物两用”,在天气正常情况下用于风窗玻璃洗涤;在下雪天则可用于汽车轮胎辙面喷洒融雪液,防止汽车在雪地行驶途中刹车、起步或爬坡时轮胎瞬间滑移或滑转事故发生。%"Auto wind window washer" appropriate technology improvement, make its "dual-use" thing, the weather is usually used for wind window washing;Car tires quotes in the snow, it can be used for the surface spraying de-icing fluid, prevent the automobile braking, start, or climbing a hill in the snow driving tire slip or sliding accident.

  14. Total phosphorus recovery in flowback fluids after gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyten, G.; Houle, P.; Taylor, R.S. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids are used in unconventional gas reservoirs such as tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane. These fracturing fluids address phase trapping concerns by using oil-based fracturing fluid technology for use in reservoirs that are water sensitive. This paper addressed the problem of refinery tower fouling caused by volatile phosphorous components found in phosphate ester oil gellants. In order to address costly unplanned refinery shutdowns, a maximum 0.5 ppm volatile phosphorus in crude specification has been proposed. However, this specification is based on average concentrations of phosphorus added to the oil to gel it. The specification also falsely assumes that the oil is phosphorus free to begin with. The authors noted that refinery tower fouling is actually the result of total phosphorus throughput rather than peak concentrations at any one point. This paper focused on the total phosphorus recovery in addition to peak concentrations. It also examined what percentage of the total recovered phosphorus is in fact volatile, since this is the material that plugs the trays. The total per cent recovery of phosphorus originally added as phosphorus based gellant was examined along with the total percent recovery of volatile phosphorus as a function of total phosphorus. The phosphorus concentrations in both new and reused fracturing fluids before addition of gellants was also examined along with the potential explanations for phosphorus concentrations higher than those originally added. It was shown that the first 50 per cent of a hydraulic fracturing fluid flowback can result in recovery of greater than or less than the amount of phosphorus added to that portion of the fracturing fluid. The initial high concentrations of total and volatile phosphorus are greater than the phosphorus concentrations inherent in the system. Therefore, as flowback continues, there would be a rapid decline in the concentration of phosphorus

  15. Deicing investigation of a CNFP-based high-efficiency self-deicing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Hui, Li

    2012-04-01

    A self-deicing road system consisting of a carbon nano-fiber polymer (CNFP) thermal source, an AlN-ceramic insulated encapsulation layer, a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/cement-based thermal conduction layer and a thermally insulated substrate was proposed in this study. The effects of ambient temperature, heat flux density and ice thickness on the deicing of the self-deicing system were investigated in chilled. The efficiency, repeatability, cost and feasibility of the self-deicing road system in both deicing and snow-melting applications were analyzed. Indices for evaluating the deicing or snow-melting performance of the self-deicing road system were adopted in this study.

  16. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  17. Agent-based scheduling for aircraft deicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, X.; Ter Mors, A.W.; Roos, N.; Witteveen, C.

    2006-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the deicing and anti-icing activities is an important and challenging part of airport departure planning. Deicing planning has to be done in a highly dynamic environment involving several autonomous and self-interested parties. Traditional centralized scheduling approa

  18. Characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings as deicing and anti-icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akihito; Morita, Katsuaki; Konno, Akihisa; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    Anti-icing is necessary in various fields, such as aeronautics, roads, power lines, ships, and architectures. Deicing fluids, and sometimes hot water, work to prevent from icing. Due to environmental issue, deicing fluids are not always welcome to use. We study hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings for anti-icing. By coating these to a target surface, it prevents icing without damaging the environment. We present a characterization method of hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings for deicing and anti-icing. We provide a temperature-control room to create an icing condition, such as -10 to 0 degrees C. Under the controlled room, the contact angle measurement as well as the force measurement is employed. Total 15 coatings are characterized. Based on the tests of all coatings, we propose a combined coating from some characterized ones.

  19. Influential Factors on Deicing Performance of Electrically Conductive Concrete Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zuquan; QIAN Jueshi; LI Zhuoqiu; WU Chuanming

    2006-01-01

    The deicing experiment of carbon fiber reinforced electrically conductive concrete (CFRC) slab was conducted in laboratory at first, then the deicing process of CFRC pavement was analyzed by means of finite element method (FEM). At last, based on the energy conservation law and the computing results of finite element method, the influential factors including the setting of electric heating layer, environmental temperature, the thickness of ice, material parameters, and deicing power on deicing performance and energy consumption were discussed.

  20. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  1. Deicing and Anti-Icing Unite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With funding from Glenn's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Cox & Company, Inc., built an ice protection system that combines thermal anti-icing and mechanical deicing to keep airfoils (wings and other lifting surfaces) clear of ice. Cox's concept was to combine an anti-icing system with NASA's Electro-Mechanical Expulsion Deicing System, a mechanical deicer. The anti-icing element of this hybrid would reduce the aerodynamic losses associated with deicing systems. The Cox Low Power Ice Protection System is the first new aircraft ice protection system that has been approved by the Federal Aviation Administration for use on a business jet in 40 years. While the system is currently sized for Premier class aircraft, there are no apparent constraints prohibiting its use on aircraft of any size. The company is investigating further applications, such as adapting the system for unmanned aerial vehicles and other military aircraft.

  2. Fluid and Electrolyte Needs for Training, Competition, and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    eating and drinking practices if there is no urgency for recovery. But if rapid recovery (524 h) is desired or severe hypohydration (45% body mass...replaced to re-establish ‘‘normal’’ total body water (euhydration). This replacement can be by normal eating and drinking practices if there is no urgency ...exposure, as they induce an iso-osmotic hypovolaemia, for which there is no valid biomarkers. Daily water losses occur from respiration, urinary / faecal

  3. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  4. Electromagnetic-Repulsion Systems For Deicing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Improved eddy-current electromagnetic-repulsion deicing systems developed for use on variety of exterior aircraft surfaces like leading edges of wings, engine inlets, propellers, and helicopter rotors. Fit to exterior surfaces, as retrofits or original equipment. Systems light in weight, consume little average power, and capable of protecting against severe icing conditions.

  5. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  6. Fluid replacement following dehydration reduces oxidative stress during recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Il-Young; Jeong, Myung-Hyun; Jin, Hwa-Eun; Kim, Young-Il; Suh, Ah-Ram; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae; Jin, Chan-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hoon

    2009-05-22

    To investigate the effects of hydration status on oxidative DNA damage and exercise performance, 10 subjects ran on a treadmill until exhaustion at 80% VO(2max) during four different trials [control (C), 3% dehydration (D), 3% dehydration+water (W) or 3% dehydration+sports drink (S)]. Dehydration significantly decreased exercise time to exhaustion (DDehydration significantly increased oxidative DNA damage during exercise, but fluid replacement with water or sports drink alleviated it equally. These results suggest that (1) dehydration impairs exercise performance and increases DNA damage during exercise to exhaustion; and (2) fluid replacement prolongs exercise endurance and attenuates DNA damage.

  7. Effect of Perfusion Fluids on Recovery of Inflammatory Mediators in Microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F; Pharo, A; Lindstad, J K; Mollnes, T E; Tønnessen, T I; Pischke, S E

    2015-11-01

    Microdialysis is an excellent tool to assess tissue inflammation in patients, but in vitro systems to evaluate recovery of inflammatory mediators have not been standardized. We aimed to develop a reference plasma preparation and evaluate different perfusion fluids with respect to recovery of metabolic and inflammatory markers. The reference preparation was produced by incubation of human blood with lipopolysaccharide and cobra venom factor to generate cytokines and activate complement, respectively. Microdialysis with 100 kDa catheters was performed using different colloid and crystalloid perfusion fluids (hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4, HES 200/0.5, hyperosmolar HES 200/0.5, albumin 200 g/l, T1 perfusion fluid and Ringer's acetate) compared to today's recommended dextran 60 solution. Recovery of glucose, glycerol and pyruvate was not significantly different between the perfusion fluids, whereas lactate had lower recovery in HES 200/0.5 and albumin perfusion fluids. Recovery rates for the inflammatory proteins in comparison with the concentration in the reference preparation differed substantially: IL-6 = 9%, IL-1β = 18%, TNF = 0.3%, MCP-1 = 45%, IL-8 = 48%, MIG = 48%, IP-10 = 25%, C3a = 53% and C5a = 12%. IL-10 was not detectable in microdialysis dialysate. HES 130/0.4 and HES 200/0.5 yielded a recovery not significantly different from dextran 60. Hyperosmolar HES 200/0.5 and albumin showed significantly different pattern of recovery with increased concentration of MIG, IP-10, C3a and C5a and decreased concentration of IL-1β, TNF, MCP-1 and IL-8 in comparison with dextran 60. In conclusion, microdialysis perfusion fluid dextran 60 can be replaced by the commonly used HES 130/0.4, whereas albumin might be used if specific immunological variables are in focus. The present reference plasma preparation is suitable for in vitro evaluation of microdialysis systems.

  8. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  9. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  10. Protoneus-sequence: extended fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging without and with contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasel, Christian [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.nasel@perfusion.at

    2005-08-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (=flair imaging) is widely used as primary screening sequence in various investigation protocols, due to its high lesion contrast and sensitivity in detection of parenchymatous and leptomeningeal disease. An additional increase of sensitivity for detection of lesions may be achieved by contrast-enhanced flair imaging. Based on flair imaging a dual-echo inversion recovery imaging sequence (=proton echo usage [=protoneus] - sequence) was developed, which could significantly extend the possibilities of conventional flair imaging.

  11. Effect of working fluids on organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Tau Liu; Kuo Hsiang Chien; Chi Chuan Wang [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Energy and Resources Lab.

    2004-06-01

    This study presents an analysis of the performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) subjected to the influence of working fluids. The effects of various working fluids on the thermal efficiency and on the total heat-recovery efficiency have been investigated. It is found that the presence of hydrogen bond in certain molecules such as water, ammonia, and ethanol may result in wet fluid conditions due to larger vaporizing enthalpy, and is regarded as inappropriate for ORC systems. The calculated results reveal that the thermal efficiency for various working fluids is a weak function of the critical temperature. The maximum value of the total heat-recovery efficiency occurs at the appropriate evaporating temperature between the inlet temperature of waste heat and the condensing temperature. In addition, the maximum value of total heat-recovery efficiency increases with the increase of the inlet temperature of the waste heat source and decreases it by using working fluids having lower critical temperature. Analytical results using a constant waste heat temperature or based on thermal efficiency may result in considerable deviation of system design relative to the varying temperature conditions of the actual waste heat recovery and is regarded as inappropriate. (author)

  12. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2

  13. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  14. Acute lung injury following refrigeration coil deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nathanael J; Burton, Brent T

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a worker who developed ALI requiring mechanical ventilatory support after attempting to melt ice condensate by applying the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch to refrigeration coils charged with a halocarbon refrigerant in a closed environment. A discussion of possible etiologies are discussed, including phosgene, carbonyl fluoride, and nitrogen oxides. Primary prevention with adequate respiratory protection is recommended whenever deicing is performed in a closed space environment.

  15. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  17. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain H. R.; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth

    2016-09-20

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing and recovery fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. Proppants stabilize openings in fractures and fissures following fracturing.

  18. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  20. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo by Adsorption Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Noerochim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of lithium from geothermal fluid at Lumpur Sidoarjo, Indonesia was investigated employing an adsorption method with polymer membrane as container. The lithium concentration in geothermal fluid from Lumpur Sidoarjo used in the present study was about 5 mg/l. Lithium manganese oxide (LMO was selected as a promising adsorbent material due to its non-toxic, topotactical behavior and low cost. In this study, LMO with single Li/Mn mole ratio was prepared, i.e. Li1.6Mn1.6O4. The adsorbent was synthesized by solid state reaction at 500 °C for 5 hrs. A lithium uptake yield from the geothermal fluid of around 6.6 mg/g was obtained.

  1. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  2. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  3. Inverse Estimation of Temperature Profiles in Landfills Using Heat Recovery Fluids Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Solisio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to leachate and gas emission analysis, temperature variations in municipal solid waste landfills are routinely monitored for safety and health reasons, such as the increased production of biogas or the danger of spontaneous combustion phenomena if the temperature exceeds 70–75°C. The increasing constraints on greenhouse gas emissions and the convenience of fuel and heat recovery have helped develop a global approach to landfills' operation and maintenance, generally referred to as bioreactor landfill management. The heat recovery piping we are presently designing can be a significant part of this approach. The heat gained by a fluid circulated in a closed network through the landfill is transferred to an external heat exchanger or used directly as warm water. Additionally, it can help reduce landfill temperature levels and control biogas generation. Since the pipes diameter is large enough to allow for a radial temperature gradient, this information can be used for an inverse estimation of the temperature profile in the landfill which constitutes the boundary conditions of the resulting heat transfer problem. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for regularising the resulting ill-posed free boundary estimation problem using sampled data of the heat recovery fluid on exiting the landfill.

  4. Fluid Dynamics Assessment of the VPCAR Water Recovery System in Partial and Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhaus, Charles; Nahra, Henry; Flynn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions. Testing was recently conducted on NASA s C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft to determine the microgravity performance of a key component of the VPCAR water recovery system. Six flights were conducted to evaluate the fluid dynamics of the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) distillation component of the VPCAR system in microgravity, focusing on the water delivery method. The experiments utilized a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a disk similar to that in the evaporator section of VPCAR. Fluid issues are present with the current configuration, and the initial alternative configurations were only partial successful in microgravity operation. The underlying causes of these issues are understood, and new alternatives are being designed to rectify the problems.

  5. Individualized peri-operative fluid therapy facilitating early-phase recovery after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Jiang; Ping Chen; Dou-Sheng Bai; Jing-Wang Tan; Hao Su; Min-Hao Peng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the correlation between peri-operative fluid therapy and early-phase recovery after liver transplantation (LT) by retrospectively reviewing 102 consecutive recipients.METHODS:Based on whether or not the patients had pulmonary complications,the patients were categorized into non-pulmonary and pulmonary groups.Twentyeight peri-operative variables were analyzed in both groups to screen for the factors related to the occurrence of early pulmonary complications.RESULTS:The starting hemoglobin (Hb) value,an intra-operative transfusion > 100 mL/kg,and a fluid balance ≤-14 mL/kg on the first day and the second or third day post-operatively were significant factors for early pulmonary complications.The extubation time,time to initial passage of flatus,or intensive care unit length of stay were significantly prolonged in patients who had not received an intra-operative transfusion ≤100 mL/kg or a fluid balance ≤-14 mL/kg on the first day and the second or the third day post-operatively.Moreover,these patients had poorer results in arterial blood gas analysis.CONCLUSION:It is important to offer a precise and individualized fluid therapy during the peri-operative period to the patients undergoing LT for cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Analysis to Support Execution of the Defense Environmental International Cooperation (DEIC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    IDA Document D-4605 May 2012 Analysis to Support Execution of the Defense Environmental International Cooperation ( DEIC ) Program Susan L. Clark...Execution of the Defense Environmental International Cooperation ( DEIC ) Program Susan L. Clark-Sestak iii Executive Summary The Defense...Environmental International Cooperation ( DEIC ) program is managed by the Director of Environmental Readiness and Safety (ERS) in the Office of the Deputy

  7. Recovery of spiked Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid from polypropylene containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-04-10

    Oral fluid is currently used by Australian and international law enforcement agencies and employers to detect recent use of cannabis and other drugs of abuse. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is highly lipophilic and losses occur when in contact with plastic, possibly due to its adsorption onto the plastic surface. This study aims to investigate factors governing the interaction of THC with plastic and search for ways of overcoming such interaction so to improve THC recovery. As polypropylene is one of the most common types of plastic used in collection devices, it was the focus of this study. All experiments were done by preparing neat oral fluid samples spiked with THC in 2-mL polypropylene centrifuge tubes. Samples were transferred with or without prior addition of Triton(®) X-100 (0.25%) to glass tubes containing d3-THC as internal standard and 0.1M phosphate buffer was then added. Samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v), dried and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatisation. No significant difference was found in terms of THC loss to plastic when the concentration ranged from 25 to 1000 ng/mL in the same volume of oral fluid. Varying the oral fluid volume (0.5-1.5 mL) while keeping THC at a constant concentration showed an upward trend with more loss associated with lower volumes. The use of Triton(®) X-100 significantly decreased the adherence of THC to the plastic tubes and increased the THC transfer (>96%) at all volumes tested. Degradation of THC during storage was also studied over a 4-week period and it was found that azide did not seem to play a significant role in preserving THC in oral fluid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables...... and otherwise highresource demands, which through conventional methods cannot be addressed. The global optimal designwas a 1.2MW cycle with 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorohexane as the new fluid. The fluid has no ozone depletionpotential and a global warming potential under the regulatory limit. By using...... the simultaneousdesign approach the optimum solution was found in 5.04 s, while a decomposed approach found thesame solution in 5.77 h. However, the decomposed approach provided insights on the correlationbetween the fluid and cycle design variables by analyzing all possible solutions. It was shown that thehigh...

  9. Passive Anti-Icing and Active Deicing Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Zheng, Yonghao; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Li, Yilun; Sikkema, William K A; Tour, James M

    2016-06-08

    Anti-icing and deicing are the two major pathways for suppressing adhesion of ice on surfaces, yet materials with dual capabilities are rare. In this work, we have designed a perfluorododecylated graphene nanoribbon (FDO-GNR) film that takes advantage of both the low polarizability of perfluorinated carbons and the intrinsic conductive nature of graphene nanoribbons. The FDO-GNR films are superhydrophobic with a sheet resistance below 8 kΩ·sq(-1) and then exhibit an anti-icing property that prevents freezing of incoming ice-cold water down to -14 °C. After that point, voltage can be applied to the films to resistively heat and deice the surface. Further a lubricating liquid can be employed to create a slippery surface to improve the film's deicing performance. The FDO-GNR films can be easily switched between the superhydrophobic anti-icing mode and the slippery deicing mode by applying the lubricant. A spray-coating method makes it suitable for large-scale applications. The anti-icing and deicing properties render the FDO-GNR films with promise for use in extreme environments.

  10. Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2016-07-01

    Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice

  11. Electrical resistivity tomography as monitoring tool for unsaturated zone transport: an example of preferential transport of deicing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Bloem, Esther; French, Helen; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive spatially resolved monitoring techniques may hold the key to observe heterogeneous flow and transport behavior of contaminants in soils. In this study, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during an infiltration experiment with deicing chemical in a small field lysimeter. Deicing chemicals like potassium formate, which frequently impact soils on airport sites, were infiltrated during snow melt. Chemical composition of seepage water and the electrical response was recorded over the spring period 2010. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs are able to show the infiltration of the melt water loaded with ionic constituents of deicing chemicals and their degradation product hydrogen carbonate. The tomographs indicate early breakthrough behavior in parts of the profile. Groundtruthing with pore fluid conductivity and water content variations shows disagreement between expected and observed bulk conductivity. This was attributed to the different sampling volume of traditional methods and ERT due to a considerable fraction of immobile water in the soil. The results show that ERT can be used as a soil monitoring tool on airport sites if assisted by common soil monitoring techniques.

  12. Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2016-08-14

    Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.

  13. Modeling and strain gauging of eddy current repulsion deicing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel O.

    1993-01-01

    Work described in this paper confirms and extends work done by Zumwalt, et al., on a variety of in-flight deicing systems that use eddy current repulsion for repelling ice. Two such systems are known as electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) and the eddy current repulsion deicing strip (EDS). Mathematical models for these systems are discussed for their capabilities and limitations. The author duplicates a particular model of the EDS. Theoretical voltage, current, and force results are compared directly to experimental results. Dynamic strain measurements results are presented for the EDS system. Dynamic strain measurements near EDS or EIDI coils are complicated by the high magnetic fields in the vicinity of the coils. High magnetic fields induce false voltage signals out of the gages.

  14. SELECTIVE SEPARATION AND RECOVERY PROCESS —Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A selective separation and recovery process has been developed based on the supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF) technology. The solvent used varies from C3 to C5, depending on process objective. Basic research work has been done on the phase behavior, phase equilibria and modeling of a number of systems including petroleum residue, polymers, waxes and lubricants with the light hydrocarbon solvents. Semi-batch pilot and continuous pilot experiments were performed to establish data base for the process design of industrial scale. The effects of operation para-meters, such as temperature, pressure, ratio of solvent to oil and residence time, on separation selectivity and yield of extracts were studied in a wide range. Industrial demonstration plant with a capacity of 15 kt/a was setup and has run for a sufficient long period of time to confirm the design and to obtain the energy cost and economic analysis data for further commercial scale up. It was found that the process offers high efficient products and solvent recovery.

  15. Extracellular Mitochondria in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neurological Recovery After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sherry H-Y; Lan, Jing; Esposito, Elga; Ning, MingMing; Balaj, Leonora; Ji, Xunming; Lo, Eng H; Hayakawa, Kazuhide

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular mitochondria may be involved in the pathophysiology of stroke. In this study, we assessed the functional relevance of endogenous extracellular mitochondria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats and humans after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard rat model of SAH was used, where an intraluminal suture was used to perforate a cerebral artery, thus leading to blood extravasation into subarachnoid space. At 24 and 72 hours after SAH, neurological outcomes were measured, and the standard JC1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanineiodide) assay was used to quantify mitochondrial membrane potentials in the CSF. To further support the rat model experiments, CSF samples were obtained from 41 patients with SAH and 27 control subjects. Mitochondrial membrane potentials were measured with the JC1 assay, and correlations with clinical outcomes were assessed at 3 months. In the standard rat model of SAH, extracellular mitochondria was detected in CSF at 24 and 72 hours after injury. JC1 assays demonstrated that mitochondrial membrane potentials in CSF were decreased after SAH compared with sham-operated controls. In human CSF samples, extracellular mitochondria were also detected, and JC1 levels were also reduced after SAH. Furthermore, higher mitochondrial membrane potentials in the CSF were correlated with good clinical recovery at 3 months after SAH onset. This proof-of-concept study suggests that extracellular mitochondria may provide a biomarker-like glimpse into brain integrity and recovery after injury. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. MR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging as routine brain T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakia, Yutaka; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Koichi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ueda, Jun; Fujita, Norihiko

    1999-11-01

    We tried to investigate if magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging can be used as a routine brain screening examination instead of spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Three hundred and ninety-four patients with clinically suspected brain diseases were randomly selected and examined with both brain MR FLAIR and T2-weighted imaging on the axial plane. These two imaging techniques were evaluated by two neuroradiologists as to which imaging was better for routine brain T2-weighted imaging. In 123 of 394 cases (31%), FLAIR imaging was superior to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Especially in cases with inflammatory diseases, traumatic diseases and demyelinating diseases, FLAIR imaging was particularly useful. Small lesions bordering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often detected only by FLAIR imaging. In 259 cases (66%), including 147 normal cases (37%), they were equally evaluated. Only in 12 cases (3%) was conventional T2-weighted imaging superior to FLAIR imaging. Cerebrovascular lesions like cerebral aneurysm and Moyamoya disease could not be detected on FLAIR images because these structures were obscured by a low signal from the CSF. Also, because old infarctions tend to appear as low signal intensity on FLAIR images, the condition was sometimes hard to detect. Finally, FLAIR imaging could be used as routine brain T2-weighted imaging instead of conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging if these vascular lesions were watched.

  17. Spontaneous diuresis and negative fluid balance predicting recovery and survival in patients with trauma-hemorragic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑东元; 朱雅芳; 金燕; 陈丽英

    2003-01-01

    @@ Most patients with trauma-hemorragic shock, prior to ICU admission, have been resuscitated and stabilized in the emergency room (ER) and/or operation room (OR). Many of them suffer from systemic edema. This extra-vascular fluid is caused by massive infusion of fluid and blood for the maintenance of blood pressure. During the recovery stage, the patients exhibit spontaneous diuresis followed by negative fluid balance. Urine volumes of some patients are more than 10 000 ml/d. Do we need to maintain a balance between daily input and output of water at this situation?

  18. Development of Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    more than two times that of KAc RDFs. The biobased Battelle- RDFs tested in this program were between KAc and KAc+PG RDFs, being closer to the KAc...corrosion resistance of AMS 4911 and 4916 Ti alloys (e) Effects on transparent plastics of acrylic and polycarbonate (f) Effects on painted and...Battelle SI-1535 51 August 2009 • Transparent plastics • Painted surfaces • Unpainted surfaces • Rinsibility • Runway scaling • Runway friction

  19. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    standard deviation of 0.007. For comparison, density of previously tested epoxy and bismaleimide ( BMI ) composites was 1.52 g/cm3 and 1.54 g/cm3...standard deviation of 4.22. Average fiber content for previously tested epoxy and BMI composite materials was 70.1% and 65.0%, respectively. 4.2.2.3...Calorimetry EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act ESTCP Environmental Security Technology

  20. Influence of Superhydrophobic Properties on Deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhipkyzy, M.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Amirfazli, A.; Esbosin, A.; Temirgaliyeva, T. S.; Lesbayev, B. T.; Aliyev, E. T.; Prikhodko, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the creation of anti-icing, or deicing, surfaces is one of the most important problems, as such surfaces are widely used in aeronautics, wind turbines, and telecommunication antennas. In this paper, we focus mainly on reducing the ice adhesion forces and easy ice removal, once ice has formed. Removal of a liquid from a surface can be provided by modification of the surface wettability by means of applying superhydrophobic coatings. Such coatings are water-resistant, i.e., are characterized by low water adhesion forces. To study the impact of superhydrophobic coatings, tests were performed on the surface of a wing in a wind tunnel. By spraying Teflon and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) on the wing, we obtained a superhydrophobic film. This film has a structure that provides superhydrophobic properties, so that the wetting angle is above 140°. A comparison of the resulting surface with a clean Teflon one shows that adhesion of the Teflon + PPS mixture to an aluminum surface is five times higher. We also investigate the degree of ice formation on the surfaces of simple and superhydrophobic aircraft wings at a temperature of -18°C. It was shown that ice was formed on a simple wing within 40 s and on a superhydrophobic wing within 25 s. When the simple wing with a mass of 23 g was inserted into the wind tunnel, its mass reached 50 g, and for a superhydrophobic wing with a mass of 26 g the latter reached 42 g. The sample of the airfoil wing we prepared has a low adhesion, which helps in easy ice removal.

  1. Deicing with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lijun; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Guo, Fei; Zhu, Guangzhi; Gu, Shanqiang

    2010-11-01

    A model of deicing with Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers for simulation using ANSYS software is presented. Experiments with a 300-W, 1-ms, 60-Hz Nd:YAG laser and a 500- to 2000-W cw CO2 laser are reported. The Nd:YAG laser is considered as a volume thermal source, and the CO2 laser as a plane thermal source. The model and the simulation results can describe both Nd:YAG and CO2 laser deicing well. The results of the simulation and experiments suggest that the melting rates for the two lasers are almost equal at the same laser power density. So are the melting efficiencies. The hard and transparent ice irradiated by the Nd:YAG laser becomes opaque and loose, because the thermal stress is distributed in the body of the ice, while the ice irradiated by the CO2 laser is still transparent and hard, because thermal stress hardly occurs. So the laser with characteristics of high output power and large ice absorbing length can be selected for the power line laser deicing system, and Nd:YAG laser is more appropriate for power-line deicing than CO2 laser.

  2. Midbrain raphe stimulation improves behavioral and anatomical recovery from fluid-percussion brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballosa Gonzalez, Melissa M; Blaya, Meghan O; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-15

    The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4-6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion injury. MR stimulation was also examined with a higher frequency (24 Hz) or a delayed start (7 days after injury). Controls had sham injuries, inactive stimulators, or both. The stimulation caused no apparent acute responses or adverse long-term changes. In water-maze trials conducted 5 weeks post-injury, early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation restored the rate of acquisition of reference memory for a hidden platform of fixed location. Short-term spatial working memory, for a variably located hidden platform, was restored only by early 8-Hz MR stimulation. All stimulation protocols reversed injury-induced asymmetry of spontaneous forelimb reaching movements tested 6 weeks post-injury. Post-mortem histological measurement at 8 weeks post-injury revealed volume losses in parietal-occipital cortex and decussating white matter (corpus callosum plus external capsule), but not hippocampus. The cortical losses were significantly reversed by early 8-Hz MR and DR stimulation, the white matter losses by all forms of MR stimulation. The generally most effective protocol, 8-Hz MR stimulation, was tested 3 days post-injury for its acute effect on forebrain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key trophic signaling molecule. This procedure reversed injury-induced declines of cAMP levels in both cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, midbrain raphe nuclei can enduringly enhance recovery from early disseminated TBI, possibly in part through increased signaling by cAMP in efferent targets. A neurosurgical treatment for TBI using interim electrical stimulation in raphe repair centers is suggested.

  3. The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging is caused by gadolinium in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhrmann, Martin; Struffert, Tobias; Frenzel, Thomas; Schwab, Stefan; Doerfler, Arnd

    2012-01-01

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI is believed to be caused by gadolinium-based contrast agents crossing a disrupted blood-brain barrier. However, this hypothesis has never been directly verified in humans. In this study, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with HARM on imaging regarding the presence and concentration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Gadobutrol was found in concentrations of approximately 50 μmol/L. Using phantom MRI experiments, we demonstrate that the detected concentrations are consistent with the observed HARM imaging pattern. Our study yields first direct evidence in humans that the imaging phenomenon HARM is indeed caused by leakage of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid.

  4. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, F.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work will establish how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. This report describes progress made during the first year of this three-year study the following tasks: gel screening studies; impact of gelation pH, rock permeability, and lithology on the performance of a monomer-based gel; preliminary study of the permeability reduction for CO{sub 2} and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; preliminary study of permeability reduction for oil and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; rheology of Cr(III)-xanthan gel and gelants in porous media; impact of diffusion, dispersion, and viscous fingering on gel placement in injection wells; examination of flow-profile changes for field applications of gel treatments in injection wells; and placement of gels in production wells. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. A Comparative Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on an Innovative Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovering energy from exhaust air systems of building cooling towers is an innovative idea. A specific wind turbine generator was designed in order to achieve this goal. This device consists of two Giromill vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT combined with four guide vanes and two diffuser plates. It was clear from previous literatures that no comprehensive flow behavior study had been carried out on this innovative device. Therefore, the working principle of this design was simulated using the Analysis System (ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD package and the results were compared to experimental ones. It was perceived from the results that by introducing the diffusers and then the guide vanes, the overall power output of the wind turbine was improved by approximately 5% and 34%, respectively, compared to using VAWT alone. In the case of the diffusers, the optimum angle was found to be 7°, while for guide vanes A and B, it was 70° and 60° respectively. These results were in good agreement with experimental results obtained in the previous experimental study. Overall, it can be concluded that exhaust air recovery turbines are a promising form of green technology.

  6. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, F.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work will establish how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. This report describes progress made during the first year of this three-year study the following tasks: gel screening studies; impact of gelation pH, rock permeability, and lithology on the performance of a monomer-based gel; preliminary study of the permeability reduction for CO{sub 2} and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; preliminary study of permeability reduction for oil and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; rheology of Cr(III)-xanthan gel and gelants in porous media; impact of diffusion, dispersion, and viscous fingering on gel placement in injection wells; examination of flow-profile changes for field applications of gel treatments in injection wells; and placement of gels in production wells. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Effect of Graphene Coating on the Heat Transfer Performance of a Composite Anti-/Deicing Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of a graphene coating for anti-/deicing is rarely studied. This paper presents an improved anti-/deicing efficiency method for composite material anti-/deicing by using the heat-transfer characteristic of a graphene coating. An anti-/deicing experiment was conducted using the centrifugal force generated by a helicopter rotor. Results showed that the graphene coating can accelerate the internal heat transfer of the composite material, thereby improving the anti-icing and deicing efficiency of the helicopter rotor. The spraying process parameters, such as coating thickness and spraying pressure, were also studied. Results showed that reducing coating thickness and increasing spraying pressure are beneficial in preparing a graphene coating with high thermal conductivity. This study provides an experimental reference for the application of a graphene coating in anti-/deicing.

  8. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  9. An experimental and theoretical study to relate uncommon rock/fluid properties to oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.

    1995-07-01

    Waterflooding is the most commonly used secondary oil recovery technique. One of the requirements for understanding waterflood performance is a good knowledge of the basic properties of the reservoir rocks. This study is aimed at correlating rock-pore characteristics to oil recovery from various reservoir rock types and incorporating these properties into empirical models for Predicting oil recovery. For that reason, this report deals with the analyses and interpretation of experimental data collected from core floods and correlated against measurements of absolute permeability, porosity. wettability index, mercury porosimetry properties and irreducible water saturation. The results of the radial-core the radial-core and linear-core flow investigations and the other associated experimental analyses are presented and incorporated into empirical models to improve the predictions of oil recovery resulting from waterflooding, for sandstone and limestone reservoirs. For the radial-core case, the standardized regression model selected, based on a subset of the variables, predicted oil recovery by waterflooding with a standard deviation of 7%. For the linear-core case, separate models are developed using common, uncommon and combination of both types of rock properties. It was observed that residual oil saturation and oil recovery are better predicted with the inclusion of both common and uncommon rock/fluid properties into the predictive models.

  10. An experimental and theoretical study to relate uncommon rock/fluid properties to oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.

    1995-07-01

    Waterflooding is the most commonly used secondary oil recovery technique. One of the requirements for understanding waterflood performance is a good knowledge of the basic properties of the reservoir rocks. This study is aimed at correlating rock-pore characteristics to oil recovery from various reservoir rock types and incorporating these properties into empirical models for Predicting oil recovery. For that reason, this report deals with the analyses and interpretation of experimental data collected from core floods and correlated against measurements of absolute permeability, porosity. wettability index, mercury porosimetry properties and irreducible water saturation. The results of the radial-core the radial-core and linear-core flow investigations and the other associated experimental analyses are presented and incorporated into empirical models to improve the predictions of oil recovery resulting from waterflooding, for sandstone and limestone reservoirs. For the radial-core case, the standardized regression model selected, based on a subset of the variables, predicted oil recovery by waterflooding with a standard deviation of 7%. For the linear-core case, separate models are developed using common, uncommon and combination of both types of rock properties. It was observed that residual oil saturation and oil recovery are better predicted with the inclusion of both common and uncommon rock/fluid properties into the predictive models.

