Sample records for degrees north latitude

  1. Crustal Structure And Magmatism, Coast Mountains Orogen, Latitude 52-53 degrees North, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Gehrels, G.; Woodsworth, G. J.


    New geologic data and U-Pb ages reveal complex history of arc accretion, crustal thickening and migration of magmatic fronts during deformation. Plutonic ages define distinct western and eastern Jurassic - mid Cretaceous arcs that share a common history after ~90 Ma. Juxtaposition of these arcs occurred during mid- Cretaceous crustal shortening in a dominantly SW-vergent crustal-scale thrust belt. Significant crustal thickening buried 151 Ma granitic clasts to pressures > 6 kb, and mid-Cretaceous plutons were emplaced at this depth along the axis of the orogen. Thrusting continued after establishment of the 90 Ma arc; a regional SW-verging thrust emplaced high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and deep-seated plutons over low- grade rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes. The shear zone is coincident with the western boundary of 82-89 Ma plutons and a regionally extensive, late-kinematic, sill-like pluton. Dextral shear zones preserved on the flanks of the orogen suggest a component of Late Cretaceous transpression. By 75 Ma, metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism had migrated central portions of the orogen and there is no evidence of ductile deformation and syn-kinematic metarmorphism younger than ~70 - 65 along the western flank of the orogen. The Coast shear zone localized 62-58 Ma synkinematic plutons during NE-side up displacement, creating a sharp western magmatic front. Sparse cooling ages suggest plutons and metamorphic rocks adjacent to the CSZ cooled through 500-600 deg between 54-58 Ma during exhumation along the shear zone. Voluminous granitic plutons were emplaced from ~55-50 Ma, but significant crustal extension that affected the eastern side of the orogen farther north is not evident along this transect. This history supports previous models of crustal subcretion and the generation of arc magmas in thickened crust. Definition of two pre-90 Ma arcs negates models calling for simple Andean-style orogen prior to mid

  2. On the Relationship between Liuchiu Islands and 30 Degrees North Latitude Line as China-Japan Islands Territorial Boundary according to FRUS%美国外交档案中琉球群岛与中日岛屿领土分界北纬30°线问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    中美英反法西斯盟国在《开罗宣言》中对处置日本海外领地进行了原则规定,盟国的立场和态度充分体现在“三个所有”的规定上。处置日本海外领土中,琉球群岛的地位和定性非常关键,直接关系到战后处置日本本土问题。西方国家对琉球群岛的立场是清晰的,即琉球群岛不是日本固有领土。《波茨坦公告》是《开罗宣言》处置日本的原则规定的逻辑发展,其对战后日本领土主权作出明确规定,即战后日本领土主权仅限于其本土四岛及盟国决定的临近小岛礁。将日本所有武装力量及附属民事机构从北纬30°线以南地区驱逐出去是《开罗宣言》、《波茨坦公告》的法律文件的实施要求,也是日本战败的必然,由此北纬30°线成为战后中日海上岛屿领土的分界线。%In Cairo Communiquéthe three great Allies declared that Japan should be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which it seized or occupied since the beginning of World War I in 1914,and that all the territories Japan has stolen from China,such as Manchuria,Formosa,and the Pescadores,should be restored to the Republic of China,Japan would also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.The western countries are familiar with the history of Liuchiu islands and know Liuchiu islands are not Japan's inherent territories.Japan's sovereignty in the post World War Ⅱ is limited to four native islands and its adjacent minor off-lying islands north of 30 degrees north latitude line Potsdam Declaration stipulates that all Japanese armed forces personnel and their civilian auxiliaries shall be evacua-ted from all land and water areas south of 30 degrees north latitude.It is not only requirements but also im-plementation results of Cairo Communique and Potsdam Proclamation.As a result,30 degrees north latitude line became the dividing line of islands territory between

  3. Vulnerability of high-latitude soil organic carbon in North America to disturbance (United States)

    Guido Grosse; Jennifer Harden; Merritt Turetsky; A. David McGuire; Philip Camill; Charles Tarnocai; Steve Frolking; Edward Schuur; Torre Jorgenson; Sergei Marchenko; Vladimir Romanovsky; Kimberly P. Wickland; Nancy French; Mark Waldrop; Laura Bourgeau-Chavez; Robert G. Streigl


    This synthesis addresses the vulnerability of the North American high-latitude soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to climate change. Disturbances caused by climate warming in arctic, subarctic, and boreal environments can result in significant redistribution of C among major reservoirs with potential global impacts. We divide the current northern high-latitude SOC pools...

  4. Geomagnetic activity influences the melatonin secretion at latitude 70 degrees N. (United States)

    Weydahl, A; Sothern, R B; Cornélissen, G; Wetterberg, L


    Factors other than light may affect variations in melatonin, including disturbances in the geomagnetic field. Such a possibility was tested in Alta, Norway, located at latitude 70 degrees N, where the aurora borealis is a result of large changes in the horizontal component (H) of the geomagnetic field. Geomagnetic disturbances are felt more strongly closer to the pole than at lower latitudes. Also noteworthy in Alta is the fact that the sun does not rise above the horizon for several weeks during the winter. To examine whether changes in geomagnetic activity influence the secretion of melatonin, saliva was collected from 25 healthy subjects in Alta several times during the day-night and at different times of the year. Single cosinor analyses yielded individual estimates of.the circadian amplitude and MESOR of melatonin. A 3-hour mean value for the local geomagnetic activity index, K, was used for approximately the same 24-hour span. A circadian rhythm was found to characterize both melatonin and K, the peak in K (23:24) preceding that of melatonin (06:08). During the span of investigation, a circannual variation also characterized both variables. Correlation analyses suggest that changes in geomagnetic activity had to be of a certain magnitude to affect the circadian amplitude of melatonin. If large enough (> 80 nT/3 h), changes in geomagnetic activity also significantly decreased salivary melatonin concentration.

  5. Dinosaurs on the North Slope, Alaska: High latitude, latest cretaceous environments (United States)

    Brouwers, E.M.; Clemens, W.A.; Spicer, R.A.; Ager, T.A.; Carter, L.D.; Sliter, W.V.


    Abundant skeletal remains demonstrate that lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, tyrannosaurid, and troodontid dinosaurs lived on the Alaskan North Slope during late Campanian-early Maestrichtian time (about 66 to 76 million years ago) in a deltaic environment dominated by herbaceous vegetation. The high ground terrestrial plant community was a mild- to cold-temperate forest composed of coniferous and broad leaf trees. The high paleolatitude (about 70?? to 85?? North) implies extreme seasonal variation in solar insolation, temperature, and herbivore food supply. Great distances of migration to contemporaneous evergreen floras and the presence of both juvenile and adult hadrosaurs suggest that they remained at high latitudes year-round. This challenges the hypothesis that short-term periods of darkness and temperature decrease resulting from a bolide impact caused dinosaurian extinction.

  6. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. (United States)

    Roberts, May B; Jones, Geoffrey P; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Neale, Stephen; Thorrold, Simon; Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Berumen, Michael L


    Coral reef communities between 26.8 °N and 18.6 °N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  7. Homogeneity of coral reef communities across 8 degrees of latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, May B.


    Coral reef communities between 26.8°N and 18.6°N latitude in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were surveyed to provide baseline data and an assessment of fine-scale biogeography of communities in this region. Forty reefs along 1100 km of coastline were surveyed using depth-stratified visual transects of fish and benthic communities. Fish abundance and benthic cover data were analyzed using multivariate approaches to investigate whether coral reef communities differed with latitude. A total of 215 fish species and 90 benthic categories were recorded on the surveys. There were no significant differences among locations in fish abundance, species richness, or among several diversity indices. Despite known environmental gradients within the Red Sea, the communities remained surprisingly similar. The communities do, however, exhibit subtle changes across this span of reefs that likely reflect the constrained distributions of several species of reef fish and benthic fauna.

  8. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    KAUST Repository

    Saenger, Casey


    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend1-6. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature6-8, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable7,8. owever, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1° C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25 years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552 (United States)

    Saenger, Casey; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; Halley, Robert B.; Carilli, Jessica E.


    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable. However, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1∘C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve.

  10. High latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rogers


    Full Text Available Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and, potentially, regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has increased in the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century because of a warmer climate with longer growing seasons. Here we simulated the changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a stochastic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would result in surface cooling of 0.23 ± 0.09 °C and 0.43 ± 0.12 °C for winter–spring and February–April time periods, respectively. This could provide a negative feedback to high-latitude terrestrial warming during winter on the order of 4–6% for a doubling, and 14–23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. Further work is needed to integrate all the climate drivers from boreal forest fires, including aerosols and greenhouse gasses.

  11. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field: Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Milan, S E; Haaland, S E; Coxon, J; Pedatella, N M; Förster, M; Reistad, J P


    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutr...

  12. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rogers


    Full Text Available Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and, potentially, regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has increased in the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century because of a warmer climate with longer growing seasons. Here we simulated changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a stochastic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would cool the surface by 0.23 ± 0.09 °C across boreal North America during winter and spring months (December through May. This could provide a negative feedback to winter warming on the order of 3–5% for a doubling, and 14–23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. Maximum cooling occurs in the areas of greatest burning, and between February and April when albedo changes are largest and solar insolation is moderate. Further work is needed to integrate all the climate drivers from boreal forest fires, including aerosols and greenhouse gasses.

  13. Quantifying the trade-off between carbon sequestration and albedo in midlatitude and high-latitude North American forests (United States)

    Mykleby, P. M.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.


    Afforestation is a viable and widely practiced method of sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, because of a change in surface albedo, placement of less reflective forests can cause an increase in net-absorbed radiation and localized surface warming. This effect is enhanced in northern high latitudes where the presence of snow cover exacerbates the albedo difference. Regions where afforestation could provide a climate benefit are determined by comparing net ecosystem production and net radiation differences from afforestation in midlatitude and high latitude of North America. Using the dynamic vegetation model Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version (Agro-IBIS), we find a boundary through North America where afforestation results in a positive equivalent carbon balance (cooling) to the south, and a negative equivalent carbon balance (warming) to the north. Including the effects of stand age and fraction cover affect whether a site contributes to mitigating global warming.

  14. New Exoplanet Surveys in the Canadian High Arctic at 80 Degrees North

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Nicholas M; Murowinski, Richard; Carlberg, Raymond; Ngan, Wayne; Salbi, Pegah; Ahmadi, Aida; Steinbring, Eric; Halman, Mark; Graham, James


    Observations from near the Eureka station on Ellesmere Island, in the Canadian High Arctic at 80 degrees North, benefit from 24-hour darkness combined with dark skies and long cloud-free periods during the winter. Our first astronomical surveys conducted at the site are aimed at transiting exoplanets; compared to mid-latitude sites, the continuous darkness during the Arctic winter greatly improves the survey's detection efficiency for longer-period transiting planets. We detail the design, construction, and testing of the first two instruments: a robotic telescope, and a set of very wide-field imaging cameras. The 0.5m Dunlap Institute Arctic Telescope has a 0.8-square-degree field of view and is designed to search for potentially habitable exoplanets around low-mass stars. The very wide field cameras have several-hundred-square-degree fields of view pointed at Polaris, are designed to search for transiting planets around bright stars, and were tested at the site in February 2012. Finally, we present a concep...

  15. Projected changes of the low-latitude north-western Pacific wind-driven circulation under global warming (United States)

    Duan, Jing; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin


    Based on the outputs of 25 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, the projected changes of the wind-driven circulation in the low-latitude north-western Pacific are evaluated. Results demonstrate that there will be a decrease in the mean transport of the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Mindanao Current, and Kuroshio Current in the east of the Philippines, accompanied by a northward shift of the NEC bifurcation Latitude (NBL) off the Philippine coast with over 30% increase in its seasonal south-north migration amplitude. Numerical simulations using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity ocean model show that the projected changes of the upper ocean circulation are predominantly determined by the robust weakening of the north-easterly trade winds and the associated wind stress curl under the El Niño-like warming pattern. The changes in the wind forcing and intensified upper ocean stratification are found equally important in amplifying the seasonal migration of the NBL.

  16. Insights on the host associations and geographic distribution of Hymenolepis folkertsi (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) among rodents across temperate latitudes of North America (United States)

    Synoptic data and an understanding of helminth parasite diversity among diverse rodent assemblages across temperate latitudes of North America remain remarkably incomplete. Renewed attention to comprehensive survey and inventory to establish the structure of biodiverse faunas is essential in identi...