  11. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Nancy E; Gibbs, James P

    2011-03-01

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations.

  12. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Dai

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  13. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  14. Comparison of methods for miRNA extraction from plasma and quantitative recovery of RNA from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A McAlexander

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in extracellular RNA has intensified as evidence accumulates that these molecules may be useful as indicators of a wide variety of biological conditions. To establish specific extracellular RNA molecules as clinically relevant biomarkers, reproducible recovery from biological samples and reliable measurements of the isolated RNA are paramount. Towards these ends, careful and rigorous comparisons of technical procedures are needed at all steps from sample handling to RNA isolation to RNA measurement protocols. In the investigations described in this methods paper, RT-qPCR was used to examine the apparent recovery of specific endogenous miRNAs and a spiked-in synthetic RNA from blood plasma samples. RNA was isolated using several widely used RNA isolation kits, with or without the addition of glycogen as a carrier. Kits examined included total RNA isolation systems that have been commercially available for several years and commonly adapted for extraction of biofluid RNA, as well as more recently introduced biofluids-specific RNA methods. Our conclusions include the following: some RNA isolation methods appear to be superior to others for the recovery of RNA from biological fluids; addition of a carrier molecule seems to be beneficial for some but not all isolation methods; and partially or fully quantitative recovery of RNA is observed from increasing volumes of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow mechanism in porous media of enhanced oil recovery by alkli/surfactant/polymer flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jialu; SHEN Pingping; CHEN Yongzhong; ZHANG Zubo; JIA Xu; TIAN Yuling

    2005-01-01

    The fluid flow mechanism in porous media of enhanced oil recovery by Alkli/ Surfactant/ Polymer (ASP) flooding is investigated by measuring production performance, pressure distribution and saturation distribution through installing differential pressure transducers and saturation measuring probes in a physical model of vertical heterogeneous reservoir. The fluid flow variation in porous media is the main reason of enhanced oil recovery of ASP flooding. The pressure field and saturation field are nonlinearly coupled together and the interaction between them results in the fluid flow variation in the reservoir. In a vertical heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP agents initially flow in the high permeability layer, and fluid changes the flow direction toward the low and the middle permeability layers because the resistance in the high permeability layer is increased under the physical and chemical action of adsorption, retention and emulsion. ASP flooding displaces out not only the residual oil in the high permeability layer, but also the remaining oil in the low and the middle permeability layers by increasing swept volume and displacing efficiency.

  16. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, Nancy E., E-mail: karraker@hku.hk [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Gibbs, James P. [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  17. Shape-Memory-Alloy-Based Deicing System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Ice buildup on aircraft leading edge surfaces has historically been a problem. Most conventional deicing systems rely either on surface heating to melt the accreted ice or pneumatic surface inflation to mechanically debond the ice. Deicers that rely solely on surface heating require large amounts of power. Pneumatic deicers usually cannot remove thin layers of ice and lack durability. Thus, there is a need for an advanced, low-power ice protection system. As part of the NASA Small Business and Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Innovative Dynamics, Inc., developed an aircraft deicing system that utilizes the properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The SMA-based system has achieved promising improvements in energy efficiency and durability over more conventional deicers. When they are thermally activated, SMA materials change shape; this is analogous to a conventional thermal expansion. The thermal input is currently applied via conventional technology, but there are plans to implement a passive thermal input that is supplied from the energy transfer due to the formation of the ice itself. The actively powered deicer was tested in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on a powered rotating rig in early 1995. The system showed promise, deicing both rime and glaze ice shapes as thin as 1/8 in. The first prototype SMA deicer reduced power usage by 45 percent over existing electrothermal systems. This prototype system was targeted for rotorcraft system development. However, there are current plans underway to develop a fixed-wing version of the deicer.

  18. A basic approach for wing leading deicing by smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struggl, Stephan; Korak, Johannes; Feyrer, Christoph

    2011-04-01

    An investigation regarding de-icing of wing leading edges through the use of smart structures is performed. Piezoelectric actuators are used to excite the structures at their natural frequencies. This vibration excites shear stresses at the surface, which lead to the shedding off of ice. For optimal excitation of the structure, the frequency and the placement of piezo elements are determined, in order to maximize the shear stress. First, experimental investigations on a clamped aluminum plate are carried out. With these findings, the transition to an aluminum sample of a wing leading edge is performed. Practical experiments have been carried out on a sample of an aluminum wing leading edge. First, the structural behavior is determined by a modal analysis so that the natural frequencies and the eigenmodes can be calculated. By FE simulation all parameter combinations can be calculated, so the practical tests can be adapted accordingly. Practical experiments have been carried out under realistic conditions in terms of ice formation in an icing research tunnel. Different types of ice have been considered, which require a different level of shear stresses for the de-icing. Further investigations will concern the determination of the suitable frequency and furthermore an ongoing monitoring of the process to take up account on different icing conditions. The studies point to a further possibility of energy efficient de-icing.

  19. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the inf

  20. Power Grid De-icing Optimal Plan Based on Fractional Sieve Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangbin; Lin, Meihan; Li, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem that the reliability of system was reduced and the security risk was increased during the DC de-icing period, a decision-making model based on the fractional sieve method was proposed. This model introduced risk assessment theory, and took into account the comprehensive failure probability model of protection action and ice cover. Considering the de-icing condition, a DC de-icing strategy model, which was with the objective function of minimizing the load of shedding and minimizing the operating risk, was proposed. The objective function was optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm and fractional sieve method. The simulative results of IEEE30-bus system indicated that the load loss caused by de-icing and the operational risk of the system could be effectively reduced by the proposed model. It provided a reference for power department to make a de-icing plan.

  1. Thermal de-icing of HV conductors by using an external DC source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, S.; Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2002-07-01

    The Research Institute of Hydro-Quebec is conducting 2 test programs in climatic chambers. It is also compiling a database for conductors, ground wires and optical power ground wires (OPGW). An in-house computer program has also been developed to evaluate de-icing using the Joule effect. Maps illustrating the power transmission network for the entire province were presented. It was shown that de-icing requires 1800 A per every 735 kV conductor. This upper limit is fixed by the thermal rating of the line. The longest line to be de-iced in Quebec is about 250 km long. This would require 850 kV and 6000 MVA of power. The basic de-icing configuration at 315 kV was also illustrated, along with a simulation of the impact of de-icing on ice loading of power lines.

  2. Environmental Simulation and Experimental Study of Aircraft Icing and Deicing on Ground%飞机地面积/除冰环境模拟与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 张浩; 王立文

    2011-01-01

    飞机地面积冰是飞机进入冬季安全飞行的重要隐患,很多飞行事故都是因为没有清除飞机表面的积冰而造成的.基于对飞机地面积/除冰的真实环境的分析,在低温湿热试验箱中模拟积/除冰时的大气条件,对机翼积/除冰进行试验研究.通过改变环境温度、除冰液温度、流量、浓度等影响因素,利用光纤式结冰传感器得到不同环境条件下,除冰液参数对除冰过程的影响数据,并对这些数据进行了分析.试验结果表明该装置能有效地模拟飞机地面积/除冰过程,数据分析显示飞机地面结冰过程主要受外界环境温度,湿度(空气的水含量)的影响;对飞机地面除冰来说,除冰液温度参数是除冰效果达到最佳的关键因素.%Aircraft icing on ground is a major danger for flight safety in winter, and numerous flight accidents could attribute to not having cleared the ice on the aircraft body before takeoff. An atmosphere icing weather condition was simulated in a low temperature cabin to imitate aircraft deicing on ground based on the study of aircraft ice mechanism on ground. Then several conditions, such as deicing fluids temperature , flow rate and scale, were changed to study the influencing factors on the aircraft deicing process u-sing fiber-optic icing sensors. Experimental results show that the aircraft deicing simulation environment could effectively simulate the deicing/icing process. Moreover, analysis results reveal that the environment temperature, humidity are the main parameters for the aircraft icing process and the deicing fluids temperature is the key factor to obtain ideal deicing effect.

  3. Corrosion effects of runway de-icing chemicals on aircraft alloys and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., E-mail: elina.huttunen-saarivirta@tut.fi [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kuokkala, V.-T.; Kokkonen, J. [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Paajanen, H. [Finnish Air Force Materiel Command, Plans Division, Support Systems Section, P.O. Box 210, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Corrosion effects of urea and four new runway de-icing chemicals on Al alloy 2024, Mg alloy RZ5 and cadmium-plated and subsequently chromate-treated steel 4340 were examined by three types of corrosion tests. {yields} Corrosion effects of urea on Al alloy 2024 were more pronounced than those of the new de-icing chemicals, with pitting corrosion being evident in urea in all tests. {yields} The rate of corrosion in Mg alloy RZ5 was often higher in new de-icing chemicals than in urea, although the form of corrosion was the same in most cases, i.e., general corrosion. {yields} Corrosion effects of the five runway de-icing chemicals on cadmium-plated and subsequently chromate-treated steel 4340 were slightly different in all three tests, but some loss of the coating layers was detected in all cases. - Abstract: Corrosion effects of five runway de-icing chemicals on aluminium alloy 2024, magnesium alloy RZ5 and cadmium-plated and subsequently chromate-treated steel 4340 were investigated by cyclic polarisation measurements, open circuit potential monitoring and cyclic chemical exposure tests. The runway de-icing chemicals included in the study contained urea, which has a long history as a runway de-icing chemical, and four new commercial de-icing chemicals, which were based on betaine and potassium formate. Corrosion effects of urea on aluminium alloy 2024 were more pronounced than those of the new de-icing chemicals. In urea, the breakdown potential, indicating the onset of pitting, was clearly distinguishable in the cyclic polarisation curve and pitting corrosion was detected on the specimen surface after all three types of tests. Weight losses during the chemical exposure tests were also higher for urea than for the other four chemicals, where pitting corrosion was only occasionally detected. The opposite was true in the case of magnesium alloy RZ5: although the alloy experienced general corrosion in each de-icing chemical included in the

  4. Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Selection of a Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle for Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis of a supercritical organic Rankine cycle system driven by exhaust heat using 18 organic working fluids is presented. Several parameters, such as the net power output, exergy efficiency, expander size parameter (SP, and heat exchanger requirement of evaporator and the condenser, were used to evaluate the performance of this recovery cycle and screen the working fluids. The results reveal that in most cases, raising the expander inlet temperature is helpful to improve the net power output and the exergy efficiency. However, the effect of the expander inlet pressure on those parameters is related to the expander inlet temperature and working fluid used. Either lower expander inlet temperature and pressure, or higher expander inlet temperature and pressure, generally makes the net power output more. Lower expander inlet temperature results in larger total heat transfer requirement and expander size. According to the screening criteria of both the higher output and the lower investment, the following working fluids for the supercritical ORC system are recommended: R152a and R143a.

  5. Flexural waves induced by electro-impulse deicing forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    The generation, reflection and propagation of flexural waves created by electroimpulsive deicing forces are demonstrated both experimentally and analytically in a thin circular plate and a thin semicylindrical shell. Analytical prediction of these waves with finite element models shows good correlation with acceleration and displacement measurements at discrete points on the structures studied. However, sensitivity to spurious flexural waves resulting from the spatial discretization of the structures is shown to be significant. Consideration is also given to composite structures as an extension of these studies.

  6. WHIPICE. [Computer Program for Analysis of Aircraft Deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This video documents efforts by NASA Lewis Research Center researchers to improve ice protection for aircraft. A new system of deicing aircraft by allowing a thin sheet of ice to develop, then breaking it into particles, is being examined, particularly to determine the extent of shed ice ingestion by jet engines that results. The process is documented by a high speed imaging system that scans the breakup and flow of the ice particles at 1000 frames per second. This data is then digitized and analyzed using a computer program called WHIPICE, which analyzes grey scale images of the ice particles. Detailed description of the operation of this computer program is provided.

  7. Numerical analysis on thermal characteristics and ice melting efficiency for microwave deicing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Yang, Bo; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Zhou, Li; Xiong, Shengguang

    2016-05-01

    In the high latitudes, the icy patches on the road are frequently generated and have a wide distribution, which are difficult to remove and obviously affect the normal usage of the highways, bridges and airport runways. Physical deicing, such as microwave (MW) deicing, help the ice melt completely through heating mode and then the ice layer can be swept away. Though it is no pollution and no damage to the ground, the low efficiency hinders the development of MW deicing vehicle equipped without sufficient speed. In this work, the standard evaluation of deicing is put forward firstly. The intensive MW deicing is simplified to ice melting process characterized by one-dimensional slab with uniform volumetric energy generation, which results in phase transformation and interface motion between ice and water. The heating process is split into the superposition of three parts — non-heterogeneous heating for ground without phase change, heat transfer with phase change and the heat convection between top surface of ice layer and flow air. Based on the transient heat conduction theory, a mathematical model, combining electromagnetic and two-phase thermal conduction, is proposed in this work, which is able to reveal the relationship between the deicing efficiency and ambient conditions, as well as energy generation and material parameters. Using finite difference time-domain, this comprehensive model is developed to solve the moving boundary heat transfer problem in a one-dimensional structured gird. As a result, the stimulation shows the longitudinal temperature distributions in all circumstances and quantitative validation is obtained by comparing simulated temperature distributions under different conditions. In view of the best economy and fast deicing, these analytic solutions referring to the complex influence factors of deicing efficiency demonstrate the optimal matching for the new deicing design.

  8. Scheduling de-icing vehicles within airport logistics: a heuristic algorithm and performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Most delays in the air transport occur at the airport. A particular reason is the complexity of managing the large number of supporting flows in airport logistics. We consider the optimisation problem of scheduling de-icing vehicles that is one of the key supporting logistic flows in the turn-around process of aircraft. The objective is to minimise the delay of flights due to de-icing, and the travel distance of the de-icing vehicles. We study the complexity of the problem, and develop a solu...

  9. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  10. Surface roughness due to residual ice in the use of low power deicing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Thicknesses of residual ice are presented to provide information on surface contamination and associated roughness during deicing events. Data was obtained from low power ice protection systems tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) with nine different deicing systems. Results show that roughness associated with residual ice is not characterized by uniformly distributed roughness. Results also show that deicing systems require a critical mass of ice to generate a sufficient expelling force to remove the ice.

  11. Thermo-Economic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixtures and Pure Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC for waste heat recovery. A case study for a heat source temperature of 150 °C and a subcritical, saturated cycle is performed. As working fluids R245fa, isobutane, isopentane, and the mixture of isobutane and isopentane are considered. The minimal temperature difference in the evaporator and the condenser, as well as the mixture composition are chosen as variables in order to identify the most suitable working fluid in combination with optimal process parameters under thermo-economic criteria. In general, the results show that cost-effective systems have a high minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,C at the pinch-point of the condenser and a low minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,E at the pinch-point of the evaporator. Choosing isobutane as the working fluid leads to the lowest costs per unit exergy with 52.0 €/GJ (ΔTPP,E = 1.2 K; ΔTPP,C = 14 K. Considering the major components of the ORC, specific costs range between 1150 €/kW and 2250 €/kW. For the zeotropic mixture, a mole fraction of 90% isobutane leads to the lowest specific costs per unit exergy. A further analysis of the ORC system using isobutane shows high sensitivity of the costs per unit exergy for the selected cost estimation methods and for the isentropic efficiency of the turbine.

  12. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

  13. Investigation of the Criteria for Fluid Selection in Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Atakan

    2011-07-01

    its thermodynamic properties as well as on the conditions at which the heat is available, thus it is often unclear if an organic fluid has any advantage compared to inorganic fluids like water. Various substances starting from the refrigerants to high boiling organic liquid have been investigated as possible working fluid for the different temperature ranges at which the waste heat is available. The present communication reports exemplary the results for three different classes of substances, a hydrocarbon (n-heptane, two refrigerants 1.1.1.3.3-pentafluoropropane (R245fa and pentafluoro butane mixture (Solkatherm, SES36, and water in the intermediate temperature range (473 to 773 K where the exhaust gases of combustion engines may be used as energy source for cogeneration. In this range it turns out that for many conditions, water and heptane are well suited working fluids for cogeneration systems. In the present investigation, the attention was not laid on the cycle efficiency alone, but also on the total exergy usage from an enthalpy stream (e.g. exhausts gas. This is used for defining the total efficiency for the process. The results for the thermodynamic parameter total heat recovery efficiency and the surface area of the heat exchanger have been discussed. diagrams were also used for judging the suitability of a fluid. It turns out that water is well suited for many cases in the intermediate temperature regime.

  14. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-11-01

    Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

  15. Increased chloride concentration in a lake due to deicing salt application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, E L

    2003-01-01

    During winter, the Swedish National Road Administration uses on average 250,000 tonnes of sodium chloride for deicing purposes. Chloride concentration is a function of the amount of deicing salt applied during the winter season and the amount of water in which the salt can be diluted. An estimation of seasonal amount of deicing salt in relation to amount of run-off was used in order to identify the effects of deicing salt. The measured chloride concentration in a lake used as a municipal water supply was similar to the concentration estimated by a simple steady state method accounting for the catchment area. The simplified steady state method was a useful tool for estimating steady state concentrations on a regional level, including a non-influenced lake as a comparison.

  16. Experimental Study on Deicing Performance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Conductive Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuquan TANG; Zhuoqiu LI; Jueshi QIAN; Kejin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) is a kind of good electrothermal material. When connected to an external power supply, stable and uniform heat suitable for deicing application is generated in the CFRC slab. Electric heating and deicing experiments of carbon fiber reinforced concrete slab were carried out in laboratory, and the effect of the temperature and thickness of ice, the thermal conductivity of CFRC, and power output on deicing performance and energy consumption were investigated. The experimental results indicate that it is an effective method to utilize the thermal energy produced by CFRC slab to deice. The time to melt the ice completely decreases with increasing power output and ice temperature, and increases with increasing thickness of the ice. The energy consumption to ranges from -3℃ to -18℃. CFRC with good thermal conduction can reduce temperature difference in CFRC slab effectively.

  17. Physical Basis of Power Transmission Wire’s Deicing by Electrodynamic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapunov Danil Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method of power transmission wire’’s deicing is described. Deicing process is divided into three independent sub-processes, namely the process of melting the thin inner layer of ice cover, the process of ice cylinder fracturing into components due to bending deformations; the process of shaking off the fractured ice cylinder elements by inertial forces. Mathematical description of each sub-process is shown.

  18. Diagnosis of retrodiscal tissue in painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (Pjoints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.

  19. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

  20. Hemodynamic recovery after hypovolemic shock with lactated Ringer's and keratin resuscitation fluid (KRF), a novel colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Fiesky A; Callahan, Michael F; Trach, Simon; Burnett, Luke R; Kislukhin, Victor; Smith, Thomas L; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Death after severe hemorrhage remains an important cause of mortality in people under 50 years of age. Keratin resuscitation fluid (KRF) is a novel resuscitation solution made from keratin protein that may restore cardiovascular stability. This postulate was tested in rats that were exsanguinated to 40% of their blood volume. Test groups received either low or high volume resuscitation with either KRF or lactated Ringer's solution. KRF low volume was more effective than LR in recovering cardiac function, blood pressure and blood chemistry. Furthermore, in contrast to LR-treated rats, KRF-treated rats exhibited vital signs that resembled normal controls at 1-week.

  1. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  2. 基于传感器的飞机地面除冰模拟实验研究%Study on simulation experiment for aircraft ground deicing based on sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 赵亮; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    飞机除冰是影响民航冬季安全运行的重要因素之一,为了优化飞机除冰液参数,设计了飞机地面除冰室外实验.在冬季室外条件下通过对结冰的模拟机体表面喷射加热的除冰液进行除冰,在除冰过程中对除冰液流量、除冰液温度进行控制,通过安装在机体上的温度传感器和光纤传感器得到飞机机体表面温度变化和冰层厚度变化情况.通过分析实验结果可得:在一定范围内,除冰液温度升高能有效提高除冰速率;除冰液流量增加也能提高除冰速率,但当除冰液流量超过一定值时,射流冲击成为除冰的主要动力.%Aircraft icing is one of the important factors that affect civil aviation safety in operation in winter.In order to optimize parameters of aircraft deicing fluid,aircraft ground deicing outdoor experiment is carried out.In winter outdoor conditions,aircraft deicing is operated by injecting heated deicing fluid to the aircraft surface.The temperature and the velocity of the flow must be changed regularly,and change of temperature and ice thickness can be detected by temperature sensor and fibre-optic sensor that are installed on the aircraft surface.By analyzing result of experiment,the conclusion is that,in certain range the temperature rise of deicing liquid increases apparently ice removal rate,but the jet impact force will be the main force of deicing when the velocity of flow exceeds certain value.

  3. A numerical and experimental investigation of electrothermal aircraft deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, K.; Masiulaniec, K. C.; Dewitt, K. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained for the deicing characteristics of a stationary UH-1H helicopter blade which had been fitted with an electrothermal deicer assembly. The tests were run in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel, and yielded transient temperature responses for the substrate, heater and abrasion shield at selected positions around the blade. The data at the abrasion shield-ice interface clearly documented when melting, shedding or refreezing occurred. Comparisons were made between the experimental data and a one-dimensional numerical model. The agreement was generally very good, with the simulations being shown to be capable of predicting the transient temperature responses along with phase change and ice shedding. At many blade positions, the model was capable of accurately simulating the thermal response of the electrothermal deicer assembly.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Finned Tube of Heat Recovery Unit Using Fluid-Solid Coupled Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery unit (HRU is a heat exchange device in drying process. In HRU, room air is preheated by waste hot air and then transported to drying oven to remove moisture, which helps to save both energy and time. The main purpose of this paper is to build a heat transfer model of HRU and study its characteristics. A numerical method based on fluid-solid coupling was used to calculate the heat transfer between tube and fluids, and the actual structure was simplified to improve computation efficiency. The results were validated by theoretical calculation and experiments. Effects of Reynolds number (Re on outlet temperature, Nusselt number, and pressure drop were investigated. It was found that the thermal resistance of shell side is large, by reducing which the total heat transfer coefficient can be improved. The difference between finned tube and smooth tube is in the shell side. Larger Re of shell side leads to good heat transfer performance but also larger pressure drop which increases the flow resistance.

  5. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1993-12-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

  6. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2005-04-01

    Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous

  7. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

  8. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  9. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of

  10. Wind Tunnel Study of the Electro-Thermal De-Icing of Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, C.; Ilinca, A.; Fortin, G.; Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada and Wind Energy Group, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Quebec (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Most of the wind turbines operating in cold climates are facing icing events but very few of them are equipped with blade de-icing systems. Few studies were performed and published on the characteristics of these de-icing systems. In order to optimize the design and power consumption of an electro-thermal de-icing system for wind turbine blades, an experimental set-up was built and used to test the system under icing conditions in a refrigerated wind tunnel. The parameters of the de-icing control system consider only the convective heat transfer at the blade surface during ice accretion. Meteorological data are those gathered from Murdochville's experimental site in Canada. The blade airfoil is a NACA 63 415 and the icing conditions are scaled to be simulated in the icing wind tunnel section. The results show the relation between the meteorological conditions, the ridge formed by liquid water runback, the heating power and the airfoil surface temperature. The study provides useful data for the design of electro-thermal deicing systems for wind turbine blade application.

  11. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  12. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging in the evaluation of primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (HUP), Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) would be helpful in characterizing primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) from other pediatric brain tumors. We expected that the compact cellular nature and the relatively small extracellular space of this tumor would affect the signal intensity on both pulse sequences relative to the more sparsely cellular glial tumors that have larger extracellular spaces. Eighteen pediatric patients with PNET were examined on a 1.5 T MRI with routine imaging plus FLAIR and compared with 28 patients with non-PNET. DWI was also performed in 7 PNET and 18 non-PNET. Seventy-eight percent of PNET were isointense to gray matter on FLAIR while 82 % of non-PNET were hyperintense and only one was isointense (3 %). Diffusion was abnormally restricted in all 7 PNET examined (100 %) but was restricted in non-PNET in only 1 out of 18 (6 %) patients who had DWI. The differences in the histologic architecture between PNET and non-PNET are reflected in both FLAIR imaging and in DWI. (orig.)

  14. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  15. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  16. Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR images in moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hirokazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokazu_fujiwara@ybb.ne.jp; Momoshima, Suketaka [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: There are a few reports on leptomeningeal high signal intensity (LMHI: ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images in moyamoya disease, but the feature of this finding has not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize LMHI on FLAIR images in moyamoya disease and to assess usefulness of this finding in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease in conventional MR imaging. Material and methods: MR imaging of 28 patients with moyamoya disease was retrospectively reviewed. The grade of LMHI on FLAIR images was classified as 'absent,' 'minimal,' 'moderate' and 'marked.' Fifty-four hemispheres of 28 patients (2 patients had unilateral disease) were assessed for the frequency of visualization and distribution of LMHI. The correlations between LMHI on FLAIR images, moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images and MR angiography findings were also analyzed. Results: Moderate and marked LMHI was seen in 31 out of 54 hemispheres (57%). LMHI was seen more prominently in the frontal and parietal lobes than in the temporal and occipital lobes. Although there was a tendency for LMHI on FLAIR images to be prominent in groups with moderate and marked moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images, there was no significant correlation. More prominent LMHI was observed in the hemispheres in which cortical branches of the middle cerebral arteries were poorly visualized on MR angiography. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on FLAIR images is predominantly seen in the frontal and parietal lobes. Because this sign can be seen in patients with unremarkable moyamoya vessels, LMHI is a useful sign in conventional MR imaging for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease.

  17. Clinical implications of sulcal enhancement on postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in patients with acute stroke symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke.

  18. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  19. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  20. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, wat

  1. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, wat

  2. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment,

  3. Evolution of Volume and Signal Intensity on Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery MR Images after Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federau, Christian; Mlynash, Michael; Christensen, Soren; Zaharchuk, Greg; Cha, Brannon; Lansberg, Maarten G; Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To analyze both volume and signal evolution on magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images between the images after endovascular therapy and day 5 (which was the prespecified end point for infarct volume in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution [DEFUSE 2] trial) in a subset of patients enrolled in the DEFUSE 2 study. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee at all participating sites. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. In this post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 2 study, 35 patients with FLAIR images acquired both after endovascular therapy (median time after symptom onset, 12 hours) and at day 5 were identified. Patients were separated into two groups based on the degree of reperfusion achieved on time to maximum greater than 6-second perfusion imaging (≥90% vs <90%). After coregistration and signal normalization, lesion volumes and signal intensity were assessed by using FLAIR imaging for the initial lesion (ie, visible after endovascular therapy) and the recruited lesion (the additional lesion visible on day 5, but not visible after endovascular therapy). Statistical significance was assessed by using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. Results All 35 patients had FLAIR lesion growth between the after-revascularization examination and day 5. Median lesion growth was significantly larger in patients with <90% reperfusion (27.85 mL) compared with ≥90% (8.12 mL; P = .003). In the initial lesion, normalized signal did not change between after endovascular therapy (median, 1.60) and day 5 (median, 1.58) in the ≥90% reperfusion group (P = .97), but increased in the <90% reperfusion group (from 1.60 to 1.73; P = .01). In the recruited lesion, median normalized signal increased significantly in both groups between after endovascular therapy and day 5 (after endovascular therapy, from 1.19 to 1.56, P

  4. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified

  5. Energy Recovery Device with a Fluid Switcher for Seawater Reverse Osmosis System%海水反渗透淡化用带流体切换器的能量回收设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家喜; 王越; 徐世昌; 王世昌

    2008-01-01

    Energy recovery device (ERD) is an important part of the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalina- tion system. There are principally two kinds of ERDs, the centrifugal type and the positive displacement (PD) type. The PD type is of extensive concern and is preferred in large-scale plants. In this article, an innovative fluid switcher was presented and a two-cylinder hydraulic energy recovery unit with a lab-scale fluid switcher was set up. Tap water was used as the working medium instead of the actual seawater and brine in SWRO desalination plants. Under steady state operating conditions, the experimental results were obtained on the variations of the pressure and flow rate to and from the energy recovery unit. The hydraulic recovery efficiency (EH) of the energy recovery unit with the fluid switcher reached up to 76.83%.

  6. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazauskas, A., E-mail: Algirdas.LAZAUSKAS@stud.ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Guobienė, A., E-mail: Asta.GUOBIENE@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Prosyčevas, I., E-mail: IGORPROS@mail.ru [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Baltrušaitis, V., E-mail: fei@fei.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Grigaliūnas, V., E-mail: Viktoras.GRIGALIUNAS@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Narmontas, P., E-mail: Pranas.NARMONTAS@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanorių 271, 3009 Kaunas (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, J., E-mail: j.baltrusaitis@utwente.nl [PhotoCatalytic Synthesis Group, University of Twente, Meander 229, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, water droplets on SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface are subjected to a series of icing and deicing cycles in a humid (∼ 70% relative humidity) atmosphere and the resulting morphological changes are monitored and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Our data show that the formation of the frozen or thawed water droplet, with no further shape change, on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film, is obtained faster within each cycle as the number of the icing/deicing cycles increases. After 10 icing and deicing cycles, the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film had a water contact angle value of 146 ± 2° which is effectively non-superhydrophobic. AFM analysis showed that the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface area under the water droplet undergoes gradual mechanical damage during the repetitive icing/deicing cycles. We propose a possible mechanism of the morphological changes to the film surface that take place during the consecutive icing/deicing experiments. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic film is subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments. • Water droplet shape transition is recorded and characterized thereafter. • Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements are performed. • The surface undergoes gradual mechanical damage during repetitive icing/deicing. • Mechanism for the observed surface morphological changes is suggested.

  7. A novel actuator phasing method for ultrasonic de-icing of aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borigo, Cody J.

    Aircraft icing is a critical concern for commercial and military rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. In-flight icing can lead to dramatic decreases in lift and increases in drag that have caused more than a thousand deaths and hundreds of accidents over the past three decades alone. Current ice protection technologies have substantial drawbacks due to weight, power consumption, environmental concerns, or incompatibility with certain structures. In this research, an actuator phasing method for ultrasonic de-icing of aircraft structures was developed and tested using a series of finite element models, 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements, and experimental de-icing tests on metallic and composite structures including plates and airfoils. An independent actuator analysis method was developed to allow for practical evaluation of many actuator phasing scenarios using a limited number of finite element models by properly calculating the phased stress fields and electromechanical impedance curves using a complex coupled impedance model. A genetic algorithm was utilized in conjunction with a series of finite element models to demonstrate that phase inversion, in which only in-phase and anti-phase signal components are applied to actuators, can be utilized with a small number of phasing combinations to achieve substantial improvements in de-icing system coverage. Finite element models of a 48"-long airfoil predicted that phase inversion with frequency sweeping can provide an improvement in the shear stress coverage levels of up to 90% compared to frequency sweeping alone. Experimental evaluation of the phasing approach on an icing grid showed a 189% improvement in de-icing coverage compared to frequency sweeping alone at comparable power levels. 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements confirmed the increased variation in the surface vibration field induced by actuator phasing compared to unphased frequency sweeping. Additional contributions were made

  8. Theoretical Investigation on Internal Leakage and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Fluid Switcher-Energy Recovery Device for Reverse Osmosis Desalting Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞炳蔚; 王越; 王照成; 张燕平; 徐世昌; 王世昌

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the theoretical investigation of internal leakage of a newly developed pi-lot-scale fluid switcher-energy recovery device (FS-ERD) for reverse osmosis (RO) system. For the purpose of in-creasing FS-ERD efficiency and reducing the operating cost of RO, it is required to control the internal leakage in a low level. In this work, the internal leakage rates at different leakage gaps and retentate brine pressures are investi-gated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and validating experiments. It is found that the internal leak-age has a linear relationship with the retentate brine pressure and a polynomial relationship with the scale of leakage gap. The results of the present work imply that low internal leakage and high retentate brine pressure bring benefits to achieve high FS-ERD efficiency.

  9. Clinical characteristics of unknown symptom onset stroke patients with and without diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomalla, Götz; Boutitie, Florent; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI...... onset. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. Results Of 699 patients included, 418 (59.8%) presented with DWI-FLAIR mismatch. A shorter delay between last seen well and symptom recognition (p = 0.0063), a shorter delay between symptom recognition...

  10. Optimization of the Changing Phase Fluid in a Carnot Type Engine for the Recovery of a Given Waste Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Blaise

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Carnot type engine with a changing phase during the heating and the cooling is modeled with its thermal contact with the heat source. In a first optimization, the optimal high temperature of the cycle is determined to maximize the power output. The temperature and the mass flow rate of the heat source are given. This does not take into account the converter internal fluid and its mass flow rate. It is an exogenous optimization of the converter. In a second optimization, the endogenous optimization, the isothermal heating corresponds only to the vaporization of the selected fluid. The maximization of the power output gives the optimal vaporization temperature of the cycled fluid. Using these two optima allows connecting the temperature of the heat source to the working fluid used. For a given temperature level, mass flow rate and composition of the waste heat to recover, an optimal fluid and its temperature of vaporization are deduced. The optimal conditions size also the internal mass flow rate and the compression ratio (pump size. The optimum corresponds to the maximum of the power output and must be combined with the environmental fluid impact and the technological constraints.

  11. New Technologies for de-icing Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaaath, Lars; Loefgren, Hans

    2000-11-15

    This is a pilot study to investigate icing on wings of wind power turbines. In this report we present and discuss various ways and means to either heat water droplets or melt ice when formed on the wings of wind turbines. The situation is different from icing on wings of airplanes in that (1) the wings of wind turbines spend all of their time in the atmosphere where the risk of icing is highest and (2) the speed of wing to air varies over the wing where it is constant for an airplane. The form of the wind turbine wings also varies from tip to centre, to compensate for the varying relative air speed. We have concentrated on icing conditions at temperatures -10 deg C - 0 deg C and droplet sizes of 1-10 mum. Icing occurs also at much lower temperatures, but this will probably be because of direct freezing of water vapour to ice. This is presently outside the scope of our pilot project report. We conclude that - The form of the wing, especially on the contact area may be crucial to the icing problem. - Also the nano-metric structure of the wing surface can probably be designed so that the water droplets have a minimized contact area to the wing. Our pilot investigation also suggests the following: - Microwaves are much too inefficient to heat water or melt ice. Direct microwave devices should therefore not be developed. Indirect heating with microwaves is possible. - Millimeter waves are sufficiently efficient, but the generation is most probably too inefficient to be of any practical use. - Infrared waves are very efficient to heat water and melt ice and should be investigated. - Heat conduction is also efficient and should be pursued. Using microwaves to heat the wing surface which then conduct heat to the water/ice is a very efficient and robust method. Our pre-study suggests that the solution to avoid icing or de-ice wings of wind turbines most probably is not one single technology. The form and surface structure of the wings play important role for icing

  12. 电脉冲除冰系统除冰激励的仿真研究%Simulation of Deicing Excitation of Electro-impulse Deicing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清英; 白天; 朱春玲

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic eddy current field analysis model of the experimental electro-impulse deicing system was developed.A numerical post-processing method was proposed to simulate the deicing excitation exerting on the testing skin.Moreover,a three-dimensional dynamic analysis model of the testing skin was built based on the dynamic finite element method.The accelerations were calculated by loading the transient pressure to the skin model.Then,the acceleration experiment was introduced to verify the simulation results.It is obtained that the numerical acceleration values agree well with the experimental data,which indicates that it is feasible for the deicing excitation to use the method of post-processing pressure distribution and the method of the dynamic finite elements of the testing skin.The presented methods provide a solid basis for the ice failure analysis of the electro-impulse deicing system.%建立了电脉冲除冰实验系统的二维电磁涡流场分析模型,提出了数值计算后处理求解试验蒙皮表面除冰激励分布的方法,并利用有限元动力分析方法建立了试验蒙皮的三维动力分析模型,通过在模型上加载后处理所得的表面瞬态压力,仿真获得了试验蒙皮的响应加速度,最后引入加速度实验用以验证模拟值。结果表明,基于二维电磁涡流场数值计算后处理求解除冰激励与有限元动力分析试验蒙皮的方法,所得的加速度与实验测量值吻合较好,因此说明了所述方法的正确性,可为电脉冲除冰系统的冰层破坏分析奠定基础。

  13. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  14. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio--final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Allison E.; Sroka, Bernard N.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of concerns about salt intrusion into drinking water aquifers, the effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow aquifers were studied at eight locations in Ohio from 1988 through 2002. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Sites were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. Records of deicer application rates were kept, and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers was monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The State routes monitored were the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at numerous test sites and the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine groundwater sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991 and continued through September 1999. A multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored continuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation,chloride concentration in soil samples, and deicing-chemical application times and rates. Evidence from water analysis, specific-conductance measurements, and surface-geophysical measurements indicates that three of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, and Portage County sites) were affected by direct application of deicing chemicals. Climatic data collected during the study

  15. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio, interim report, 1988-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.L.; Sroka, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the application of highway deicing chemicals during winter months on ground- water quality are being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Eight sites throughout the State were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. At these sites, records of deicer application rates are being kept and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers is being monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific con ductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The counties and corre sponding sections of state routes being monitored are the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in January 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine ground-water sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991. A relatively new type of multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored con tinuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation, chloride concentration in soil samples, ground conductivity, and deicing chemical application times and rates. For the interim reporting period, water samples were collected from January 1991 through September 1993. Evidence from water analysis, specific conductance measurements, and surface geophysical measurements indicates that four of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, Portage County, and Richland

  16. Modeling the kinetics of microbial degradation of deicing chemicals in porous media under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Jaesche, Philipp; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2012-09-01

    A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions.

  17. Integrated responses to exhaustive exercise and recovery in rainbow trout white muscle: acid-base, phosphogen, carbohydrate, lipid, ammonia, fluid volume and electrolyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Heigenhauser, G J; Wood, C M

    1994-10-01

    White muscle and arterial blood plasma were sampled at rest and during 4 h of recovery from exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout. A compound respiratory and metabolic acidosis in the blood was accompanied by increases in plasma lactate (in excess of the metabolic acid load), pyruvate, glucose, ammonia and inorganic phosphate levels, large elevations in haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, red cell swelling, increases in the levels of most plasma electrolytes, but no shift of fluid out of the extracellular fluid (ECF) into the intracellular fluid (ICF) of white muscle. The decrease in white muscle pHi was comparable to that in pHe; both recovered by 4 h. Creatine phosphate and ATP levels were both reduced by 40% after exercise, the former recovering within 0.25 h, whereas the latter remained depressed until 4 h. Changes in creatine concentration mirrored those in creatine phosphate, whereas changes in IMP and ammonia concentration mirrored those in ATP. White muscle glycogen concentration was reduced 90% primarily by conversion to lactate; recovery was slow, to only 40% of resting glycogen levels by 4 h. During this period, most of the lactate and metabolic acid were retained in white muscle and there was excellent conservation of carbohydrate, suggesting that in situ glycogenesis rather than oxidation was the major fate of lactate. The redox state ([NAD+]/[NADH]) of the muscle cytoplasm, estimated from ICF lactate and pyruvate levels and pHi, remained unchanged from resting levels, challenging the traditional view of the 'anaerobic' production of lactate. Furthermore, the membrane potential, estimated from levels of ICF and ECF electrolytes using the Goldman equation, remained unchanged throughout, challenging the view that white muscle becomes depolarized after exhaustive exercise. Indeed, ICF K+ concentration was elevated. Lactate was distributed well out of electrochemical equilibrium with either the membrane potential (Em) or the pHe-pHi difference

  18. The Fate of De-icing Salts in Stormwater Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The traditional paradigm behind the design of stormwater management systems is to minimize the water quantity and water quality impacts resulting from land modification. The intent is to yield post-development hydrology similar to pre-development hydrology. The water quality aspect has been primarily focused on sediment removal, however, rarely are stormwater management systems designed for removal of de-icing salt. Chloride toxicity effects upon aquatic organisms resulting from snowmelt runoff are pronounced, routine, and problematic in northern climates. The capacity of current management strategies to treat chloride is in question. This paper explores the fate of de-icing salt through 13 different stormwater management systems. The systems include swales, retention pond, infiltration systems, bioretention systems, wetlands, manufactured devices, and porous asphalt. All systems exist at a field site and are delivered the same runoff (quantity and quality). The devices were designed and installed in accordance with existing drainage manual recommendations. None were designed for salt removal. As expected, devices with minimal water storage do not remove salt. Devices that do have significant amounts of storage do not remove salt, however the effluent concentrations are not as high as the influent concentrations: the peak influent salt concentration is attenuated similar to how the peak inflow discharge is attenuated by storage routing. The porous asphalt has displayed some remarkable characteristics. This surface has remained permeable throughout the winter, even though in addition to the de-icing chemicals, sand is applied. It appears that very little de-icing salt is needed on the surface, which has enormous economic and environmental implications.

  19. Effects of ion exchange on stream solute fluxes in a basin receiving highway deicing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    At Fever Brook, a 1260-ha forested basin in central Massachusetts, highway deicing salt application increased the solute flux in streamflow by 120% above background flux (equivalent basis) during a 2-yr period. Attempts to isolate the nonsalt component of stream solute fluxes have commonly subtracted salt contributions based on the net Cl flux (Cl output in streamflow minus Cl input in precipitation). In these studies, any net Na flux in excess of the amount needed to balance the net Cl flux has been attributed to weathering. At Fever Brook, however, the net output of Na was less than the net output of Cl, suggesting a loss of Na within the basin. The Na sink was inferred to be cation exchange of Na for Ca and Mg in the soil. A method was developed to quantify the exchange based on a Na budget, which included an independent estimate of the Na flux from weathering. The amount of exchange was apportioned to Ca and Mg based on their relative concentrations in the stream. The background fluxes of Ca and Mg (i.e., those that would occur in the absence of deicing salts) were calculated by subtracting the amounts from ion exchange plus the much smaller direct contributions in deicing salts from the observed fluxes. Ion exchange and direct salt contributions increased the net output fluxes of Ca and Mg, each by 44% above background. In basins that receive deicing salts, failure to account for cation exchange thus may result in an underestimate of the flux of Na from weathering and overestimates of the fluxes of Ca and Mg from weathering.

  20. [Methodical approaches to the substantiation of hygienic requirements for the application of deicing materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriatov, I A; Tonkopiĭ, N I; Vodianova, M A; Rusakov, N V; Doner'ian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Matveeva, I S; Vorob'eva, O V; Tsapkova, N N

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there is presented a review of existing guidelines and rules of operation of deicing materials (DIM), as well as opportunities for their processing with the aim to ensure the security for the environment and public health. There are described the ecological- hygienic and toxicological properties of chemicals. There are reported results of a pot experiment for the assessment of the impact of DIM on the lawn.

  1. Liberal versus restrictive fluid administration to improve recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Klarskov, Birthe; Christensen, Dorte Stig;

    2004-01-01

    hormonal responses, balance function, pain, nausea and vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay. RESULTS: Intraoperative administration of 40 mL/kg compared with 15 mL/kg LR led to significant improvements in postoperative pulmonary function and exercise capacity and a reduced stress response (aldosterone...

  2. Radio-frequency-transparent, electrically conductive graphene nanoribbon thin films as deicing heating layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, Vladimir; Zhu, Yu; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Genorio, Bostjan; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Changsheng; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2014-01-08

    Deicing heating layers are frequently used in covers of large radio-frequency (RF) equipment, such as radar, to remove ice that could damage the structures or make them unstable. Typically, the deicers are made using a metal framework and inorganic insulator; commercial resistive heating materials are often nontransparent to RF waves. The preparation of a sub-skin-depth thin film, whose thickness is very small relative to the RF skin (or penetration) depth, is the key to minimizing the RF absorption. The skin depth of typical metals is on the order of a micrometer at the gigahertz frequency range. As a result, it is very difficult for conventional conductive materials (such as metals) to form large-area sub-skin-depth films. In this report, we disclose a new deicing heating layer composite made using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We demonstrate that the GNR film is thin enough to permit RF transmission. This metal-free, ultralight, robust, and scalable graphene-based RF-transparent conductive coating could significantly reduce the size and cost of deicing coatings for RF equipment covers. This is important in many aviation and marine applications. This is a demonstration of the efficacy and applicability of GNRs to afford performances unattainable by conventional materials.

  3. Regional increase of mean chloride concentration in water due to the application of deicing salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta

    2004-06-05

    The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2000/60/EC: Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy, states that it is necessary to consider human activities within a river basin in order to prevent and reduce the spreading of pollutants and to achieve good water status. This paper shows a simple method to estimate the environmental pressure from the deicing of roads as steady state chloride concentration in water. The data processed are presented using GIS. The result showed that the contribution of deicing salt is of importance for the chloride concentration on a regional scale. The increase in chloride concentration is also compared to the background concentration and other sources of chloride within the river basin. Road salt applied by the Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) accounts for more than half of the total chloride load for the river basin investigated. The method presented may easily be generalised to a national scale for monitoring the environmental effects of deicing salt application.

  4. Liberal versus restrictive fluid administration to improve recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Klarskov, Birthe; Christensen, Dorte Stig

    2004-01-01

    , antidiuretic hormone, and angiotensin II). Nausea, general well-being, thirst, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, and balance function were also significantly improved, as well as significantly more patients fulfilled discharge criteria and were discharged on the day of surgery with the high-volume fluid...

  5. Queuing Aircraft Deicing-dispatch in Multi-deicing Bays Based on Non-cooperative Game Theory%多除冰坪排队飞机除冰过程调度非合作博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志伟; 唐广群; 任准

    2013-01-01

    According to the practical situation of aircraft delays in hub airports on snowy days and the current application of multi-deicing bays (MDB),aircraft queuing model of the MDB is established based on multi-server queuing system theory.Besides,the dispatch model of each corresponding holding deicing queue is also established based on game theory.The dynamic flights data of Beijing Capital Airport are used for simulation.The results show that the classification and fair allocation of the deicing bay can decrease the holding time of all the deicing aircrafts in the deicing system and relieve the deicing jam in peak hours,and the model guarantees the fairness of the deicing resources allocation and presents the relationship between MDB input and aircraft's sojourn time.This research also provides a new way for airports' deicing operation and deicing bay construction.%针对冰雪天气大型枢纽机场的大面积航班延误及多除冰坪的实际情况,利用多服务台排队系统理论,建立多除冰坪飞机排队模型,并结合博弈思想建立对应于各等待除冰队列的调度模型.利用首都机场动态航班数据进行仿真计算.仿真结果表明,对除冰位进行分类和合理分配,可以降低所有除冰飞机在除冰系统中的总逗留时间,从而缓解高峰时段除冰坪拥堵情况,给出了除冰坪投入量与飞机逗留时间的关系,保证了除冰资源分配的公平性,为机场地面除冰运行及除冰坪建设提供了一种新的思路.

  6. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Spycher, N.

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) may be operated with supercritical CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). Such a scheme could combine recovery of geothermal energy with simultaneous geologic storage of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas. At geothermal temperature and pressure conditions of interest, the flow and heat transfer behavior of CO{sub 2} would be considerably different from water, and chemical interactions between CO{sub 2} and reservoir rocks would also be quite different from aqueous fluids. This paper summarizes our research to date into fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of operating EGS with CO{sub 2}. (Chemical aspects of EGS with CO{sub 2} are discussed in a companion paper; Xu and Pruess, 2010.) Our modeling studies indicate that CO{sub 2} would achieve heat extraction at larger rates than aqueous fluids. The development of an EGS-CO{sub 2} reservoir would require replacement of the pore water by CO{sub 2} through persistent injection. We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO{sub 2} breakthrough at production wells would occur rapidly, within a few weeks of starting CO{sub 2} injection. Subsequently a two-phase water-CO{sub 2} mixture would be produced for a few years,followed by production of a single phase of supercritical CO{sub 2}. Even after single-phase production conditions are reached,significant dissolved water concentrations will persist in the CO{sub 2} stream for many years. The presence of dissolved water in the production stream has negligible impact on mass flow and heat transfer rates.

  7. Effects of Fluid Saturation on Gas Recovery from Class-3 Hydrate Accumulations Using Depressurization: Case Study of Yuan-An Ridge Site in Southwestern Offshore Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jyun; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2016-04-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds in which guest gas molecules are trapped in host lattices of ice crystals. In Taiwan, the significant efforts have recently begun to evaluate the reserves of hydrate because the vast accumulations of gas hydrates had been recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan. Class-3 type hydrate accumulations are referred to an isolated hydrate layer without an underlying zone of mobile fluids, and the entire hydrate layer may be well within the hydrate stability zone. The depressurization method is a useful dissociation method for gas production from Class-3 hydrate accumulations. The dissociation efficiency is controlled by the responses of hydrate to the propagating pressure disturbance, and the pressure propagation is relating to the amount (or saturation) of the mobile fluid in pore space of the hydrate layer. The purpose of this study is to study the effects of fluid saturation on the gas recovery from a class-3 hydrate accumulation using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 hydrate deposit of Yuan-An Ridge in southwestern offshore Taiwan is studied. The numerical method was used in this study. The reservoir simulator we used to study the dissociation of hydrate and the production of gas was the STARS simulator developed by CMG, which coupled heat transfer, geo-chemical, geo-mechanical, and multiphase fluid flow mechanisms. The study case of Yuan-An Ridge is located in southwestern offshore Taiwan. The hydrate deposit was found by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological structure of the studied hydrate deposit was digitized to build the geological model (grids) of the case. The formation parameters, phase behavior data, rock and fluid properties, and formation's initial conditions were assigned sequentially to grid blocks, and the completion and operation conditions were designed to wellbore blocks to finish the numerical model. The changes of reservoir pressure, temperature, saturation due to the hydrate

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of regional hemodynamic and cerebrovascular recovery after lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Hemodynamic and cerebrovascular factors are crucially involved in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). With magnetic resonance imaging, this study aimed to quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling and cerebral blood volume by using an intravascular contrast agent, during 14 days after lateral fluid-percussion injury (LFPI) in rats. Immunohistochemical analysis of vessel density was used to evaluate the contribution of vascular damage. Results show ...

  9. Laparoscopic recovery of sperm from peritoneal fluid, in patients with negative or poor Sims-Huhner test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, R H

    1976-09-01

    Several opinions about the importance of the Sims-Huhner test (SHT) are reported in the literature. Paradoxical are the results relative to conception following a positive or negative SHT. Pregnancy frequently occurs in women with a negative or poor SHT. This observation prompted the author to look for the presence of sperm in peritoneal fluid during laparoscopy in eight patients with a negative SHT and in three with a poor SHT. Complete evaluation was performed to rule out other infertility causes. The peritoneal fluid was aspirated from the cul-de-sac and again after washing the Douglas space and fimbriated portion of the fallopian tubes with 5 to 10 ml of normal saline solution, using a Verres needle. Samples were processed with the Sayk unit, by a special cytosedimentation technique developed for study of the cerebrospinal fluid. In six of the eight patients with a negative SHT and in the three with a poor SHT, sperm were found in the aspirate. No immature or morphologically abnormal sperm were recovered. This procedure illustrates the limitation of the long-accepted SHT in the prognosis for infertile couples. Investigations to eliminate the fixed stage in the processing are being studied to standardize the test.

  10. The influence of supraglacial debris cover variability on de-icing processes - examples from Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Sven; Benn, Douglas I.; Boston, Clare M.; Hawkins, Jack; Lehane, Niall E.; Lovell, Harold; Rooke, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Extensive supraglacial debris covers are widespread near the margins of many cold-based and polythermal surging and non-surging glaciers in Svalbard. Despite their importance for current glacier dynamics and a detailed understanding of how they will affect the de-icing of ice-marginal areas, little work has been carried out to shed light on the sedimentary processes operating in these debris covers. We here present data from five different forelands in Svalbard. In all five cases, surfaces within the debris cover can be regarded as stable where debris cover thickness exceeds that of the active layer; vegetation development and absence of buried ice exposures at the surface support this conclusion, although test pits and geophysical investigations have revealed the presence of buried ice at greater depths (> 1-3 m). These findings imply that even seemingly stable surfaces at present will be subject to change by de-icing in the future. Factors and processes that contribute towards a switch from temporarily stable to unstable conditions have been identified as: 1. The proximity to englacial or supraglacial meltwater channels. These channels enlarge due to thermo-erosion, which can lead to the eventual collapse of tunnel roofs and the sudden generation of linear instabilities in the system. Along such channels, ablation is enhanced compared to adjacent debris-covered ice, and continued thermo-erosion continuously exposes new areas of buried ice at the surface. This works in conjunction with 2. Debris flows that occur on all sloping ground and transfer material from stable to less stable (sloping) locations within the debris cover and eventually into supraglacial channels, from where material is then removed from the system. Several generations of debris flows have been identified in all five debris covers, strongly suggesting that these processes are episodic and that the loci of these processes switch. This in turn indicates that transfer of material by debris flows

  11. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ADDRESS(ES) Enviromental Security Technology Certification Program: 901 North Stuart Street, Suite 303, Arlington, Virginia 22203 10. SPONSOR...vii Implementation Issues ...28 8.0 Implementation Issues

  12. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    petroleum consumption; conserve water; reduce waste; support sustainable communities; and leverage Federal purchasing power to promote environmentally...environmentally-sound operation of DoD airports. Wetlands and aquatic life can be adversely affected by exposure to seemingly low toxicity chemicals...Mountain Home AFB 3,450 Misawa, Japan 81,996 Hill AFB, UT 56,013 Osan, S. Korea 12,000 Elmendorf AFB, AK 105,000 Kunsan, S. Korea 24,000 (a) Obtained

  13. Experimental study of fluid deicing system in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the icing of horizontal control surfaces at the VFW in 1970 led them to select the NASA Icing Research Tunnel at LRC for their tests. Tests were performed for the VFW 614 aircraft. The TKS ice warning system, the Rosemont ice warning system and the liquid water content indicator were investigated and found to be appropriate for the aircraft.

  14. PLANT-ENHANCED REMEDIATION OF GLYCOL-BASED AIRCRAFT DEICING FLUIDS. (R825549C062)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Study on de-icing criterion of electro-impulse de-icing simulation%电脉冲除冰仿真冰层松脱准则研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永杰; 董文俊; 王斌团; 廖凯

    2012-01-01

    电脉冲除冰系统以其结构简单、重量轻、效率高等优良性能,已成为未来飞机除冰系统的主要发展方向之一.开展电脉冲除冰过程的动力学仿真分析与冰层松脱准则研究,能够为飞机电脉冲除冰系统设计提供基本参考依据.在研究比较相关技术文献的基础上,综合考虑了冰层松脱过程中法向正应力与层间剪应力的共同作用,提出了一种改进的冰层松脱准则;数值算例证实该准则合理、准确,能够应用于电脉冲除冰过程的仿真分析中.%The Electro-Impulse De-lcing(EIDI) system, which possesses simple structure, light weight and high efficiency etc. Excellent performances, has been a main development direction of airplane de-icing system in future. For airplane EIDI design, it is an essential reference to simulate electro-impulse de-icing process and study de-icing criterion. In this paper, based on studying and comparing the relational technology literatures, an improved de-icing criterion is proposed. In the criterion, the normal stress and interfacial shear stress are considered during the de-icing process. Numerical experiments show that the criterion is reasonable, accurate and applicable for simulating electro-impulse de-icing process.

  16. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.

  17. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Mie Univ. School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Fukui (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Understanding the interaction of injected CO2 and reservoir fluids in the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery (EOR) field (MS, USA) by non-radiogenic noble gas isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyore, Domokos; Stuart, Finlay; Gilfillan, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the mechanism by which the injected CO2 is stored in underground reservoirs is a key challenge for carbon sequestration. Developing tracing tools that are universally deployable will increase confidence that CO2 remains safely stored. CO2 has been injected into the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery (EOR) field (MS, USA) since 2008 and significant amount of CO2 has remained (stored) in the reservoir. Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are present as minor natural components in the injected CO2. He, Ne and Ar previously have been shown to be powerful tracers of the CO2 injected in the field (Györe et al., 2015). It also has been implied that interaction with the formation water might have been responsible for the observed CO2 loss. Here we will present work, which examines the role of reservoir fluids as a CO2 sink by examining non-radiogenic noble gas isotopes (20Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr, 132Xe). Gas samples from injection and production wells were taken 18 and 45 months after the start of injection. We will show that the fractionation of noble gases relative to Ar is consistent with the different degrees of CO2 - fluid interaction in the individual samples. The early injection samples indicate that the CO2 injected is in contact with the formation water. The spatial distribution of the data reveal significant heterogeneity in the reservoir with some wells exhibiting a relatively free flow path, where little formation water is contacted. Significantly, in the samples, where CO2 loss has been previously identified show active and ongoing contact. Data from the later stage of the injection shows that the CO2 - oil interaction has became more important than the CO2 - formation water interaction in controlling the noble gas fingerprint. This potentially provides a means to estimate the oil displacement efficiency. This dataset is a demonstration that noble gases can resolve CO2 storage mechanisms and its interaction with the reservoir fluids with high resolution

  19. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL-BASED ROAD TRANSPORT DEICING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow and ice removal on highways and public streets is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure. The issues to be addressed in selecting suitable deicing and anti-icing materials include cost, effectiveness, and damage to the pavement, vehicles and the environment. Considerable research has been carried out in recent years to develop alternative deicers with better performance and cost effectiveness. Among the developed deicer materials are agricultural based deicers that are considered to be sustainable and environmentally-beneficial materials. Iowa is one of the States that is rich in agricultural renewable resources, some of which are being processed for applications such as fuel. Any industrial process, including that of converting corn to ethanol or soy to bio-diesel, is likely to have a number of by-products generated. Rather than face disposal issues for these by-products, it would be desirable to find those that, with a minimum of additional processing, can be used as a deicing compound, either alone, or in combination with products currently in use. Currently, a number of agricultural based deicer materials have been developed or are still under development. However, little information is known about the actual manufacturing/refining process since most of the developed materials are all proprietary products (patented or commercial. Furthermore, no standard test specifying agricultural-based deicer is available. The study described in this paper focuses on the development of an improved agricultural based deicing product. The objective of this study was to evaluate deicer materials including traditional and alternative deicer materials on road skid resistance which is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure.

  1. Runoff of deicing salt: effect on irondequoit bay, Rochester, new york.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, R C; Diment, W H; Deck, B L; Baldwin, A L; Lipton, S D

    1971-06-11

    Salt used for deicing the streets near Rochester, New York, has increased the chloride concentration in Irondequoit Bay at least fivefold during the past two decades. During the winter of 1969-70 the quantity and salinity of the dense runoff that accumulated on the bottom of the bay was sufficient to prevent complete vertical mixing of the bay during the spring. Comparison with 1939 conditions indicates that the period of summer stratification has been prolonged a month by the density gradient imposed by the salt runoff.

  2. A structural dynamics investigation related to EIDI applications. [Electro-Impulse Deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, W. D.; Gien, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    A method for modeling the structural dynamics of electro-impulse deicing is presented. A guideline for building a representative finite element model is discussed together with the experimental determination of the force pulse parameters used in the computational model. The results from the computer solution are compared with experimental results for a semi-cylindrical shell. This preliminary comparison indicated that typical structural dynamic responses may be predicted in the near coil field for the duration of the forcing pulse. The sensitivity of the response to both geometric and electrical parameters is also discussed.

  3. Electro-impulse deicing - Structural dynamic studies, icing tunnel tests and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, W. D.; Zumwalt, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper contains a discussion of the comparison of analytical and experimental results of the dynamic response of a flat rectangular plate subjected to electro-impulse type deicing forces. Early attempts in this correlation have been hampered by the complex leading edge geometries of the airfoils tested to date. The lack of a suitable analytical model for a typical leading edge structure has prompted these preliminary investigations of simple geometries, beginning with a flat plate and to be followed by a semi-cylindrical leading edge representation. The comparisons reported herein are thus limited to rectangular plate models. Project plans and icing tunnel results are given.

  4. Laser atomic emission analysis of airborne pollution of green stands by deicing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel'Kov, M. V.; Burakov, V. S.; Kiris, V. V.; Maksimova, I. A.; Raikov, S. N.; Sudnik, A. V.

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of analysis of airborne pollution of green stands along the Minsk Beltway by components of deicing agents (chlorine). We used laser spectral analysis for rapid determination of chlorine. Comparison of the analysis results for accumulation of salt components in samples collected from trees along the Minsk Beltway with control samples showed that the chlorine content is 3.7-5.5 times higher than the control values. The degree of pollution depends on the position of the trees on the forest edge relative to the highway, which is confirmed by reliable correlation coefficients.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of regional hemodynamic and cerebrovascular recovery after lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Nick Mark Edward Alexander; Tuunanen, Pasi I; Immonen, Riikka; Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Hemodynamic and cerebrovascular factors are crucially involved in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). With magnetic resonance imaging, this study aimed to quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling and cerebral blood volume by using an intravascular contrast agent, during 14 days after lateral fluid-percussion injury (LFPI) in rats. Immunohistochemical analysis of vessel density was used to evaluate the contribution of vascular damage. Results show widespread ipsilateral and contralateral hypoperfusion, including both the cortex and the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as the ipsilateral thalamus. Hemodynamic unrest may partly be explained by an increase in blood vessel density over a period of 2 weeks in the ipsilateral hippocampus and perilesional cortex. Furthermore, three phases of perilesional alterations in CBF, progressing from hypoperfusion to normal and back to hypoperfusion within 2 weeks were shown for the first time in a rat TBI model. These three phases were similar to hemodynamic fluctuations reported in TBI patients. This makes it feasible to use LFPI in rats to study mechanisms behind hemodynamic changes and to explore novel therapeutic approaches for secondary brain damage after TBI.

  6. Feasibility of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging as a prognostic factor in patients with sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Jung, Su Young; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun; Lee, So Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of high signal on three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D FLAIR MRI) as one of the prognostic factors in recovery of sudden idiopathic hearing loss. A retrospective study was conducted using patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden idiopathic hearing loss from January 2008 to December 2010. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in for this study. High-intensity signal in the inner ear on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI was observed in 31 patients (25.8%; FHS) and labyrinthine enhancement was not observed in another 89 patients (FNS; 74.2%). There was no significant difference in patients' characteristics between two groups except final hearing. Final puretone average of the FHS group was 49.4 dB, significantly worse than FNS group's 36.7 dB (p = 0.037 hearing was related to initial hearing, accompanying dizziness, and abnormal auditory brainstem response result by multiple regression analysis. However, presence of high-intensity signal on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI did not affect final hearing significantly. Significant difference due to the presence of dizziness in final hearing was observed in whole patients and in the FHS group, whereas no significant difference in final hearing was observed in FNS group. (p = 0.063 > 0.05). From these findings, the presence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI is a subfactor related to dizziness rather than a single poor prognostic factor and the absence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI can possibly imply relative good prognosis.

  7. Synthesis and properties of a clean and sustainable deicing additive for asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Yu, Jianying; Zhao, Zhijie; Dai, Jing; Fu, Jingyi; Zhao, Meiling; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac-) by magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH) had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac- anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP) of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably.

  8. Synthesis and properties of a clean and sustainable deicing additive for asphalt mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    Full Text Available A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac- by magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac- anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably.

  9. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  10. Overview of numerical codes developed for predicted electrothermal deicing of aircraft blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G.; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Wright, William B.; Masiulaniec, K. Cyril

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the deicing computer codes that have been developed at the University of Toledo under sponsorship of the NASA-Lewis Research Center is presented. These codes simulate the transient heat conduction and phase change occurring in an electrothermal deicier pad that has an arbitrary accreted ice shape on its surface. The codes are one-dimensional rectangular, two-dimensional rectangular, and two-dimensional with a coordinate transformation to model the true blade geometry. All modifications relating to the thermal physics of the deicing problem that have been incorporated into the codes will be discussed. Recent results of reformulating the codes using different numerical methods to increase program efficiency are described. In particular, this reformulation has enabled a more comprehensive two-dimensional code to run in much less CPU time than the original version. The code predictions are compared with experimental data obtained in the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel with a UH1H blade fitted with a B. F. Goodrich electrothermal deicer pad. Both continuous and cyclic heater firing cases are considered. The major objective in this comparison is to illustrate which codes give acceptable results in different regions of the airfoil for different heater firing sequences.

  11. Application of computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed absorber of hydrogen isotopes recovery system for Indian LLCB-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri Devi, V.; Sircar, A.; Sarkar, B. [Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarar (India)

    2015-03-15

    One of the most challenging tasks in the design of the fuel cycle system lies in the effective design of Tritium Extraction System (TES) which involves proper extraction and purification of tritium in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactor. Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) would extract hydrogen isotopes through Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) adsorber system. A prototype Hydrogen Isotopes Recovery System (HIRS) is being developed to validate the concepts for tritium extraction by adsorption mass transfer mechanism. In this study, a design model has been developed and analyzed to simulate the adsorption mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed adsorption column. The simulation leads primarily to effective design of HIRS, which is a state-of-the-art technology. The paper describes the process simulation approach and the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The effects of different operating conditions are studied to investigate their influence on the hydrogen isotopes adsorption capacity. The results of the present simulation study would be used to understand the best optimized transport phenomenon before realizing the TES as a system for LLCB-TBM. (authors)

  12. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method as adsorbent of lithium recovery process from geothermal fluid of Lumpur Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Sapputra, Gede Panca Ady; Widodo, Amien

    2016-04-01

    Lumpur Sidoarjo is one of geothermal fluid types which has a great potential as source of lithium. Adsorption method with Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) as an adsorbent has been chosen for lithium recovery process due to low production cost and environmental friendly. LiMn2O4 was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 200 °C for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 72 hrs. As prepared LiMn2O4 powder is treated by acid treatment with 0.5 M HCl solution for 24 hrs. XRD test result reveals that all of as-prepared samples are indexed as spinel structure of LiMn2O4 (JCPDS card no 35-0782) with no impurity peaks detected. SEM images show that LiMn2O4 has nanoparticles morphology with particle size around 25 nm. The highest adsorption efficiency of adsorbent is obtained by sample hydrothermal for 72 hrs with 42.76%.

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch is associated with better neurologic response to intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Yeong; Han, Sang Kuk; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi, Pil Cho; Lee, Jeong Hun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate differences in the effect of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis regarding the mismatch of diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the emergency department (ED) within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms. Among ED patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and May 2013 at a tertiary hospital, those who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before IV thrombolytic therapy were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into DWI-FLAIR mismatch and match groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores obtained initially, 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy, and on discharge, and early neurologic improvement (ENI) and major neurologic improvement (MNI) were compared. During the study period, 50 of the 213 acute ischemic stroke patients who presented to the ED were included. The DWI-FLAIR mismatch group showed a statistically significantly greater reduction in NIHSS both at 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy and upon discharge than did the match group (5.5 vs. 1.2, PIV thrombolytic therapy than did the DWI-FLAIR match group in terms of neurologic outcome.

  14. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  15. [Three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 3T MRI in sudden deafness: its findings and relationship with the prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yin-feng; Wu, Ji-chun; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Yong-qiang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate inner ear of patients with sudden deafness with three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) MRI, and the relationship between the results of 3D FLAIR and the prognosis. Twenty-three patients with sudden deafness received 3D FLAIR at 3T MRI, and the signals of inner ear were recorded. Hearing levels were evaluated at initial visit and after treatment. The relationship between 3D FLAIR findings and hearing prognosis was evaluated. Eight patients with sudden deafness showed high signals in the affected cochlea on 3D FLAIR, the others of affected cochlea and all of contralateral cochlea showed no signal on 3D FLAIR. The age, sex, affected side, period to initial visit and initial audiogram had no difference between cochlea no signal group and high signal group. The average auditory threshold (x±s) in cochlea high signal group (90±21) dB HL was significant higher than that in cochlea no signal group (60±28) dB HL, Psudden deafness showed high signal in affected side vestibule on 3D FLAIR, and the hearing of whom had no change after treatment. 3D FLAIR can show high signal in affected inner ear in sudden deafness patients, and which is related to a poor hearing prognosis.