  17. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young


    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  18. North Atlantic blue and fin whales suspend their spring migration to forage in middle latitudes: building up energy reserves for the journey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Silva

    Full Text Available The need to balance energy reserves during migration is a critical factor for most long-distance migrants and an important determinant of migratory strategies in birds, insects and land mammals. Large baleen whales migrate annually between foraging and breeding sites, crossing vast ocean areas where food is seldom abundant. How whales respond to the demands and constraints of such long migrations remains unknown. We applied a behaviour discriminating hierarchical state-space model to the satellite tracking data of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales tagged off the Azores, to investigate their movements, behaviour (transiting and area-restricted search, ARS and daily activity cycles during the spring migration. Fin and blue whales remained at middle latitudes for prolonged periods, spending most of their time there in ARS behaviour. While near the Azores, fin whale ARS behaviour occurred within a restricted area, with a high degree of overlap among whales. There were noticeable behavioural differences along the migratory pathway of fin whales tracked to higher latitudes: ARS occurred only in the Azores and north of 56°N, whereas in between these areas whales travelled at higher overall speeds while maintaining a nearly direct trajectory. This suggests fin whales may alternate periods of active migration with periods of extended use of specific habitats along the migratory route. ARS behaviour in blue whales occurred over a much wider area as whales slowly progressed northwards. The tracks of these whales terminated still at middle latitudes, before any behavioural switch was detected. Fin whales exhibited behavioural-specific diel rhythms in swimming speed but these varied significantly between geographic areas, possibly due to differences in the day-night cycle across areas. Finally, we show a link between fin whales seen in the Azores and those summering in eastern Greenland-western Iceland along a migratory corridor located in central Atlantic

  19. North Atlantic blue and fin whales suspend their spring migration to forage in middle latitudes: building up energy reserves for the journey? (United States)

    Silva, Mónica A; Prieto, Rui; Jonsen, Ian; Baumgartner, Mark F; Santos, Ricardo S


    The need to balance energy reserves during migration is a critical factor for most long-distance migrants and an important determinant of migratory strategies in birds, insects and land mammals. Large baleen whales migrate annually between foraging and breeding sites, crossing vast ocean areas where food is seldom abundant. How whales respond to the demands and constraints of such long migrations remains unknown. We applied a behaviour discriminating hierarchical state-space model to the satellite tracking data of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales tagged off the Azores, to investigate their movements, behaviour (transiting and area-restricted search, ARS) and daily activity cycles during the spring migration. Fin and blue whales remained at middle latitudes for prolonged periods, spending most of their time there in ARS behaviour. While near the Azores, fin whale ARS behaviour occurred within a restricted area, with a high degree of overlap among whales. There were noticeable behavioural differences along the migratory pathway of fin whales tracked to higher latitudes: ARS occurred only in the Azores and north of 56°N, whereas in between these areas whales travelled at higher overall speeds while maintaining a nearly direct trajectory. This suggests fin whales may alternate periods of active migration with periods of extended use of specific habitats along the migratory route. ARS behaviour in blue whales occurred over a much wider area as whales slowly progressed northwards. The tracks of these whales terminated still at middle latitudes, before any behavioural switch was detected. Fin whales exhibited behavioural-specific diel rhythms in swimming speed but these varied significantly between geographic areas, possibly due to differences in the day-night cycle across areas. Finally, we show a link between fin whales seen in the Azores and those summering in eastern Greenland-western Iceland along a migratory corridor located in central Atlantic waters.

  20. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetelat, John, E-mail: john.chetelat@ec.gc.c [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  1. Holocene winter climate variability in mid-latitude western North America. (United States)

    Ersek, Vasile; Clark, Peter U; Mix, Alan C; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence


    Water resources in western North America depend on winter precipitation, yet our knowledge of its sensitivity to climate change remains limited. Similarly, understanding the potential for future loss of winter snow pack requires a longer perspective on natural climate variability. Here we use stable isotopes from a speleothem in southwestern Oregon to reconstruct winter climate change for much of the past 13,000 years. We find that on millennial time scales there were abrupt transitions between warm-dry and cold-wet regimes. Temperature and precipitation changes on multi-decadal to century timescales are consistent with ocean-atmosphere interactions that arise from mechanisms similar to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Extreme cold-wet and warm-dry events that punctuated the Holocene appear to be sensitive to solar forcing, possibly through the influence of the equatorial Pacific on the winter storm tracks reaching the US Pacific Northwest region.

  2. Bright light therapy for seasonal affective disorder in Israel (latitude 32.6 degrees N): a single case placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Moscovici, L


    We describe a patient diagnosed as having seasonal affective disorder (SAD, winter depression), an unlikely condition in Israel (latitude 32.6 degrees N), a country with relatively minor daylight photoperiodic changes between seasons. Case report. A 46-year-old woman with a clinical picture of depression (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria for 'major depression with seasonal pattern') reacted positively to 3 weeks of daily bright light therapy of 10,000 lux/wide spectrum. She was asked to wear dark sunglasses during placebo sessions to accommodate an A-B-C single-case-design. The intervention resulted in an improvement of 74-80% in the Hamilton anxiety and depression scales (clinician-rated) and the Beck depression inventory, similar to results obtained in high latitude regions. The depression and anxiety levels returned close to baseline levels following 1 week of the placebo intervention. Seasonal affective disorder is apparently not limited to certain latitudes. The effect of light therapy was short-lived after discontinuation of the treatment, with rapid relapse occurring in the placebo phase.

  3. Distribution and diversity of tunicates utilizing eelgrass as substrate in the western North Atlantic between 39° and 47° north latitude (New Jersey to Newfoundland) (United States)

    Carman, M R; Colarusso, Phillip D; Nelson, Eric P; Grunden, David W; Wong, Melisa C; McKenzie, Cynthia; Matheson, Kyle; Davidson, Jeffrey G.; Fox, Sophia; Neckles, Hilary A.; Bayley, Holly; Schott, Stephen; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Stewart-Clark, Sarah


    Seagrass meadows are ecologically important habitats that are declining globally at an accelerating rate due to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Their decline is a serious concern as this habitat provides many ecosystem services. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is the dominant seagrass species in the western North Atlantic. It has recently been established that invasive tunicate species possibly threaten the health of eelgrass beds. Colonization of eelgrass leaves by tunicates can inhibit eelgrass growth and may cause shoot mortality. To document the distribution and diversity of tunicate species that attach to eelgrass in the western North Atlantic, we surveyed twenty-one eelgrass sites from New Jersey to Newfoundland. Eight species of tunicates were found to be colonizing eelgrass, of which 6 are considered invasive. Botrylloides violaceus and Botryllus schlosseri were most commonly attached to eelgrass, with B. schlosseri having the largest latitudinal range of any species. Tunicate faunas attached to eelgrass were less diverse north of Gloucester, Massachusetts, where individual survey sites exhibited two species at most and only 4 of the 8 species observed in this study. Percent tunicate cover on eelgrass tended to fall within the 1–25 range, with occasional coverage up to >75–100. Density of eelgrass was highly variable among sites, ranging from <1 to 820 shoots/m². The solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis was only found on eelgrass at the highest latitude sampled, in Newfoundland, where it is a new invader. The tunicates observed in this study, both solitary and colonial, are viable when attached to eelgrass and pose a potential threat to overgrow and weaken seagrass shoots and reduce the sustainability of seagrass meadows.

  4. Aragonite saturation state gridded to 1x1 degree latitude and longitude at depth levels of 0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 meters in the global oceans (NCEI Accession 0139360) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains gridded data of aragonite saturation state across the global oceans (spatial distributions with a resolution of 1x1 degree latitude...

  5. NeQuick 2 total electron content predictions for middle latitudes of North American region during a deep solar minimum (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y. O.; Lescano, G. E.; Alazo-Cuartas, K.; Cabrera, M. A.; Radicella, S. M.


    The performance of NeQuick 2 model in computing the vertical total electron content (VTEC) over a wide region placed at middle latitudes of North America during the deep solar minimum that occurred in 2008 has been checked. The long term relationship between EUV irradiance and F10.7 solar flux has changed markedly during the cycle 23/24 minimum with EUV levels decreasing more than expected from F10.7 proxy. A decrease of ionization in the ionosphere could have occurred. Thus, it could be expected that the models overestimate the value of ionospheric parameters for that deep solar minimum. For this study a high density VTEC data grid that covers the Continental United States (CONUS) has been compared with monthly median maps constructed with NeQuick 2. The results show that NeQuick 2 generally gives good predictions for the region which lies between 35°N to 50°N suggesting that nothing exceptional was happening during the 2008 minimum in terms of VTEC NeQuick 2's predictive capabilities. Taking into account that the modeled value is obtained by integration in height of the electron density profile, NeQuick2 would be assuming an inadequate profile for the few highest deviations observed, between 30°N and 35°N. Overall, the model does not give significant overestimation of VTEC as could be expected.

  6. A synthesis of thermokarst lake water balance in high-latitude regions of North America from isotope tracers (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Turner, Kevin W.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Arp, Christopher D.; Birks, Jean; Bouchard, Frédéric; Edwards, Thomas W.D.; Farquharson, Nicole; Hall, Roland I.; McDonald, Ian; Narancic, Biljana; Ouimet, Chantal; Pienitz, Reinhard; Tondu, Jana; White, Hilary


    Numerous studies utilizing remote sensing imagery and other methods have documented that thermokarst lakes are undergoing varied hydrological transitions in response to recent climate changes, from surface area expansion to drainage and evaporative desiccation. Here, we provide a synthesis of hydrological conditions for 376 lakes of mainly thermokarst origin across high-latitude North America. We assemble surface water isotope compositions measured during the past decade at five lake-rich landscapes including Arctic Coastal Plain (Alaska), Yukon Flats (Alaska), Old Crow Flats (Yukon), northwestern Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba), and Nunavik (Quebec). These landscapes represent the broad range of thermokarst environments by spanning gradients in meteorological, permafrost, and vegetation conditions. An isotope framework was established based on flux-weighted long-term averages of meteorological conditions for each lake to quantify water balance metrics. The isotope composition of source water and evaporation-to-inflow ratio for each lake were determined, and the results demonstrated a substantial array of regional and subregional diversity of lake hydrological conditions. Controls on lake water balance and how these vary among the five landscapes and with differing environmental drivers are assessed. Findings reveal that lakes in the Hudson Bay Lowlands are most vulnerable to evaporative desiccation, whereas those in Nunavik are most resilient. However, we also identify the complexity in predicting hydrological responses of these thermokarst landscapes to future climate change.

  7. High latitude meteoric δ18O compositions: Paleosol siderite in the Middle Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation, North Slope, Alaska (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, Brian J.


    Siderite-bearing pedogenic horizons of the Nanushuk Formation of the North Slope, Alaska, provide a critical high paleolatitude oxygen isotopic proxy record of paleoprecipitation, supplying important empirical data needed for paleoclimatic reconstructions and models of "greenhouse-world" precipitation rates. Siderite ??18O values were determined from four paleosol horizons in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPR-A) Grandstand # 1 Core, and the values range between -17.6??? and -14.3??? Peedee belemnite (PDB) with standard deviations generally less than 0.6??? within individual horizons. The ??13C values are much more variable, ranging from -4.6??? to +10.8??? PDB. A covariant ??18O versus ??13C trend in one horizon probably resulted from mixing between modified marine and meteoric phreatic fluids during siderite precipitation. Groundwater values calculated from siderite oxygen isotopic values and paleobotanical temperature estimates range from -23.0??? to -19.5??? standard mean ocean water (SMOW). Minor element analyses show that the siderites are impure, having enrichments in Ca, Mg, Mn, and Sr. Minor element substitutions and Mg/Fe and Mg/ (Ca + Mg) ratios also suggest the influence of marine fluids upon siderite precipitation. The pedogenic horizons are characterized by gleyed colors, rare root traces, abundant siderite, abundant organic matter, rare clay and silty clay coatings and infillings, some preservation of primary sedimentary stratification, and a lack of ferruginous oxides and mottles. The pedogenic features suggest that these were poorly drained, reducing, hydromorphic soils that developed in coal-bearing delta plain facies and are similar to modern Inceptisols. Model-derived estimates of precipitation rates for the Late Albian of the North Slope, Alaska (485-626 mm/yr), are consistent with precipitation rates necessary to maintain modern peat-forming environments. This information reinforces the mutual consistency between empirical

  8. Exoplanets from the Arctic: The First Wide-Field Survey at 80 Degrees North

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Nicholas M; Salbi, Pegah; Ngan, Wai-Hin Wayne; Ahmadi, Aida; Steinbring, Eric; Murowinski, Richard; Sivanandam, Suresh; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang


    Located within 10 degrees of the North Pole, northern Ellesmere Island offers continuous darkness in the winter months. This capability can greatly enhance the detection efficiency of planetary transit surveys and other time domain astronomy programs. We deployed two wide-field cameras at 80 degrees North, near Eureka, Nunavut, for a 152-hour observing campaign in February 2012. The 16-megapixel-camera systems were based on commercial f/1.2 lenses with 70mm and 42mm apertures, and they continuously imaged 504 and 1,295 square degrees respectively. In total, the cameras took over 44,000 images and produced better-than-1% precision light curves for approximately 10,000 stars. We describe a new high-speed astrometric and photometric data reduction pipeline designed for the systems, test several methods for the precision flat-fielding of images from very-wide-angle cameras, and evaluate the cameras' image qualities. We achieved a scintillation-limited photometric precision of 1-2% in each 10s exposure. Binning th...

  9. A coccolithophore based view on paleoenvironmental changes in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP with special emphasis on MIS 5e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.


    past changes in productivity and hydrography from a new sediment core (MD08-3179Cq) taken in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic in the vicinity of the Azores Current System. Concomitant to the reorganizations of environmental conditions in the North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP, changes......As oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic are known to modulate global climate, they are key to the understanding of past and future climate changes. Especially the mid-latitudes of the open ocean North Atlantic may be of interest, regarding the large area covered. We therefore reconstructed...