  16. Freezing points and small-scale deicing tests for salts of levulinic acid made from grain sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjyal, G; Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2007-11-01

    Deicers from renewable resources are needed to overcome the disadvantages of using traditional deicers. Salts made from levulinic acid produced using grain sorghum as raw material were tested as road deicing agents. Freezing points of these salts viz., sodium levulinate, magnesium levulinate and calcium levulinate along with rock salt (sodium chloride) were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 1177-94 standard at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % w/w. There were significant differences among the freezing points of the salts. Freezing points for rock salt, sodium levulinate, calcium levulinate and magnesium levulinate, for different concentrations, were in the ranges of -6.6 to -20.5, -2.9 to -15.0, -2.1 to -7.8 and -1.5 to -6.5 degrees C, respectively. Deicing effectiveness of the salts of levulinic acid were investigated by conducting small-scale deicing tests with aqueous solutions of various salt concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) in a laboratory freezer and by spraying the deicer on a graveled surface covered by ice and snow with the average temperature during the testing at -2.7 degrees C. Deicing capabilities of the three salts of levulinic acid differed. At -2.7 degrees C, all three salts caused melting of the ice. Among the different levulinates studied sodium levulinate was the most effective deicing agent. These salts of levulinates could be a viable replacement for traditional deicers and could help in reducing the disadvantages of traditional deicers.

  17. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Larissa, Medical School of Thessaly, Mezourlo (Greece)), e-mail: mvlychou@med.uth.gr

    2010-04-15

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  18. Time-series geochemical and tracer injection recovery data from the deep (basaltic) crustal fluids from IODP Holes 1301A/1362B on the eastern flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Hsieh, C.; Guss, J.; Fisher, A. T.; Lin, H.; Clark, J. F.; Wheat, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories provide invaluable opportunities to study the deep biosphere. In order to draw large volumes of fluids from crustal aquifers to seafloor, we developed an autonomous sensor and fluid sampling system, GeoMICROBE (Cowen et al., 2012). GeoMICROBE's Major components include a positive displacement primary pump, a primary valve manifold system, sensors (e.g., fluid flow rate, temperature, dissolved O2, electrochemistry-voltammrtry analyzer), 24-48 port in situ filtration and fluid collection system, computerized controller, six 24V-40A batteries and wet-mateable (ODI) communications with submersibles. This sampling system has been successfully deployed at IODP Hole 1301A in 2010 on the eastern flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge. The GeoMICROBE was successfully recovered in the summer of 2011. However, due to the narrow inner diameter of the fluid delivery line (1/4''), the batteries were exhausted and only half of the preprogrammed sampling procedures were accomplished. After quick turn-around the GeoMICROBE was redeployed at nearby CORK 1362B for Summer, 2012 recovery. CORKs 1301A and 1362B are only ~800 m apart and both penetrate to ~40-50m into the basement. Unlike CORK 1301A, the fluid deliver line installed on CORK 1362B has 1/2'' inner diameter. The much lower resistance allows us to pump the fluids up with reduced power consumption. A conservative power consumption model was made to ensure that enough battery power would be available to complete the twelve monthly samplings. Monthly, following extensive flushing ~3 L of fluid was passed through a 0.2 μm polycarbonate filter. The filter holder was pre-charged with 6% glutaraldehyde. Also, monthly whole fluid samples were collected and stored in an acid-washed 500mL Tedlar bag. The whole fluid will be used for analysis of colloidal (Microspheres) and dissolved tracers injected into the upper crust in August 2010 as well as

  19. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  20. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  1. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  2. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  3. The Influence of Iron Ions on the Aqueous Photocatalytic Oxidation of Deicing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klauson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research into aqueous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO of the deicing compounds, 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME, and ethylene glycol (EG was undertaken. The addition of iron ions to the acidic aqueous solutions to be treated displayed complex influence on the oxidation efficiency of the above mentioned substances, resulting in a sharp increase of the PCO efficiency at smaller concentrations of iron ions followed by a drastic decrease with the increasing iron ion concentrations. The phenomena observed can be explained by the electron scavenging effect of the iron ions and the competitive adsorption of iron ions and the oxidized substances on titanium dioxide surface. The carbonic acids determined as the PCO by-products allow outlining some reaction pathways for the substances under consideration.

  4. Full two-dimensional transient solutions of electrothermal aircraft blade deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiulaniec, K. C.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Dewitt, K. J.; Leffel, K. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two finite difference methods are presented for the analysis of transient, two-dimensional responses of an electrothermal de-icer pad of an aircraft wing or blade with attached variable ice layer thickness. Both models employ a Crank-Nicholson iterative scheme, and use an enthalpy formulation to handle the phase change in the ice layer. The first technique makes use of a 'staircase' approach, fitting the irregular ice boundary with square computational cells. The second technique uses a body fitted coordinate transform, and maps the exact shape of the irregular boundary into a rectangular body, with uniformally square computational cells. The numerical solution takes place in the transformed plane. Initial results accounting for variable ice layer thickness are presented. Details of planned de-icing tests at NASA-Lewis, which will provide empirical verification for the above two methods, are also presented.

  5. Suppression of deicing salt corrosion of weathering steel bridges by washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Shuichi [Investigation and Research Division, Sumitomo Metal Technology Inc., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan)]. E-mail: hara-shu@smt-co.com; Miura, Masazumi [Development Division, Yon-den Consultant Co., 1007-3 Mure-cho Kida-gun, Kagawa 761-0121 (Japan); Uchiumi, Yasushi [Bridge Division, Kawada Industries Inc., 1-3-11 Takinogawa, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-8562 (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshiaki [Takamatsu Engineering Office, Shikoku Regional Bureau, Japan Highway Public Co., 4-1-3 Asahi-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0065 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masataka [Takamatsu Engineering Office, Shikoku Regional Bureau, Japan Highway Public Co., 4-1-3 Asahi-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0065 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    To elucidate the influences of deicing salts and high pressure (2-4 MPa) washing on the characteristics of the rust formed on weathering steel bridges, washing experiments have been carried out for three years. The rust was characterized by means of ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction and adsorption of N{sub 2}. The rust thickness was measured, and also the rust weight per unit area of the steel surface was measured. It was found that water-soluble chloride accelerated the rate of corrosion because the rust particles grow by the chloride ions and micro-pore structure of the rust appeared by the chloride ions. Washing with water suppressed corrosion owing to the disappearance of chloride ions.

  6. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment.

  7. Kinetics of microbial degradation of deicing chemicals in percolated porous media - the modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Totsche, Kai

    2013-04-01

    A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by analysis of laboratory and field experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns and field lysimeters were simulated to analyze the process conditions of degradation and to obtain the according parameters. Results from the column experiment were evaluated applying different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model using HYDRUS-1D. To reconstruct the data, different competing degradation models were included, i.e., zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass. The general breakthrough behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. Complex experimental boundary conditions can help to avoid this. Under field conditions, the situation is far more complex than in the laboratory. Studying the fate of PG with undisturbed lysimeters we found that aerobic and anaerobic degradation occurs simultaneously. We attribute this to the physical structure and the aggregated nature of the undisturbed soil material . This results in the presence of spatially disjoint oxidative and reductive regions of microbial activity and requires, but is not fully reflected by a dual porosity model. Currently, the numerical simulation of this system is in progress, considering several flow and transport models. A stochastic global search algorithm (DREAM-ZS) is used in conjuction with HYDRUS-1D to avoid local minima in the inverse simulations. The study shows the current limitations and potentials of modeling degradation

  8. Deicing of medium voltage power transmission lines by Joule heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, S.; Vahidi, B. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2005-07-01

    A Joule heating method for the de-icing of overhead transmission lines was presented. The combined use of short circuits and reduced voltage was introduced as as effective method for the de-icing of sub-transmission lines of a utility in Iran. The method is able to melt ice in a short period of time. The required electrical current and the time needed for melting the ice as a function of wind speed, air temperature and ice thickness was determined by using a finite difference heat transfer model which considered the heat flux terms. An algorithm of the application method was proposed using the finite difference heat transfer model and considering steady state radial heat conduction. The required time for melting the accumulated ice on overhead transmission lines for different values of line current and climatic conditions was calculated. In the proposed method, after disconnecting the end of the line, a 3 phase short circuit was applied and accumulated ice was melted because of Joule losses. The main restrictions to the method were the current rating of facilities, and source capacity. After a consideration of these restrictions, instead of feeding the line by rated voltage, a voltage with a value of about 20 to 40 per cent of its rated voltage was applied and a short circuit on the end of the line should be made. The algorithm was made by collecting the data for the power system, disconnecting both ends of the line from the system and applying required changes on loads. transformers calculated from the load flow of the system. The line was fed with the reduced voltage by connecting the line to a lower level voltage. A case study of the method was presented. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Comparison of the Asphalt Pavement Deicing Technology%沥青路面除冰技术之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈章

    2013-01-01

      道路结冰致使车轮与路面摩擦作用大大减弱,导致车辆打滑或刹车失灵,引起交通事故,阻塞交通运行,造成行人滑倒、摔伤等。本文通过对各种除冰技术的比较,给大家在选择除冰方法上提供借鉴。%Icy roads wil greatly decrease the friction force be-tween wheels of vehicles and roads, causing vehicle skid, brak-e failure, traffic jam or even traffic accidents. And pedestrians may slip down and get hurt. By comparing several techniques and methods of anti-icing and deicing, this thesis wants to give some suggestions for choosing the proper methods of anti-icin-g and deicing.

  10. 高效环保融雪剂的研究%The Research of Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Deicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁西良; 崔宝军; 白雪峰; 王旭; 李猛

    2014-01-01

    With economic development of our country, road transportation has become the vital lifeline of the national economic. Therefore, to ensure the urban roads and highways smooth has become an important issue closely related to socioeconomic. Winter weather is the biggest barrier for smooth traffic, thus deicing technology is imperative. Using deicing salt is the most widely used method, but the classification is extensive. In this paper, the differences between chlorine deicing salts and organic salts is compared and the one does the less harm to tires as well as the environment is investigated.%随着我国经济的发展,公路运输已成为经济发展的主要命脉。所以,保证城市道路与高速公路交通顺畅,已成为与社会经济紧密关联的重要问题。其中冰雪天气是保障交通畅通的“大敌”,发展道路除冰雪技术势在必行,采用融雪剂是最为广泛的应用方法。融雪剂的分类较多。综述了氯盐类和有机盐类融雪剂的不同,综合选出对环境和轮胎损伤最小的融雪剂。

  11. Effects of applying deicing salt to roads in protected areas: a preliminary study in the Bavarian Forest National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Křenová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of applying deicing salts to ecosystems are well documented for many countries. In some countries, the application of the deicing salts to roads in protected areas is prohibited by law. There is little detailed knowledge of the effects of deicing salts on ecosystems in the Bavarian Forest NP. The first preliminary study was conducted in 2011 and the first results are published in this paper. Nine permanent study sites were established and significant differences in soil chemical parameters among the different sites were recorded. The highest amounts of Na+ and Cl− ions were recorded at study site #4, which is located only a few meters from the bank of the Grosse Ohe River. Much higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions were found at 10 meters from the road than at the road edge and it is assumed that this is due to long-term contamination from water accumulating from melting snow. There were also higher concentrations of salt ions recorded at other sites along the main road. It is important that trajectories of the mobility of ions, including seasonal variability and commutations of salt in ecosystems, should be studied in future.

  12. A comparison of inner ear imaging features at different time points of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglei; Ou, Yongkang; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Ya; Xiong, Hao; Xu, Yaodong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that about half of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) show high signals in the affected inner ear on three-dimensional, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI). These signals may reflect minor hemorrhage or an increased concentration of protein in the inner ear, which has passed through blood vessels with increased permeability. Our objective was to compare the positive ratio of the high signal in affected inner ears at different time points to determine the suitable imaging time point for 3D-FLAIR MRI in SSNHL. 3D-FLAIR MRI images were taken at three times, precontrast and approximately 10 min and 4 h after intravenous injection of a single dose of gadodiamide (Gd) (0.1 mmol/kg), in 46 patients with SNHL. We compared the positive findings of the high signals in the inner ear of patients with SNHL as well as the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the affected cochleae and unaffected cochleae at three time points. The positive ratios of the high signals in the affected inner ear at the time points of precontrast and 10 min and 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection were 26.1, 32.6, and 41.3%, respectively. The high signal intensity ratios of affected inner ears at the three time points were 1.28, 1.31, and 1.48, respectively. The difference between the positive ratios precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection was statistically significant (P = 0.006); the differences between the positive ratios at 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection and precontrast and between the ratios at 4 h and 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection were not statistically significant. The time effects of the median value of SIR were not significant (P = 0.064). We do not recommend 4 h after intravenous Gd injection as a time point to image the inner ear in SNHL. We believe that imaging precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection are suitable time points.

  13. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1). CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl(-) L(-1) (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg(2+) cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research Status of Wind Turbine Blade Deicing Technology%风力机叶片防除冰技术研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪根胜; 石阳春; 蒋立波; 刘亮

    2016-01-01

    提出了风力机防除冰的关键部件是叶片,并介绍了风力机叶片覆冰的影响,叶片防冰的主动与被动型方法及其各自的优缺点。重点阐述了憎水涂料防冰法的研究现状,并总结了憎水性涂料防冰的三大主要效果。对目前风力机叶片防除冰技术的主流方法进行了综合评价,并指出了其日后的发展方向。%This paper put forward that the key components of wind turbine deicing was the blade, and introduced the effect of ice covering of the blade, the active and passive methods for wind turbine blade deicing together with their merits and defects. The review focused on the research status of hydrophobic deicing coating method, and summarized three main effects of the hydrophobic deicing coating. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation of the current mainstream method of wind turbine blade deicing technology was conducted, and its future development direction was pointed out.

  15. 架空输电线路除冰技术分析%Analysis of Deicing Methods for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺新; 罗浩东; 邓小磊

    2011-01-01

    At present, how to melt the ice on transmission lines to reduce the losses is still a worldwide technical problem. The existing deicing methods can be divided into three kinds, i.e. the ice-melting method, the mechanical deicing method, and the deicing method with new technology. In this study, a simple transmission line model was established, and the deicing methods mentioned above with their implementation circuits were analyzed respectively. Their advantages and disadvantages were compared.Thus, the most suitable deicing method for the transmission line model was obtained.%如何对覆冰输电线路进行融冰、除冰以降低冰灾损失,目前仍是世界性的技术难题.针对该问题,笔者在现有除冰技术如热力除冰法、机械除冰法以及其它新技术除冰法的基础上,建立了一个简单的输电线路模型,并依次研究各种除冰技术及其实现电路.最后得出适合该输电线路的除冰措施,从而为输电线路在覆冰情况下的除冰提供技术指导.

  16. 氯盐类融雪剂对混凝土路面危害分析%The analysis of chloride deicing salts’ hazard on concrete pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有振

    2014-01-01

    氯盐类融雪剂在我国北方地区有着广泛的使用,但在使用过程中,存在对融雪剂的腐蚀性认识不足,缺乏相应产品标准和使用规范等问题。本文对融雪剂的类型进行了介绍,对氯盐类融雪剂对混凝土路面的腐蚀机理进行分析。通过冻融循环实验,研究了几种常见氯盐类融雪剂的腐蚀特性,并得出实验结论。%Chloride deicing salts has been widely used in northern China ,but the corrosion of deicing salt usually has been neglected during the use,and there is a lack of the appropriate product standards and the use of norms.In this paper,types of deicing salt are introduced;deicing salts of chlorine on the corrosion mechanism of concrete pavement are analyzed .By freeze-thaw cycle experiments ,the corrosion properties of several common chloride deicing salts has been studied ,and the conclusions of the experiment has been drawn .

  17. Frost-proof heat recovery; Frostsikker varmegjenvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenbaek, Henning; Jenssen, Henning Bent

    2011-07-01

    Technical regulations (TEK10) sets high standards for temperature efficiency of ventilation systems. Heat recovery equipment should be selected from the risk of leakage. Rotating heat exchanger has normally no problem with icing before the temperature approaches -20 C. For the countercurrent heat exchanger bypass-icing is the best method of frost resistant heat exchanger. In addition to selecting the best frost protection method, it is also important how to monitor the formation of ice in the exchanger. The best way is to measure the pressure drop over the heat exchanger. Bypass deicing requires that the unit is designed so that outside air can be led outside heat exchanger and directly to the heater. (AG)

  18. Monitoring the fate and transport of deicing chemicals in lysimeter experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lißner, H.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K. U.

    2012-04-01

    Large amounts of the deicing chemicals (DIC) propylene glycol (PG) and formate are spread for removal of snow and ice on the aircrafts and airfields every winter. A considerable amount of these chemicals are carried into surrounding areas, where they mix with snow and infiltrate in the soil during snowmelt. Even though DIC are easily degradable, the high mobility and the high biological oxygen demand of PG in particular can influence the hydrogeochemistry of the unsaturated and saturated zone. The aims of the study were to evaluate and quantify transport of deicing chemicals during snowmelt under field conditions, and to study effects of DIC degradation on the hydrogeochemistry of the unsaturated zone. Eight undisturbed soil cores (0.3 m x 1 m, 0.071 m3) were retrieved at the Gardermoen Airport, Norway, and installed as non-weighable small scale lysimeters at a nearby field site. Before snowmelt in March 2010, a mix of snow containing 350 g/m2 PG, 71 g/m2 formate, and 17 g/m2 of bromide were added to the lysimeters. To determine the fate and transport of PG we monitored PG and its metabolites, bromide, manganese, and iron in the seepage water. High cumulative infiltration and marginal degradation of PG during the snowmelt period allowed up to 50 % of the PG to leave the upper, microbially most active, region of the soil. Only marginal concentrations of formate were analysed in all lysimeters, indicating fast degradation and favoured metabolism by soil bacteria compared to PG. Low contents of metabolites and the concurrent breakthrough of PG and Br in the seepage water even imply that PG was not significantly degraded before June. Redox values down to 200 mV in April, the detection of propionate and manganese, as well as a rise in pH, suggest partially anearobic localities in the soil, not only during high soil water saturation in April and May but also during summer when PG degradation was very efficient. In the longterm, the intense depletion of electron acceptors

  19. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete exposed to freeze-thaw and deicing salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1998-01-01

    -thaw and deicing salt. The concrete has a water-powder ratio of 0.38 including both fly ash and silica fume. Both steel fibres (ZP, 0.4 vol%) and polypropylene fibres (PP, 1 vol%) are used as well as main reinforcement. The freeze-thaw test emphasizes the need for a critical evaluation of the mix design and mixing......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by subjecting beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached. Specimens sawn from the beams after unloading are exposed to freeze...... methods when designing FRC-structures. The scaling is increased by a factor 5 to 10 when adding fibres to the concrete while the air content is below 4% by volume. The variation of the scaling increases when adding fibres. Capillary water uptake in uncracked specimens of FRC was 20-30% higher at 1°C than...

  20. Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R

    2009-01-01

    Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes.

  1. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J

    2006-03-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2,636 and 5,109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1,030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted.

  2. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres , l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et les mécanismes thermodynamiques mis en jeu sont brièvement exposés, les sources de fluides supercritiques disponibles au voisinage des gisements pétroliers sont rapidement répertoriées et certains problèmes d'exploitation évoqués. Outre leur application en récupération assistée, les fluides supercritiques sont également impliqués dans des procédés de raffinage et d'extraction divers. C'est le procédé de désasphaltage de fractions pétrolières lourdes qui, en 1956, a fait l'objet de la première application industrielle exploitant les fortes variations du pouvoir solvant d'un fluide au voisinage de son point critique. Ce procédé connaît, depuis une dizaine d'années, un regain d'intérêt du fait de l'économie d'énergie qu'il permet de réaliser. D'autre part, les schistes bitumineux, les sables asphaltiques et les charbons, sources d'hydrocarbures considérables pour l'avenir, constituent des domaines d'applications potentielles originales des fluides supercritiques. Les procédés spécifiques, pour la plupart en cours de développement au stade pilote, sont passés en revue. The average recovery by natural drainage from oil fields is barely 30%. Enhanced recovery includes all production processes which appreciably increase this rate. Among such processes, supercritical fluid flooding is quite promising. The main fluids now used are methane (or, more generally, so-called leangaseous hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon

  3. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Susannah S French; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, an...

  4. Swedish experiences of wind power in cold climate - icing, ice throw and deicing; Svenska erfarenheter av vindkraft i kallt klimat - nedisning, iskast och avisning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronsten, Goeran [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report treats icing, risk for ice throws and deicing. Statistics over icing exists, but needs to be processed in order to fit the wind energy sector. Preliminary icing maps and operation statistics indicate where icing occurs. The local variations can be important. Measurements of icing in high masts should be started in order to verify and improve existing forecast methods, which in turn can form the base for icing frequency maps. On the basis of reliable frequency maps, siting of wind power plants and the need of deicing equipment can be assessed in a more reliable way than today. Risk areas for ice throws, based on results from EU:s research programmes, is presented. The risk to meet flying ice is small but real, why precautionary measures to avoid accidents should be taken. Today there exists no commercial deicing system for deicing during operation. The Bonus Company announces that such a systems will be ready for delivery in 2005. Enercon markets a light deicing system for stalled plants. Enercon has announced a future, more effective, deicing equipment that can deice during operation. The the first Swedish wind power plants in cold climate ware taken into operation in October 1998. One of these units is a Bonus 600 kW Mk IV standing on a ridge between two of the three Suorva dams. Three units from different manufacturers (Bonus, NEG-Micon and Nordex/Vestas) are installed on Rodovaalen since the autumn 1998. The owner intends to test deicing equipment at this site. Between October 1998 and January 2004 the turbine heating system on the Bonus plant at Suorva has consumed 70 MWh of 8548 MWh (0.82%) while the Rodovaalen plants had used 142 MWh of 6230 MWh (2.3%). Our general knowledge of icing is small since continuous icing measurements not have taken place since the measurements in high masts was completed in the 1980s. Today's ice detectors function well but are considered too costly to be used at the large numbers of places that would be required in

  5. 海上稠油多元热流体吞吐工艺研究及现场试验%Research and field test of complex thermal fluid huff and puff technology for offshore viscous oil recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓旭; 马跃; 孙永涛

    2011-01-01

    In order to break through the bottleneck of thermal recovery technology for offshore viscous oil, the complex thermal fluid huff and puff tech-nology has been researched, the facilities of complex thermal fluids and the thermal production wellhead equipment have been modified, the thermal insulation technology of borehole has been improved, and the injection-production parameters have heen optimized. The technology was tested in NB35-2 oilfield with the obvious stimulation effectiveness. It laid a foundation for large-scale application in the offshore viscous oil thermal recovery in our counlry.%为突破海上稠油热采技术瓶颈,开展了多元热流体吞吐工艺研究,改造了多元热流体设备和热采井井口设备、改进了井筒隔热工艺、优化了多元热流体注采参数.该工艺已在渤海南堡35-2油田成功进行了现场试验,增产效果显著,从而为稠油热采技术在我国海上的规模化应用奠定了基础.

  6. Heavy metal removal mechanisms of sorptive filter materials for road runoff treatment and remobilization under de-icing salt applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Maximilian; Hilbig, Harald; Badenberg, Sophia C; Fassnacht, Julius; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research study was to elucidate the removal and remobilization behaviors of five heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that had been fixed onto sorptive filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems receiving traffic area runoff. Six filter materials (i.e., granular activated carbon, a mixture of granular activated alumina and porous concrete, granular activated lignite, half-burnt dolomite, and two granular ferric hydroxides) were evaluated in column experiments. First, a simultaneous preloading with the heavy metals was performed for each filter material. Subsequently, the remobilization effect was tested by three de-icing salt experiments in duplicate using pure NaCl, a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2, and a mixture of NaCl and MgCl2. Three layers of each column were separated to specify the attenuation of heavy metals as a function of depth. Cu and Pb were retained best by most of the selected filter materials, and Cu was often released the least of all metals by the three de-icing salts. The mixture of NaCl and CaCl2 resulted in a stronger effect upon remobilization than the other two de-icing salts. For the material with the highest retention, the effect of the preloading level upon remobilization was measured. The removal mechanisms of all filter materials were determined by advanced laboratory methods. For example, the different intrusions of heavy metals into the particles were determined. Findings of this study can result in improved filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems.

  7. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  8. 快速复合融除冰装置的研究%Research of Rapid Compound Deicing Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱自成; 张学军; 徐肖攀; 储伟俊; 李超新

    2014-01-01

    如何保证冰雪天气条件下交通顺畅、行车安全,提高道路通行能力和运营效益、减少和避免交通事故发生是当今面临的一大难题。为此,在分析现有不同除冰方法的基础上,提出一种融合热力-水射流切割融除冰与机械铣削除冰的复合除冰方法。介绍了热力快速复合融除冰装置和机械铣削除冰装置的结构组成、工作原理,设计了复合融除冰装置,并进行了相关试验。结果表明:该装置可以很好地完成融除冰任务,满足设计需求。%Determining how to strikingly reduce the accident rate on roads,ensure traffic flow and safety in the icy weather,and improve the capacity and efficiency of transportation in snow weather has become a tough issue nowadays.A new method was presented in which thermal water-jet cutting was combined with mechanical-milling deicing technology,basing on current different deicing meth-ods.Then the structure and working principle of this device were introduced,together with the practicality design.The experimental results indicate that this device can perform well in deicing work,and satisfy the design requirements.

  9. Recovery Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Berd, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    We derive an arbitrage free relationship between recovery swap rates, digital default swap spreads and conventional CDS spreads, and argue that the fair forward recovery rate used in recovery swaps must contain a convexity premium over the expected recovery value.

  10. 输电线路新型电磁防除冰%New Electromagnetic Deicing Technology for Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新掌; 李红磊; 高建良; 王君莉; 郝少帅

    2015-01-01

    As the deicing of the high voltage transmission line needs outrage of the line and requires large quantities of man power and materials,and is both dangerous and risky, this paper proposes a non-outrage deicing method. Based on the high frequency electromagnetic induction technology and heat conduction theory,the paper establishes the deicing phy-sical model of transmission lines,and uses APDL,the ANSYS parametric programming language to program relative analysis programs, and analyzes the magnetic field and temperature field coupling phenomenon in the numerical method. Contras-ting the temperature distribution and change under different electromagnetic parameters of transmission lines, the paper obtains the main electromagnetic parameters affecting tempera-ture variation of the transmission line,such as the frequency of high frequency current, high frequency current density, the distance between two induction coils,the length of induction coils,the thickness of induction coils and the time of induction heating. On the basis of these main electromagnetic parameters, the coil size is optimized and designed so that the transmission line can efficiently deice above 0℃.%针对当前国内外高压输电线路除冰时需要线路停运,且需要较多的人力、物力、劳动强度大和危险等特点,提出了一种不停电电磁防除冰方法。基于高频电磁感应技术和热传导理论,建立了高压输电线路的防除冰物理模型,利用ANSYS参数化语言APDL进行编程,对输电线路物理模型中的电磁-热现象进行了耦合数值计算。通过对比不同电磁参数下输电线路温度的分布和变化情况,找到了影响输电线路温度变化的主要电磁参数,包括高频电流的频率、高频电流密度、感应线圈间距、感应线圈长度、感应线圈厚度和感应加热时间。据此对线圈尺寸进行了优化设计,使输电线路温度在0℃以上能够有效防除冰。

  11. 道面除冰液对飞机除冰液影响的研究%Study on the effect of runway deicing fluid on aircraft deicing fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华乔; 曾萍; 陈元; 苏正良; 夏祖西

    2013-01-01

    介绍了飞机除冰液和道面除冰液的基本知识、法规和标准.通过外观、pH、冰点、黏度等理化指标,研究了道面除冰液对飞机除冰液的影响.研究表明,道面除冰液可使飞机除冰液的黏度降低.

  12. Microbial Fluid-Rock Interactions in Chalk Samples and Salinity Factor in Divalent Ca2+ ions Release for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were performed on chalk samples from Danish sector of the North Sea to study microbial fluid-rock interactions with carbonate rock and to evaluate the dissolution of rock matrix (CaCO3). Result showed that the average concentration of Ca2+ ions after microbial...... fluid interactions with chalk samples in media of salinity 40-100g/l increased from initial average concentration of 203 mg/l at the start of the experiment to 1178 mg/l in 28 days. 3-D surface plot (salinity, Ca2+, pH) with time revealed delineation of the measured salinity into two groups...

  13. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  14. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  15. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Nancy E; Gibbs, James P; Vonesh, James R

    2008-04-01

    Deicing agents, primarily road salt, are applied to roads in 26 states in the United States and in a number of European countries, yet the scale of impacts of road salt on aquatic organisms remains largely under-studied. The issue is germane to amphibian conservation because both adult and larval amphibians are known to be particularly sensitive to changes in their osmolar environments. In this study, we combined survey, experimental, and demographic modeling approaches to evaluate the possible effects of road salt on two common vernal-pond-breeding amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). We found that in the Adirondack Mountain Region of New York (USA), road salt traveled up to 172 m from the highway into wetlands. Surveys showed that egg mass densities of spotted salamanders (A. maculatum) and wood frogs (R. sylvatica) were two times higher in forest pools than roadside pools, but this pattern was better explained by road proximity than by increased salinity. Experiments demonstrated that embryonic and larval survival were reduced at moderate (500 muS) and high conductivities (3000 muS) in A. maculatum and at high conductivities in R. sylvatica. Demographic models suggest that such egg and larval stage effects of salt may have important impacts on populations near roads, particularly in the case of A. maculatum, for which salt exposure may lead to local extinction. For both species, the effect of road salt was dependent upon the strength of larval density dependence and declined rapidly with distance from the roadside, with the greatest negative effects being limited to within 50 m. Based on this evidence, we argue that efforts to protect local populations of A. maculatum and R. sylvatica in roadside wetlands should, in part, be aimed at reducing application of road salt near wetlands with high conductivity levels.

  16. Cumulative effects of road de-icing salt on amphibian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Bichot, Marion; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Delcourt, Johann; Ylieff, Marc; Kestemont, Patrick; Poncin, Pascal

    2010-08-15

    Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed quantitative data. Recent developments in efficient computer-based video analyses have allowed testing pesticide effects on model species such as the zebrafish. However, these new techniques have not yet been applied to amphibians and directly to conservation issues, i.e., to assess toxicological risks on threatened species. We used video-tracking analyses to test a quantitative effect of an environmental contaminant on the locomotion of amphibian tadpoles (Rana temporaria) by taking into account cumulative effects. Because recent research has demonstrated effects of de-icing salts on survival and community structure, we used sodium chloride in our experimental design (25 replicates, 4 concentrations, 4 times) to test for an effect at the scale of behavior at environmentally relevant concentrations. Analysis of 372 1-h video-tracks (5 samples/s) showed a complex action of salts on behavioral patterns with a dose and cumulative response over time. Although no effects were found on mortality or growth, the highest salt concentrations reduced the speed and movement of tadpoles in comparison with control treatments. The reduced locomotor performance could have detrimental consequences in terms of tadpoles' responses to competition and predation and may be an indicator of the low concentration effect of the contaminant. On one hand, this study demonstrates the usefulness of examining behavior to address conservation issues and understand the complex action of environmental factors and, more particularly, pollutants on organisms. On the other hand, our results highlight the need of new computerized techniques to quantitatively analyze these patterns.

  17. Degradation of deicing chemicals affects the natural redox system in airfield soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Heidi; Wehrer, Markus; Jartun, Morten; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    During winter operations at airports, large amounts of organic deicing chemicals (DIC) accumulate beside the runways and infiltrate into the soil during spring. To study the transport and degradation of DIC in the unsaturated zone, eight undisturbed soil cores were retrieved at Oslo airport, Norway, and installed as lysimeters at a nearby field site. Before snowmelt in 2010 and 2011, snow amended with a mix of the DICs propylene glycol (PG) and formate as well as bromide as conservative tracer was applied. Water samples were collected and analyzed until summer 2012. Water flow and solute transport varied considerably among the lysimeters but also temporally between 2010 and 2011. High infiltration rates during snowmelt resulted in the discharge of up to 51 and 82% PG in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The discharge of formate remained comparatively low, indicating its favored degradation even at freezing temperatures compared with PG. Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) were observed in the drainage in autumn owing to the anaerobic degradation of residual PG during summer. Our findings suggest that upper boundary conditions, i.e., snow cover and infiltration rate, and the extent of preferential flowpaths, control water flow and solute transport of bromide and PG during snowmelt. PG may therefore locally reach deeper soil regions where it may pose a risk for groundwater. In the long term, the use of DIC furthermore causes the depletion of potential electron acceptors and the transport of considerable amounts of Fe and Mn. To avoid an overload of the unsaturated zone with DIC and to maintain the natural redox system, the development of suitable remediation techniques is required.

  18. Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Activated Sludge for Biodegradation of Propylene Glycol as an Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Fermilab. (2006). Wastewater Discharge to Sanitary Sewers. Batavia: Fermilab ES&H. Ginestet, P., Audic, J.-M., Urbain , V., & Block, J.-C. (1998...221-230. Mancl, Karen. (2012) Wastewater Treatment Principles and Regulations. Food, Agricultural and BIological Engineering Department. The Ohio

  19. Environmentally Benign Aircraft Anti-icing and Deicing Fluids Based on Cost Effective, Bio-based Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    candidates:  Welan gum (provided by Alcaligenes species of bacteria in aerobic fermentations)  Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (a non-ionic cellulose ...Polysulfide Sealant (AMS-3276C) Fluorosilicone Sealant (AMS- 3375) Aircraft Wire Insulation Polyimide (MIL-W-81381/11- 20)  Conductivity (MTMS...Teflon (MIL-W-22759/11-20) Hybrid Construction (MIL-W- 22759/86-20) Cable- insulated twisted pair (MIL-W-22759) Infrared (IR) Window Materials

  20. Long-term ferrocyanide application via deicing salts promotes the establishment of Actinomycetales assimilating ferrocyanide-derived carbon in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Mansfeldt, Tim; Kublik, Susanne; Touliari, Evangelia; Buegger, Franz; Schloter, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cyanides are highly toxic and produced by various microorganisms as defence strategy or to increase their competitiveness. As degradation is the most efficient way of detoxification, some microbes developed the capability to use cyanides as carbon and nitrogen source. However, it is not clear if this potential also helps to lower cyanide concentrations in roadside soils where deicing salt application leads to significant inputs of ferrocyanide. The question remains if biodegradation in soils can occur without previous photolysis. By conducting a microcosm experiment using soils with/without pre-exposition to road salts spiked with (13) C-labelled ferrocyanide, we were able to confirm biodegradation and in parallel to identify bacteria using ferrocyanide as C source via DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP), TRFLP fingerprinting and pyrosequencing. Bacteria assimilating (13) C were highly similar in the pre-exposed soils, belonging mostly to Actinomycetales (Kineosporia, Mycobacterium, Micromonosporaceae). In the soil without pre-exposition, bacteria belonging to Acidobacteria (Gp3, Gp4, Gp6), Gemmatimonadetes (Gemmatimonas) and Gammaproteobacteria (Thermomonas, Xanthomonadaceae) used ferrocyanide as C source but not the present Actinomycetales. This indicated that (i) various bacteria are able to assimilate ferrocyanide-derived C and (ii) long-term exposition to ferrocyanide applied with deicing salts leads to Actinomycetales outcompeting other microorganisms for the use of ferrocyanide as C source.