  10. Variations in mid-latitude North Atlantic surface water properties during the mid-Brunhes (MIS 9–14 and their implications for the thermohaline circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. L. Voelker


    Full Text Available Stable isotope and ice-rafted debris records from three core sites in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (IODP Site U1313, MD01-2446, MD03-2699 are combined with records of ODP Sites 1056/1058 and 980 to reconstruct hydrographic conditions during the middle Pleistocene spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS 9–14 (300–540 ka. Core MD03-2699 is the first high-resolution mid-Brunhes record from the North Atlantic's eastern boundary upwelling system covering the complete MIS 11c interval and MIS 13. The array of sites reflect western and eastern basin boundary current as well as north to south transect sampling of subpolar and transitional water masses and allow the reconstruction of transport pathways in the upper limb of the North Atlantic's circulation. Hydrographic conditions in the surface and deep ocean during peak interglacial MIS 9 and 11 were similar among all the sites with relative stable conditions and confirm prolonged warmth during MIS 11c also for the mid-latitudes. Sea surface temperature (SST reconstructions further reveal that in the mid-latitude North Atlantic MIS 11c is associated with two plateaus, the younger one of which is slightly warmer. Enhanced subsurface northward heat transport in the eastern boundary current system, especially during early MIS 11c, is denoted by the presence of tropical planktic foraminifer species and raises the question how strongly it impacted the Portuguese upwelling system. Deep water ventilation at the onset of MIS 11c significantly preceded surface water ventilation. Although MIS 13 was generally colder and more variable than the younger interglacials the surface water circulation scheme was the same. The greatest differences between the sites existed during the glacial inceptions and glacials. Then a north – south trending hydrographic front separated the nearshore and offshore waters off Portugal. While offshore waters originated from the North Atlantic Current as indicated by the similarities

  11. Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.


    This CD-ROM contains images generated from geophysical data, software for displaying and analyzing the images and software for displaying and examining profile data from aerial surveys flown as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The images included are of gamma-ray data (uranium, thorium, and potassium channels), Bouguer gravity data, isostatic residual gravity data, aeromagnetic anomalies, topography, and topography with bathymetry. This publication contains image data for the conterminous United States and profile data for the conterminous United States within the area longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. The profile data include apparent surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium, the residual magnetic field, and the height above the ground. The images on this CD-ROM include graytone and color images of each data set, color shaded-relief images of the potential-field and topographic data, and color composite images of the gamma-ray data. The image display and analysis software can register images with geographic and geologic overlays. The profile display software permits the user to view the profiles as well as obtain data listings and export ASCII versions of data for selected flight lines.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 王进欣; 刘玉洪; 马友鑫


    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under different weather conditions.Significant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kunming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7(C to 10.0(C and from 4.6(C to 5.8(C for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6(C to 7.0(C and from 1.3(C to 4.4(C for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements.The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north.Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40% ~48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%~30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours late inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research on climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  13. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of North America: new host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in moose and caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verocai Guilherme G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca cervipedis is a filarioid nematode of cervids reported from Central America to boreal regions of North America. It is found primarily in subcutaneous tissues of the legs, and is more commonly known as ‘legworm’. Blackflies are intermediate hosts and transmit larvae to ungulates when they blood-feed. In this article we report the first records of O. cervipedis from high latitudes of North America and its occurrence in previously unrecognized host subspecies including the Yukon-Alaska moose (Alces americanus gigas and the Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti. Methods We examined the subcutaneous connective tissues of the metacarpi and/or metatarsi of 34 moose and one caribou for parasitic lesions. Samples were collected from animals killed by subsistence hunters or animals found dead in the Northwest Territories (NT, Canada and Alaska (AK, USA from 2005 to 2012. Genomic DNA lysate was prepared from nematode fragments collected from two moose. The nd5 region of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Subcutaneous nodules were found in 12 moose from the NT and AK, and one caribou from AK. Nematodes dissected from the lesions were identified as Onchocerca cervipedis based on morphology of female and male specimens. Histopathological findings in moose included cavitating lesions with multifocal granulomatous cellulitis containing intralesional microfilariae and adults, often necrotic and partially mineralized. Lesions in the caribou included periosteitis with chronic cellulitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and abundant granulation associated with intralesional adult nematodes and larvae. Sequences of the nd5 region (471bp, the first generated for this species, were deposited with Genbank (JN580791 and JN580792. Representative voucher specimens were deposited in the archives of the United States National Parasite Collection. Conclusions The geographic range of O

  14. Flow patterns of lobate debris aprons and lineated valley fill north of Ismeniae Fossae, Mars: Evidence for extensive mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.


    A variety of Late Amazonian landforms on Mars have been attributed to the dynamics of ice-related processes. Evidence for large-scale, mid-latitude glacial episodes existing within the last 100 million to 1 billion years on Mars has been presented from analyses of lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) in the northern and southern mid-latitudes. We test the glacial hypothesis for LDA and LVF along the dichotomy boundary in the northern mid-latitudes by examining the morphological characteristics of LDA and LVF surrounding two large plateaus, proximal massifs, and the dichotomy boundary escarpment north of Ismeniae Fossae (centered at 45.3°N and 39.2°E). Lineations and flow directions within LDA and LVF were mapped using images from the Context (CTX) camera, the Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). Flow directions were then compared to topographic contours derived from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) to determine the down-gradient components of LDA and LVF flow. Observations indicate that flow patterns emerge from numerous alcoves within the plateau walls, are integrated over distances of up to tens of kilometers, and have down-gradient flow directions. Smaller lobes confined within alcoves and superposed on the main LDA and LVF represent a later, less extensive glacial phase. Crater size-frequency distributions of LDA and LVF suggest a minimum (youngest) age of 100 Ma. The presence of ring-mold crater morphologies is suggestive that LDA and LVF are formed of near-surface ice-rich bodies. From these observations, we interpret LDA and LVF within our study region to result from formerly active debris-covered glacial flow, consistent with similar observations in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. Glacial flow was likely initiated from the accumulation and compaction of snow and ice on plateaus and in alcoves within the plateau walls as volatiles were mobilized to the mid-latitudes

  15. Complementary impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation and oceanic heat anomalies in the Nordic seas on the wintertime climate variability in middle latitudes (United States)

    Schlichtholz, Pawel


    There is a growing evidence that Arctic sea ice anomalies influence mid-latitude weather and climate through coupled changes in the polar jet stream, planetary waves and storm tracks. In particular, the wintertime atmospheric conditions over Eurasia are sensitive to disturbances of sea ice cover in the Barents Sea. Our previous studies, based on a lagged regression analysis between oceanic observations and atmospheric (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data in the period 1982-2006, indicate that more than 70 % of the interannual variance of the total wintertime sea ice area in the Nordic (Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian and Barents) seas region can be explained by Atlantic water temperature (AWT) anomalies at the entrance to the Barents Sea in the preceding summer. When brought to the surface, oceanic heat anomalies influence not only the sea ice cover in the Nordic seas but also the local atmospheric conditions up to the tropopause level. The sea ice and atmospheric anomalies persist in winter because of a feedback between oceanically-driven wind anomalies and wind-driven AWT anomalies. A question is whether remote effects of sea ice anomalies in the Nordic seas are modulated by interannual variability in oceanic forcing. Here we show, using the same oceanic and atmospheric datasets as in the previous studies, that the summertime AWT anomalies are indeed significant precursors of a large-scale wintertime atmospheric variability. In particular, positive AWT anomalies precede predominantly westerly wind anomalies in high latitudes and easterly wind anomalies in middle latitudes. The mid-latitude wind anomalies, while being generally equivalent barotropic in the upper troposphere, have a strong low-level baroclinic contribution over Eurasia. The near-surface easterly wind anomalies in this area are locally deflected southward, maintaining cold spots near orography. As at the same time a strong warm anomaly is forced over the Barents and Greenland Seas, the lower

  16. RP{sub P}erformance, a design tool to simulate the thermal performance of high-latitude roof pond buildings (Skytherm North roof ponds); Programa de computo para la simulacion termica de sistemas de techo con estanque para latitudes altas (Skytherm North Roofponds)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. G.


    This article introduces RP{sub P}erformance, a design tool to simulate the thermal performance of high-latitude roof pond buildings (also known as Skytherm North roof ponds). RP{sub P}erformance is an interactive Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that allows users to modify all the parameters that influence the thermal performance of a Skytherm North roof pond building giving as outputs the heating and cooling costs, as well as a series of indoor temperature charts for a roof pond, a highly-insulated reference building, and a conventionally insulated reference building. This article also presents the calibration study of RP{sub P}erformance using experimental results obtained over a nine-month period in an 11.9 m2 test-room located in Muncie, Indiana. (Author)

  17. The pulsating nature of large-scale Saharan dust transport as a result of interplays between mid-latitude Rossby waves and the North African Dipole Intensity (United States)

    Cuevas, E.; Gómez-Peláez, A. J.; Rodríguez, S.; Terradellas, E.; Basart, S.; García, R. D.; García, O. E.; Alonso-Pérez, S.


    It was previously shown that during August the export of Saharan dust to the Atlantic was strongly affected by the difference of the 700-hPa geopotential height anomaly between the subtropics and the tropics over North Africa, which was termed the North African Dipole Intensity (NAFDI). In this work a more comprehensive analysis of the NAFDI is performed, focusing on the entire summer dust season (June-September), and examining the interactions between the mid-latitude Rossby waves (MLRWs) and NAFDI. Widespread and notable aerosol optical depth (AOD) monthly anomalies are found for each NAFDI-phase over the dust corridors off the Sahara, indicating that NAFDI presents intra-seasonal variability and drives dust transport over both the Mediterranean basin and the North Atlantic. Those summer months with the same NAFDI-phase show similar AOD-anomaly patterns. Variations in NAFDI-phase also control the displacement of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) westwards or eastwards through horizontal advection of temperature over Morocco-Western Sahara or eastern Algeria-Western Libya, respectively. The connection between the SHL and the NAFDI is quantified statistically by introducing two new daily indexes that account for their respective phases (NAFDI daily index -NAFDIDI-, and SHL longitudinal shift index -SHLLSI-) and explained physically using the energy equation of the atmospheric dynamics. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the one-day-lag SHLLSI and the NAFDIDI for an extended summer season (1980-2013) is 0.78. A positive NAFDI is associated with the West-phase of the SHL, dust sources intensification on central Algeria, and positive AOD anomalies over this region and the Subtropical North Atlantic. A negative NAFDI is associated with the East-phase of the SHL, and positive AOD anomalies over central-eastern Sahara and the central-western Mediterranean Sea. The results point out that the phase changes of NAFDI at intra-seasonal time scale are conducted by those

  18. Ulysses breaks latitude record (United States)


    time of closest approach, and the unexpectedly strong influence of the solar wind deep in the magnetosphere during the outbound passage. With the Jupiter fly-by safely accomplished, the scientific focus is now directed towards phenomena related to the increasing latitute of the spacecraft. Already, there is strong evidence that Ulysses is now in the domain of the southern polar magnetic field. By a fortunate coincidence, just as Ulysses was reaching 32 degrees South, the magnetic field and plasma analyser scientific teams were seeing the first evidence of the effect of increasing latitude on the magnetised solar wind. The two complementary sets of observations reveal the passage of Ulysses into a magnetic unipolar regime corresponding to latitudes above the sunspot belt, having permanently crossed the boundary separating northern and southern magnetic fields. Following the flight over the Sun's southern pole, Ulysses' orbit will bring the spaceprobe swinging back towards the equatorial regions, heading for its second high-latitude excursion in mid-1995, this time above the North polar regions. "By the end of September 1995, Ulysses will have put our knowledge of the Sun and its environment in a completely new perspective", says Dr. Marsden, ESA's Project Scientist for Ulysses. "Only by studying the way the Sun influences the space around it in a global manner can we hope to understand its influence on our local interplanetary environment". An example of this "local" influence is the disturbance experienced by technical systems in Earth orbit and on the ground (e.g., telecommunications systems) at the time of major solar flares. Note to the Editors: Near the Sun's equatorial regions, the interplanetary magnetic field alternately points toward and away from the Sun during a single solar rotation which gives rise to so-called magnetic sectors. The existence of these sectors is interpreted as the effect of a vast current sheet, tilted with respect to the Sun's rotation

  19. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago. (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven


    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  20. Magnetospheric period oscillations at Saturn: Comparison of equatorial and high-latitude magnetic field periods with north and south Saturn kilometric radiation periods (United States)

    Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Lamy, L.; Provan, G.; Zarka, P.


    It has recently been shown using Cassini radio data that Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) emissions from the Northern and Southern hemispheres of Saturn are modulated at distinctly different periods, ˜10.6 h in the north and ˜10.8 h in the south, during the southern summer conditions that prevailed during the interval from 2004 to near-equinox in mid-2009. Here we examine Cassini magnetospheric magnetic field data over the same interval and show that two corresponding systems of magnetic field oscillations that have the same overall periods, as the corresponding SKR modulations, to within ˜0.01% are also present. Specifically, we show that the rotating quasi-dipolar field perturbations on southern open field lines and the rotating quasi-uniform field in the inner region of closed field lines have the same period as the southern SKR modulations, although with some intervals of slow long-term phase drift of unknown origin, while the rotating quasi-dipolar field perturbations on northern open field lines have the same period as the northern SKR modulations. We also show that while the equatorial quasi-uniform field and effective southern transverse dipole are directed down tail and toward dawn at southern SKR maxima, as found in previous studies, the corresponding northern transverse dipole is directed approximately opposite, pointing sunward and also slightly toward dawn at northern SKR maxima. We discuss these findings in terms of the presence of two independent high-latitude field-aligned current systems that rotate with different periods in the two hemispheres.

  1. Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 2. High-latitude circulation and interplanetary magnetic field dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmert, J.T.; Hernandez, G.; Jarvis, M.J.;


    Stromfjord (67 degrees N, 51 degrees W), and Thule (77 degrees N, 68 degrees W). We examine the wind patterns as a function of magnetic local time and latitude, solar cycle, day of year, and the dawn-dusk and north-south components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B-y and B-z). In magnetic...... at latitudes as low as that of Millstone Hill ( magnetic latitude 53 degrees N). Quiet time Bz effects are negligible except over the magnetic polar cap station of Thule....

  2. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy. (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola


    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  3. High prevalence and no latitude gradient of multiple sclerosis in Norway. (United States)

    Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G


    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.

  4. Latitude and pH driven trends in the molecular composition of DOM across a north south transect along the Yenisei River (United States)

    Roth, Vanessa-Nina; Dittmar, Thorsten; Gaupp, Reinhard; Gleixner, Gerd


    We used electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) to identify the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected from different ecosystems along a transect crossing Siberia’s northern and middle Taiga. This information is urgently needed to help elucidate global carbon cycling and export through Russian rivers. In total, we analyzed DOM samples from eleven Yenisei tributaries and seven bogs. Freeze-dried and re-dissolved DOM was desalted via solid phase extraction (SPE) and eluted in methanol for ESI-FT-ICR-MS measurements. We recorded 15209 different masses and identified 7382 molecular formulae in the mass range between m/z = 150 and 800. We utilized the relative FT-ICR-MS signal intensities of 3384 molecular formulae above a conservatively set limit of detection and summarized the molecular characteristics for each measurement using ten magnitude-weighted parameters ((O/C)w, (H/C)w, (N/C)w, (DBE)w, (DBE/C)w, (DBE/O)w, (DBE-O)w, (C#)w, (MW)w and (AI)w) for redundancy analysis. Consequently, we revealed that the molecular composition of DOM depends mainly on pH and geographical latitude. After applying variation partitioning to the peak data, we isolated molecular formulae that were strongly positive or negatively correlated with latitude and pH. We used the chemical information from 13 parameters (C#, H#, N#, O#, O/C, H/C, DBE, DBE/C, DBE/O, AI, N/C, DBE-O and MW) to characterize the extracted molecular formulae. Using latitude along the gradient representing climatic variation, we found a higher abundance of smaller molecules, nitrogen-containing compounds and unsaturated Cdbnd C functionalities at higher latitudes. As possible reasons for the different molecular characteristics occurring along this gradient, we suggested that the decomposition was temperature dependent resulting to a higher abundance of non-degraded lignin-derived phenolic substances. We demonstrated that bog samples

  5. Influence of growing conditions at different latitudes of Europe on strawberry growth performance, yield and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, E.; Josuttis, M.; Nestby, R.


    The site effect of five locations from north (Stjørdal, Norway, 63°36'N) to south (Ancona, Italy, 43°31'N) was evaluated in strawberry regarding yield performance, fruit quality, length of fruit developing time from anthesis to harvest start and length of the harvest season. Cv. Elsanta was grown...... at all sites while cv. Korona was cultivated in north and central Europe and cv. Clery in central and south Europe. Yield was more affected by seasonal and growing conditions than by latitude. Anthesis was delayed as influenced by cultivar up to 58 days from south to north and was nearly maintained until...... harvest start. Duration of fruit development was negatively related to daily mean temperature and increased with higher latitude. 29–34 days were required from anthesis to harvest start for cv. Elsanta, 29–36 for cv. Korona and 27–38 for cv. Clery. Corresponding GDD values (growing degree days; 3°C base...

  6. Atmospheric river landfall-latitude changes in future climate simulations (United States)

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.


    The latitude of landfall for atmospheric rivers (ARs) is examined in the fully coupled half-degree version of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) for warm future climate simulations. Two regions are examined: U.S. West Coast/North Pacific ARs and United Kingdom/North Atlantic ARs. Changes in AR landfall-latitude reflect changes in the atmospheric steering flow. West Coast U.S. ARs are projected to push equatorward in response to the subtropical jet climate change. UK AR response is dominated by eddy-driven jets and is seasonally dependent. UK simulated AR response is modest in the winter with the largest relative changes occurring in the seasonal transition months. Precipitation associated with ARs is also projected to increase in intensity under global warming. CCSM4 projects a marked shift to higher rainfall rates for Southern California. Small to modest rainfall rates may increase for all UK latitudes, for the Pacific Northwest, and central and northern California.

  7. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity (United States)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.


    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  8. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.


    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  9. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wjst


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  10. Effects of latitude and longitude on the population structure of Culex pipiens s.l., vectors of West Nile virus in North America. (United States)

    Edillo, Frances; Kiszewski, Anthony; Manjourides, Justin; Pagano, Marcello; Hutchinson, Michael; Kyle, Andrew; Arias, Jorge; Gaines, David; Lampman, Richard; Novak, Robert; Foppa, Ivo; Lubelcyzk, Charles; Smith, Robert; Moncayo, Abelardo; Spielman, Andrew


    We assessed the structure and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between Culex pipiens populations distributed along North-South and East-West axes in eastern North America. Strong population structure between Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus existed. Among Cx. p. pipiens, a 100-km increase in the latitudinal change resulted in an increased square root of F(ST) by 0.002. A 100-km increase in the longitudinal change caused an increased square root of F(ST) by 0.035. A lack of latitudinal influence on the structure between Cx. p. pipiens populations suggests a uniform signal using the 12 microsatellite markers, which might increase the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission toward northern areas because of longer breeding season, extend host-seeking period, and larger population size. Northern Cx. p. pipiens may have undergone additional generations before diapause is triggered, magnifying population size when WNV amplification is peaking.

  11. Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas : patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. III. International trawling effort in the North Sea : an analysis of spatial and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, S.; Alsväg, J.; Cotter, A.J.R.;


    of beam trawling effort increases from north to south. Plots of annual fishing effort by ICES statistical rectangle (211 boxes of 0.5 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude) indicate that the majority of fishing effort in the North Sea are concentrated in a very few rectangles. Thus mean annual total...

  12. Investigating the use of 232Th/230Th as a dust proxy using co-located seawater and sediment samples from the low-latitude North Atlantic (United States)

    Rowland, George H.; Ng, Hong Chin; Robinson, Laura F.; McManus, Jerry F.; Mohamed, Kais J.; McGee, David


    The thorium isotope ratio 232Th/230Th can be measured in seawater and sediment samples, and has been used as a proxy to reconstruct lithogenic fluxes to the oceans for the modern day and the Pleistocene. There has not yet been a systematic study testing the proxy using the 232Th/230Th ratio in seawater and the ratio recorded in the underlying sediment. In this study we use co-located core-top sediments and seawater samples from five seamount sites spanning the tropical North Atlantic to investigate the link between seawater and sediment 232Th/230Th ratios across a range of water depths. Our results indicate that a broad correlation exists between seawater and sedimentary 232Th/230Th ratios. Both seawater and sedimentary 232Th/230Th ratios record a signal consistent with decreasing lithogenic input east to west, from Africa to South America. However, calculated 232Th fluxes for the core-top sediment samples indicate a strong dependence on depth, with up to a factor of ∼4 difference from shallow (2900 m). This depth dependence is likely caused by either a deficit of 230Th burial at depth compared to the production in the overlying water column, through addition of 232Th, or by a combination of the two. By comparing seawater and sedimentary 232Th/230Th ratios we derive an apparent fractional solubility of 232Th of 29 ± 3%, in reasonable agreement with the upper end of existing estimates.

  13. Monthly mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Monthly-mean wind stress and its longshore and offshore components have been computed using the bulk aerodynamic method for each of a string of 36 two-degree-latitude by two-degree-longitude squares along the coast of the north Indian Ocean...

  14. Development of the negative gravity anomaly of the 85 degrees E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean – A process oriented modelling approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Majumdar, T.J.

    The 85 degrees E Ridge is associated with two contrasting gravity anomalies: negative anomaly over the north part (up to 5 degrees N latitude), where the ridge structure is buried under thick Bengal Fan sediments and positive anomaly over the south...

  15. Tidi Observations Relating to High Latitude Aeronomy (United States)

    Gell, D.; Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.; Wu, Q.; Skinner, W.; Solomon, S.; Ortland, D.; Kafkalidis, J.; Gablehouse, D.; Johnson, R.


    Unique observations of the horizontal neutral winds at high latitudes in the altitude range 60 to 180 km have been performed by TIDI (Thermosphere Ionosphere Doppler Interferometer) since January 2002. The satellite orbit is such that the TIDI field of view includes latitudes to both the north pole and the south pole. Though high latitude neutral wind measurements have been obtained from space with the DE-2 satellite and the UARS satellite, TIDI is the first instrument to sample the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere up to and including both polar regions on a long-term basis. Ground based studies have previously reported a strong semi-diurnal tide in the mesosphere over Resolute, Canada. This paper will describe the climatology that has been obtained by the TIDI instrument since early 2002 for high latitudes. The precession rate of TIMED supports two month averaging of data sets in order to sample all local solar time.

  16. Chlorine-36 in Water, Snow, and Mid-Latitude Glacial Ice of North America: Meteoric and Weapons-Tests Production in the Vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. DeWayne; J. R. Green (USGS); S. Vogt, P. Sharma (Purdue University); S. K. Frape (University of Waterloo); S. N. Davis (University of Arizona); G. L. Cottrell (USGS)


    Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl) were made for 64 water, snow, and glacial-ice and -runoff samples to determine the meteoric and weapons-tests-produced concentrations and fluxes of this radionuclide at mid-latitudes in North America. The results will facilitate the use of 36Cl as a hydrogeologic tracer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This information was used to estimate meteoric and weapons-tests contributions of this nuclide to environmental inventories at and near the INEEL. The data presented in this report suggest a meteoric source 36Cl for environmental samples collected in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming if the concentration is less than 1 x 10 7 atoms/L. Additionally, concentrations in water, snow, or glacial ice between 1 x 10 7 and 1 x 10 8 atoms/L may be indicative of a weapons-tests component from peak 36Cl production in the late 1950s. Chlorine-36 concentrations between 1 x 10 8 and 1 x 10 9 atoms/L may be representative of re-suspension of weapons-tests fallout airborne disposal of 36Cl from the INTEC, or evapotranspiration. It was concluded from the water, snow, and glacial data presented here that concentrations of 36Cl measured in environmental samples at the INEEL larger than 1 x 10 9 atoms/L can be attributed to waste-disposal practices.

  17. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerum, V.


    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Ungulate Reproductive Parameters Track Satellite Observations of Plant Phenology across Latitude and Climatological Regimes. (United States)

    Stoner, David C; Sexton, Joseph O; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Bernales, Heather H; Edwards, Thomas C


    The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km) in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004-2011). Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season ("Start" and "Peak", respectively) are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual production, across

  19. Degree of National and Civic Education Textbook Focus on Reinforcement of the Citizenship Concept of Citizenship in Seventh Grade Students of the North Eastern Badiya Directorate in Mafraq Governorate from Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoint (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.


    The study aimed to identify the degree of focus on the National and Civic Education Textbook on reinforcing the concept of citizenship in 7th grade students in the North Eastern Badiya Directorate in Mafraq Governorate from the viewpoint of social studies teachers. The study instrument was a questionnaire consisting of five dimensions and 25…

  20. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice


    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  1. Spacecraft design project: High latitude communications satellite (United States)

    Josefson, Carl; Myers, Jack; Cloutier, Mike; Paluszek, Steve; Michael, Gerry; Hunter, Dan; Sakoda, Dan; Walters, Wes; Johnson, Dennis; Bauer, Terry


    The spacecraft design project was part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The project was intended to provide experience in the design of all major components of a satellite. Each member of the class was given primary responsibility for a subsystem or design support function. Support was requested from the Naval Research Laboratory to augment the Naval Postgraduate School faculty. Analysis and design of each subsystem was done to the extent possible within the constraints of an eleven week quarter and the design facilities (hardware and software) available. The project team chose to evaluate the design of a high latitude communications satellite as representative of the design issues and tradeoffs necessary for a wide range of satellites. The High-Latitude Communications Satellite (HILACS) will provide a continuous UHF communications link between stations located north of the region covered by geosynchronous communications satellites, i.e., the area above approximately 60 N latitude. HILACS will also provide a communications link to stations below 60 N via a relay Net Control Station (NCS), which is located with access to both the HILACS and geosynchronous communications satellites. The communications payload will operate only for that portion of the orbit necessary to provide specified coverage.

  2. Some observations on plant assemblages and elemental content of plants in mineralized areas of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California-Nevada (United States)

    Cannon, Helen L.


    A May 1986 potentiometric surface map of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida depicts the annual low water-level period. Water levels in most wells measured in May 1986 were lower than in September 1985. May 1986 levels averaged about 2 feet lower than September 1985 levels in areas north of latitude 28 degrees 07 feet and about 9 feet lower in southern areas. Water levels in individual wells in May 1986 averaged about 2 feet higher than May 1985 levels. (USGS)

  3. Operational high latitude surface irradiance products from polar orbiting satellites (United States)

    Godøy, Øystein


    It remains a challenge to find an adequate approach for operational estimation of surface incoming short- and longwave irradiance at high latitudes using polar orbiting meteorological satellite data. In this presentation validation results at a number of North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean high latitude stations are presented and discussed. The validation results have revealed that although the method works well and normally fulfil the operational requirements, there is room for improvement. A number of issues that can improve the estimates at high latitudes have been identified. These improvements are partly related to improved cloud classification using satellite data and partly related to improved handling of multiple reflections over bright surfaces (snow and sea ice), especially in broken cloud conditions. Furthermore, the availability of validation sites over open ocean and sea ice is a challenge.

  4. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF (United States)

    Sharber, J. R.