  1. 基于GPRS和PLC的飞机地面除冰监控系统%Aircraft ground deicing monitoring system based on GPRS and PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 陈垣均; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    针对飞机地面除冰系统的远程管理和维护需求,提出基于 GPRS DTU (data transfer unit)通信模块和 PLC 控制单元的飞机地面除冰远程监控系统方案。通过以松下PLC为主控制单元的飞机地面除冰系统终端,将系统运行状况和故障信息经 GPRS网络实时传送到远程监控中心,经过对远程监控中心上位机软件的操纵,实现对飞机地面除冰系统的远程监测与控制,解决机场特殊环境下对飞机地面除冰信息传输和运行监控的难题。测试结果验证了该方案的可行性。%According to remote management and maintenance requirements of aircraft ground deicing system,the program of air-craft ground deicing remote monitoring system was proposed based on GPRS DTU and PLC control unit.Through aircraft ground deicing system terminal based on Panasonic PLC control unit,the system running status and fault information were real-time sent to the remote monitoring center via the GPRS network.The software of computer monitoring center was operated,re-mote measure and control of aircraft ground deicing system was realized.The problems of information transmitting and operation monitoring about aircraft ground deicing system were solved in the special environment at the airport.Testing results show that the monitoring system program is feasible.

  2. 高压线除冰机器人本体结构设计%Design of Body Structure for a Deicing Robot on the High Voltage Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坚磊; 刘文华; 陈雪; 侯智强; 宋赫

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at icing conditions of high voltage lines, a kind of line deicing robot is proposed. It consists of moving mechanism, climbing obstacle structure, deicing hammer, gear drive and camera system. The robot utilizes the deicing wheel fixed in the fore-end to cut ice, and then the deicing hammer clears up the remaining icing. The driving wheel adopts semi-circular structure to meet a range of diameter and uses a locking mechanism to provide stability for the robot. The robot is of small size and with high efficiency deicing, and cleared icing thickness can reach from10 to 25mm.%针对高压输电线路的覆冰情况,提出了一种线路除冰机器人,该机器人由行走机构、越障机构、除冰工具、传动系统和摄像系统组成。机器人利用固定在前端的除冰砂轮对覆冰切割,而后除冰锤实现180°半圆形往复运动对剩余覆冰进行反复敲打清除;驱动轮采用半圆型结构,适应一定范围的线径,为机器人提供了稳定性。该机器人体积小,除冰效率高,可清除厚度为10~25 mm的覆冰。

  3. Self-response multi-functional composite material base on carbon nanotube paper using deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation, and lightning-strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hetao; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotube paper (CNP) based multi-functional composite material is an attractive candidate for deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation and lighting strike protection due to the excellent conductivity, light weight and thin dimensions. In this article, multi-functional carbon nanotube paper was fabricated successfully by using commercial carbon nanotube. As a deicing composite material, carbon nanotube was used directly without pretreatment in fabricating carbon nanotube paper. The conductivities of the carbon nanotube paper and deicing composite were 77.8S/cm and 64.9S/ respectively. Electrical heating and deicing performance were test by infrared camera with deicing time less than 220s and 450s to melt a certain amount of ice under different ambient condition. CNT was grafted by zirconium (IV) butoxide solution and dimethyl dichlorosilicane to form co-oligomers on the tube surface while oligomers decompose under a certain temperature to develop an inorganic layer of silicon zirconium oxide. The oxidizing temperature of carbon nanotube increases more than 20°C and the weight loss rate decreases 20% than the untreated carbon nanotube. Lightning protection material required high electro conductivity, due to the utmost high current in a short time. Therefore, silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon nanotube with the diameter around 100nm. The conductivity increased sharply from 84s/cm to1756s/cm with the mount of 5.9wt% Ag of the modified carbon nanotube paper because the silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface. In addition, the silver modified also can be used as thermal insulation material decreasing the infrared radiation.

  4. 反渗透海水淡化阀控能量回收装置放大试验研究%Experimental study on the performances of expanded Fluid-Switcher Energy Recovery Device for SWRO desalination plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 张燕平; 王照成; 乞炳蔚; 徐世昌; 王世昌

    2012-01-01

    Energy recovery device is of great importance for the reduction of power consumption and thus the desalted water product, and has become an essential apparatus for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems. The isobaric energy recovery device has been a more promising and competitive technology on the market because of its higher efficiency and easily scaled-p characteristic. In this article, a pilot-cale Fluid-witcher Energy Recovery Device (FS-RD) was presented and an emulational test stand was setup according to the real diagram of SWRO plant. The dynamic performance and energy recovery efficiency of the FS-RD prototype was assessed and analyzed under the rated capacity and pressure. The results prove that the device has good operating stability and its energy recovery efficiency could reach to 95. 96%.%能量回收装置是反渗透海水淡化系统的关键设备之一,对降低系统运行能耗和造水成本至关重要.等压正位移式能量回收装置具有工程放大性好和高效率等优点,成为国内外研究和推广的重点.针对自主开发的反渗透海水淡化阀控能量回收装置进行了中试放大研究,结合能量回收装置在反渗透海水淡化工程中的应用工艺,建立了相应的装置运行试验平台.对装置在处理量为40 m3/h、工作压力为6.4 MPa条件下的流体力学特性和效率特性进行了测试和分析,结果表明,阀控能量回收装置运行稳定性良好,装置能量回收效率达到95.96%.

  5. 公路用融雪剂应用研究现状与发展趋势%Current Situation of Application and Study of Deicing Salt for Highway and Development Tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠

    2012-01-01

    概述了国内外融雪剂应用研究现状与发展趋势,为科学合理选用融雪剂技术提供参考。%Current situation of application and study of deicing salt for highway and development tendency are summarized, providing references for scientific and reasonable application of deicing salt.

  6. Direct Optical Ice Sensing and Closed-Loop Controller Design for Active De-icing of Wind Turbines Using Distributed Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajiee, Shervin

    Ice accumulation on wind turbines operating in cold regions reduces power generation by degrading aerodynamic efficiency and causes mass imbalance and fatigue loads on the blades. Due to blade rotation and variation of the pitch angle, different locations on the blade experience large variations of Reynolds number, Nusselt number, heat loss, and non-uniform ice distribution. Hence, applying different amounts of heat flux in different blade locations can provide more effective de-icing for the same total power consumption. This large variation of required heat flux motivates using distributed resistive heating, with the capability of locally adjusting thermal power as a function of location on the blade. The main contributions of this research are developing the experimental feasibility of direct ice sensing using an optical sensing technique as well as development of a computational framework for implementation of closed-loop localized active de-icing using distributed sensing. A script-base module was developed in a commercial finite-element software (ANSYS) which provides the capability of (i) Closed-loop de-icing simulations for a distributed network of sensors and actuators, (ii) investigating different closed-loop thermal control schemes and their de-icing efficiency (iii) optimizing thermal actuation for a distributed resistive heating, and (iv) analyzing different faulty scenarios for sensors and thermal actuators under known faults in the network. Different surrogate models were used to enhance the computational efficiency of this approach. The results showed that optimal value of control parameters in a distributed network of heaters depends on convective heat transfer characteristics, layout of heaters and type of closed-loop controller scheme used for thermal actuation. Furthermore, It was shown that closed-loop control provides much faster de-icing than the open-loop constant heat flux thermal actuation. It was observed both experimentally and

  7. Effects of Deicing Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Rosa chinensis%融雪剂胁迫对月季光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹豪; 张建军; 徐佳佳; 王清玉; 黄明

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of deicing salt stress on urban green plants. The photosynthetic characteristics of one-year-old seedlings of Rosa chinensis were determined under deicing salt stress of different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 80, 120g · m-2). Results showed that the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of the leaves of R. chinensis declined markedly with increasing deicing salt concentration and prolonged stress time. Under the stress of LBR-4 deicing salt, the water use efficiency declined markedly, and intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal limitation decreased after an initial increase. However, under the stress of JLR-01 deicing salt, water use efficiency, stomatal limitation and intercellular CO, concentration increased during the first week and decreased during the second week, and stomatal conductance decreased after an initial increase. Under the same stress concentration, it chinensis were damaged by LBR-4 deicing salt more badly than by JLR-01. R. chinensis seedlings could endure threats of less than 20 g · m-2 deicing salt, and they could recover after removing deicing salt. However, when R. chinensis seedlings in conditions of more than 50 g · m-2, they would be destroyed in a short period of time and never restored normal growth. The effects of deicing salt on R. chinensis seedlings not only result from Cl- but also from other trace metals-%为了探讨融雪剂对城市绿化植物的影响,以1年生月季(Rosa chinensis)幼苗为试材,在融雪剂施用量为0、20、50、80、120g · m-25种条件下,研究了融雪剂对月季光舍特性的影响.结果表明:随着融雪剂施用量的增加和胁迫时间的延长,月季叶片净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(G(0))明显下降.施用融雪剂LBR -4后,月季的水分利用效率(Wu,E)明显下降,胞间二氧化碳摩尔分数(Ci)和气孔限制值(L(O))先降后升;在施用融雪剂JLR-01后的第1

  8. 架空输电线路除冰机器人的研制%The Manufacturing of a Deicing Robot for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 郭锐; 赵金龙; 曹雷

    2011-01-01

    Deicing with robotics could be operated on line for the transmission lines to prevent damage.For single line deicing between two towers,a practical deicing robot for overhead transmission lines is manufactured.The robot deices by impacting on ice with fixed tools.Three driving wheels and pressure wheel mechanism could increase friction for driving.A locking mechanism and anti-overturning mechanism are developed for high stability and safety during working.The robot has the advantages of light weight,small size and high deicing efficiency.Many experiments have been carried out on simulative lines and 500 kV live-lines.It is varified that the deicing speed is more than 0.13 m/s,even through the ice diameter is 50 mm.%利用机器人技术实现输电线路在线除冰,可以在不停电的情况下提早消除覆冰隐患,防止重大灾害的发生。针对一档内单股线除冰作业,设计并研制出一种实用性较高的输电线路除冰机器人。该机器人采用固定刀具,前推撞击方式除冰;3个并行排列同时驱动的行走轮与压紧轮机构配合增大摩擦驱动力;采用的锁紧机构和防倾倒机构,确保作业稳定,保障作业安全。该机器人体积小、重量轻、除冰效率高,已经在模拟线路和500 kV带电线路等进行过多次除冰试验,在直径超过50 mm的高硬度覆冰环境下,平均除冰速度可达0.13 m/s。

  9. 除冰车铲冰装置传送带的分析与研究%Analysis and Research of Deicing Special Vehicle Shovel Ice Device Conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志富; 黄其柏; 陈定方; 王晓娟

    2015-01-01

    In view of the phenomenon that icy roads to road traffic accidents have severely affected,a mechanical deicing special vehicle for road deicing,which carried on the reasonable design and layout is devised.The belt drive system of mechanical deicing device is major researched,infinitesimal dynamics equation of conveyor belt is established,and the belt drive system is analyzed in theory.Through theory design and engineering design algorithm,the belt transmission torque and power is analyzed,the foundation for the further study of belt transmission is laid.By using the ANSYS and ADAMS,the stress simulation and dynamics simulation of belt drive systems are carried out,and the correctness of the preliminary design of pulley drive system is validated,the technical support of the optimum design of deicing special vehicle is provided.The study of deicing special vehicle deicing efficiency has played a key role,which with better economic benefits and promotional value.%针对路面结冰对道路交通安全事故存在严重影响的现象,设计出了一款用于道路除冰的机械式除冰专用车,对其进行合理的设计与布局;主要研究机械铲冰装置的带传动系统,建立传送带的微元动力学方程,对带传动系统进行了理论分析;通过理论设计和工程设计算法对带传动的转矩和功率进行分析,为带传动进一步的研究奠定了基础;通过ANSYS和ADAMS对带传动系统分别进行应力仿真和动力学仿真,验证了初步设计的带轮传动系统的正确性,为除冰车的优化设计提供了技术支撑,对除冰车除冰效率的研究起到了关键的作用,具有较好的经济效益和推广价值.

  10. Ice detection and deicing system improves the economics of a wind turbine in the arctic weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, J. [Labko Ice Detection Oy (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The Finnish Lapland is an excellent test area for the wind turbines due to strong winds and heavy icing. Also the need of ice protection is evident, for wind turbines cannot be used in the area at all without such devices which keep the blades free of ice, rime frost or heavy snow. Labco Ice Detection Oy has been working in good cooperation with VTT and Kemijoki Oy to solve this problem technically and economically by developing an ice detector and deicing system. This system detects ice when its thickness is 0,5 mm and melts it so that the blades will stay clean during the ice accretion. The enclosed estimation process indicates that the investment in this system is economically profitable. (author)

  11. Methods of increasing net work output of organic Rankine cycles for low-grade waste heat recovery with a detailed analysis using a zeotropic working fluid mixture and scroll expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Brandon Jay

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a thermodynamic cycle that is well-suited for waste heat recovery. It is generally employed for waste heat with temperatures in the range of 80 °C -- 300 °C. When the application is strictly to convert waste heat into work, thermal efficiency is not recommended as a key performance metric. In such an application, maximization of the net power output should be the objective rather than maximization of the thermal efficiency. Two alternative cycle configurations that can increase the net power produced from a heat source with a given temperature and flow rate are proposed and analyzed. These cycle configurations are 1) an ORC with two-phase flash expansion and 2) an ORC with a zeotropic working fluid mixture (ZRC). A design-stage ORC model is presented for consistent comparison of multiple ORC configurations. The finite capacity of the heat source and heat sink fluids is a key consideration in this model. Of all working fluids studied for the baseline ORC, R134a and R245fa yield the highest net power output from a given heat source. Results of the design-stage model indicate that the ORC with two-phase flash expansion offers the most improvement over the baseline ORC. However, the level of improvement that could be achieved in practice is highly uncertain due to the requirement of highly efficient two-phase expansion. The ZRC shows improvement over the baseline as long as the condenser fan power requirement is not negligible. At the highest estimated condenser fan power, the ZRC shows the most improvement, while the ORC with flash expansion is no longer beneficial. The ZRC was selected for detailed study because it does not require two-phase expansion. An experimental test rig was used to evaluate baseline ORC performance with R134a and with R245fa. The ZRC was tested on the same rig with a mixture of 62.5% R134a and 37.5% R245fa. The tested expander is a minimally-modified, of-the-shelf automotive scroll compressor. The high

  12. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  13. Copper oxide nano-fluid stabilized by ionic liquid for enhancing thermal conductivity of reservoir formation: Applicable for thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barahoei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the oil reservoirs are limited and energy demand is increasing, seeking for high efficient EOR processes or enhancing the efficiency of current proposed EOR methods for producing trapped oil from reservoirs are highly investigated. As a way out, it is possible to couple the EOR and nanotechnology to utilize the efficiency of both methods together. Regarding this possibility, in the current study, in the first stage of investigation stable and uniform water-based solution of nano size particles of copper oxide with different concentrations (0.01-0.05 M were prepared and then injected into the core samples. In the first stage, the effects of different surfactants respect to their concentrations was investigated. Then, different scenarios of using nano-fluid as a thermal conductivity modifier were examined. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that changing concentration of nano particles of copper oxide from 0.01 M to 0.05 M is able to enhance the thermal conductivity of rocks from 27 % to 48 % compared with the thermal conductivity of dry core.

  14. Energy recovery for a road vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  15. 不可控12脉波整流的输电线路直流融冰研究%Study on DC De-icing Method Based on Uncontrollable 12-Pulse Rectification for Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小龙; 廖振; 彭峰; 郭浩; 胡晓羲

    2012-01-01

    在覆冰输电线路的融冰方法中,与传统的交流融冰法和机械除冰法相比,直流融冰法具有所需电源容量小、高效、方便等优势。研究了采用不可控12脉波整流的直流融冰方法,分析了不可控12脉波整流直流融冰原理,在确定相应型号导线融冰电流的基础上,计算出实现导线融冰所需的融冰电压和交流侧电压,并由此确定整流变压器的额定电压比,分别推导出上下整流桥串/并联两种接线方式条件下覆冰导线的可融长度。仿真结果表明,该方法在不同型号导线的一定长度范围内具有良好的融冰效果,为解决输电线路覆冰问题提供了一种可靠技术。%In many de-icing methods for icing transmission lines, DC de-icing method has many advantages when it is compared to the traditional AC or artificial de-icing method, such as smaller power supply capacity, higher efficiency and convenience. This paper studies a DC de-icing method which is based on uncontrollable 12 pulse rectifier. It analyzes DC de-icing principle of uncontrollable 12 pulse rectification. According to the de-icing current of a given conductor, the AC side voltage and the DC de-icing voltage, which could make the ice covering on the conductor de-iced, will be calculated. Then the rated voltage ratio of rectifying transformer can be easily determined, and the icing conductor's de-icing range is deduced by making the two rectifier bridges connected in series and in parallel. Simulation shows that this method is really efficient to de-ice the ice covering on the transmission line in a certain range. It provides a reliable technology for solving the problem of icing transmission lines.

  16. Effects of deicing salt on the vitality and health of two spruce species, Picea abies Karst., and Picea glehnii Masters planted along roadsides in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, M; Quoreshi, A M; Kitaoka, S; Kitahashi, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Maruyama, Y; Kitao, M; Koike, T

    2003-01-01

    In northern Japan, the growth of Picea abies Karst., and Picea glehnii Masters, which have been planted along the highways, is often suppressed due to several environmental stresses. To examine the adverse effects of deicing salt, the primary source of stress,we measured needle life span, photosynthetic capacity, and water potential and transpiration rate of the two spruce species at a site with damaged trees, near the roadside and a site with healthy trees, located far from the highway. Results from the analysis showed large amounts of sodium and chlorine in the soil and snow at the damaged site. These elements had accumulated in the needles of the spruce. Moreover, physiological traits of the spruce, at the damaged site were also affected. Therefore, we concluded that poor physiological traits might be attributed to an accumulation of deicing salt in the needles, resulting in the suppression of tree growth.

  17. 公路除冰融雪剂中添加剂的种类及发展%Classification and Development of Ddditives in Highway Deicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方降龙; 肖娟定; 胡辉

    2014-01-01

    The classification of additives including corrosion inhibitor, rust inhibitor, soil anti-caking agent, antilubricant, surfactant, chromogenic agent, etc. in highway deicing are summed up, the develop-ment trend of the additives in future is analyzed, which are intended to provide reference for the research about the formula of the additives in deicing.%总结了公路除冰融雪剂中添加剂的种类,包括缓蚀剂、阻锈剂、土壤抗结剂、防滑剂、表面活性剂、显色剂等,分析了添加剂的发展趋势,旨在为融雪剂中添加剂配方研究提供一定的参考。

  18. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, L. Oktay [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Acikgoz, Bektas [Department of Neurosurgery, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gundogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times.

  19. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  20. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian.

  1. 覆冰四分裂导线除冰过程模拟研究%Numerical simulation study on de-icing process of iced quad-bundled conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严波; 陈科全; 祖正华; 张宏雁; 周松

    2011-01-01

    针对提出的一种覆冰四分裂导线智能除冰方法,采用ABAQUS有限元软件建立覆冰四分裂导线及其除冰装置的有限元模型,实现除冰过程的数值模拟方法.通过数值模拟研究,验证智能除冰方法的可行性.覆冰破坏采用拉伸破坏强度理论,利用ABAQUS的用户材料子程序VUMAT定义覆冰的本构关系和破坏准则,实现破坏单元的删除.通过除冰装置不同张开位移和安装个数以及不同覆冰厚度下除冰效果的模拟研究,为智能除冰装置的设计提供参考.%Numerical model of iced quad-bundled conductor line with new intelligent de-icing equipments was set up by means of ABAQUS software, and the simulation of de-icing process was numerically carried out. The feasibility of the intelligent de-icing method was verified based on the numerical simulation. Tension failure criterion was employed in the simulation of ice failure, and the user material subroutine VUMAT of ABAQUS software was developed to introduce the constitutive relation of ice and the deletion of broken ice elements. Several de-icing scenarios were numerically studied considering the variables including the opening displacement of de-icing equipment,the number of installed de-icing equipments on the line and the thickness of ice covered on the conductors. The obtained numerical results provide a reference for design and realization of intelligent de-icing equipment.

  2. 产后灌服营养物质对奶牛机能恢复的影响%Effect of Postpartum Fluid Nutrients on Cows Postpartum Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟卫爽; 孙岩; 武新河; 李红燕

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of postpartum recovery through iflling and server to rehydration on postpartum cows.A total of 108 postpartum cows were randomly divided into two groups, trial group with postpartum cow one-time iflling 20 kg warm water (30℃), the water containing: Animal husbandry and salt (80g) and potassium chloride (120g), calcium chloride (120g), propylene glycol (500mL), eyquem XP (100g). The control groups provided the husk of brown sugar water and propylene glycol (500mL) to cows. Results showed that the proportion of roll out the delivery room increased 16.93% than the control group in 20 days for a fetal cows of trial group. The incidence of trial group declined 13.33% than control group in the late perinatal for more three party cows and the difference for one and two parity cows was not signiifcant. In trial group the time of postpartum milk production peak and the ifrst estrus breeding was shorter than control group. Taken together about the time from postpartum to roll out the delivery room, postpartum diseases, milk production and breeding situation, through iflling and server to rehydration on postpartum cows to reduce the metabolic diseases is feasible.%本试验将108头产后牛随机分为两组,对试验组牛一次性灌服20kg温水(约30℃),水中加入畜牧盐(80g)、氯化钾(120g)、氯化钙(120g)、丙二醇(500mL)、益康XP(100g);为对照组牛提供红糖麸皮水和丙二醇(500mL),以研究产后奶牛用灌服器进行补液对产后机能恢复的影响。结果显示,试验组一胎牛产后20d内可以转出产房的牛比对照组增加16.93%;试验组三胎以上牛在围产后期的发病率比对照组低13.33%,一、二胎牛差异不显著。而且试验组产后达到产奶高峰的时间和第一次发情配种的时间均比对照组缩短。数据表明,从产后到转出产房的时间、产后疾病、产奶情况和繁殖情况综合

  3. Signal intensity change of the labyrinth in patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Moon, Jung Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Won Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal intensity (SI) change of the labyrinth in patients with vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 T. Thirty-four patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma were included in this study. Retrospectively, we visually and quantitatively compared the SIs of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side with those on the unaffected side. We also investigated whether there was correlation between the SI ratios (SIRs) of the labyrinth and the audiometric findings. On 3D FLAIR images, the SI of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side was significantly increased in 97% (33/34) and 91% (31/34), respectively. While the SI of the cochlea was diffusely increased, that of the vestibule was only partially increased. Quantitative study also revealed statistically significantly higher SIRs of the cochlea (0.99 {+-} 0.29) and vestibule (0.73 {+-} 0.31) on the affected side, compared with the cochlea (0.47 {+-} 0.20) and vestibule (0.19 {+-} 0.10) on the unaffected side. There was no significant correlation of the SIRs of the labyrinth with the degree of hearing loss. In patients with vestibular schwannoma, isotropic 3D FLAIR imaging is a useful method for the evaluation of the SI changes of the labyrinth. (orig.)

  4. Flow of polymer fluids through porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Zami-Pierre, Frédéric; Davit, Yohan; Loubens, Romain de; Quintard, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Non-Newtonian fluids are extensively used in enhanced oil recovery. However, understanding the flow of such fluids in complex porous media remains a challenging problem. In the presented study, we use computational fluid dynamics to investigate the creeping flow of a particular non-Newtonian fluid through porous media, namely a power-law fluid with a newtonian behavior below a critical shear rate. We show that the nonlinear effects induced by the rheology only weakly impact the topological st...

  5. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  6. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  7. Recovery Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  8. 覆冰导线机械式冲击除冰模拟研究%Numerical simulations of mechanical de-icing for iced transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 严波; 刘小会; 程皓月

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model consisting of adjacent spans and insulator strings of a multi-span iced transmission line section was set up with ABAQUS software. The user-defined material subroutine VUMAT of ABAQUS software was developed for introducing a porous elastic constitutive model of ice and deleting pipe elements used to model broken ice with a tensile failure criterion. A large number of de-icing scenarios were studied with parametric variables including number of spans per line section, span length, ice porosity, ice thickness, temperature and different amplitudes of shock-loads. Based on above numerical simulations, the effects of adjacent span and insulator strings on the rate of de-icing were analyzed and discussed. It was shown that the process of de-icing after loading is affected obviously by all the above parameters except temperature. The obtained numerical results provided a reference for design of de-icing technique in practice.%采用ABAQUS有限元软件建立覆冰导线有限元模型,利用用户材料子程序VUMAT定义覆冰本构模型和删除破坏单元,实现冲击载荷作用下导线除冰过程的模拟.覆冰采用多孔弹性模型,并考虑温度和孔隙率对其力学性能的影响;引入拉伸破坏准则判断覆冰的破坏.对不同档数、档距、覆冰孔隙率、覆冰厚度、除冰时的温度、冲击载荷大小等情况下除冰过程的模拟分析表明,较小范围温度的变化对除冰率的影响很小,而其它因素对除冰效果的影响明显,在设计机械式冲击除冰装置时应予以考虑.

  9. The effects of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) deicing material on the water quality of Bear Creek, Clackamas County, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), to evaluate the effects of the highway deicing material, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), on the water quality of Bear Creek, in the Cascade Range of Oregon. ODOT began using CMA (an alternative deicer that has fewer adverse environmental effects than road salt) in the mid-1990s and began this study with the USGS to ensure that there were no unexpected effects on the water quality of Bear Creek. Streamflow, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature were measured continuously through the 1998?99 winter. There was no measurable effect of the application of CMA to Highway 26 on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), calcium concentration, or magnesium concentration of Bear Creek and its tributaries. BOD was small in all of the water samples, some of which were collected before CMA application, and some of which were collected after application. Five-day BOD values ranged from 0.1 milligrams per liter to 1.5 milligrams per liter, and 20-day BOD values ranged from 0.2 milligrams per liter to 2.0 milligrams per liter. Dissolved copper concentrations in a small tributary ditch on the north side of Highway 26 exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria on three occasions. These exceedances were probably not caused by the application of CMA because (1) one of the samples was a background sample (no recent CMA application), and (2) dissolved copper was not detected in Bear Creek water samples to which CMA was added during laboratory experiments.

  10. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na+ are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed.

  11. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI for intracranial tumors in comparison with post-contrast T1W spin-echo MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to have higher sensitivity for detecting leptomeningeal disease compared with contrast- enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE T1WI). However, currently there are no studies showing the potential value of clinical applications of contrast-enhanced FLAIR (CE FLAIR) sequence in diagnosing intracranial tumors in a larger group of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CE FLAIR in comparison with CE T1WI for intracranial tumors and to provide more information for clinical diagnosis and therapy.Methods One hundred and four consecutive cases of intracranial tumors referred for CE brain MRI were analyzed with regard to FLAIR and T1WI pre- and post-administration of Gd-DTPA. The CE FLAIR and CE T1WI were evaluated independently by two radiologists for the number of examinations with one or more enhanced lesions, the number and location of enhanced lesions per examination, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) of lesions, as well as the size and extent of the enhanced lesions. Results In 98 of 104 cases, enhanced lesions were seen both on the FLAIR and T1W images. More lesions were seen on CE T1WI (n=120) than those on CE FLAIR sequence (n=117), but no differences of statistical significance were found between the two sequences (P>0.05). Four lesions were revealed only on the CE FLAIR images whereas 7 lesions were only found on CE T1WI. Enhanced lesions located in the cerebral hemisphere or the forth ventricle were revealed much more on CE T1WI than on CE FLAIR images. However, CE FLAIR images may be useful in showing superficial abnormalities and those located in the sulcus or lateral ventricle. The CER and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on CE T1WI was significantly higher (t=7.10,P=0.00;t=9.67,P=0.00, respectively), but grey matter/white matter contrast was lower (t=2.46,P=0.02) than those on CE

  12. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  13. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  14. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  15. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  16. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing

    KAUST Repository

    Tromp, Karin

    2012-02-01

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehong Tsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  18. PID parameters optimization for deicing robot joint controller.%除冰机器人关节控制PID参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢岚; 孙炜; 赵国瑞

    2011-01-01

    针对输电线除冰机器人的关节运动,提出一种改进的无刷直流电机控制策略,利用粒子群算法优化不完全微分控制算法来代替传统的PID控制,对Kp、Ti、Td进行全局优化·实验结果表明,该方法明显提高了控制性能,具有很强的鲁棒性,能够满足除冰机器人对控制系统高精度、实时性的要求.%To control the motion of the joints of deicing robot on power transmission line,an improved brushless DC motor control strategy is proposed,which utilizes PSO algorithm to optimize the parameters of PID controller with incomplete derivation instead of the traditional PID control.Three parameters of Kp, Ti , and Td are overall optimized. The results of experiments show that the control performance of the proposed method is improved dramatically and is highly robust which can meet high-precision and real-time requirements of the deicing robot.

  19. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chehong; Shehata, Medhat H; Lotfy, Abdurrahmaan

    2016-10-28

    The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at -18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%-5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  20. 用于碳纤维复合材料的电热除冰技术实验研究%Experimental Study on Electro-thermal Deicing Technique for Carbon Fiber Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉娅; 熊联友; 刘立强; 杨娇萍; 杨岩峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research of electro-thermal deicing technique for carbon fiber composite airfoil, a multi-material structure is proposed. The deicer pad consistes of multi-materials, each with specific thermal properties. Some of these materials are manufactured in the laboratory based on the property requirements. The finite volume method (FVM) is adopted to simulate the performance of the deicing pad, and the proper thickness of the insulation layer is determined. Through numerical simulation the uniformity of the heating circuit is also verified. According to the scheme an electro-thermal deicer pad is developed, and a deicing validation device is designed and adopted to carry out the experimental study on the performance of the deicer pad. The impact of heat flux, airflow velocity and the angle between the airflow and the deicing surface on the deicing performance is studied. The study shows that the electro-thermal deicer pad so designed is able to provide good deicing performance, and that the proposed deicing scheme is feasible.%针对碳纤维复合材料机翼的电热除冰技术研究现状,提出了采用多层材料结构的电热除冰垫技术方案.该电热除冰垫各层均由具有不同热功能的材料构成,其中部分材料为根据性能需要自行制备得到的.采用有限容积法(FVM)对除冰垫的性能进行了数值模拟,确定了隔热层厚度,验证了加热回路的均匀性.根据所确定的方案制备了电热除冰垫,并利用自行搭建的除冰验证装置对该电热除冰垫的性能进行了实验研究,得到了加热热流密度、来流风速、来流与除冰表面间夹角对除冰性能的影响规律.研究表明,该电热除冰垫具有良好的除冰性能,除冰方案可行.

  1. Analysis on DC Deicing Process and Efficiency in China Southern Power Grid%南方电网主网架直流融冰工作流程与融冰效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦州; 王奇; 蔡延雷; 顾保全; 吴黎黎; 谢辰昱

    2013-01-01

    The China Southern Power Grid (CSG) has installed 6 sets of DC deicers on its backbone transmission grid since the ice disaster in 2008,among which the DC deicer in Gaopo substation of Gao-Zhao ±500 kV DC transmission lines is the first OPGW deicer in CSG.Most of the existing DC deicing researches concern the analyses of provincial power grid and transmission lines.However,the icing on overhead ground lines has become the secondary influencing factor in the causation of power system fault in winter.In this paper,the above 6 sets of DC deicers are described with emphasis on the OPGW deicer,and the deicing process and efficiency after the installation of deicing switches are analyzed.The feasibility and necessity of OPGW deicing is discussed,and suggestion of making a DC deicing process and installing deicing switches is offered to improve deicing efficiency.%自2008年冰灾后,南方电网在西电东送主网架输电通道中加装了6套直流融冰装置,其中高肇直流高坡站直流融冰装置为南方电网首套高压直流输电线OPGW融冰装置.现有的研究工作大多只涉及线路两侧未安装融冰短接刀闸情况下相线融冰技术的研究与计算,实际上,地线覆冰是仅次于相线覆冰的影响系统冰期安全运行的因素,融冰短接刀闸的装设能够大大提高融冰效率.在此背景下,笔者介绍了6套直流融冰装置特别是高坡站OPGW直流融冰装置的概况,分析了基于覆冰预警系统的直流融冰工作流程及安装融冰短接刀闸前后的融冰效率.最后,对分析结果进行了总结,指出OPGW融冰具有可行性和必要性,并建议制定工作流程、加装融冰刀闸以提高融冰效率.