    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  5. Climate response to imposed solar radiation reductions in high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. MacCracken


    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are the primary contributor to the 0.8 °C increase in the global average temperature since the late 19th century, shortening cold seasons and lengthening warm seasons. The warming is amplified in polar regions, causing retreat of sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, mountain glaciers, and ice sheets, while also modifying mid-latitude weather, amplifying global sea level rise, and initiating high-latitude carbon feedbacks. Model simulations in which we reduced solar insolation over high latitudes not only cooled those regions, but also drew energy from lower latitudes, exerting a cooling influence over much of the hemisphere in which the reduction was imposed. Our simulations, which used the National Center for Atmospheric Research's CAM3.1 atmospheric model coupled to a slab ocean, indicated that, on a normalized basis, high-latitude reductions in absorbed solar radiation have a significantly larger cooling influence than equivalent solar reductions spread evenly over the Earth. This amplified influence occurred because high-latitude surface cooling preferentially increased sea ice fraction and, therefore, surface albedo, leading to a larger deficit in the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere than from an equivalent global reduction in solar radiation. Reductions in incoming solar radiation in one polar region (either north or south resulted in increased poleward energy transport during that hemisphere's cold season and shifted the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ away from that pole, whereas equivalent reductions in both polar regions tended to leave the ITCZ approximately in place. Together, these results suggest that, until emissions reductions are sufficient to limit the warming influence of greenhouse gas concentrations, polar reductions in solar radiation, if they can be efficiently and effectively implemented, might, because of fewer undesirable side effects than for global solar

  6. Effect of Latitude on Vitamin D Levels. (United States)

    Leary, Patrick F; Zamfirova, Ina; Au, Johnathan; McCracken, Ward H


    Vitamin D levels have been linked to bone health and to numerous diseases; however, an element that lacks substantial direct data and limits the evidence basis regarding whom to screen for vitamin D deficiency is the effect of latitude on vitamin D levels. To determine whether latitude influences vitamin D levels and to investigate the influence of other factors that may affect vitamin D levels, including sex, race, skin type, and body mass index. Osteopathic medical students were recruited from campuses in Bradenton, Florida, and Erie, Pennsylvania. Surveys were administered to obtain demographic information, and blood samples were drawn to measure total vitamin D levels. Two-sample t tests, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression was used to assess differences in total vitamin D levels between the 2 locations. A total of 359 medical students (aged 22-57 years) were included in the study, 194 at the Bradenton campus and 214 at the Erie campus. The mean (SD) vitamin D level was 34.5 (11.8) ng/mL among participants in Bradenton and 28.1 (12.4) ng/mL among participants in Erie. Logistic regression models revealed an adjusted OR of 3.3 (95% CI, 1.73-6.4) for deficient total vitamin D among Erie students. Non-white race, male sex, and high body mass index were also statistically significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in regression models (P<.05). Latitude was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. Additionally, the findings suggest that persons with darker skin tone and, to a lesser degree, men and persons who are overweight or obese are also at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Physicians should be cognizant of these risk factors when deciding whom to screen.

  7. Latitudes: new Indian transnational cinema. (United States)

    Villarejo, Amy


    This article examines films and video art that speak to conditions of exile and displacement, including the work of Mona Hatoum, Sonali Gulati, and Onir. It proposes the term "latitude" to interrogate the aesthetic and formal properties of these artworks, seeking to understand how lesbian and same-sex eroticism and identities are central to their efficacy.

  8. GHIGLS: HI mapping at intermediate Galactic latitude using the Green Bank Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, P G; Goncalves, D Pinheiro; Lockman, Felix J; Boothroyd, A I; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Joncas, G; Stephan, G


    This paper introduces the data cubes from GHIGLS, our deep Green Bank Telescope surveys of the 21-cm line emission of HI in targeted fields at intermediate Galactic latitude. The GHIGLS fields together cover over 800 square degrees at 9.55' spatial resolution. The HI spectra have an effective velocity resolution about 1.0 km/s and cover at least -450 < v < +250 km/s. GHIGLS highlights that even at intermediate Galactic latitude the interstellar medium is very complex. Spatial structure of the HI is quantified through power spectra of maps of the column density, NHI. For our featured representative field, centered on the North Ecliptic Pole, the scaling exponents in power-law representations of the power spectra of NHI maps for low, intermediate, and high velocity gas components (LVC, IVC, and HVC) are -2.90 +/- 0.03, -2.55 +/- 0.04, and -2.66 +/- 0.06, respectively. After Gaussian decomposition of the line profiles, NHI maps were also made corresponding to the broad and narrow line components in the LVC...

  9. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence (United States)

    Barkin, Yury


    flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of warming from latitude. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of warming in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and

  10. TIDI observations relating to low latitude aeronomy (United States)

    Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.; Kafkalidis, J.; Wu, Q.; Skinner, W.; Solomon, S.; Ortland, D.; Gell, D.; Gablehouse, D.; Johnson, R.


    The TIDI instrument aboard the TIMED satellite has been observing the neutral winds in the upper atmosphere on a routine basis since early January 2002. The instrument simultaneously samples the thin limb of the Earth with four separate telescopes providing two forward views and two rearward views, one of each on either side of the orbital path. At equator crossings, these two side views are separated by about 30 degrees of longitude at the tangent point altitude, or 2 hours of local time. Thus, on any orbit TIDI obtains two horizontal vector winds at the dayside equator crossing and two on the nightside equator crossing as well as for all low latitudes. This is significantly greater than the data output of either the HRDI or the DE-2 satellite observations. This paper will describe the climatology that has been obtained by the TIDI instrument since early 2002 for low latitudes. The precession rate of TIMED supports two month averaging of data sets in order to sample all local solar time. Tidal structure is evident in the resulting zonal and meridional winds for mesosphere and lower thermosphere altitudes.

  11. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian


    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  12. High Latitude Mottling on Jupiter (United States)


    The familiar banded appearance of Jupiter at low and middle latitudes gradually gives way to a more mottled appearance at high latitudes in this striking true color image taken Dec. 13, 2000, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.The intricate structures seen in the polar region are clouds of different chemical composition, height and thickness. Clouds are organized by winds, and the mottled appearance in the polar regions suggests more vortex-type motion and winds of less vigor at higher latitudes.The cause of this difference is not understood. One possible contributor is that the horizontal component of the Coriolis force, which arises from the planet's rotation and is responsible for curving the trajectories of ocean currents and winds on Earth, has its greatest effect at high latitudes and vanishes at the equator. This tends to create small, intense vortices at high latitudes on Jupiter. Another possibility may lie in that fact that Jupiter overall emits nearly as much of its own heat as it absorbs from the Sun, and this internal heat flux is very likely greater at the poles. This condition could lead to enhanced convection at the poles and more vortex-type structures. Further analysis of Cassini images, including analysis of sequences taken over a span of time, should help us understand the cause of equator-to-pole differences in cloud organization and evolution.By the time this picture was taken, Cassini had reached close enough to Jupiter to allow the spacecraft to return images with more detail than what's possible with the planetary camera on NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The resolution here is 114 kilometers (71 miles) per pixel. This contrast-enhanced, edge-sharpened frame was composited from images take at different wavelengths with Cassini's narrow-angle camera, from a distance of 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). The spacecraft was in almost a direct line between the Sun and Jupiter, so the solar illumination on Jupiter is almost full

  13. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes (United States)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.


    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  14. Metabolism correlates with variation in post-natal growth rate among songbirds at three latitudes (United States)

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.


    1. Variation in post-natal growth rates is substantial among organisms and especially strong among latitudes because tropical and south temperate species typically have slower growth than north temperate relatives. Metabolic rate is thought to be a critical mechanism underlying growth rates after accounting for allometric effects of body mass. However, comparative tests on a large spatial scale are lacking, and the importance of metabolism for growth rates remains unclear both within and particularly across latitudes.

  15. Date of Snowmelt at High Latitudes as Determined from Visible Satellite Data and Relationship with the Arctic Oscillation (United States)

    Foster, James; Robinson, Dave; Estilow, Tom; Hall, Dorothy


    Spring snow cover across Arctic lands has, on average, retreated approximately five days earlier since the late 1980s compared to the previous twenty years. However, it appears that since about 1990, the date the snowline first retreats north during the spring has remained nearly unchanged--in the last twenty years, the date of snow disappearance has not been occurring noticeably earlier. Snowmelt changes observed in the 1980s was step-like in nature, unlike a more continuous downward trend seen in Arctic sea ice extent. At latitude 70 deg N, several latitudinal segments (of 10 degrees) show significant (negative) trends. However, only two latitudinal segments at 60 deg N show significant trends, one positive and one negative. These variations appear to be related to variations in the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Additional observations and modeling investigations are needed to better explain past and present spring melt characteristics and peculiarities.

  16. High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity. (United States)

    Sarmiento, J L; Gruber, N; Brzezinski, M A; Dunne, J P


    The ocean's biological pump strips nutrients out of the surface waters and exports them into the thermocline and deep waters. If there were no return path of nutrients from deep waters, the biological pump would eventually deplete the surface waters and thermocline of nutrients; surface biological productivity would plummet. Here we make use of the combined distributions of silicic acid and nitrate to trace the main nutrient return path from deep waters by upwelling in the Southern Ocean and subsequent entrainment into subantarctic mode water. We show that the subantarctic mode water, which spreads throughout the entire Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic Ocean, is the main source of nutrients for the thermocline. We also find that an additional return path exists in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, where enhanced vertical mixing, perhaps driven by tides, brings abyssal nutrients to the surface and supplies them to the thermocline of the North Pacific. Our analysis has important implications for our understanding of large-scale controls on the nature and magnitude of low-latitude biological productivity and its sensitivity to climate change.

  17. The domination of Saturn's low latitude ionosphere by ring `rain'

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donoghue, J; Melin, H; Jones, G H; Cowley, S W H; Miller, S; Baines, K H; Blake, J S D


    Saturn's ionosphere is produced when the otherwise neutral atmosphere is exposed to a flow of energetic charged particles or solar radiation. At low latitudes the latter should result in a weak planet-wide glow in infrared (IR), corresponding to the planet's uniform illumination by the Sun. The observed low-latitude ionospheric electron density is lower and the temperature higher than predicted by models. A planet-ring magnetic connection has been previously suggested in which an influx of water from the rings could explain the lower than expected electron densities in Saturn's atmosphere. Here we report the detection of a pattern of features, extending across a broad latitude band from ~25 to 60 degrees, that is superposed on the lower latitude background glow, with peaks in emission that map along the planet's magnetic field lines to gaps in Saturn's rings. This pattern implies the transfer of charged water products from the ring-plane to the ionosphere, revealing the influx on a global scale, flooding betw...

  18. How Altitude and Latitude Control Dune Morphometry on Titan (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.


    Dune fields are one of the dominant landforms and represent the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. SAR-derived topography show that Titan's dune terrains tend to occupy the lowest altitude areas in equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between approx.-400 and 0 m. In elevated dune terrains, there is a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio, interpreted as due to limited sediment availability. A similar linear correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. These findings place important constraints on Titan's geology and climate.

  19. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China. (United States)

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang


    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %.

  20. Orbital control of low-latitude seasonality during the Eemian (United States)

    Winter, A.; Paul, A.; Nyberg, J.; Oba, T.; Lundberg, J.; Schrag, D.; Taggart, B.


    We used Sr/Ca and stable isotope data from well dated and preserved corals from the northeastern Caribbean to determine the seasonal environmental conditions for four continuous years during the Eemian, the last time the Earth was in a prolonged warm phase. We determined that the seasonal range in SST during the Eemian was 25??-30?? C. This is ???1-2?? larger than at present and caused primarily by winter cooling and, only to a small degree, by summer warming. As climate modeling studies indicate, the bias towards colder winters can be explained by changes in low latitude insolation induced by altered orbital parameters, modulated by atmospheric CO2 levels that were lower than today. Milankovitch forcing at higher latitudes was probably less important.

  1. Low-latitude ionospheric effects on SBAS (United States)

    Arenas, J.; Sardón, E.; Sainz, A.; Ochoa, B.; Magdaleno, S.


    Satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) provide augmentation to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users in three areas: (1) broadcasting accurate corrections to GNSS satellite ephemeris, (2) providing a real-time empirical ionospheric model in the service area, and (3) providing integrity information in the form of estimates of the confidence of the ephemeris corrections and ionospheric delays. Ionospheric effects on SBAS are twofold: (a) the input data used by the SBAS will be affected by ionospheric effects, and (b) the more perturbed the ionosphere is, the more difficult it will be to provide accurate and reliable ionospheric information to the users. The ionosphere at low latitudes presents larger variability and more intense phenomena than at midlatitudes. Therefore, SBAS providing service to low-latitude regions will be more affected than those at other latitudes. From the different low-latitude ionospheric effects, this paper will focus on those having the largest impact on SBAS, which are total electron content temporal and spatial gradients, ionospheric scintillations, and depletions. This paper will present the impact of these effects on EGNOS (European Global Navigation Overlay System), the European SBAS. Although EGNOS can be considered as a midlatitude SBAS, it has to provide coverage down to rather low latitudes, so sometimes low-latitude ionospheric effects are observed in the EGNOS data. It will be shown how EGNOS performs under nominal conditions and how its performance is degraded when low-latitude ionospheric phenomena occur. Real EGNOS data affected by low-latitude ionospheric phenomena will be used.

  2. Values for the 15-minute Index of Geomagnetic Activity at High Latitude Stations (Geomagnetic Latitude 58 Degrees) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives, on a monthly basis, Q indices from Sodankyla. These...