  2. 蓄盐沥青混合料除冰雪性能研究%Research on Deicing Performance of Asphalt Mixture Containing Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忆秋; 孙嵘蓉; 郭猛; 钟勇; 周水文

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively evaluate the deicing performance of asphalt mixture containing salt and find out the deicing mechanism and effect of asphalt mixture containing salt, firstly the road performance of asphalt mixture containing salt was studied, then the system for testing adhesion between ice and asphalt mixture was developed, and the extreme fracture tensile and damage interface level were proposed to assess the adhesion between asphalt mixture and ice. The effect of grading types and temperature on adhesion was also studied. The deicing mechanism of asphalt mixture containing salt was studied with the freezing point test. The deicing effect of asphalt mixture containing salt was verified by indoor test and outdoor actual project. The results show that asphalt mixture containing salt can effectively decrease the adhesion between ice and mixture and the extreme fracture tensile of mixture containing salt is 27. 8% lower than that of ordinary mixture at -5 ℃ ; the open gradation asphalt mixture has better adhesion with ice than the dense gradation, and the adhesion ability increases with the increase of the nominal maximum aggregate size, or the decrease of the temperature, and the interface level decreases with the decrease of temperature; the road performance and deicing performance of asphalt pavement containing salt are good.%为了有效评价沥青路面除冰雪性能、揭示蓄盐沥青混合料除冰雪机理及效果,首先对蓄盐沥青混合料的路用性能进行了研究;其次开发了冰膜与沥青混合料表面粘结力测试系统,提出采用极限破坏拉力和破坏界面等级综合评价混合料与冰的粘结能力,分析了级配类型、温度对粘结能力的影响;并设计了冰点试验方法,研究了蓄盐沥青混合料除冰雪机理;最后通过室内试验和室外实体工程对除冰雪效果进行了验证.结果表明:蓄盐沥青混合料能有效降低混合料与冰之间的粘结力,-5℃时蓄盐混

  3. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  4. 220kV站街变直流融冰装置试验及其应用%Test and application of DC deicing device in 220kV zhanjie substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仕军; 杨通江; 陈峰; 张小兵

    2011-01-01

    DC - based deicing is the most efficient and reliable way to solve the problem of ice - accumulation of overhead line. As the DC deicing device is always on cold standby state, and come into operation when the overhead line is ice - accumulated, in order to ensuring the DC deicing device working normally during the ice - accumulating and the transmission line working safely and reliably dur- ing the ice disaster, we need to check the deicing device and carry out the low- voltage rectifier test periodically. Through inspecting the thyristor and the secondary system devices condition, the DC deicing device will enter the spinning reserve before the ice - accumulation in order to guaranteeing the safety and stability operation of the transmission line during the ice disaster.%直流融冰是解决架空导线覆冰是最直接、最有效、最可靠的融冰方式之一,但由于直流融冰装置只在线路覆冰期间投入运行,大部分时间都处于冷备用状态。为保证直流融冰装置在线路覆冰期间能正常运行,须定期对直流融冰装置进行检查及低压整流试验,通过试验检查晶闸管、二次系统设备的工作状况,使直流融冰装置在覆冰季前进入热备用状态,保证输电线路在冰灾期间的安全稳定运行。

  5. Spontaneous Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  6. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Touz, Nicolas; Dumoulin, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Facing the heavy organisational, financial and environmental constraints imposed by usual winter maintenance salting operations, pavement engineers have been led to look for alternative solutions to avoid ice or snow deposit at pavements surface. Among the solutions, one is self-de-icing heating pavements, for which two technologies have been developed so far: one is based on embedded coils circulating a heated calorific fluid under the pavement surface; the other one relies on the use of embedded resistant electric wires. The use and operation of such systems in the world is still limited and was only confined to small road stretches or specific applications, such as bridges which are particularly sensitive to frost. One of the most significant "coil technology" example in Europe is the SERSO-System (Solar Energy recovery from road surfaces) built in 1994, on a Switzerland bridge. Many of these experiences are referenced in the technical literature, which provides state-of-the art papers (see for instance Eugster) and useful detailed information dealing with the construction and operational management of such installation. The present study is taking part of the Forever Open Road Concept addressed by the R5G: 5th Generation Road [1], one of the major project supported by IFSTTAR. It considers a different design of self-de-icing road that simplify its mode of construction and maintenance, compared to the two technologies mentioned above. It should also be noted that similar to pavements instrumented with coils, such structure could be used in the reversible way to capture the solar energy at the pavement surface during sunny days and store it, to either warm the pavement at a later stage or for exogenous needs (e.g. contribution to domestic hot water). To complete our study we also considered the use of semi-transparent pavement course wearing in place of the traditional opaque one. In the present study, a 2D model was developed using FEM approach. It combines 2

  7. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  8. 一种配电网线路不停电融冰方法%A Non-outage De-icing Method of Distribution Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少杰; 高一波

    2016-01-01

    A non-outage de-icing method of distribution lines is proposed. By lowering operating voltage of the iced distribution lines and increasing the current of the iced lines, the ice is melted by heat. A pair of wide-range on-load tap changer transformers are connected in series with both terminals of the iced lines through switches. By adjustment of the two transformers, the operating voltage of the iced lines is lowered to ensure voltage stability at the load terminal. A simulation model of non-outage deicing system of distribution lines is established based on PSCAD platform to simulate and analyze line deicing under different operating condi-tions; besides, the various reactive power compensation schemes are compared to provide voltage support for lines. In the end, the application scenario of the scheme is expounded.%提出了一种配网线路不停电融冰的方法,通过降低配电网线路覆冰段的运行电压、增加覆冰段线路电流,以实现热力融冰。将2台大范围有载调压变压器通过开关装置串联接入线路覆冰段两端,通过这2台融冰变压器的协同调节降低线路覆冰段运行电压,并保证负荷端电压的稳定。基于PSCAD平台搭建了配电网线路不停电融冰系统仿真模型,对不同工况下的线路融冰运行情况进行了仿真分析,并对不同无功补偿方案进行对比分析,从而为线路提供电压支撑,最后给出了该方案的适用场合。

  9. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  10. Design and Application of CO2 Compressor Used for Exhaust Gas Recovery in the Process of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction%超临界CO2流体萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高平; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    某公司超临界CO2流体萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机抽气时间比预期时间超出4倍以上,为解决这一问题,通过对超临界流体萃取流程和CO2的特性分析,提出了萃取流程中CO2尾气回收压缩机的设计方法及回收流程方案的选择,并对压缩机的使用与保养做了阐述.%The suction time for the CO2 compressor used for exhaust gas recovery in the process of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction is the four times above than expected time.In order to solve the problem,the design method for CO2 compressor used for exhaust gas recovery in the extraction process and the selection of recycling process scheme are pointed out based on the characteristic analysis of supercritical fluid extraction process and of CO2-And the use and maintenance of compressor are specified in this paper.

  11. 特高压直流融冰方式控制策略及试验分析%Analysis of Control Strategy and Test for De-Icing Operation Mode of UHVDC Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万开; 吴庆范; 庞广恒

    2015-01-01

    特高压直流输电工程融冰接线方式采用极 I 和极 II高端换流器并联接线运行方式。向(家坝)—上(海)和锦(屏)—苏(南)±800 kV直流工程融冰基本控制方式采用并联混合式多端直流输电系统(multi-terminal direct current, MTDC)控制策略,溪(洛渡左岸)—浙(江金华)±800 kV直流工程采用并联换流器电流裕度控制策略。分析特高压直流工程融冰方式控制保护原理和向上、锦苏以及溪浙工程融冰方式系统试验结果,并对融冰接线方式系统试验过程中发现的稳态运行直流电流略大于设定值、直流电流不能稳定运行等问题进行论述和分析,揭示产生问题的原因,提出解决方案,并在向上特高压直流输电工程融冰方式系统试验过程中得到验证。%De-icing connection of ultra high voltage DC (UHVDC) transmission project consists of Pole 1 and Pole 2 high-voltage converters in parallel connection. Hybrid parallel multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) control was used as de-icing mode control strategy for parallel converters of Xiangjiaba-Shanghai (abbr. XS) and Jinping-Sunan (abbr. JS) ±800 kV UHVDC projects, and current margin control was used as de-icing mode control strategy for parallel converters of Xiluodu Left bank to Jinhua of Zhejiang (abbr. XZ)±800 kV UHVDC project. De-icing mode control and protective principles are analyzed in this paper. De-icing mode test results were analyzed during XS, JS and XZ UHVDC system commissioning tests. During de-icing tests, DC current steady state operation value was slightly larger than setting value, DC current could not be stable. These technical problems were discussed in detail and their causes were analyzed. Solutions of above problems were presented and testified in XS UHVDC transmission project de-icing mode test.

  12. Research of Aircraft Ground Deicing Operation Based on Non-cooperative Game Theory%飞机地面除冰运行的非合作博弈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志伟; 乔晓辉

    2011-01-01

    针对大型机场对优化除冰调度运行以减少航班延误的需求,以及各航空公司对有限除冰资源的无序竞争,结合非合作博弈理论,建立飞机除冰地面运行的非合作博弈模型,设计了除冰资源分配为浮动优先级算法,在MATLAB环境下,利用首都机场动态航班数据对算法进行了仿真验证.仿真结果表明,将设计的浮动优先级算法应用于飞机地面除冰运行中,机场离港航班的延误情况得到了明显缓解,且对现有的"先到先服务"除冰调度策略进行了优化,并保证了资源分配的公平性,为机场地面除冰运行提供了一种新的思路.%Aiming at the request of reducing aircraft delay by optimizing the deicing operation in hinge airports, and the disordered competition to the limited deicing resources among the airline companies, a non-cooperative game based aircraft ground deicing operation modeling was established. The floating-priority algorithm used for distributing deicing resources was provided. Based on the software MATLAB, the domestic departures data of Beijing Capital Airport was used for simulation experiments. Simulation results show that the delays of the leaving flights has been relieved clearly and the 'first come, first served' scheduling strategy has been optimized after using of the floating-priority algorithm in the aircraft ground deicing operation. The presented model and algorithm ensure the fairness of resource-allocation and provide a new way for aircraft ground deicing operation.

  13. Model Test Study on Deicing Vibration of Long Span Transmission Tower-line System%大跨越输电塔—线体系脱冰振动模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 沈磨群; 张莹; 祁西汉

    2013-01-01

    输电线路脱冰振动响应给电网的正常运行带来重大的安全隐患.为精确分析大跨越输电塔—线体系中导地线脱冰对铁塔造成的动力冲击响应,以晋东南—南阳—荆门1 000 kV特高压输变电工程中的黄河大跨越段为原型,对覆冰条件下五塔四档线塔—线体系模型的脱冰冲击响应进行了模拟试验,通过对比分析塔-线体系在不同脱冰工况下杆塔的动力响应,获得输电杆塔的最不利脱冰工况,找出了输电塔在脱冰冲击作用下的最不利位置.利用ANSYS软件建立与试验模型相应的输电塔线体系模型,采用完全法瞬时动力分析模拟导、地线脱冰,提取各个测点应变,所得结果与试验结果吻合.%The deicing vibration of transmission tower-line system bring significant security risk to the normal operation of power network.In order to accurate study the dynamic shock response of long span transmission tower-line system deicing on the tower structure,taking the Yellow River long span transmission lines in Jindongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen 1 000 kV ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission project as prototype,deicing shock simulation test of transmission tower-line system is carried out to find out the dynamic response of tower structure under different icing conditions.By comparing and analyzing the dynamic response of tower structure on deicing,the most unfavorable on deicing conditions and position of tower is investigated.ANSYS software is used to establish the transmission tower-line system model corresponding to the test model.The full method transient dynamic analysis is applied to simulate conductor and grounding wires deicing and extract strain of each measure point.The result is consistent with the experiment.

  14. Corrosion Detection of Road Deicing Salt on Carbon Steel and Corrosion Reducing Treatments%公路融雪剂碳钢腐蚀性检测方法及缓蚀工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗伟; 张立塔; 赫恩龙; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    Application of chloride deicing salt improves the efficiency of snow removal, but it also causes the corrosion of road infrastructures. Deicing salt concentration and its experimental environment are significant effect on the corrosion detection results. Considering the actual road snow conditions and requirements of road area environmental protection, the carbon steel corrosion detection method is optimized. The tested deicing salt concentration is proposed to 35 g/L, and deicing salt corrosion index adjusted to less than 20% corrosion rate of industrial sodium chloride. Carbon steel corrosion rate of deicing salt which added different ratio of corrosion inhibit ingredients reduced to 0. 064 ~0. 442 mm/a, equivalent to only 7. 9%~54. 7% that of industrial sodium chloride. The optimum deicing salt formula is: 97. 5% of industrial chloride salt, 0. 5% of corrosion inhibitor A, B and D, 1.0% of corrosion inhibitor C.%氯盐型融雪剂的应用提高了公路融雪除冰效率,也对路面基础设施造成了一定的腐蚀影响.通过对比实验发现融雪剂浓度和实验环境对检测结果影响显著,考虑实际融雪后雪水状况与路域生态环境保护需要,优化了碳钢腐蚀性检测方法,建议待测融雪剂溶液浓度调整为35 g/L,融雪剂碳钢腐蚀性评价指标调整为低于氯化钠(工业品)腐蚀率的20%.添加不同配比缓蚀剂成分的融雪剂溶液可使碳钢腐蚀速率降低至0.064~0.442mm/a,仅相当于工业氯化钠腐蚀性的7.9%~54.7%.较优的融雪剂配方为:工业盐97.5%、缓蚀剂A添加0.5%、缓蚀剂B添加0.5%、缓蚀剂C添加1.0%、缓蚀剂D添加0.5%.

  15. A Review of Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Materials Used in Microwave Deicing Pavement%电磁波吸收材料用于微波融冰雪路面的研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰; 张正伟; 韩振强; 沙爱民; 王振军; 蒋玮

    2016-01-01

    Microwave deicing pavement is manufactured by electromagnetic wave absorbing materials and the traditional pavement,which has broad application prospects because of its advantages of efficiency and eco-friendli-ness.In order to further increase the deicing ability of microwave deicing pavement,the working principle of the mi-crowave deicing pavement and the main factors influencing the deicing efficiency are introduced in this paper.Micro-wave heating mechanism of electromagnetic wave absorbing materials is elaborated.And the electromagnetic charac-teristics of 9 microwave absorbing materials are summarized.The research progresses of carbon fiber,magnetite and steel fiber in microwave deicing pavement are emphatically introduced,and their application prospects are evaluated re-spectively from the viewpoint of economic efficiency and heating rate .At last,the current drawbacks existing in this technology are pointed out.%电磁波吸收材料与传统路面材料相结合,所形成的微波融冰雪路面具有高效、环保等优势。为进一步提高路面的微波融冰雪能力,介绍了微波融冰雪路面的工作原理及影响除冰效率的主要因素,阐述了电磁波吸收材料在微波照射下的发热机理。在此基础上,综述了9种电磁波吸收材料的电磁特性,并着重介绍了碳纤维、磁铁矿石与钢纤维用于路面微波除冰雪的研究进展,并从发热速率与经济性角度对比分析其应用前景。最后,指出了目前研究中存在的问题,展望了今后的研究趋势。

  16. 聚乙烯醇纤维强化水泥基复合材料的抗盐冻性能%Deicing salt resistance of PVA fiber reinforced cementitious composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曙光; 闫敏; 闫长旺; 郭荣跃

    2012-01-01

    通过氯盐环境中的快速冻融试验研究了纤维体积率、冻融循环次数、粉煤灰、硅粉对聚乙烯醇(PVA)纤维水泥基复合材料抗盐冻性能的影响。通过扫描电镜观察内部微观结构随盐冻作用的变化规律、PVA纤维在水泥基体中分布情况和界面结合状况。试验结果表明:PVA纤维的掺入可明显改善水泥基复合材料的抗盐冻性能;PVA纤维在基体中分散性较好,且与水泥基体界面结合状况较好;而粉煤灰、硅粉的掺入未明显改善PVA纤维水泥基复合材料的抗盐冻性能。%The effects of the fiber volume ratio,the freezing-deicing cycle number,the coal fly ash,and the silicon powder on the resistance against deicing salt of the polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) fiber reinforced cementitious composite were investigated by the accelerated preezing-deicing cycle test under the chloride environment.The change of the microstructure along with the action of the chloride and the freezing-deicing,the distribution of the PVA fiber in the cement matrix and the interface binding were observed by a scan electronic microscope.The test result show that adding PVA fiber into cement improves significantly the freezing-deicing resistance of the cementitious composite under the chloride environment.The PVA fiber is well distributed in the matrix and well bound with the cement in the interface.Adding the coal fly ash or silicon powder do not much improve the deicing salt resistance of the composite.

  17. Serso - Seasonal storage of solar energy for the de-icing of a bridge; Serso, stockage saisonnier solaire pour le degivrage d'un pont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project that uses stored solar heat to de-ice a bridge. A concept is described which involves seasonal heat storage in the ground. Solar energy is collected during the summer, stored in the ground with the help of a borehole heat exchanger field, and recovered in winter for use in the defrosting of the bridge. Measurements of the system's thermal performance over a few years have been used to develop and validate a simulation tool for the sizing of similar systems. This simulation tool, called BRIDGESIM, is described and the various parameters used for particular situations are discussed. The effects of various factors such as the presence of ground water are discussed.

  18. Boiler Stack Gas Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    recover about 17 million Btu/hr. The fact that the exhaust gas was loaded with fiber made the spray recu- perator a prime candidate since it could also wash... properties of water, heating feedwater is more effective than heating air. Research in heat-recovery material technology has identified materials which are...and Acidic fluids up to 180 OF. Piping Fans and Blowers 350 OF flue gas. Scrubbers 300 to 350 OF bagasse flue gas, trash burner flue gas. Electrostatic

  19. Chassis harness design for airport deicing vehicles%机场除冰车底盘部分线束设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑涛; 唐岚; 杨桃; 唐伟

    2013-01-01

    The electric performance level of airport deicing vehicle directly affects its fuel economy, emission, and safety and comfort performance level. However, the quality of whole vehicle electric performance depends on vehicle's harness design level. This given design sets about airport deicing vehicle's chassis harness, investigates vehicle's harness elements design and drawing methods, which reduces defects from unreasonable design. Also, it uses graphics software to adjust its harness arrangement more reasonable. The real vehicle tests verified that this design improved the chassis harness performance of original airport vehicles. And this design provides a reference method for relevant professional designers.%机场除冰车整车电气性能水平直接影响其燃油经济性能、排放性能、安全及舒适性能的高低,而整车电气性能的优劣取决于汽车线束设计水平.该文从机场除冰车底盘部分线束的实际设计着手,对汽车线束中各要素设计及绘制方法进行研究,减少由设计不合理产生的缺陷,并运用绘图软件将其线束布置更为合理.经实车验证,该设计方法提升了原有机场专用车底盘线束性能,同时为相关专业设计人员提供了可借鉴的方法.

  20. Present a new type of self-heating composite based on carbon nanotubes paper and investigate the feasibility in deicing (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hetao; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel self-heating composite material utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) paper is designed and fabricated successfully. The carbon nanotube paper was prepared by multiple steps of CNTs dispersion and suspension filtration as shown in Fig1. a and characterized by scanning electron microscopy thermo gravimetric analysis nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and so on. The surface of the as-prepared CNTs paper is smooth and very flexible. The conductivity of the CNTs paper could be regulated from 30 S/cm to 200 S/cm. The fabricating process of the self-heating is shown in Fig.1 b and the electric heating performance under different ambient temperature, power changing from 4.3W to 44.8W and wind speed ranging from 8m/s to 14m/s was discussed. In addition, the feasibility of the application in the deicing of the composite was simulated by the software of Fluent. The thermal behavior was discussed combining the experimental and simulated values, especially the temperature field distribution under different wind speed. The maximum heating rate can reach 2℃/s under different condition. The equilibrium temperature and energy consumption of the composite at different power compared with the commercial kanthal electric heating film were also investigated. The energy consumption of the self-heating material is less than the kanthal electric heating film to reach the same equilibrium temperature which may be caused by the difference of heat capacity. The experimental and simulated results indicate the electric heating performance of CNTs paper-based composite is superior to the commercial kanthal electric heating film and has feasibility in the field of deicing.

  1. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  2. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  3. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  4. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  5. The Application of Reconstructive SVC Device with Deicing Function in China Southern Power Grid%可重构SVC兼直流融冰装置在南方电网的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠藩; 王海军; 张楠; 卢志良; 陈潜

    2012-01-01

    介绍了可重构SVC兼直流融冰装置在SVC模式及融冰模式下的控制策略和谐波特性,总结其在南方电网的应用情况,以500 kV桂林变电站和独山变电站的SVC项目为例讨论了实际运行的相关问题.%Introducing the control strategies and harmonic characteristics of reconstructive SVC device with deicing function in both SVC mode and deicing mode, this paper summarizes its application in China Southern Power Gird, and discusses the corresponding practical operation issues with the SVC projects in the 500 kV Guilin and Dushan substations as examples.

  6. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  7. Research of the vertical swing arm device for a transmission line deicing robot%输电线路除冰机器人竖直摆臂机构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冲振; 庄佳兰; 王吉岱; 王凤芹; 梁程; 张玲玲

    2012-01-01

    研制除冰机器人代替人工方法进行导线除冰具有重要的应用前景.分析了除冰机器人前(后)臂运动特点,得到竖直摆臂机构的设计要求.根据竖直摆臂机构设计要求,采用四杆机构实现竖直摆臂运动.基于四杆机构的封闭性,应用解析法进行了四杆机构的机构综合,并用实例说明其应用.除冰机器人实验样机验证了四杆机构综合方法是正确的,四杆机构式竖直摆臂机构满足机器人的运动所有要求.%Deicing robot is more prospective than the manual in transmission line deicing.The design requirements of vertical swing arm device were got by analyzing motion characteristics of deicing robot fore arm (rear arm).According to motion requirements of the vertical swing arm device, a four-bar mechanism was adopted to achieve its swinging motion.Based on closeness of four-bar mechanism, a synthesis of vertical swing arm device was implemented by analyzing,and an example was used to explain its application. Deicing robot experimental prototype proved that the vertical swing arm device meet the motion require- ments of deicing robot.

  8. 架空输电线路除冰机器人的样机研制及动力学仿真%Development and Dynamics Simulation of De-icing Robot for Overhead Power Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张屹; 邵威; 朱大林; 邹圣权; 艾福洲; 朱险峰

    2011-01-01

    基于高压输电线路巡线机器人的研究,结合高压输电线路上覆冰的去除方法,设计了一种新型的高压输电线路除冰机器人.采用ADAMS软件对该机器人选行了运动学、动力学分析及仿真.结果表明,该机器人能在输电线上稳定地行走,并能较好地解决自主越障的问题,可完成输电线上的除冰任务.%Based on the research of power transmission lines inspection robot, a new robot for high voltage transmission lines deicing is designed by combination of transmission lines deicing method. Then, software ADAMS is applied to analyze and simulate the kinematies and dynamies of the robot. The results show that the robot can walk on transmission linen steadily and solve the problem of spanning barriers itself, which can complete deicing task of power transmission lines.

  9. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  10. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  11. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  12. 融雪剂路面上汽车制动距离计算模型%Calculation model of automobile braking distance on pavement with deicing salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志鹏; 彭涛; 王茜; 詹长书

    2012-01-01

    The forces conditions of front and rear wheels during automobile braking process were analyzed, and a mathematical model of automobile braking distance and road adhesion coefficient was established. Braking tests on ice-snow-covered pavement and the pavement after using deicing salt were carried out, and the braking distances under different primary braking speeds were calculated by using MATLAB software. Test result shows that on ice-snow-covered pavement, when the primary braking speeds are 10.8, 24.4, 31.4 km . h-1 respectively, the braking distances are 2. 959, 18. 378, 26. 264 m respectively. On the pavement after using deicing salt, when the primary braking speeds are 11.0, 22.9, 31.0 km . h 1 respectively, the braking distances are 2.430, 13.766, 18.860 m respectively. After using deicing salt, the adhesion coefficient of the pavement increases significantly, and the test braking distance decreases by 25%-28%, the simulation braking distance decreases by about 30G and is close to the test value. So the calculation model is feasible. 7 tabs, 4 figs, 14 refs.%分析了汽车制动过程前、后轮受力状况,建立了汽车制动距离与路面附着系数的数学模型。在冰雪路面和使用融雪剂路面上进行了制动试验,应用MATLAB软件仿真计算了汽车在不同制动初速度下的制动距离。试验结果表明:在冰雪路面上,当汽车制动初速度分别为10.8、24.4、31.4km·h-1时,制动距离分别为2.959、18.378、26.264m;在使用融雪剂路面上,当汽车制动初速度分别为11.0、22.9、31.0km·h-1时,制动距离分别为2.430、13.766、18.860m。使用融雪剂后,附着系数明显提高,测试制动距离减小了25%~289/6,仿真计算制动距离减小了约30%,两者接近,因此,计算模型可靠。

  13. 输电线路除冰机器人关键技术综述%Review on Key Technology of De-icing Robot Running on Overhead Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀南; 魏书宁; 印峰; 杨易旻; 谭磊; 曹文明

    2011-01-01

    Ice-coated transmission lines seriously harm the safety and stability of the power grid. Compared with the traditional methods of de-icing, de-icing robots have advantages in terms of energy consumption, cost and safety, et al. As an emerging research area, international research on the de-icing robot is still in its infancy, and no mature technology can be used for reference. Thus it is necessary to review current achievements systematically and intensively. State-of-the-art in research and application of de-icing robot running on overhead transmission line are surveyed. Key technologies of de-icing robot are discussed in detail, including high reliability of motion mechanism design on complex flexible structure of transmission lines; autonomous behavior control and navigation in complex unstructured environment; efficient de-icing mechanism without damage; long-continuous power supply in a wide range of field work; remote communication, monitoring, teleoperation under the conditions of long distance and strong electromagnetic interference; special protection mechanisms under poor working conditions. Development trend and research direction for deicing robot are suggested in the end.%输电线路覆冰严重危害到电网的安全稳定运行,与传统除冰方法相比,采用机器人除冰在能耗、成本及安全性等方面具有优势.作为一个新兴的研究领域,国内外对除冰机器人的研究尚处在起步阶段,并没有成熟的技术可借鉴,因此有必要对现有研究成果进行系统分析和深入总结.回顾国内外高压输电线路除冰机器人的研究和应用现状,详细探讨了除冰机器人复杂柔性结构输电线缆上的高可靠性运动机构设计;复杂非结构化环境下的机器人自主行为控制与导航;无损伤高效除冰机构;野外大范围长时间工作的持续动力供给;远距离强电磁干扰条件下的机器人远程通信、监测和遥操作;恶劣工作环境中的本体

  14. 化学融雪剂对小球藻生长和生理特性的影响%The effect of deicing salt on growth and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡水; 李法云; 范志平; 程志辉; 高群; 张营

    2013-01-01

    寒冷地区道路表面除雪化冰使用的化学融雪剂随着地表径流进入水体,将影响水生态系统中的水生生物正常生长,并破坏水生态系统平衡.为研究化学融雪剂醋酸钾盐对水生生物的毒性效应,分析了不同浓度有机融雪剂醋酸钾盐对小球藻生长特征、藻细胞光合色素、蛋白质及多糖含量的影响.结果表明:浓度为2 g·L-1的有机融雪剂对小球藻生长无明显影响,当融雪剂浓度为4 g·L-1时,小球藻细胞生长表现出明显抑制效应,且抑制效应随融雪剂浓度增加呈显著上升趋势(P<0.01);当融雪剂浓度小于4g·L-1时,有机融雪剂对小球藻细胞内叶绿素a合成有明显促进作用,但随着有机融雪剂处理浓度升高,藻细胞内叶绿素a含量逐渐下降.当融雪剂的处理浓度大于4 g·L-1的时候,藻细胞内蛋白质和多糖含量与对照组相比呈显著下降趋势(P<0.01),抑制水体中小球藻正常生长繁殖并破坏藻体细胞,最终导致水生态系统平衡被破坏.%Deicing salt was applied for clearing ice and snow on road in winter and entered into river with the surface runoff,so it affected the growth of aquatic organism and broke the equilibrium of aquatic ecosystem.In order to study the toxic effect of organic deicing salt on aquatic organisms,the effects of organic deicing salt on the growth,the content change of photosynthesis pigments,protein and polysaccharides of Chlorella vulgaris were analyzed.The results show that there is no significant effect for the growth of Chlorella vulgaris when the deicing salt (potassium acetate)concentration is 2 g· L-1.However,there is a significant inhibitory effect on the cell growth of Chlorella vulgaris when it is 4 g ·L-1,and the inhibitive effect of deicing salt significantly increases (P < 0.01) with the increase of the concentrations.There is the significant stimulative effect on biosynthesis of chlorophyll (a) in a cell of Chlorella vulgaris

  15. 小型清雪除冰机的研究设计%Design and Research of Small Kiyoshi Deicing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓建; 李彩霞; 袁磊; 曲帅帅

    2015-01-01

    At present, the snow removing job tasks in most domestic cities are mainly operated by labor or large machinery auxiliary operations, but the current situation that many streets in our country are too narrow to allow the operation of large ma-chinery, so we could only rely on manual operations to solve the dilemma.Small Kiyoshi deicing machine that is designed in this paper could effectively solve these difficulties.By combining the manual control and automatic control, the small Kiyoshi deicing operations can be carried out for different streets, which can effectively reduce the labor intensity, and can take advan-tage of its mechanized snow removal operations to effectively improve the efficiency.Small machinery is widely used in manu-facturing cost and application, and has good prospects for development and application value.%针对目前国内大部分城市除雪作业任务主要靠人工或大型机械设备辅助作业,但我国很多街道存在过窄的现状,限制了大型机械的操作,只能靠人工作业来解决目前面临的困境。小型清雪除冰机设计可有效地解决目前所面临的困境,它将人工控制与自动控制相结合,可以针对不同的街道进行清雪除冰作业,可有效地减轻工人的劳动强度,还可利用其机械化作业的优势有效地提高除雪效率。小型机械在制造成本与应用范围较广,能够大面积推广,具有较好的发展前景和应用价值。

  16. Design and Optimization of Electro-imlulse De-icing System Coil%电脉冲除冰系统线圈的设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊; 朱春玲; 付斌

    2016-01-01

    The impact force between the coil and the aluminum plate was studied.A numerical analysis was used for discharge process of electric impulse de-icing system from the point of view of energy transfer.The peak current and peak time coil inductance, capacitance and resistance, and other factors were taken into accaunt in cal-cution.A program was create to calculate the frequency, peak current, inductors and peak time for different coil parameters.Coil and aluminium were built two-dimensional finite element model to calculate the aluminum sheet electromagnetic and magnetic field distributions with the coil is loaded on the numerical calculation of current densi-ty.Electric impulse de-icing system was built experimental platform.Analysis of factors influencing the peak value of impact force.The impact force is analyzed and compared with the simulation results.An effective method for the design of the flat coil design is obtained.%对电脉冲除冰系统线圈和铝板之间产生冲击力进行研究。从能量传递的角度对系统放电过程进行数值计算,在计算峰值电流和峰值时间时考虑线圈感抗、电容容抗和导线电阻等因素。峰值电流计算结果导入二维有限元模型,通过改变线圈与铝板的参数对冲击力进行分析。搭建电脉冲除冰系统力学实验台,进行冲击力实验,分析影响冲击力峰值的因素。对所得冲击力进行分析并与仿真结果进行对比。得出一种有效的平板线圈设计优化方法。

  17. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  18. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  19. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    In this project, a generic model has been set up to include the two main mechanisms in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process; reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) due to surfactant production, and microscopic fluid diversion as a part of the overall fluid diversion mechanism due......, bacterial growth, substrate consumption, and surfactant production in one dimension. The system comprises oil, water, bacteria, substrate, and surfactant. There are two flowing phases: Water and oil. We introduce the partition of surfactant between these two phases determined by a partitioning constant......, the curve levels off. Partitioning of surfactant between the oil and water phase is a novel effect in the context of microbial enhanced oil recovery. The partitioning coefficient determines the time lag before the surfactant effect can be seen. The surfactant partitioning does not change final recovery...

  20. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  1. A Robust Multifunctional Sandwich Panel Design with Trabecular Structures by the Use of Additive Manufacturing Technology for a New De-Icing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovanni Ferro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.

  2. Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole and surface geophysics were used to investigate ground-water quality affected by a road-deicing salt-storage facility located near a public water-supply well field. From 1994 through 1998, borehole geophysical logs were made in an existing network of monitoring wells completed near the bottom of a thick sand aquifer. Logs of natural gamma activity indicated a uniform and negligible contribution of clay to the electromagnetic conductivity of the aquifer so that the logs of electromagnetic conductivity primarily measured the amount of dissolved solids in the ground water near the wells. Electromagneticconductivity data indicated the presence of a saltwater plume near the bottom of the aquifer. Increases in electromagnetic conductivity, observed from sequential logging of wells, indicated the saltwater plume had moved north about 60 to 100 feet per year between 1994 and 1998. These rates were consistent with estimates of horizontal ground-water flow based on velocity calculations made with hydrologic data from the study area.

  3. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCl & MgCl2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    Road-side aquatic ecosystems in North America are annually polluted with millions of tons of road deicing salts, which threaten the survival of amphibians which live and breed in these habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl, little is known of the second most-commonly used deicer, MgCl(2), which is now used exclusively in parts of the continent. Here we report that environmentally relevant concentrations of both NaCl and MgCl(2) cause increased incidence of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt hatchlings that developed embryonically in these salts. In addition, we provide some of the first quantification of severity of different deformities, and reveal that increased salt concentrations increase both deformity frequency and severity. Our work contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests salamanders and newts are particularly vulnerable to salt, and that the emerging pollutant, MgCl(2) is comparable in its effects to the more traditionally-used NaCl.

  4. Long-term dynamics of anthropogenic solonetzicity in soils of the Eastern okrug of Moscow under the impact of deicing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, E. M.; Kasimov, N. S.; Kosheleva, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term dynamics of the anthropogenic soil solonetzicity under the impact of applied deicing salts were studied in the Eastern administrative okrug (EAO) of Moscow. The composition and amount of the applied agents and distribution patterns of sodium in snowmelt water and in soils of different land-use zones were analyzed. The maps of soil solonetzization in the EAO in 1989, 2005, and 2010 were compiled, and the degree of degradation of the soil cover was evaluated. It was shown that the contrast of the technogenic anomalies in the content of exchangeable sodium and the size of these anomalies in soils of the okrug increase with time. In 21 years, the mean content of exchangeable sodium in the surface soil layer increased from 0.38 to 0.80 cmol(equiv.)/kg, and the degree of solonetzicity (as judged from the exchangeable sodium percentage) increased from 3.1 to 7.2%. In 2005-2010, the rates of sodium accumulation in the soil adsorption complex were twice as high as those in 1989-2005.

  5. A new system of snow-melting and deicing%一种新型的融雪化冰系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯雪梅

    2014-01-01

    Based on the technology of ice and snow melting processes through the heating power, a new system for snow melting or deicing is designed.Four units of the new system including heat production,heat insulation and thermal conductivity,and control part are integrated ingen-iously.In this new system heat is generated by heating cable,and heat is transferred evenly to the road by composite carbon with foam glass to insulate heating power.Experimental analysis on road table temperature,melting ice dynamics and heat insulation performance show that the effect of ice and snow melting is good with less heat loss in the process of the whole running system.%基于热力融雪化冰技术,研发设计一种新型融雪化冰系统。该系统由发热、隔热、导热以及控制模块四部分组成。利用发热电缆产生热量,用复合碳进行热量的均匀传导,并采用泡沫玻璃进行隔热。通过路表温度、融冰动力学和隔热性能实验分析,该系统融雪化冰效果较好,且在整个运行过程中系统热损耗较小。

  6. Toxicity of road deicing salt (NaCl) and copper (Cu) to fertilization and early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrosh, Urma; Kleiven, Merethe; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2014-09-15

    In many countries, salting of ice or snow covered roads may affect aquatic organisms in the catchment directly or indirectly by mobilization of toxic metals. We studied the toxicity of road deicing salt and copper (Cu) on the vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), from fertilization till hatching. Controlled episodic exposure to road salt (≥ 5,000 mg/L) during fertilization resulted in reduced swelling and less percent egg survival. Exposure to Cu both during and post fertilization caused delayed hatching. Larval deformities were, however found as an additional effect, when eggs were exposed to high salt concentration (≥ 5,000 mg/L) mixed with Cu (10 μg Cu/L) during fertilization. Thus, it appears that the sensitivity of early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon increased when exposed to these stressors, and road salt application during spawning can pose threat to Atlantic salmon in water bodies receiving road runoff. The study gives insight on assessment and management of risks on Atlantic salmon population posed by road related hazardous chemicals.

  7. 风电叶片除冰方法理论研究%A Theoretical Research on Deicing Technology for Wind Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳; 薛浩鹏; 郝志勇

    2015-01-01

    With the deterioration of global ecological environment, clean and green energy has been developing quickly, especially the wind power energy. However, the problem of blade freezing in winter somehow restricts the development of wind power. A theoretical study was carried out on common deicing methods used at home and abroad,aiming to provide reference to future blade ice prevention technology.%随着地球生态环境日益恶化,清洁绿色能源得到了快速发展,储备丰富的风能发展尤为迅速.然而风机叶片冬季结冰问题很大程度上限制了风力发电的发展速度.根据目前国内外常用的除冰方法,从理论上进行学习研究,为以后更好地摸索风叶除冰技术打下坚实的基础.

  8. Methods for analysis of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for analysis of 10 selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics in biological fluids are reviewed. Approaches for sample preparation, detection methods, limits of detection and quantitation and recovery information are provided for both single analyte and multi-analyte fluoroquinolone methods....

  9. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  10. Thermal recovery simulation at the pore-network level; Simulacao de recuperacao termica em escala microscopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Claudio L.N.; Almeida, Murilo P.; Andrade Junior, Jose S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Herrmann, Hans J. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich (ETHZ), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of temperature in penetration of an inviscid fluid into a porous media saturated with a very high viscous fluid. Gradient of temperature is applied across the medium. The viscosity of the defending fluid is considered as an exponential-like function with temperature. This scheme represents a small fraction of a heavy oil reservoir where steam injection is applied. The results show that the recovery of the viscous fluid is a hyperbolic tangent function with the difference of temperature, where it has a maximum recovery for high gradient. Our results show, also, that the recovery efficiency can increase substantially with the gradient of temperature. (author)

  11. Prevention and Monitoring of Secondary Deicing Salt Soil at Tian' anmen%天安门融雪剂次生盐害土壤的防治与监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭城; 孙向阳; 郝利锋; 张强; 罗丹

    2012-01-01

    为了减轻氯盐类融雪剂对生态环境造成的污染,节约由此产生的土壤治理修复费用,针对天安门广场油松土壤的融雪剂次生盐害问题,采用铺设吸附层的方式进行了土壤防治工作.吸附层由海泡石绒、沸石、腐殖质3种吸附性材料组成,具有吸附融雪剂中Na+、Cl-等无机离子的作用,分别对铺设吸附层前后的土壤采样分析.结果表明:吸附层对土壤的pH、EC值有明显缓冲作用,可有效吸附融雪剂中Na+、Cl-,但对Cl-可能存在吸附量上限.后续的土壤监测表明,天安门广场地形及车辆行人等因素对土壤EC值有一定影响.吸附层能够吸收氯盐类融雪剂中的无机盐离子成分,在一定范围内可有效防止氯盐类融雪剂对油松种植土壤造成的次生盐害问题,改变污染状况.%In order to reduce the pollution caused by chlorine deicing salt on the ecological environment, and save the costs of soil remediation and repair, prevention and control of soil was carried out with a kind of adsorbed layer of deicing salt adsorption, which was made up of adsorption materials, such as sepiolite cashmere, zeolite and humus, aiming at the Tian' anmen Square in Pinus tebulaeformis planting soil secondary salinity problems of deicing salt. The laying of adsorption layer and soil were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that, the adsorption layer would absorb Na+, Cl- from the deicing salt effectively, which also had an obviously buffer action on pH, EC value of soil. However, a maximum adsorption capacity might exist when Cl- was absorbed. The follow-up soil monitoring showed that, pedestrians and traffic on Tiananmen Square and other factors had certain effect on soil EC value. The adsorption layer would absorb the inorganic salt ion composition in the chlorine deicing salt, and it would effectively prevent the secondary salt damage caused by the chlorine deicing salt on Pinus tabulaeformis planting soil, to change the

  12. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  13. Research on Transmission Line De-icing Source Based on the Method of High-frequency Excitation%基于高频激励法的输电线路融冰激励源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆群伟; 周羽生; 罗屿; 刘亮

    2015-01-01

    针对当前输电线路融冰技术的缺陷,国外有学者提出了一种在线高频激励融冰方法。此方法具有可实现在线融冰、融冰电流小和融冰效率高等优点,但成套融冰设备未得到深入研究。为推进此融冰方法在输电线路中的实际应用,提出一种针对500 kV交流输电线路的移动式高频融冰激励源设计方案,重点分析并计算了移相变压器与功率单元相关参数,并运用MATLAB对级联式高频激励源进行仿真。结果表明,此方案可行且具有谐波含量低、输出电压稳定等优势。%Considering the current defects of transmission line melting ice technologies, some foreign scholars have proposed a new online high⁃frequency excitation method of melting ice which has the advantages of online deicing, small deicing current and high deicing efficiency;but the complete sets of equipment for deicing still need more re⁃search. To promote the practical application of this method in the power system, this paper proposes a portable high⁃frequency excitation design program used in 500 kV transmission line, and focuses on the analysis and calcu⁃lation of the phase⁃shifting transformers and power unit parameters. Then cascaded high⁃frequency excitation is sim⁃ulated with MATLAB. The results show that this scheme is feasible and has many advantages such as low harmonic contents and stable output voltage.

  14. 基于微波与磁铁耦合发热效应的融雪除冰技术%Techniques for snow-melting and deiced based on microwave and magnet coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德栋; 沙爱民

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the microwave deicing efficiency of cleating the ice on the road rapidly, the deicing tech- nology of asphalt pavement based on microwave and magnet coupling effect was studied by tests. First, the technologi- cal property of magnetite aggregate and magnetite asphalt concrete were tested. Second, the microwave-heated tests were put forth to analyze the heated efficiency of conventional and magnetite aggregates. Finally, the microwave deicing efficiency of asphalt concrete was studied by the laboratory tests. The results showed the technological property of mag- netite asphalt concrete could meet the requirements according to specification. The microwave-heated efficiency of magnetite aggregates was about 20 times of conventional aggregates. The microwave deicing efficiency of magnetite asphalt concrete was about 10-20 times of conventional asphalt concrete.%为提高道路的融雪除冰效率,实现冬季道路雪后快速畅通,对基于微波与磁铁耦合效应的融雪除冰技术进行了试验研究。首先测定了磁铁矿集料的技术性质和磁铁矿沥青混凝土的路用性能;其次通过微波发热试验对比分析了普通集料和含磁铁集料的微波发热效率;最后通过室内除冰试验分析了磁铁矿沥青混凝土的微波除冰效率。结果表明:磁铁矿沥青混凝土路用性能能够满足规范要求;磁铁矿集料的微波发热效率约为普通集料的20倍;磁铁矿沥青混凝土的微波除冰效率约为普通沥青混凝土的10~30倍。

  15. 氯盐型融雪剂碳钢腐蚀性的测定新方法%Determination for Chloride Salt -Type of Deicing Salt Carbon Steel Causticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树轩; 李宁; 李波; 李玉龙

    2012-01-01

    文章考虑了融雪剂使用过程的通气状态,提出测定氯盐型融雪剂碳钢腐蚀率的新方法—充氧测定法.并比较了充氧与非充氧条件下,NaCl、MgCl2和CaCl2三种融雪剂对碳钢的腐蚀性.在充氧条件下,141 h三种融雪剂的失重率相差不大,普遍大于非充氧状态下553 h的失重率,553 h时,当浓度低于4%,失重率CaCl2> MgCl2> NaCl,浓度大于4%时,失重率NaCl> CaCl2> MgCl2.并利用灰色系统理论建模,预测分析CaCl2对碳钢腐蚀性.在553 h时,非充氧条件下,灰色预测效果好,误差<±10.%In this paper, after considering the aeration state of using deicing salt, we proposed a new method of measuring for chloride salt - type of deicing salt carbon steel causticity by oxygenizing mensuration. And compare with the condition of oxygenation and dis - oxygenation. The causticity for carbon steel from the three kind of deicing salt were NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2- In general , the rate of weight loss of these kind of deicing salt have less difference in the condition of oxygenation with 141 h, greater than the condition of dis - oxygenation with 553 h. When the time is 553 h and the conch is lower than 4% , the rate of weight loss is: CaCl2 > MgCl2 > NaCl; and when the conch is higher than 4% , the rate of weight loss is: NaCl > CaCl, > MgCl2. We predicted and analyzed the carbon steel causticity from CaCl2 with Grey system theory model. In the condition of dis - oxygenation with 553 h, the impact of grey predicting is very good, and the inaccuracy is lower than ± 10.

  16. 氯盐融雪剂对4种地被植物种子萌发的影响%Effect of chloride deicing salts on seed germination of four ground covers species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬; 周广柱

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of four kinds of ground covers (Poa pratensts, Bromus inermis Layss,Coreopsis basalis,Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. ) were studied. The length of roots and shoots of ground covers were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the four kinds of ground covers was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 14.69 g/L, 10.04 g/L, 7.38 g/L and 7.31 g/L forCosmos bipinnatus Cav, Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis,respectively and the maximum value were 21.08 g/L, 16.51 g/L, 14.67 g/L and 13.50 g/L, respectively.%以草地早熟禾、无芒雀麦、金鸡菊、波斯菊4种地被植物种子为研究材料,探讨不同浓度氯盐类融雪剂对其发芽的影响。结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,4种地被植物种子萌发、幼芽、幼根生长受到的抑制作用增强。4种地被植物对融雪剂胁迫的耐受能力大小依次为波斯菊>无芒雀麦>金鸡菊>草地早熟禾,耐受临界值分别为14.69 g/L、10.04 g/L、7.38 g/L和7.31 g/L,极限值分别为21.08 g/L、16.51 g/L、14.67 g/L和13.50 g/L。

  17. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  18. Means and method for the recovery of expansion work in a vapor compression cycle device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, H.B.

    1981-12-08

    Recovery of substantially all of the work associated with the expansion of a multi-component working fluid mixture in a vapor compression cycle device is enabled by conveying working fluid in a liquid phase from a condenser to a coldest portion of an evaporator assembly in a countercurrent heat exchange relationship with fluid flowing through the evaporator assembly.

  19. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Aqueous Solutions Used as Secondary Working Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Melinder, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Secondary working fluids (secondary refrigerants, heat transfer fluids, antifreezes, brines) have long been used in various indirect re-frigeration and heat pump systems. Aqueous solutions (water solu-tions) have long been used as single phase (liquid only) secondary working fluids for cooling in supermarkets, ice rinks, heat recovery systems, heat pumps and other applications. However, aqueous solutions are increasingly used also for freezers in supermarkets and other applications in low tem...

  1. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study; Anormalidade de sinal na imagem por RM do polo temporal na epilepsia do lobo temporal com esclerose hipocampal: um estudo pela sequencia inversao recuperacao com supressao da agua livre (FLAIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrete Junior, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Americo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Marcia Targas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, {chi}{sup 2} test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)

  2. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  3. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  4. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  5. Research on deicing effect of self-stress elastic asphalt mixture pavement%自应力弹性沥青混合料路面除冰效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺先访

    2016-01-01

    The rutting specimens were poured water and were placed in low temperature to make them freeze into ice. The rut meter was used to roll of the test pieces in different temperature,dosage of rubber particles and ice thickness,and the broken rate was calculated to evaluate the deicing effect of self-stress elastic asphalt mixture pavement. The results show that the deicing effect of SEAM increases with the adding of rubber particles,and decreases with the reducing of temperature and increasing of the ice thickness.%采用在车辙试件上洒水并在低温环境下凝冰的方法,模拟了沥青路面结冰情况,并在不同温度、橡胶颗粒掺量以及凝冰厚度的条件下,用车辙仪对凝冰试件进行了碾压,通过计算不同条件下的冰层破损率,评价了自应力弹性沥青混合料路面的除冰效果,结果表明,SEAM的除冰效果随橡胶颗粒掺量的增加而提高,随温度的降低和冰层厚度的增加而下降.

  6. 路面融雪化冰模型装置试验研究%Experimental study on the device of deicing and snow-melting model for the pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇军; 常睿; 岳卫民

    2016-01-01

    This paper established a small road testing system of deicing and snow melting,and analyzing the law of heat-conduction in the con-crete through the temperature change in different parts,and based on this,temperature distribution of structure layer and road surface,the as-cending rule of temperature and snow melting effect of the preheating time were researched theoretically. It provides reference and basis for dei-cing and snow-melting of road.%针对路面融雪化冰现象,建立了一个小型道路融雪化冰试验系统,通过不同部位温度变化情况,分析了热量在混凝土中的传导规律,并在此基础上,对结构层内温度场、上表面温度分布和升温规律、预热时间融雪效果进行了理论研究,为道路融雪化冰提供参考和依据。

  7. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  8. Line-grasping Control for the Deicing Robot on High Voltage Transmission Line%高压输电线路除冰机器人抓线运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 孙炜

    2011-01-01

    针对高压输电线路除冰机器人越障抓线过程中存在的对输电线缆定位困难的问题,提出一种基于输电线缆几何特征的单目立体视觉定位方法.该方法根据输电线缆成像的边缘、输电线缆半径和摄像机成像模型,可以计算输电线缆中轴线在摄像机坐标系下的数学表达式,从而对任意位姿的高压输电线缆进行精确的三维定位.在输电线缆准确定位的基础上,为了快速地确定抓取输电线缆的准确位置并提高除冰机器人抓线运动控制实时性,提出一种基于除冰机器人机械臂结构特征的除冰机器人抓线运动控制策略,该控制策略通过在机器人基坐标系下计算机械臂末端夹持器工作空间曲面与输电线缆轴线的交点来确定抓取点,并同时计算抓取线缆时机械臂各个关节的期望位置.试验结果验证了所提视觉定位方法及抓线控制策略的有效性.%To solve the visual positioning problem of the deicing robot working on high voltage transmission line, a monocular stereoscopic visual positioning method based on the geometrical feature of the transmission cable is presented.On the basis of the edge of transmission cable image, the radius of transmission cable and the camera imaging model, this method deduces the mathematic formula of transmission cable axis under the camera coordinate system, so that the precision 3D positioning of the HV transmission cable in arbitrary pose can be realized.In order to solve the difficulty of calculating the line-grasping point and meet the real time requirement of line-grasping control, a line-grasping control scheme based on the mechanical structure of the deicing robot manipulator is developed.By calculating the intersection point of the transmission cable axis and the end-effector workspace of the deicing robot under deicing robot base coordinate system, this control scheme determines the coordinate of the line-gasping point and the desired

  9. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  10. Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious environmental impacts caused by plastic wastes have attracted worldwide concern. The biobased and biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA appears to be one of the potential candidates to replace some conventional plastics. However, high production cost of PHAs has limited their market penetration. The major cost absorbing factors are the upstream fermentation processes and the downstream PHA recovery technologies. The latter significantly affects the overall process economics. Various recovery technologies have been proposed and studied in small scales in the laboratory as well as in industrial scales. These include solvent extraction, chemical digestion, enzymatic treatment and mechanical disruption, supercritical fluid disruption, flotation techniques, use of gamma irradiation and aqueous two-phase system. This paper reviews all the recovery methods known to date and compares their efficiency and the quality of the resulting PHA. Some of the large-scale production of PHA and the strategies employed to reduce the production cost are also discussed.

  11. Waste-aware fluid volume assignment for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    the fluid volume assignment for each operation of the application, such that the FUs volume requirements are satisfied, while over- and underflow are avoided and the total volume of fluid used is minimized. We propose an algorithm for this fluid assignment problem. Compared to previous work, our method...... is able to minimize the fluid consumption through optimal fluid assignment and reuse of fluid waste. Due to the algorithm's low complexity, fluid requirements can also be calculated during runtime for error recovery or statically unknown cases....

  12. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and their correlation with recovery of neurological functions%高血压脑出血患者脑源性神经营养因子水平变化及其与神经功能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜利; 龚涛; 李长清; 张书琼; 李莉

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) contents in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected by ELISA method in 30 cases of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH group) and 30 healthy subjects (control group).The performance and neurological functions of patients were evaluated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale( NIHSS),Hamilton Depression Scale ( HAMD),Barthel Index of Daily Living Skills.The result showed that the contents of BDNF in blood and CSF of HCH patients in recovery stage were significantly higher than those in acute stage and those of control group ( P < 0.05 ) ; the contents of BDNF in blood and CSF were negatively correlated with neurological impairment degree ( P <0.05).The results suggest that BDNF in the blood or the CSF may promote the recovery of neurological function in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage.%采用ELISA法检测30例高血压脑出血患者(观察组,因检测时间点不同而分为M1、M2亚组),30名正常人(对照组)血液和脑脊液中脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的含量;用美国国立卫生院神经功能评分量表(NIHSS)、汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、日常生活能力Barthel指数对观察组患者按不同的时间点(发病后≤7 d,发病后≥21 d)进行评分.结果显示高血压脑出血患者恢复期血液和脑脊液BDNF显著高于急性期患者和对照组(P<0.05);血液和脑脊液BDNF含量与出院时神经功能缺损程度呈显著负相关(P<0.05).脑脊液或血液中的BDNF对高血压脑出血患者神经功能的恢复具有促进作用.

  13. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Nutrition for post-exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M

    1997-03-01

    Recovery after exercise poses an important challenge to the modern athlete. Important issues include restoration of liver and muscle glycogen stores, and the replacement of fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat. Rapid resynthesis of muscle glycogen stores is aided by the immediate intake of carbohydrate (I g.kg-1 BM each 2 hours), particularly of high glycemic index carbohydrate foods, leading to a total intake over 24 hours of 7-10 g.kg-1 BM. Provided adequate carbohydrate is consumed it appears that the frequency of intake, the form (liquid versus solid) and the presence of other macronutrients does not affect the rate of glycogen storage. Practical considerations, such as the availability and appetite appeal of foods or drinks, and gastrointestinal comfort may determine ideal carbohydrate choices and intake patterns. Rehydration requires a special fluid intake plan since thirst and voluntary intake will not provide for full restoration of sweat losses in the acute phase (0-6 hr) of recovery. Steps should be taken to ensure that a supply of palatable drinks is available after exercise. Sweetened drinks are generally preferred and can contribute towards achieving carbohydrate intake goals. Replacement of sodium lost in sweat is important in maximising the retention of ingested fluids. A sodium content of 50-90 mmol.L-1 may be necessary for optimal rehydration; however commercial sports drinks are formulated with a more moderate sodium content (10-25 mmol.L-1). It may be necessary to consume 150% of fluid losses to allow for complete fluid restoration. Caffeine and alcohol containing beverages are not ideal rehydration fluids since they promote an increased rate of diuresis.

  15. 突发性聋患者内耳三维液体衰减反转恢复成像在预后评估中的价值%Three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 3T MRI in sudden deafness: its findings and relationship with the prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱银锋; 吴继春; 张诚; 余永强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨突发性聋患者内耳在三维液体衰减反转恢复(fluid attenuated inversion recovery,FLAIR)成像上的表现及其与疗效间关系.方法 23例突发性聋患者行三维FLAIR成像,观察内耳在FLAIR上的表现,并测定入院和治疗后的平均听阈,分析内耳信号与治疗结果之间关系.结果23例患者中8例患侧耳蜗在FLAIR上呈高信号,15例患侧及全部健侧耳蜗无信号.就诊时患侧耳蜗无信号组患者平均((x)±s,下同)听阈(听力级,下同)为(80±24) dB,耳蜗高信号组平均听阈为(92±18)dB,差异无统计学意义(t=1.245,P>0.05);治疗后两组的平均听阈分别为(60±28)dB和(90±21)dB,有效率分别为60.0%和12.5%,差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).7例伴有眩晕患者中5例患侧半规管在FLAIR上呈高信号,此5例均治疗无效.结论三维FLAIR可显示突发性聋患者内耳淋巴液改变,呈高信号时疗效及预后差.%Objective To investigate inner ear of patients with sudden deafness with threedimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery(3 D FLAIR) MRI,and the relationship between the results of 3D FLAIR and the prognosis.Methods Twenty-three patients with sudden deafness received 3D FLAIR at 3T MRI,and the signals of inner ear were recorded.Hearing levels were evaluated at initial visit and after treatment.The relationship between 3D FLAIR findings and hearing prognosis was evaluated.Results Eight patients with sudden deafness showed high signals in the affected cochlea on 3D FLAIR,the others of affected cochlea and all of contralateral cochlea showed no signal on 3D FLAIR.The age,sex,affected side,period to initial visit and initial audiogram had no difference between cochlea no signal group and high signal group.The average auditory threshold (~ ± s) in cochlea high signal group (90 ± 21 ) dB HL was significant higher than that in cochlea no signal group (60 ±28) dB HL,P <0.05 at patients' discharge.After treatment,in cochlea no

  16. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagr...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  18. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  19. Recovery of salts from ion-exchange regeneration streams by a coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiříček, Tomáš; De Schepper, Wim; Lederer, Tomáš; Cauwenberg, Peter; Genné, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange tap water demineralization for process water preparation results in a saline regeneration wastewater (20-100 mS cm(-1)) that is increasingly problematic in view of discharge. A coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation (NF-MD) process is evaluated for the recovery of water and sodium chloride from this wastewater. NF-MD treatment of mixed regeneration wastewater is compared to NF-MD treatment of separate anion- and cation-regenerate fractions. NF on mixed regeneration wastewater results in a higher flux (30 L m(-2) h(-1) at 7 bar) compared to NF on the separate fractions (6-9 L m(-2) h(-1) at 30 bar). NF permeate recovery is strongly limited by scaling (50% for separate and 60% for mixed, respectively). Physical signs of scaling were found during MD treatment of the NF permeates but did not result in flux decline for mixed regeneration wastewater. Final salt composition is expected to qualify as a road de-icing salt. NF-MD is an economically viable alternative compared to external disposal of wastewater for larger-scale installations (1.4 versus 2.5 euro m(-3) produced demineralized water for a 10 m3 regenerate per day plant). The cost benefits of water re-use and salt recuperation are small when compared to total treatment costs for mixed regenerate wastewater.

  20. Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.

    1996-01-01

    Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.

  1. Multi-sensor Integrated Approach of De-icing Robot to study Sensor Range%除冰机器人的多传感器高效融合障碍测距方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋绍楼; 王晓宗

    2012-01-01

    Obstacles ranging is one of the key technologies of the high -tension transmission line deicing robot. According to the structural features of the 220kV transmission line deicing robot, puts forward a new method of obstacles distance detection based on information integration. First of all. Design the structure of the multi- sensors detecting system of deicing robot based on the obstacles distribution. Build the model of the obstacles information integration system. According to the nonlinearity of the obstacles information state model, synchronize the asynchronous measured data of the sensors. Then, filtering and integrate the modified multi- sensors information. Compare with the results of the single sensor, the experimental results show that: This method can effectively integrate information from different sensors, with a higher range accuracy and faster convergence rate.%障碍物测距是高压输电线路自主除冰机器人的关键技术之一;针对220 kV输电线路除冰机器人的结构特点,提出了一种基于障碍物距离信息融合检测方法;首先根据障碍物分布情况设计了除冰机器人多传感器检测系统的结构,建立了障碍物信息融合系统模型.然后根据障碍物信息状态模型的非线性特点,对传感器获取的异步测量数据进行同步处理,再应用改进的多传感器信息进行滤波和融合,并与单个传感器的结果相比较,实验结果研究表明:该方法能有效地融合不同传感器的信息,具有更高的测距精度和更快的收敛速度.

  2. Study on coupled thermo-mechanical characteristic and its effects during the process of electrothermal deicing%电热除冰的热力耦合特性及其对冰层的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春华; 林贵平; 桂业伟; 肖京平

    2012-01-01

    采用计算和实验相结合的方法,初步研究了电热除冰过程中的热力耦合特性及其对冰层的影响.在电加热条件下,耦合外部气动力载荷的作用,采用有限元方法计算了不同热流密度下表面冰层和蒙皮间界面法向和切向应力的分布,比较了加热/不加热条件下界面法向和切向应力分布的差别,研究了冰层最大主应力随热流密度的变化规律.研究发现,电加热条件下,在表面冰层融化前,热力耦合特性将造成冰层内部应力的显著增加,从而 造成冰层局部区域的破裂,加速冰层的破坏.同时,设计的原理性实验结果验证了热力耦合特性对冰层的破坏影响.研究结果对于电热除冰理论和除冰技术的发展有现实意义.%With computational and experimental method combined, the coupled thermo-mechanical characteristic in the ice is studied during the process of electrothermal deicing. The characteristics of interface normal and shear stress distributions between ice and airfoil are studied under different heat fluxes coupled with aerodynamic loading conditions by finite element method in this paper. The differences of normal and shear stress distributions between heated and unheated conditions are analyzed. The effects of heat flux on maximum principal stress are investigated. The study shows that coupled thermo-mechanical characteristic leads to remarkable increasing of stress in the ice under the condition of electrothermal deicing. Consequently, it results in crack in the ice and speeds up ice shedding before ice layer at surface begins to melt. The conclusion is validated by test for principle. The study will provide the technical support for the development of new deicing technique.

  3. 高压输电线路除冰机器人机械本体结构的研究%Mechanical Structure Research of Deicing Robot for High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雷; 郭锐; 张峰

    2013-01-01

    北方输电线路冬季因受冰雪危害引起的供电中断事故严重,修复工作难度大、周期长、停电面积广,是全世界范围内需解决的难点问题.针对高压输电线路覆冰情况,提出了一种线路除冰机器人,由移动机构、除冰刀具、电源系统和控制系统组成,机器人利用固定在前端的三角形刀具的撞击力清除覆冰;驱动轮采用V型结构.适应一定范围的线径,采用的锁紧机构和防倾倒机构,为机器人提供了足够的稳定支撑,有效防止了机器人激烈碰撞时向后倾斜.该机器人体较小、除冰效率高,可清除厚度20mm的覆冰.%Transmission lines of power in northern region are being harmed because of overloading snows and ice during winter. This kind of accident often can cause large-areas blackout for days and masses of complicated repair as well, which has come into notice not only in china but all around the world. According to the icing condition of high voltage transmission lines, a kind of deicing robot is proposed. By moving mechanism, deicing tool, power system and control system, this robot uses the impact force of the triangular tools which are fixed in front of the robot. Using V type structure of driving wheel can adapt to a range of wire diameter. The locking mechanism and the dumping mechanism can provide sufficient stability support and effectively prevent robot tilted backwards. The robot has the advantages of light weight,small size and high deicing efficiency and can remove the20mm thickness of ice.

  4. Effect of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of three cool-season turfgrass species%融雪剂对3种冷季型草坪草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张营; 李法云; 荣湘民; 孙婷婷; 李霞; 程志辉

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two typical deicing salts (mass concentration of NaCl in No. 1 deicing salt was 45.2%, in No. 2 deicing salt 54.6% ) on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of three kinds of cool-season turfgrasses (Poa pratensis cv. Merit, Lolium perenne cv. Green Emerald and Trifolium repens cv. Riverdel) were studied. The length of roots and shoots, relative water content, relative permeability of plasma membrane, malondialdehyd (MDA) content and peroxidases(POD) activity of turfgrass seedlings were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the three kinds of turfgrasses was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Compared with No. 1 deicing salt, the inhibition effect of No. 2 deicing salt was stronger. Lolium perenne showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 6.25-9.61 g/L, 4.99-6.17 g/L and 1.97-3.11 g/L for Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens, respectively and the maximum value were 12.89-16.85 g/L, 9.79-12.62 g/L and 5.71-8.26 g/L, respectively. The deicing salts mainly inhibited water absorption, disturbed membrane function and induced MDA accumulation via the effect of osmotic and ion toxicity, and POD enzyme of the three kinds of turfgrass seedlings provided some protection against the dcicing salt stress.%以早熟禾(Poa pratensis cv.Merit)、黑麦草(Lolium perenne cv.Green Emerald)和白三叶(Trifolium repens cv.Riverdel)3种冷季型草坪草为材料,探讨2种典型融雪剂(1号融雪剂含NaCl 45.2%,2号融雪剂含NaCl54.6%)对其种子萌发、幼芽和幼根生长的影响,并测定幼苗生长过程中含水量、质膜相对透性、丙二醛含量及过氧化物酶(POD)活性.结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,3种草坪草种子萌发和幼苗生长受到的抑制作用增强,2号融雪剂对草坪

  5. "Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…

  6. "Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…

  7. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  8. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  9. 高肇直流融冰运行模式下无功功率和谐波特性分析%Analysis on Reactive Power and Harmonics of Gao-Zhao HVDC Under Deicing Operation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠藩; 王海军; 陈潜

    2011-01-01

    为研究高肇(高坡一肇庆)直流融冰模式、正常模式的无功特性和谐波特性,基于EMTDC搭建了±500kV高肇直流背靠背融冰详细模型并重点针对融冰模式、正常模式下换流站的无功特性和交直流侧谐波特性进行仿真研究。仿真结果表明:高坡站融冰模式的无功消耗比正常模式略大,肇庆站融冰模式的无功消耗则比正常模式略小;融冰模式下换流站交流谐波电流幅值比正常模式小、畸变率比正常模式大,而交流谐波电压及其畸变率均比正常模式小;融冰模式下同一换流站中两极处于不同的运行状态,两极直流侧谐波特性不相同。该研究结果为高肇直流在融冰方式下滤波器的投切提供一定的理论指导。%To study the characteristics of reactive power and harmonic of Gao-Zhao high voltage direct current (HV[)C) under deicing operation mode and normal operation mode, an EMTDC model of ~500 kV C-ao-Zhao HVDC with direct current power forth-and reverse transmission deicing function is introduced in detail. With this model the characteristics of reactive power and harmonic at converter station are analyzed. Simulations show that: (1) Reactive power consumption at Gaopo converter station under deicing operation mode is larger than that under normal operation mode, while Zhaoqing converter station is on the contrary; (2) The amplitude of harmonic alternative current is smaller and total harmonic current distortion rate is larger compared to the normal operation mode, and the amplitude and harmonic distortion rate of alternative current voltage are both smaller than that of normal operation mode; (3) The two poles operating at different modes and the harmonic in direct system of each pole in the same converter station is different. Simulation results are helpful to the control of alternative current filter control under deicing operation mode.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  11. Fluid flow behaviour of gas-condensate and near-miscible fluids at the pore scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawe, Richard A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Grattoni, Carlos A. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Retrograde condensate reservoir behaviour is complex with much of the detailed mechanisms of the multiphase fluid transport and mass transfer between the phases within the porous matrix still speculative. Visual modelling of selected processes occurring at the pore level under known and controlled boundary conditions can give an insight to fluid displacements at the core scale and help the interpretation of production behaviour at reservoir scale. Visualisation of the pore scale two-phase flow mechanisms has been studied experimentally at low interfacial tensions, < 0.5 mN/m, using a partially miscible fluid system in glass visual micro models. As the interfacial tension decreases the balance between fluid-fluid forces (interfacial, spreading and viscous) and fluid-solid interactions (wettability and viscous interactions) changes. Data measurements in the laboratory, particularly relative permeability, will therefore always be difficult especially for condensate fluids just below their dew point. What is certain is that gas production from a gas-condensate leads to condensate dropout when pressure falls below the dew point, either within the wellbore or, more importantly, in the reservoir. This paper illustrates some pore scale physics, particularly interfacial phenomena at low interfacial tension, which has relevance to appreciating the flow of condensate fluids close to their dew point either near the wellbore (which affects well productivity) or deep inside the reservoir (which affects condensate recovery). (author)

  12. Development of a Lightweight, High-speed Obstacle Negotiating Robot for Line-tracking and Deicing along High Voltage Power Transmission Lines%轻量化高速过障高压巡线除冰机器人研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁盛槟; 聂晓根; 黄博贤; 谢招龙

    2016-01-01

    ln order to solve the problem of thick and solid icing on the power transmission lines in the cold zone, a strong and effi-cient deicing robot is developed. The robot is lightweight, high-speed, obstacle negotiating and fit to work along the high voltage power transmission lines in the cold zone. Adopting mil ing and pressing, the robot can deice efficiently. With the flexible lateral wheel driving device, the robot can operate stably and cross obstacles at high speed. By dynamic analysis, the structure of the robot is op-timized, and is lightweight. ln this paper, the working principles, mechanical structure, power system and control system are dis-cussed. The operation of the prototype verified the design.%针对严寒地带输电线路覆冰厚实的情况,以强力高效除冰、高速过障和轻量化为目标,研制一种适合严寒地带高压输电线除冰机器人。该机器人采用铣削和压除组合方式实现强力、高效除冰,设计柔性侧向轮驱动装置实现机器人稳定运行和高速过障,通过对除冰机器人进行动力学分析实现结构优化和轻量化。并论述该除冰机器人的工作原理、机械结构、动力系统和控制系统,样机运行结果验证了设计的正确性。

  13. 飞机除冰资源申请过程航空公司的博弈研究%Game Theoretical Research for Process of Appling for Aircraft Deicing Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志伟; 张彭城

    2011-01-01

    Airlines' game in the process of apply for deicing resources and the economic benefits have been analyzed based on Game Theory. Based on the analysis of the resources negotiate strategy of airline coalition,a optimal and stable strategy for the coalition has been proposed by introducing the idea of cooperative games and the de -commitment penalty mechanism. Finally, agent utility based negotiation algorithms are devised. The simulation results of the approach that negotiation algorithm combined with the Shapley value have shown that we enabled a solution of deicing costs distribution which assures fair and efficiency.%以博弈论方法为分析工具,分析飞机除冰资源申请过程航空公司的博弈行为及其经济绩效.以航空公司合作组织中各博弈方的资源转让策略为研究对象,引入了合作博弈思想和违约惩罚机制,讨论航空公司合作组织的最优稳定策略,设计了基于Agent效用的成员协商算法;最后,运用协商算法结合Shapley值解分析的方法对除冰费用分摊的的合理性进行仿真,结果对比显示,此方法实现了分配的公平和有效.