  3. Millennial-scale interhemispheric asymmetry of low-latitude precipitation: speleothem evidences and possible high-latitude forcing (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Ito, E.


    A high resolution oxygen isotopic record of cave calcite, spanning the last 90,000 years, was obtained from Caverna Botuverá, southern Brazil. The record broadly follows local insolation changes and shows significant millennial-scale variation with amplitudes as large as 3 per mil. Tests for equilibrium conditions show that oxygen isotopic variations are a direct reflection of changes in rainwater values and temperatures at this low- latitude location. Established with independent absolute-dated uranium series chronologies, our record anti- correlates remarkably with the contemporaneous oxygen isotopic records of cave calcite from eastern China (anti-phase precipitation changes), but positively correlates with the record of speleothem growth periods from northeastern Brazil (in-phase precipitation changes) on millennial time scales. These observations suggest that a rainfall seesaw may have existed between the southern and northern low latitudes on millennial time scales in the past. This interhemipheric anti-phasing of rainfall is probably caused by feedbacks between North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and the intertropical convergence. The interplays affect not only North Atlantic climate but also result in the displacement of the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry of the Hadley cell. The Brazilian speleothem records further indicate that millennial-scale abrupt climate change is largely tied to meridional shifts rather than zonal shifts, and are therefore unlikely to have been triggered by tropical Walker circulation changes.

  4. The SDSS High Latitude Cloud Survey (United States)

    McGehee, P. M.


    The high latitude clouds (|b| > 30) are primarily translucent molecular clouds and diffuse Galactic cirrus with the majority of them seen at high latitude simply due to their proximity to the Sun. The rare exceptions are those, like the Draco and other intermediate or high velocity clouds, found significantly above or below the Galactic plane. To date, star formation has only been verified in MBM 12 and MBM 20, which are two of the densest high latitude molecular clouds. We present results from an ongoing study of high latitude clouds based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). This study consists of two major efforts, the first (described here) to provide a 3-D mapping of the interstellar dust using a color-excess technique, the second to identify candidate low-mass Classical T Tauri stars in the field.

  5. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie


    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  6. Persistent influence of ice sheet melting on high northern latitude climate during the early Last Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Govin


    Full Text Available Although the Last Interglacial (LIG is often considered as a possible analogue for future climate in high latitudes, its precise climate evolution and associated causes remain uncertain. Here we compile high-resolution marine sediment records from the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Southern Ocean. We document a delay in the establishment of peak interglacial conditions in the North Atlantic, Labrador and Norwegian Seas as compared to the Southern Ocean. In particular, we observe a persistent iceberg melting at high northern latitudes at the beginning of the LIG. It suggests that the input of meltwater has maintained (1 colder and fresher surface-water conditions in the North Atlantic, Labrador and Norwegian Seas and (2 weaker ventilation of North Atlantic deep waters during the early LIG (129–125.5 ka compared to the late LIG. Results from an ocean-atmosphere coupled model with insolation as a sole forcing for three key periods of the LIG show that insolation variations alone lead to warmer North Atlantic surface waters and stronger Atlantic overturning during the early LIG (126 ka than the late LIG (122 ka. Hence insolation variations alone do not explain the delay in peak interglacial conditions observed at high northern latitudes. When freshwater input is interactively computed at 126 ka in response to the high boreal summer insolation, the model simulates colder, fresher North Atlantic surface waters and weaker Atlantic overturning during the early LIG (126 ka compared to the late LIG (122 ka. This result indicates that both insolation variations and ice sheet melting have to be considered to reproduce the LIG climate evolution and supports our hypothesis that optimal thermal and deep ocean circulation conditions at high northern latitudes develop during the late LIG only, when the freshwater supply has already ceased.

  7. The Holocene Climate Linkage between Low Latitude Area and North Atlantic:Case study on element and element ratios of Huguangyan Maar lake%全新世低纬地区古环境演化与北大西洋之间的联系——以湖光岩玛珥湖元素和元素比值记录为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭东; 沈吉; 汪勇


    Holocene paleoenvironment evolution history of the Huguangyan area,paleoenvironment revolution at Huguangyan area since 11 000 cal a BP can be divided into four stages: stage Ⅰ,11 000~7 800 cal a BP,the climate was warm and wet;stage Ⅱ,7 800~5 600 cal a BP,the climate became cold and dry rapidly;stage Ⅲ,5 600~2 000 cal a BP,it was relative warm and wet,but not as warm as early Holocene;stage Ⅳ,2 000 cal a BP as yet,the climate became dry gradually.The results show that early Holocene is the Holocene optimum,the climate became relatively dry since the mid Holocene.This pattern is consistent with pollen record also from Huguangyan maar lake and other records from low latitude area of the northern hemisphere,which indicates the global nature of the orbital forcing of the Holocene monsoon.There are affiliations and differences between cold events reflected by Huguangyan Maar lake sediment and North Atlantic ice-rafted debris,which suggests that climate shift at low latitude area has certain linkage with North Atlantic area.Low latitude processes,such as monsoon and ENSO,are influencing factors that affected Holocene evolution at Huguangyan area.Holocene paleoenvironment evolution at low latitude is the result of superposition of low latitude processes and high latitude processes,which makes the mechanism of climate change at low latitude area more complicated.%通过湖光岩玛珥湖沉积物高分辨率的Fe/Mn比值、Rb/Sr比值、Sr元素强度和550℃烧失量的研究,重建了湖光岩地区全新世以来的古环境演化历史,即:早全新世是气候适宜期,气候温暖湿润,中、晚全新世开始气候逐渐干旱化。这种气候演化模式体现了全新世季风演化的全球性。湖光岩玛珥湖沉积物反映的全新世以来的冷暖变化事件与北大西洋浮冰碎屑记录之间既存在联系又存在差异。这说明在全新世背景下,低纬地区的古气候演化与北大西洋存在一定程度的联系。低纬地区

  8. Possible latitude effects of Chern-Simons gravity on quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Okawara, Hiroki; Asada, Hideki


    It has been recently suggested that possible effects of Chern-Simons gravity on a quantum interferometer are dependent on the latitude and direction of the interferometer on Earth in orbital motion around Sun. Continuing work initiated in the earlier publication [Okawara, Yamada and Asada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 231101 (2012)], we perform numerical calculations of time variation in the induced phase shifts for nonequatorial cases. We show that the maximum phase shift at any latitude might occur at 6, 0 (and 12), and 18 hours (in local time) of each day, when the normal vector to the interferometer is vertical, eastbound and northbound, respectively. If two identical interferometers were located at different latitudes, the difference between two phase shifts that are measured at the same local time would be $O(\\sin \\delta\\varphi)$ for a small latitude difference $\\delta\\varphi$. It might thus become maximally $\\sim 20$ percents for $\\delta\\varphi \\sim 10$ degrees, for instance.

  9. Lean production tools and decision latitude enable conditions for innovative learning in organizations: a multilevel analysis. (United States)

    Fagerlind Ståhl, Anna-Carin; Gustavsson, Maria; Karlsson, Nadine; Johansson, Gun; Ekberg, Kerstin


    The effect of lean production on conditions for learning is debated. This study aimed to investigate how tools inspired by lean production (standardization, resource reduction, visual monitoring, housekeeping, value flow analysis) were associated with an innovative learning climate and with collective dispersion of ideas in organizations, and whether decision latitude contributed to these associations. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in public, private, production and service organizations (n = 4442). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used. Use of lean tools and decision latitude were positively associated with an innovative learning climate and collective dispersion of ideas. A low degree of decision latitude was a modifier in the association to collective dispersion of ideas. Lean tools can enable shared understanding and collective spreading of ideas, needed for the development of work processes, especially when decision latitude is low. Value flow analysis played a pivotal role in the associations.

  10. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina (United States)

    Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D.L.; Griffitts, W.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.


    This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the

  11. Quiet time enhancements over African latitudes (United States)

    Orford, Nicola; Katamzi, Zama; Buresova, Dalia


    F2 layer disturbances not related to geomagnetic activity are known as quiet time enhancements (QTEs). The phenomenon of QTEs has not yet been studied over African latitudes. We therefore explore the occurrence of QTEs over Africa in order to expand our knowledge on the behaviour of the ionosphere over this region. Several GPS stations in the middle to equatorial latitudes, during the solar minimum (2009) and near solar maximum (2013), are used. This data was examined for possible trends in variation with solar cycle, season and latitude as well as time of commencement of enhancements. Over the southern mid-latitude region of Africa we have observed that the QTEs are more likely to commence during the night in both solar minimum and maximum, however a slightly larger portion of daytime commencements during solar minimum than during solar maximum were observed. The total number of enhancements for the solar minimum period appears greater than during solar maximum. A seasonal trend is seen with the maximum number of enhancements occurring in summer during solar minimum and in winter during solar maximum. We explore further whether these trends are mirrored or different at low latitude/equatorial African regions.

  12. Use of radio occultation to probe the high latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Mannucci


    Full Text Available We have explored the use of COSMIC data to provide valuable scientific information on the ionospheric impacts of energetic particle precipitation during geomagnetic storms. Ionospheric electron density in the E region, and hence ionospheric conductivity, is significantly altered by precipitating particles from the magnetosphere. This has global impacts on the thermosphere-ionosphere because of the important role of conductivity on high latitude Joule heating. Two high-speed stream (HSS and two coronal mass ejection (CME storms are examined with the COSMIC data. We find clear correlation between geomagnetic activity and electron density retrievals from COSMIC. At nighttime local times, the number of profiles with maximum electron densities in the E layer (below 200 km altitude is well correlated with geomagnetic activity. We interpret this to mean that electron density increases due to precipitation are captured by the COSMIC profiles. These "E layer dominant ionosphere" (ELDI profiles have geomagnetic latitudes that are consistent with climatological models of the auroral location. For the two HSS storms, that occurred in May of 2011 and 2012, a strong hemispheric asymmetry is observed, with nearly all the ELDI profiles found in the southern, less sunlit, hemisphere. Stronger aurora and precipitation have been observed before in winter hemispheres, but the degree of asymmetry deserves further study. For the two CME storms, occurring in July and November of 2012, large increases in the number of ELDI profiles are found starting in the storm's main phase but continuing for several days into the recovery phase. Analysis of the COSMIC profiles was extended to all local times for the July 2012 CME storm by relaxing the ELDI criterion and instead visually inspecting all profiles above 50° magnetic latitude for signatures of precipitation in the E region. For nine days during the July 2012 period, we find a signature of precipitation occurs nearly

  13. Slow pace of life in tropical sedentary birds: a common-garden experiment on four stonechat populations from different latitudes.


    Wikelski, Martin; Spinney, Laura; Schelsky, Wendy; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Gwinner, Eberhard


    It has been hypothesized that organisms living at different latitudes or in different environments adjust their metabolic activity to the prevailing conditions. However, do differences in energy turnover simply represent a phenotypic adaptation to the local environment, or are they genetically based? To test this, we obtained nestling stonechats (Saxicola torquata) from equatorial Kenya (0 degrees N), Ireland (51.5 degrees N), Austria (47.5 degrees N) and Kazakhstan (51.5 degrees N). Birds we...

  14. High latitude dust pathways from Iceland: implications for aeolian inputs to oceans and cryosphere (United States)

    Bullard, J. E.; Baddock, M.; Mockford, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.


    Recent research has suggested that dust emission from source areas found in the high latitudes (≥50°N and ≥40°S) may contribute at least 5% to the global dust budget. Although this amount is low compared to that from sub-tropical dust sources, the relative impact of dust emission at high latitudes may well be magnified by its regional significance. High latitude regions lie away from the transport corridors of dust from the major sub-tropical dust belt, thus sources at higher latitudes have the potential to be especially important providers of mineral aerosol to (their) proximal cryospheric, terrestrial and marine systems. To examine the distribution of dust from a prominent high latitude dust source, this study employed forward air parcel trajectory modelling over a 20 year period, quantifying dust trajectories from source areas in the north and south of Iceland. The majority of multi-year dust transport studies have relied upon daily-run trajectories over their decadal study periods. This research differs from these because it only analyses trajectories generated when dust was known to be in suspension at the origin, based on meteorological observations. We demonstrate that the potential for Icelandic dust to be transported over the Greenland Ice Sheet is considerably overestimated by generic transport climatologies when compared with those specifically associated with dust. Modeled transport patterns illustrate the strong influence of seasonality as a primary control on dust emission and its transport from Iceland. Snow cover means dust activity is suppressed for a longer duration in the north of Iceland, and while winds are weakest in summer, the delivery of dust to Atlantic and sub-arctic oceans is greatest and broadest in that season. These findings illustrate the influence of drivers unique to high latitude environments, and their importance in understanding the aeolian systems operating there.

  15. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6-year nodal tide (United States)

    Royer, Thomas C.


    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60°N, 149°W) increased by more than 1°C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated (˜0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50°. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes.