  14. Design and Implementation of Anti-icing and Deicing System Based on Profibus for Icing Wind Tunnel%基于Profibus的结冰风洞防除冰系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小安; 张艳清; 杨洪涛

    2015-01-01

    Since the nodes of anti-icing and deicing system are disperse ,and there are many control tunnels and temperature sensors in anti-icing and deicing system ,this paper proposes a distributed system based on Profibus .The solutions to multiple control tunnels , multiple human-machine intefaces ,and bus real-time diagnosis are put forward .The practical results show that the system works w ell .%为了解决某结冰风洞防除冰系统分布较分散、各点之间距离较远、防除冰控制通道和温度采集点较多等问题 ,提出了基于Profibus的分布式控制系统 ,采用动力集中控制、测量数据分布式采集方案 ,综合了集中式控制和总线分布式控制的优点.采用面向对象的编程理念 ,通过模块化设计解决了多控制通道问题 ;通过特殊的工作模式控制策略 ,解决了多人机界面的问题 ;通过引入总线诊断功能 ,解决了复杂系统故障实时检测与快速定位问题.实际运行结果表明 ,基于Profibus的结冰风洞防除冰系统运行平稳 ,收到了预期效果.

  15. Tracking Control of Deicing Robot on Voltage Transmission Lines Based on Online Gravity Compensation%基于在线重力补偿的输电线除冰机器人轨迹跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦杰; 王耀南

    2013-01-01

    为了克服重力因素对机械臂控制的影响,提高机械臂的轨迹跟踪性能,在传统固定重力补偿的基础上,结合机器人空间几何特性和扭矩平衡原理推导出各关节的重力补偿函数,针对除冰机器人右臂提出了一种精确的在线重力补偿PD控制策略.实验结果表明,相对于以往一些研究成果和未进行重力补偿的机械臂系统,该策略具有更好的控制性能,同时,对连续信号也具有更好的轨迹跟踪性能.%In order to overcome the influence of gravity factor on robot arms and improve tracking performance of robot arms,an accurate online gravity compensation other than fixed value gravity compensation PD control strategy is presented.In this method,robot space geometry and torque balance principle are used to deduce thc gravity compensation function of each joint.Then the control design is applied to the right arm model of the deicing robot.The experiment results show that the deicing robot's right arm with accurate online gravity compensation control design has better control performance than the past researches and that has no online gravity compensation,and has better tracking performance of continuous signals.

  16. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a good'' surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  17. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a ``good`` surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  18. Domestic wastewater heat recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Veijola, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study and explain the purpose and the function of drain water heat exchangers. The thesis goes over theory behind heat transfer and heat exchangers and presents the general solutions of domestic drain water heat recovery systems. Systems gone over in detail are the different general shower drain water heat recovery systems. Another part of the thesis is a case study of an actual shower drain water heat recovery system of a Finnish household. The purpose of th...

  19. Design of Bridge Deck with Intelligent Temperature Control and Deicing System%智能控温防冻桥面的构思和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭红霞; 涂莉; 李建男

    2012-01-01

    It is cold winter in China,and the cold weather lasts almost one month in south China and even longer in the north.So,the road surface and bridge deck get iced up easily.The traffic accidents and high-way closures caused by icing will bring huge negative social influence and economic losses,so it is necessary to take effective decicing methods.However,some of the current deicing methods,have both advantages and disadvantages.Accordingly,this paper proposes a new method:replace a row of reinforcement steel bar with steel pipes in the steel mesh and lay heating wires in the pipes to heat up he bridge deck.The entire circuit control system takes the advantage of automatic temperature control.When the deck temperature is lower than 2 ℃,the temperature control system automatically switch on the power,and wires warm up;when the deck temperature is higher than 20 ℃,the temperature control system automatically switch off the power,wires stop warming.In this way,intelligent temperature control is achieved,and at the same time,the deck will not be iced up in low temperature.This system is easy to repair when with a fault,thus ensuring safe transportation.%中国冬季天气寒冷,路面桥面容易结冰,南方结冰期近1个月,北方时间更长.结冰引起的交通事故和高速公路关闭带来巨大的社会影响和经济损失,故急需采取有效的方法防止路面结冰.利用在桥面铺装层中的钢筋网,修改一个方向的钢筋为钢管,钢管中敷设发热丝,对桥面加热,整个电路使用控制系统根据温度变化自动控制.当桥面温度低于2℃时,控温系统自动接通电源,发热丝发热,加热桥面,当桥面温度高于20℃时,控温系统自动断开电源,发热丝停止加热桥面,从而实现温度智能可控,并且低温时路面不会结冰,故障时易于检修,车辆能安全通行.

  20. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...

  1. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  2. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursae (fluid-filled sacs in the joints), and tendon sheaths. After the joint area is cleaned, the ... HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes ...

  3. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  4. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose the cause of inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and/or fluid accumulation around the heart ( ... pressure within blood vessels or inflammation of the pericardium. An initial set of tests, including fluid protein ...

  5. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to ... sample of fluid will be taken from the pericardium. This is done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis . ...

  6. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  7. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  8. Energy efficient fluid powered linear actuator with variable area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-09-13

    Hydraulic actuation systems having variable displacements and energy recovery capabilities include cylinders with pistons disposed inside of barrels. When operating in energy consuming modes, high speed valves pressurize extension chambers or retraction chambers to provide enough force to meet or counteract an opposite load force. When operating in energy recovery modes, high speed valves return a working fluid from extension chambers or retraction chambers, which are pressurized by a load, to an accumulator for later use.

  9. Fluid force transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  10. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  11. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  12. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  13. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN FENGYING

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  14. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  16. Silver recovery system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  17. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  18. Graphite/Epoxy Deicing Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Dillehay, Michael E.; Stahl, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Heat applied close to surface protected. One ply of highly electrically- and thermally-conductive brominated-graphite fiber composite laminated between two plies of electrically-insulating composite material, with michel foil making contact with end portions of graphite fibers. Part of foil exposed beyond composite to serve as electrical contact. Graphite/Epoxy composite heater developed to prevent and reverse formation of ice on advanced composite surfaces of aircraft.

  19. Experiment Research on Freeze-thaw Splitting of Asphalt Concrete of Deicing and Snow Melting Based on Ground-Source Heat Pump%地源热泵融雪化冰沥青混凝土冻融劈裂实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨豪; 屠艳平; 朱志刚

    2016-01-01

    The technology of deicing and snow melting based on ground-source heat pump has many advantages, but some scholars pointed out that water damage was intensified because of deicing and snow melting. An experimental program was designed to estimate the degree of water damage of deicing and snow melting based on ground-source heat pump. The tensile splitting strength based on ground-source heat pump is 0.72MPa,but the tensile splitting strength of based on test procedures is 0.68MPa. The results showed that deicing and snow melting technology based on ground-source heat pump not only will increase the water damage of asphalt pavement, but also will improve the capability of resistance to water.%地源热泵融雪化冰技术具有许多优越性,有的学者指出道路融雪化冰会导致沥青路面水损害加剧。通过设计一套试验方案来评价利用地热源泵融雪化冰后路面的水损坏程度。地源热泵加热融化的试件的劈裂抗拉强度为0.72MPa,而根据试验规程测得的劈裂抗拉强度为0.68M孕a,结果表明地源热泵融雪化冰技术不仅不会增加沥青路面的水损害,还会提高路面抗水损害性能。

  20. Sizing models and performance analysis of waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycles for heavy duty trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Ludovic; Legros, Arnaud; Quoilin, Sylvain; Declaye, Sébastien; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to address this problematic of selecting the architecture, the expander and the working fluid for a waste heat recovery organic (or non-organic) Rankine cycle on a truck engine. It focuses especially on three expander technologies: the scroll, the piston and the screw expanders, and three working fluids: R245fa, ethanol and water. Peer reviewed

  1. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  2. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  3. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  4. Liberal or restrictive fluid administration in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Foss, N B; Andersen, J

    2007-01-01

    surgery were randomized to 'restrictive' (Group 1) or 'liberal' (Group 2) perioperative fluid administration. Fluid algorithms were based on fixed rates of crystalloid infusions and a standardized volume of colloid. Pulmonary function (spirometry) was the primary outcome measure, with secondary outcomes...... of exercise capacity (submaximal exercise test), orthostatic tolerance, cardiovascular hormonal responses, postoperative ileus (transit of radio-opaque markers), postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia, and overall recovery within a well-defined multimodal, fast-track recovery programme. Hospital stay...

  5. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  6. 环保多功能沥青除冰路面一体化设计研究%Environment-friendly multi-function asphalt pavement de-icing design and mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁庆军; 彭馨彦; 姜友生; 陈光新; 毛明

    2012-01-01

    依托湖北杭瑞高速公路工程,为降低沿线行车通过居民区带来的噪音污染,解决冬季路面积雪薄冰带来的行车安全问题,以具有一定结构除冰性能的高连通孔隙沥青路面材料为基体,选用橡胶高黏度改性沥青,并掺人环保型化学抑冰剂,开发设计具有除冰、降噪、抗滑功能材料路面.以不牺牲路用性能为前提,通过测试动稳定度、冻融劈裂强度比、飞散损失、抗剪强度等,确定环保型化学抑冰剂的掺量.同时利用驻波管法、手工铺砂法及轮版法测定空隙化分别为16%、20%、24%、28%的路面材料除冰性能、降噪性能和抗滑性能.测试结果表明,当环保型融雪除冰剂的掺量为2%,空隙率控制在20%左右时,高连通孔隙沥青材料的路面使用性能最佳,具有较好的除冰性能、降噪性能和抗滑性能.%The present study aims to introduce a new approach to reducing expressway noise pollution caused by the roadside traffic and relieving the traffic hazard caused by the snow-ice sliding in winter days by taking the Hangzhou-Ruili Expressway construction project as our case study. In proceeding with our research, we have done a series of experiments and tests for our goals by using high-sticking porous asphalt pavement material to lower the traffic noise by using modified high-viscosity rubber asphalt and environment-friendly organic-inorganic composite deicer to increase the skidding and sliding resistance so as to heighten the de-icing function of the road. In our experiments, we have repeatedly tested the dynamic stability, the freeze-thaw splitting strength ratio, the loss of sliding, shear strength and other parameters concerned so as to determine the appropriate dosage of environment-friendly organic-inorganic composite deicer. And, the eventually, the testing results prove that the pavement performance of the innovated composite pavement asphalt material can reduce the skidding and

  7. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this past quarter, work continued on: the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement; the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optical control methods; and in the area of chemical additives, work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  8. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter work continued on: development of relative permeabilities during steam injection; optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods; and behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  9. Recovery from vestibular ototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. O.; Gianna-Poulin, C.; Pesznecker, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine whether subjects with documented vestibular ototoxicity recover vestibular function and, if so, investigate the recovery dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective reviews and repeated measures. SETTING: Clinical research and technology center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight subjects who received vestibulotoxic medications were followed for at least 12 months after initial treatment. CONTROLS: Our subject sample was compared with a published database of normal individuals. INTERVENTIONS: All 28 subjects received systemically administered medications known to be ototoxic. The subjects' treating physicians controlled medication, dosage, and administration schedules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tests of horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular function were performed. Subjects' auditory and vestibular symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven subjects (39%) showed changes in horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular gain constant (GC) and/or time constant (TC) consistent with vestibular ototoxicity. When tested 1 year after ototoxic drug administration, eight of the nine subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in GC showed a recovery of GC to normal limits. Only one of the eight subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in TC showed recovery of TC to within normal limits. Ototoxicity onset and recovery were independent of baseline vestibular function, and ototoxicity onset did not correlate with cumulative dose of ototoxic medication. There was no relationship between subjective symptoms and ototoxicity onset. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of GC after vestibular ototoxicity is more commonly observed than recovery of TC. Because ototoxic changes developed and continued in an unpredictable time and manner in relation to ototoxic drug administration, we propose that once ototoxic changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex are detected, ototoxic medications should be discontinued as soon as possible.

  10. Effect of neglecting geothermal gradient on calculated oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Majid; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Reduced recovery rate with time is a common challenge for most of the oil producing reservoirs. Water flooding is one of the most common methods used for enhanced oil recovery. Simulating water-flooding process is sometimes carried out without considering the effect of geothermal gradient, and an average temperature is assumed for all the grid blocks. However, the gradient plays a significant role on the reservoir fluid properties. So neglecting its effect might result in a large error in the calculated oil recovery results, especially for the thick reservoirs, which in theory can show significant variations in temperature with depth. In this paper, first, advancing the waterfront during injection into a geothermal oil reservoir is discussed. Then, the performance of considering either an average temperature or gradient temperature, are considered and compared with each other. The results suggest that assuming a fixed average reservoir temperature with no geothermal gradient, can lead to a pronounced error for calculated oil recovery.

  11. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  12. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M. [Briggs Marine Environmental Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  13. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  14. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain......This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...

  15. Epigenetics in Stroke Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: While the death rate from stroke has continually decreased due to interventions in the hyperacute stage of the disease, long-term disability and institutionalization have become common sequelae in the aftermath of stroke. Therefore, identification of new molecular pathways that could be targeted to improve neurological recovery among survivors of stroke is crucial. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histone proteins and microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of the enhanced plasticity observed during repair processes after stroke. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in the evolving field of epigenetics in stroke recovery. PMID:28264471

  16. Loads and yields of deicing compounds and total phosphorus in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2017-09-12

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of the large amount of roadway in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply is affected by the usage of deicing compounds and by other constituents that are flushed from such impervious areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1998) through continuous monitoring and the collection of stream-flow samples.In a study conducted by the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Cambridge Water Department, concentrations and loads of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of specific conductance and streamflow for streams and tributaries at 10 continuous water-quality monitoring stations. These data were used to characterize current (2015) water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins. These data also were used to describe how stream-water quality is related to various basin characteristics and provide information to guide future management of the drinking-water source area.Water samples from 2009–15 were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, potassium (K), SO4, and total phosphorus (TP). Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in composite samples of stormflow from tributaries that have high percentages of constructed impervious areas. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and K in samples collected from the tributaries in the Cambridge Reservoir Basin (27.2, 273, 4.7, 154

  17. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  18. Does goal-directed fluid therapy affect postoperative orthostatic intolerance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Jans, Øivind; Müller, Rasmus Gamborg;

    2013-01-01

    Early mobilization is important for postoperative recovery but is limited by orthostatic intolerance (OI) with a prevalence of 50% 6 h after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative OI is assumed to include hypovolemia besides dysregulation of vasomotor tone. Stroke volume-guided fluid...

  19. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  20. The Fluids RAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo

    2016-11-01

    After fifteen years of experience in rap, and ten in fluid mechanics, "I am coming here with high-Reynolds-number stamina; I can beat these rap folks whose flows are... laminar." The rap relates fluid flows to rap flows. The fluid concepts presented in the song have varying complexity and the listeners/viewers will be encouraged to read the explanations on a site dedicated to the rap. The music video will provide an opportunity to share high-quality fluid visualizations with a general audience. This talk will present the rap lyrics, the vision for the video, and the strategy for outreach. Suggestions and comments will be welcomed.

  1. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  2. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  3. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world economy crawls ahead amid risk and uncertainty The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  5. Recovery post ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  6. Sulfur recovery further improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, J.; Grinsven, M. van; Warners, A. van [Jacobs Nederland B.V., (Netherlands); Nisselrooy, P. van [Gastec N.V., (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    The original 100-year-old Claus process for producing sulfur from hydrogen sulfide in acid gas is described together with improvements which have been made over the years. The most recent modification, EUROCLAUS, achieves sulfur recoveries of 99-99.9 per cent. Five commercial units are being designed.

  7. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Di Muro, M A; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A

    2015-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three ...

  8. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  9. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  10. Line-grasping control of de-icing robot based on k-nearest neighbor reinforcement learning%基于k-最近邻分类增强学习的除冰机器人抓线控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏书宁; 王耀南; 印峰; 杨易旻

    2012-01-01

    输电线柔性结构特性给除冰机器人越障抓线控制带来极大困难.本文提出了一种结合k–最近邻(k-nearest neighbor,KNN)分类算法和增强学习算法的抓线控制方法.利用基于KNN算法的状态感知机制选择机器人当前状态k个最邻近状态并且对之加权.根据加权结果决定当前最优动作.该方法可以得到机器人连续状态的离散表达形式,从而有效解决传统连续状态泛化方法带来的计算收敛性和维数灾难问题.借助增强学习算法探测和适应环境的能力,该方法能够克服机器人模型误差和姿态误差,以及环境干扰等因素对抓线控制的影响.文中给出了算法具体实现步骤,并给出了应用此方法控制除冰机器人抓线的仿真实验.%The flexible mechanical characteristic of power lines induces difficulties for line-grasping control for de-icing robots.To deal with this difficulty,we propose for de-icing robots a line-grasping control approach which combines the k-nearest neighbor(KNN) algorithm and the reinforcement-learning(RL).In the learning iteration,the state-perception mechanism of the KNN algorithm selects k-nearest states and weights;from k-weighted states,an optimal action is determined.By expressing a continuous state by k-nearest discrete states in this way,this approach effectively ensures the convergence for the computation and avoids the curse of dimensionality occurred in traditional continuous state-space generalization methods.Abilities of RL in perception and adaptation to the environment make the line-grasping control to tolerate possible errors in robot model,errors of robot arm attitudes and interferences from the environment.The design procedures are presented in details.Simulation results of line-grasping control based on this approach are given.

  11. Liquid-liquid equilibria for reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol and reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol plus water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2013-01-01

    The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemica...

  12. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  13. Fluid characterization for miscible EOR projects and CO2 sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2007-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of miscible enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects or CO, sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs relies in part on the ability of an equation-of-state (EOS) model to adequately represent the properties of a wide range of mixtures of the resident fluid...... and the injected fluid(s). The mixtures that form when gas displaces oil in a porous medium will, in many cases, differ significantly from compositions created in swelling tests and other standard pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) experiments. Multicontact experiments (e.g., slimtube displacements) are often used...... in the data reduction and demonstrate that for some gas/oil systems, swelling tests do not contribute to a more accurate prediction of multicontact miscibility. Finally, we report on the impact that use of EOS models based on different characterization procedures can have on recovery predictions from dynamic...

  14. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess variables

  15. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary

  16. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  17. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  18. Applications of fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.R.; Garg, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes flexible and practical approach to learning the basics of fluid dynamics. Each chapter is a self-contained work session and includes a fluid dynamics concept, an explanation of the principles involved, an illustration of their application and references on where more detailed discussions can be found.

  19. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  20. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  1. Fluid blade disablement tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G [Albuquerque, NM; Todd, Steven N [Rio Rancho, NM

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  2. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  3. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  4. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    options for produced fluids that require additional treatment for these constituents are also discussed, including surface disposal, reuse and recycle, agricultural industrial and domestic uses, mineral extraction and recovery, and solid waste handling.

  5. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    using the learned statistics. A quantitative evaluation is performed on a data set of 10 laser scans of ear canal impressions with minimal noise and artificial holes. We also present a qualitative evaluation on authentic partial scans from an actual direct in ear scanner prototype. Compared to a state......We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit...... to and register unknown samples, resulting in an extensive statistical model. The statistical recovery uses a multivariate point prediction, where the distribution of the points is given by the Active Shape Model. We show how missing data in a partial scan, once point correspondence is achieved, can be predicted...

  6. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  7. Spontaneous recovery from acalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Anna; Caporali, Alessandra; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A topic much considered in research on acalculia was its relationship with aphasia. Far less attention has been given to the natural course of acalculia. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between aphasia and acalculia in an unselected series of 98 left-brain-damaged patients and the spontaneous recovery from acalculia in 92 acalculic patients with follow-up. There was a significant association between aphasia and acalculia although 19 participants exhibited aphasia with no acalculia and six acalculia with no aphasia. We observed significant improvement between a first examination carried out between 1 and 5 months post-onset and a second examination carried out between 3 and 11 months later (mean: 5 months). The mechanisms of spontaneous recovery are discussed.

  8. A Bridge to Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Loya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence can trigger adverse economic events for survivors, including increased expenses and decreased earnings. Using interview data, this exploratory study examines how access to assets (liquid assets, familial financial assistance, and homeownership affects survivors’ economic well-being during recovery. In keeping with asset theory, liquid assets and familial assistance can help offset post-assault expenses and facilitate access to services. Homeownership, meanwhile, appears to have mixed effects on survivors’ economic well-being. These findings suggest that the economic costs of sexual violence can burden survivors with fewer financial resources more heavily than those who own significant assets. As such, these findings shift the focus toward a dimension of inequality in recovery from sexual violence that is often overlooked in research and that may have implications for public policy and victim services.

  9. MOLECULAR DESIGN OF COLLOIDS IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith P. Johnston

    2009-04-06

    The environmentally benign, non-toxic, non-flammable fluids water and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the two most abundant and inexpensive solvents on earth. Emulsions of these fluids are of interest in many industrial processes, as well as CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Until recently, formation of these emulsions required stabilization with fluorinated surfactants, which are expensive and often not environmentally friendly. In this work we overcame this severe limitation by developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of surfactants the CO2-water interface and using this knowledge to design and characterize emulsions stabilized with either hydrocarbon-based surfactants or nanoparticle stabilizers. We also discovered a new concept of electrostatic stabilization for CO2-based emulsions and colloids. Finally, we were able to translate our earlier work on the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanocrystals and nanowires from high temperatures and pressures to lower temperatures and ambient pressure to make the chemistry much more accessible.

  10. Challenging multiphase complex fluids for applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许元泽

    2008-01-01

    Modern processing technology is calling the scientific understanding of dynamic processes,where the science of complex fluids plays a central role.We summarize our recent efforts using the generic approaches of multi-scale physics of complex fluids on apparently irrelevant processes,i.e.the mixing of polymer blends,the processing of thermoplastic(TP) toughened thermosetting(TS) composites using phase separation of TP in TS,as well as the enhanced oil recovery using polymer soft gel.It is emphasized that the thorough physical understanding in multi-scales of time and space through the joint efforts of experiment and theory in each scale is the key issue for the modeling of various processes.

  11. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  12. Water recovery from dew

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, D; Gioda, A; Milimouk, I; Katiushin, E; Morel, J.-P

    1996-01-01

    International audience; The recovery of clean water from dew has remained a longstanding challenge in many places all around the world. It is currently believed that the ancient Greeks succeeded in recovering atmospheric water vapour on a scale large enough to supply water to the city of Theodosia (presently Feodosia, Crimea, Ukraine). Several attempts were made in the early 20th Cent. to build artificial dew-catching constructions which were subsequently abandoned because of their low yield....

  13. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  14. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  15. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  16. Applied fluid mechanics; Mecanique des fluides appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, P.L.; Chabard, J.P.; Esposito, P.; Laurence, D. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    2002-07-01

    Computational hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics, and hydro-informatics have invaded virtually all domains of research and application in hydro-science and fluids engineering. To the extent that this invasion has led to improved understanding of complex fluid phenomena and provided a frame of reference for testing and verifying designs and operational schemes, we have all benefited from it. But to the extent that it has shifted attention away from fundamental descriptions and understanding of fluid phenomena, and toward computational and numerical issues, this invasion has left avoid in the scientific and technical literature. This void exists somewhere between student exposure to first principles of solid and fluid mechanics on the one hand, and advanced-student and researcher/practitioner exposure to computational techniques and applications on the other. This new text naturally and refreshingly steps in to fill this void, and as such is a most welcome addition to the literature and to personal and institutional libraries. The text is refreshing in its innovative and careful attention to setting the historical framework of general and specific topics. This is most notable in the first chapter, which very gracefully and efficiently leads the reader through historical developments to contemporary mathematical statements of basic fluid phenomena. Once the authors have established this foundation of fundamental principles, they tie each succeeding chapter back into the introduction with appropriate and supportive historical contexts. Although the text does not shy away from rigorous analytical descriptions of fluid phenomena, it is unique in providing this delightful historical context for each topic. The authors have also made a special effort to tie the chapters together into a unified whole, with ample references forward and back; this is indeed rare, and much appreciated, in a text of multiple authorship. The topics treated and chapter structures reflect

  17. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  18. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Periodic motion of three stirrers in a two-dimensional flow can lead to chaotic transport of the surrounding fluid. For certain stirrer motions, the generation of chaos is guaranteed solely by the topology of that motion and continuity of the fluid. Work in this area has focused largely on using physical rods as stirrers, but the theory also applies when the "stirrers" are passive fluid particles. We demonstrate the occurrence of topological chaos for Stokes flow in a two-dimensional lid-driv...

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  1. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  2. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Aircraft Fluid Exposure on T800H/3900-2 Composites Bonded with AF-555M Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Lowther, Sharon E.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Connell, John W.; Blasini, Sheila Roman

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites and structural adhesives have found increased usage on commercial and military aircraft in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance has not been well established. In this study, single lap shear specimens (SLS) were fabricated by secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminates. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of the SLS specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually using an optical microscope for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C (180 F) and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The effect of this exposure on lap shear strength and failure modes to date is reported. In addition, the effects of water, saline water, deicing fluid, JP-5 jet fuel and hydraulic fluid on both the composite material and the adhesive bonds were investigated. The up to date results on the effects of these exposures will be discussed.

  3. Recovery of copper and cobalt by biopolymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, L K; Lopez, S L; Eastman, S L; Pryfogle, P

    1991-02-05

    The recovery of copper from synthetic aqueous media circulating in a loop fluidized bed reactor operated batchwise was investigated by using the following biopolymer systems: (1) a viscous solution of sodium alginate (from kelp) dispensed directly into the reactor fluid containing dissolved copper (sulfate salt) at initial concentrations of 60-200 ppm, (2) partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres for absorbing dissolved copper at initial concentrations of 10-40 ppm, and (3) a mixture of green algae Microcystis and sodium alginate dispensed directly into the reactor fluid. The recovery of copper and cobalt, a strategic metal, from cobalt ore leachate was achieved by a two-step approach: direct dispensing of sodium alginate to absorb the bulk of metals followed by the addition of partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres to "polish" the leachate. Metal binding capacity and conditional stability constant of each biopolymer system as well as the effective diffusivity of cupric ion in the matrix of biopolymer gels are reported.

  4. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E

    2015-09-01

    The term "recovery" is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The "What Is Recovery?" project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n=1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent "What Is Recovery?" survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peritoneal fluid glucose, amylase, tumor markers, bilirubin, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Microscopic examination – may be performed if infection or cancer is suspected; a laboratory professional may use a ...

  6. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  7. Pericardial fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the thin sac that surrounds the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You ... may be due to an infection of the pericardium. The specific organism causing the infection may be ...

  8. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  9. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  11. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society......, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources....... Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...

  12. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  13. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  14. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  16. One-step purification of mouse monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid by DEAE Affi-Gel blue chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, C; Portetelle, D; Glineur, C; Bollen, A

    1982-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies can be purified directly from ascitic fluids by chromatography on a DEAE Affi-gel blue column. Optimal conditions were determined for the recovery of immunoglobulins free of contaminating protease and nuclease activities.

  17. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  19. Recovery of culturable of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during operation of a liquid-based bioaerosol sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection fluids used in liquid-based bioaerosol samplers can influence the viability of microorganisms. In this study we determined the recovery efficiency of vegetative E. coli O157:H7 cells that were spiked into low viscosity evaporating collection fluids during operation of a BioSampler™ for up...

  20. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  1. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  2. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  3. Chocolate milk as a post-exercise recovery aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason R; Johnston, Jeanne D; Tecklenburg, Sandra; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Fly, Alyce D; Stager, Joel M

    2006-02-01

    Nine male, endurance-trained cyclists performed an interval workout followed by 4 h of recovery, and a subsequent endurance trial to exhaustion at 70% VO2max, on three separate days. Immediately following the first exercise bout and 2 h of recovery, subjects drank isovolumic amounts of chocolate milk, fluid replacement drink (FR), or carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), in a single-blind, randomized design. Carbohydrate content was equivalent for chocolate milk and CR. Time to exhaustion (TTE), average heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and total work (WT) for the endurance exercise were compared between trials. TTE and WT were significantly greater for chocolate milk and FR trials compared to CR trial. The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.

  4. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...

  5. Experiments and Simulations of Fluid Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoir Models - Emphasis on Impacts from Crossbeds and Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerresen, Knut Arne

    1996-12-31

    Hydrocarbon recovery from subsurface reservoirs has become increasingly dependent on advanced recovery techniques that require improved understanding of the physics of fluid flow within and across geological units including small-scale heterogeneities and fractures. In this thesis, impacts from heterogeneities on local fluid flow are studied experimentally by means of imaging techniques to visualize fluid flow in two dimensions during flooding of larger reservoir models. Part 1 reflects the multi-disciplinary collaboration, by briefly introducing the relevant geology, the literature on experiments on fluid flow in bedded structures, and outlining the applied numerical simulator and imaging techniques applied to visualize fluid flow. The second part contains a synopsis of displacement experiments in naturally laminated sandstones and in crossbed laboratory models, and of the impact from incipient shear fractures on oil recovery. The detailed results obtained from the experiments and simulations are described in six papers, all included. 215 refs., 108 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Building a beverage for recovery from endurance activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-11-01

    Recovery beverages are commonly used by endurance and team-sport athletes during the time between exercise sessions. Practical recommendations on the optimal nutrient composition of these drinks and timing of their consumption are therefore needed. This article summarizes research to date on the use of recovery beverages after aerobic activities and provides the following recommendations for practitioners on the optimal formula and timing of use for endurance and team-sport athletes. Current evidence suggests that, to maximize glycogen resynthesis, athletes should consume about 1.2 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight as glucose and sucrose immediately after exercise and each hour thereafter for 4-6 hours postexercise. Alternatively, they may consume 0.8 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) in combination with 0.4 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) amino acids or protein. Liquids provide valuable fluids for rehydration, and an ideal recovery beverage should not only contain carbohydrate and protein but also contain electrolytes, including about 0.3-0.7 g sodium·per liter fluid to help restore sodium lost through sweat. Commercial beverages with this type of nutrient composition are effective, and recent work indicates that chocolate milk may be as effective as or superior to these in promoting recovery. Research regarding the effects of specific types of amino acids and antioxidants on recovery is mixed; thus, further investigation is needed before specific recommendations about these nutrients can be made. Future studies that include women and athletes representing a variety of sports, ages, and training levels and that use consistent methodology will lead to a better understanding of the effects of postexercise intake on recovery.

  7. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  8. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  9. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  10. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...... with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies...

  11. [Body fluids during 120-day anti-orthostatic hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachik, V I; Zhidkov, V V; Abrosimov, S V

    1989-01-01

    Body fluid variations were examined during 120-day antiorthostatic (-5 degrees) hypokinesia in 21 test subjects, 9 of which comprised a control group (Group 1). The remaining 12 subjects formed three groups (four subjects each) who received drugs to normalize mineral and lipid metabolism (Group 2), or performed specially developed exercises (Group 3), or were on the combined treatment (Group 4). Total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (IFV), extracellular fluid volume (EFV), and EFV composition were measured by nuclear physical methods. Measurements were taken prior to exposure, on head-down tilt days 1, 60 and 120, and on recovery day 15. Body composition and K40 content were investigated before and after head-down tilt. The controls showed body dehydration that began on tilt day 1 at the expense of vascular fluid and continued by day 60 at the expense of interstitial fluid and by day 120 at the expense of IFV. Group 2 subjects exhibited variations that were similar to those of controls. Group 3 subjects were in better shape due to the beneficial effect of exercise which diminished as head-down tilt continued. In the recovery period the above changes regressed.

  12. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  13. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  15. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  16. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  17. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  18. A new anti-slough drilling fluid study and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. Y.; Meng, Y. F.; Hou, X. T.; Xiao, C.; Li, G.; Niu, C. C.

    2016-08-01

    Currently the BIOCAT drilling fluid system adopted in oil field results in wellbore collapsing frequently, borehole enlargement rate over 100%. In order to settle these problems, the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System is developed by optimizing the inhibitors with high anti-collapsing inhibitive instead of BIOCAT inhibitor, adding impermeable agent SMT3, sealing materials such as graphite, calcium carbonate, etc. Laboratory experiments results show that the developed drilling fluid system has stronger inhibitive and anti-collapse capacity. The swelling increment decreases by over 10% and recovery rate increases by 60%-70%, also, it can efficiently prolong the borehole wall stable period by over 100%. 24 wells applications with the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System achieved good results, comparing to adjacent wells with BIOCAT drilling fluid system, wellbore collapsing decreasing significantly and borehole diameter enlargement of unstable hole section in wells decreased from 100% to 10%, well drilling time decreased by 15%, drilling cost decreased by 10%. It shows that the developed Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System KPAM-NH4PAN can provide strong and long-term inhibition, close to oil-based drilling fluid. so it is suggested that it be used in subsequent drilling operations to enhance the wellbore stability in an oilfield.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng.

  20. Superdiffusive gas recovery from nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative recovery scales as R ˜t1 /2 ) but follows a superdiffusive scaling law R ˜tn (n >0.5 ), which is similar to that observed in some field experiments. For the system studied here, the superdiffusive gas recovery scaling law can be captured well by continuum models in which the gas adsorption and desorption from pore walls are taken into account using the Langmuir model.