  16. Persistent influence of ice sheet melting on high northern latitude climate during the early Last Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Govin


    Full Text Available Although the Last Interglacial (LIG is often considered as a possible analogue for future climate in high latitudes, its precise climate evolution and associated causes remain uncertain. Here we compile high-resolution marine sediment records from the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Southern Ocean. We document a delay in the establishment of peak interglacial conditions in the North Atlantic, Labrador and Norwegian Seas as compared to the Southern Ocean. In particular, we observe a persistent iceberg melting at high northern latitudes at the beginning of the LIG. It is associated with (1 colder and fresher surface-water conditions in the North Atlantic, Labrador and Norwegian Seas, and (2 a weaker ventilation of North Atlantic deep waters during the early LIG (129–125 ka compared to the late LIG. Results from an ocean-atmosphere coupled model with insolation as a sole forcing for three key periods of the LIG show warmer North Atlantic surface waters and stronger Atlantic overturning during the early LIG (126 ka than the late LIG (122 ka. Hence, insolation variations alone do not explain the delay in peak interglacial conditions observed at high northern latitudes. Additionally, we consider an idealized meltwater scenario at 126 ka where the freshwater input is interactively computed in response to the high boreal summer insolation. The model simulates colder, fresher North Atlantic surface waters and weaker Atlantic overturning during the early LIG (126 ka compared to the late LIG (122 ka. This result suggests that both insolation and ice sheet melting have to be considered to reproduce the climatic pattern that we identify during the early LIG. Our model-data comparison also reveals a number of limitations and reinforces the need for further detailed investigations using coupled climate-ice sheet models and transient simulations.

  17. Obliquity forcing of low-latitude climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, L.J.


    The influence of obliquity, the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis, on incoming solar radiation at low latitudes is small, yet many tropical and subtropical palaeoclimate records reveal a clear obliquity signal. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this signal, such as the remote

  18. Obliquity forcing of low-latitude climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, L.J.


    The influence of obliquity, the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis, on incoming solar radiation at low latitudes is small, yet many tropical and subtropical palaeoclimate records reveal a clear obliquity signal. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this signal, such as the remote influe

  19. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times. (United States)

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E


    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  20. Recurring Slope Lineae in Mid-Latitude and Equatorial Mars (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Mattson, S.; Toigo, A. D.; Ojha, L.; Wray, J. J.; Chojnacki, M.; Byrne, S.; Murchie, S. L.; Thomas, N.


    A key to potential present-day habitability of Mars is the presence of liquid H2O (water). Recurring slope lineae (RSL) could be evidence for the seasonal flow of water on relatively warm slopes. RSL are narrow (250 K to >300 K. In the past year we have monitored active RSL in equatorial (0°-15°S) regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris. They are especially active on north-facing slopes in northern summer and spring and on south-facing slopes in southern spring and summer, following the most normal solar incidence angles on these steep slopes. However, predicted peak temperatures for north-facing slopes are nearly constant throughout the Martian year because orbital periapse occurs near the southern summer solstice. Although warm temperatures and steep low-albedo slopes are required, some additional effect besides temperature may serve to trigger and stop RSL activity. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric column abundance of water does not match the RSL activity. Although seasonal melting of shallow ice could explain the mid-latitude RSL, the equatorial activity requires a different explanation, perhaps migration of briny groundwater. To explain RSL flow lengths, exceeding 1 km in Valles Marineris, the water is likely to be salty. Several RSL attributes are not yet understood: (1) the relation between apparent RSL activity and dustiness of the atmosphere; (2) salt composition and concentration; (3) variability in RSL activity from year to year; (4) seasonal activity on north-facing equatorial slopes in spite of little change in temperature; and (5) temporal changes in the color properties of fans where RSL terminate. Continued orbital monitoring, laboratory experiments, and future orbital and landed exploration with new measurement types are needed. Equatorial water activity, if confirmed, creates new exploration opportunities and challenges. RSL >1 km long near boundary between Eos and Capri Chasmata of Valles Marineris, Mars.

  1. Discovery of an Apparent High Latitude Galactic Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Fesen, Robert; Black, Christine; Koeppel, Ari


    Deep H$\\alpha$ images of a faint emission complex 4.0 x 5.5 degrees in angular extent and located far off the Galactic plane at l = 70.0 degrees, b=-21.5 degrees reveal numerous thin filaments suggestive of a supernova remnant's shock emission. Low dispersion optical spectra covering the wavelength range 4500 - 7500 A show only Balmer line emissions for one filament while three others show a Balmer dominated spectrum along with weak [N I] 5198, 5200 A, [O I] 6300, 6364 A, [N II] 6583 A, [S II] 6716, 6731 A and in one case [O III] 5007 A line emission. Many of the brighter H$\\alpha$ filaments are visible in near UV GALEX images presumably due to C III] 1909 A line emission. ROSAT All Sky Survey images of this region show a faint crescent shaped X-ray emission nebula coincident with the portion of the H$\\alpha$ nebulosity closest to the Galactic plane. The presence of long, thin Balmer dominated emission filaments with associated UV emission and coincident X-ray emission suggests this nebula is a high latitude ...

  2. Environmental harshness, latitude and incipient speciation. (United States)

    Weir, Jason T


    Are rates of evolution and speciation fastest where diversity is greatest - the tropics? A commonly accepted theory links the latitudinal diversity gradient to a speciation pump model whereby the tropics produce species at a faster rate than extra-tropical regions. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Botero et al. () test the speciation pump model using subspecies richness patterns for more than 9000 species of birds and mammals as a proxy for incipient speciation opportunity. Rather than using latitudinal centroids, the authors investigate the role of various environmental correlates of latitude as drivers of subspecies richness. Their key finding points to environmental harshness as a positive predictor of subspecies richness. The authors link high subspecies richness in environmental harsh areas to increased opportunities for geographic range fragmentation and/or faster rates of trait evolution as drivers of incipient speciation. Because environmental harshness generally increases with latitude, these results suggest that opportunity for incipient speciation is lowest where species richness is highest. The authors interpret this finding as incompatible with the view of the tropics as a cradle of diversity. Their results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that reproductive isolation and speciation occur fastest at high latitudes.

  3. Rethinking the polar cap: Eccentric dipole structuring of ULF power at the highest corrected geomagnetic latitudes (United States)

    Urban, Kevin D.; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Weatherwax, Allan T.


    The day-to-day evolution and statistical features of Pc3-Pc7 band ultralow frequency (ULF) power throughout the southern polar cap suggest that the corrected geomagnetic (CGM) coordinates do not adequately organize the observed hydromagnetic spatial structure. It is shown that that the local-time distribution of ULF power at sites along CGM latitudinal parallels exhibit fundamental differences and that the CGM latitude of a site in general is not indicative of the site's projection into the magnetosphere. Thus, ULF characteristics observed at a single site in the polar cap cannot be freely generalized to other sites of similar CGM latitude but separated in magnetic local time, and the inadequacy of CGM coordinates in the polar cap has implications for conjugacy/mapping studies in general. In seeking alternative, observationally motivated systems of "polar cap latitudes," it is found that eccentric dipole (ED) coordinates have several strengths in organizing the hydromagnetic spatial structure in the polar cap region. ED latitudes appear to better classify the local-time ULF power in both magnitude and morphology and better differentiate the "deep polar cap" (where the ULF power is largely UT dependent and nearly free of local-time structure) from the "peripheral polar cap" (where near-magnetic noon pulsations dominate at lower and lower frequencies as one increases in ED latitude). Eccentric local time is shown to better align the local-time profiles in the magnetic east component over several PcX bands but worsen in the magnetic north component. It is suggested that a hybrid ED-CGM coordinate system might capture the strengths of both CGM and ED coordinates. It is shown that the local-time morphology of median ULF power at high-latitude sites is dominantly driven by where they project into the magnetosphere, which is best quantified by their proximity to the low-altitude cusp on the dayside (which is not necessarily quantified by a site's CGM latitude), and that

  4. A FUSE Survey of Interstellar Molecular Hydrogen toward High-Latitude AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Gillmon, K; Tumlinson, J; Danforth, C; Gillmon, Kristen; Tumlinson, Jason; Danforth, Charles


    We report results from a FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen (H2) along 45 sight lines to AGN at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 20 degrees). Most (39 of 45) of the sight lines show detectable Galactic H2 absorption from Lyman and Werner bands between 1000 and 1126 A, with column densities ranging from N(H2) = 10^(14.17-19.82) cm^-2. In the northern Galactic hemisphere, we identify many regions of low column, N(H2) 54 degrees. These `"H2 holes" provide valuable, uncontaminated sight lines for extragalactic UV spectroscopy, and a few may be related to the "Northern Chimney" (low Na I absorption) and "Lockman Hole" with low N(HI). A comparison of high-latitude H2 with 139 OB-star sight lines surveyed in the Galactic disk suggests that high-latitude and disk H2 clouds may have different rates of heating, cooling, and UV excitation. For rotational states J = 0 and 1, the mean excitation temperature at high latitude, = 124 +/- 8 K, is somewhat above that in the Galactic disk, = 86 +/- 20 K. For J = 2-...

  5. The External Degree. (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  6. High-Latitude Magnetic Reconnection in Sub-Alfvenic Flow as Observed by Interball Tail on 29 May 1996 (United States)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Waite, J.; Fuselier, S.; Vaisberg, O. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    The Interball/Tail spacecraft crossed the high latitude magnetopause near the cusp region under stable northward IMF conditions on 29 May 1996, with magnetic local time and magnetic latitude approx. 7.3 hours, approx. 65.4 degrees, respectively. The Interball Tail spacecraft observed quasi-steady reconnection and a relatively stable reconnection site at high latitudes. Observed sunward plasma flow and tangential stress balance indicated that reconnection occurred poleward of the magnetic cusp, above the spacecraft location. The spacecraft observed sub-alfvenic flow in the magnetosheath region adjacent to the magnetopause current layer near the reconnection site indicating that the reconnection site may have moved in the sunward direction. These observations suggest that the region of sub-alfvenic flow and stable, quasi-steady reconnection extend to very high latitudes under northward IMF conditions which is not consistent with the gas dynamic model predictions.

  7. North Sea Elasmobranchs: distribution, abundance and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Heessen, H.J.L.; Hofstede, ter R.


    Based on data from various international and national surveys, an overview is given of the fine-scale distribution (resolution of 20¿longitude * 10¿ latitude; ¿ 10*10 nm) and trends in abundance of elasmobranch species reported from the North Sea. Presence-absence maps are produced based on 4

  8. Corotating Interaction Regions at High Latitudes (United States)

    Kunow, H.; Lee, M. A.; Fisk, L. A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Heber, B.; Horbury, T. S.; Keppler, E.; Kóta, J.; Lou, Y.-Q.; McKibben, R. B.; Paizis, C.; Potgieter, M. S.; Roelof, E. C.; Sanderson, T. R.; Simnett, G. M.; von Steiger, R.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Jokipii, J. R.


    Ulysses observed a stable strong CIR from early 1992 through 1994 during its first journey into the southern hemisphere. After the rapid latitude scan in early 1995, Ulysses observed a weaker CIR from early 1996 to mid-1997 in the northern hemisphere as it traveled back to the ecliptic at the orbit of Jupiter. These two CIRs are the observational basis of the investigation into the latitudinal structure of CIRs. The first CIR was caused by an extension of the northern coronal hole into the southern hemisphere during declining solar activity, whereas the second CIR near solar minimum activity was caused by small warps in the streamer belt. The latitudinal structure is described through the presentation of three 26-day periods during the southern CIR. The first at ˜24°S shows the full plasma interaction region including fast and slow wind streams, the compressed shocked flows with embedded stream interface and heliospheric current sheet (HCS), and the forward and reverse shocks with associated accelerated ions and electrons. The second at 40°S exhibits only the reverse shock, accelerated particles, and the 26-day modulation of cosmic rays. The third at 60°S shows only the accelerated particles and modulated cosmic rays. The possible mechanisms for the access of the accelerated particles and the CIR-modulated cosmic rays to high latitudes above the plasma interaction region are presented. They include direct magnetic field connection across latitude due to stochastic field line weaving or to systematic weaving caused by solar differential rotation combined with non-radial expansion of the fast wind. Another possible mechanism is particle diffusion across the average magnetic field, which includes stochastic field line weaving. A constraint on connection to a distant portion of the CIR is energy loss in the solar wind, which is substantial for the relatively slow-moving accelerated ions. Finally, the weaker northern CIR is compared with the southern CIR. It is weak

  9. Saturn Chorus as a Function of Latitude (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Shprits, Y.


    Not only the dust but also the spatial scale of Saturn, including the background magnetic field inhomogeneity, make the study of whistler mode plasma wave emissions at Saturn quite different from Earth. The significant decrease in chorus intensity nearest the Saturn magnetic equator along a nearly constant L shell has already been reported. In the current study we analyze all known examples of these data and report the collective functional dependence of chorus intensity and wave normal angle, as well as density and magnetic inhomogeneity versus latitude. These values are important in the modeling of pitch angle scattering and possible electron acceleration at Saturn.

  10. Evidence for Amazonian mid-latitude glaciation on Mars from impact crater asymmetry (United States)

    Conway, Susan J.; Mangold, Nicolas


    We find that crater slopes in the mid-latitudes of Mars have a marked north-south asymmetry, with the pole-facing slopes being shallower. We mapped impact craters in two southern hemisphere sites (Terra Cimmeria and Noachis Terra) and one northern hemisphere site (Acidalia Planitia) and used elevation data from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars Express to find the maximum slope of impact crater walls in the four cardinal directions. Kreslavsky and Head (Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2003]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30), using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) track data, also found that, in general, conjugate slopes are shallower in the pole-facing direction, but over a narrower (˜10°) and more constrained latitude band. They linked the asymmetry to active-layer formation (thaw) at high obliquity. However, Parsons and Nimmo (Parsons, R.A., Nimmo, F. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114) studied crater asymmetry using MOLA gridded data and found no evidence of a relationship between crater asymmetry and latitude. Our work supports the observations of Kreslavsky and Head (Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2003]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30), and shows that asymmetry is also found on conjugate crater slopes below the resolution of MOLA, over a wider latitude band than found in their work. We do not systematically find a sudden transition to asymmetric craters with latitude as expected for thaw-related processes, such as solifluction, gelifluction, or gully formation. The formation of gullies should produce the opposite sense of asymmetry to our observations, so cannot explain them despite the mid-latitude location and pole-facing preferences of gullies. We instead link this asymmetry to the deposition of ice-rich crater deposits, where the base of pole-facing slopes receive ten to hundreds of meters of additional net deposition, compared to equator-facing ones over the mid-latitudes. In support of this hypothesis we found that craters in Terra Cimmeria that have

  11. Comparing High-latitude Ionospheric and Thermospheric Lagrangian Coherent Structures (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ramirez, U.; Flores, F.; Okic, D.; Datta-Barua, S.


    Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) are invisible boundaries in time varying flow fields that may be subject to mixing and turbulence. The LCS is defined by the local maxima of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), a scalar field quantifying the degree of stretching of fluid elements over the flow domain. Although the thermosphere is dominated by neutral wind processes and the ionosphere is governed by plasma electrodynamics, we can compare the LCS in the two modeled flow fields to yield insight into transport and interaction processes in the high-latitude IT system. For obtaining thermospheric LCS, we use the Horizontal Wind Model 2014 (HWM14) [1] at a single altitude to generate the two-dimensional velocity field. The FTLE computation is applied to study the flow field of the neutral wind, and to visualize the forward-time Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the flow domain. The time-varying structures indicate a possible thermospheric LCS ridge in the auroral oval area. The results of a two-day run during a geomagnetically quiet period show that the structures are diurnally quasi-periodic, thus that solar radiation influences the neutral wind flow field. To find the LCS in the high-latitude ionospheric drifts, the Weimer 2001 [2] polar electric potential model and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 [3] are used to compute the ExB drift flow field in ionosphere. As with the neutral winds, the Lagrangian Coherent Structures are obtained by applying the FTLE computation. The relationship between the thermospheric and ionospheric LCS is analyzed by comparing overlapping FTLE maps. Both a publicly available FTLE solver [4] and a custom-built FTLE computation are used and compared for validation [5]. Comparing the modeled IT LCSs on a quiet day with the modeled IT LCSs on a storm day indicates important factors on the structure and time evolution of the LCS.

  12. Magnotospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garrido

    Full Text Available High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O+ and He+ emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O+ (83.4 nm ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He+ and 83.4 nm O+ emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 RE or more is in a favourable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  13. Low latitude aurorae as a diagnostic for energetic particle injections and their environment (United States)

    Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Dai, L.; Dombeck, J. P.; Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.


    The region between the inner magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail/plasma sheet is highly dynamic during geomagnetic storms and hosts many important magnetospheric phenomenon and structures, including particle injections and the outer radiation belt. The energy transport mechanisms in this region during major storms are not yet fully understood, however there is increasing evidence that in the range of invariant latitudes (ILAT) mapping to this dipole-tail boundary region, Alfven waves are an important energy source for the aurora. This range of latitudes, which is roughly 50 to 68 degrees ILAT varying somewhat on the level of magnetospheric disturbance, is low latitude for the aurora. We present a study of intense earthward Alfvenic Poynting flux at the location of, and concomitant with, energetic electron injections during dipolarizations, on field lines mapping to low latitude aurorae. The Poynting flux, when mapped to an ionospheric altitude of 100km, is of sufficient intensity to power the magnetically conjugate auroral luminosities. The preliminary results suggest that wave Poynting flux is an important link between injection events and low latitude aurorae. Thus the observation of the intensification and dynamic behavior of low latitude auroral arcs, i.e. those on field lines that during storms map to the near- tail boundary where particle injections are observed, are an important diagnostic for the occurrence, location, and plasma dynamics associated with energetic particle injections. This has important implications for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission. The data gathered by RBSP can be used in conjunction with auroral data from the THEMIS all-sky imaging array in Canada, providing a richer context for the study of radiation belt physics.

  14. A Study of Steady Magnetospheric Convection Using High Latitude Magnetometers (United States)

    de Silva, J. T.; Erickson, K. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Murr, D. L.; Hughes, W. J.


    Magnetometer data from the MACCS and CANOPUS arrays in northern North America have been analyzed during two of the intervals of steady magnetospheric convection identified by the GEM community, January 29-30 and February 3-4, 1998. These intervals were characterized by extended periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (negative IMF Bz), and by the absence of substorms. The patterns of ionospheric current flow on the dayside were found to be in general agreement with the disturbance current system, SD, originally described by Silsbee and Vestine [1942]. This indicates that during extended periods of southward IMF the convection on the dayside is the same whether or not there are substorms. When plasma flow patterns measured by the SuperDARN auroral radar network were available for comparison, these patterns agreed with the patterns inferred from magnetometers. Further study will investigate convection patterns on the nightside, and a similar study of convection for the southern high latitude region will be conducted using data from Antarctic stations.

  15. Effect of elevation and latitude on spring phenology of Rhododendron at Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar


    Full Text Available Mountainous terrain in East corner of Nepal is good location for phenological studies. Spring phenology in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was monitored around Ghunsa river valley in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal. Observations were carried our following the crown density method; flowering events of the selected species were recorded in 15-days interval. Flowering activity including duration of flowering and synchrony were determined. In addition, expected difference in flower onset time in two consecutive monitoring plots was determined. Elevation, latitude and longitude were regressed against flower onset to determine effect of each variable on flower onset. Delay in flower onset with rise in elevation, North latitude and West longitude was found in the results of the regression. Full bloom phase was found highly synchronized throughout the elevation gradient with contraction of flowering duration. High synchrony also indicates that the reproductive timing might plastic enough to cope with short-term change in environment.

  16. Application of a land surface model for simulating river streamflow in high latitudes (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy; Nasonova, Olga; Dzhogan, Larissa


    Nowadays modelling runoff from the pan-Arctic river basins, which represents nearly 50% of water flow to the Arctic Ocean, is of great interest among hydrological modelling community because these regions are very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic impacts. This motivates the necessity of increase of the accuracy of hydrological estimations, runoff predictions, and water resources assessments in high latitudes. However, in these regions, observations required for model simulations (to specify model parameters and forcing inputs) are very scarce or even absent (especially this concerns land surface parameters). At the same time river discharge measurements are usually available that makes it possible to estimate model parameters by their calibration against measured discharge. Such a situation is typical of most of the northern basins of Russia. The major goal of the work is to reveal whether a physically-based land surface model (LSM) Soil Water - Atmosphere - Plants (SWAP) is able to reproduce snowmelt and rain driven daily streamflow in high latitudes (using poor input information) with the accuracy acceptable for hydrologic applications. Three river basins, located on the north of the European part of Russia, were chosen for investigation. They are the Mezen River basin (area: area: 78 000 km2), the Pechora River basin (area: 312 000 km2) and the Severnaya Dvina River basin (area: 348 000 km2). For modeling purposes the basins were presented, respectively, by 10, 57 and 62 one-degree computational grid boxes connected by river network. A priori estimation of the land surface parameters for each grid box was based on the global one-degree datasets prepared within the framework of the International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Initiative II (ISLSCP) / the Second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP-2). Three versions of atmospheric forcing data prepared for the basins were based on: (1) NCEP/DOE reanalysis dataset; (2) NCEP/DOE reanalysis product

  17. Development and application of the mollusc Arctica islandica as a paleoceanographic tool for the North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidman, C.R.


    Until now there has been no tool comparable to corals for reconstructing long term high-resolution geochemical time-series for the colder, higher-latitude oceans. In this thesis, the long-lived (+100 years) boreal mollusc (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica is shown to be practical for this purpose in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. The evidence, compiled here, demonstrates that the carbonate shell of this species faithfully records the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon`s (DIC) radiocarbon ({Delta}{sup 14}C) concentration and accurately reflects the ambient temperature in its stable oxygen isotope ({delta}{sup 18}O) composition. However, the stable carbon isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C) composition of the A. islandica shell likely is not a good recorder of ambient DIC {delta}{sup 13}C, and likely responds to physiological controls. Four {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories are reconstructed from the annual bands of A. islandica shells for the higher-latitudes of the northern North Atlantic Ocean (from 41{degree}N to 70{degree}N).

  18. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon


    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  19. The switching between zonal and blocked mid-latitude atmospheric circulation: a dynamical system perspective (United States)

    Faranda, Davide; Masato, Giacomo; Moloney, Nicholas; Sato, Yuzuru; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Yiou, Pascal


    Atmospheric mid-latitude circulation is dominated by a zonal, westerly flow. Such a flow is generally symmetric, but it can be occasionally broken up by blocking anticyclones. The subsequent asymmetric flow can persist for several days. In this paper, we apply new mathematical tools based on the computation of an extremal index in order to reexamine the dynamical mechanisms responsible for the transitions between zonal and blocked flows. We discard the claim that mid-latitude circulation features two distinct stable equilibria or chaotic regimes, in favor of a simpler mechanism that is well understood in dynamical systems theory: we identify the blocked flow as an unstable fixed point (or saddle point) of a single basin chaotic attractor, dominated by the westerlies regime. We also analyze the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation atmospheric indices, whose behavior is often associated with the transition between the two circulation regimes, and investigate analogies and differences with the bidimensional blocking indices. We find that the Arctic Oscillation index, which can be thought as a proxy for a hemispheric average of the Tibaldi-Molteni blocking index, tracks unstable fixed points. On the other hand, the North Atlantic Oscillation, representative only for local properties of the North Atlantic blocking dynamics, does not show any trace of the presence of unstable fixed points of the dynamics.

  20. Time trends and latitude dependence of uveal and cutaneous malignant melanoma induced by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, J.; Setlow, R.; Cicarma, E.; Porojnicu, A. C.; Grant, W. B.; Juzeniene, A.


    In order to evaluate the role of solar radiation in uveal melanoma etiology, the time and latitude dependency of the incidence rates of this melanoma type were studied in comparison with those of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Norway and several other countries with Caucasian populations were included. There is a marked north - south gradient of the incidence rates of CMM in Norway, with three times higher rates in the south than in the north. No such gradient is found for uveal melanoma. Similar findings have been published for CMM in other Caucasian populations, with the exception of Europe as a whole. In most populations the ratios of uveal melanoma incidence rates to those of CMM tend to decrease with increasing CMM rates. This is also true for Europe, in spite of the fact that in this region there is an inverse latitude gradient of CMM, with higher rates in the north than in the south. In Norway the incidence rates of CMM have increased until about 1990 but have been constant, or even decreased (for young people) after that time, indicating constant or decreasing sun exposure. The uveal melanoma rates have been increasing after 1990. In most other populations the incidence rates of CMM have been increasing until recently while those of uveal melanoma have been decreasing. These data generally support the assumption that uveal melanomas are not generated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and that solar UV, via its role in vitamin D photosynthesis, may have a protective effect.

  1. Dust transport into Martian polar latitudes (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.


    The presence of suspended dust in the Martian atmosphere, and its return to the planet's surface, is implicated in the formation of the polar layered terrain and the dichotomy in perennial CO2 polar cap retention in the two hemispheres. A three dimensional model was used to study Martian global dust storms. The model accounts for the interactive feedbacks between the atmospheric thermal and dynamical states and an evolving radiatively active suspended dust load. Results from dust storm experiments, as well as from simulations in which there is interest in identifying the conditions under which surface dust lifting occurs at various locations and times, indicate that dust transport due to atmospheric eddy motions is likely to be important in the arrival of suspended dust at polar latitudes. The layered terrain in both polar regions of Mars is interpreted as the reality of cyclical episodes of volatile (CO2, H2O) and dust deposition.

  2. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.


    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  3. Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes (United States)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali


    The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the

  4. Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude. (United States)

    Clement, Bradford M


    An important constraint on the processes governing the geodynamo--the flow in the outer core responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field--is the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals; that is, how long it takes for Earth's magnetic field to reverse. It is generally accepted that Earth's magnetic field strength drops to low levels during polarity reversals, and the field direction progresses through a 180 degrees change while the field is weak. The time it takes for this process to happen, however, remains uncertain, with estimates ranging from a few thousand up to 28,000 years. Here I present an analysis of the available sediment records of the four most recent polarity reversals. These records yield an average estimate of about 7,000 years for the time it takes for the directional change to occur. The variation about this mean duration is not random, but instead varies with site latitude, with shorter durations observed at low-latitude sites, and longer durations observed at mid- to high-latitude sites. Such variation of duration with site latitude is predicted by simple geometrical reversal models, in which non-dipole fields are allowed to persist while the axial dipole decays through zero and then builds in the opposite direction, and provides a constraint on numerical dynamo models.

  5. Rapid sympatry explains greater color pattern divergence in high latitude birds. (United States)

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C


    Latitudinal variation in patterns of evolution has fascinated biologists for over a century, but our understanding of latitudinal differences in evolutionary processes-such as selection and drift-remains limited. Here, we test for, and find, accelerated evolution of color patterns in bird taxa that breed at higher latitudes compared with those breeding in the tropics, analyzing data from seven diverse avian families. Most important, we show that the extent of overlap of species' breeding ranges (degree of sympatry) explains the elevated rate of color pattern evolution at higher latitudes. We suggest that the dynamic shifts in breeding ranges that accompanied climatic changes during the last 3 million years (Milankovitch Oscillations) resulted in more rapid and more frequent secondary contact at high latitudes. We argue that sympatry among diverging clades causes greater divergence of color traits in birds at higher latitudes through sexual, social, or ecological character displacement that accelerate rates of evolution, and through the selective elimination of weakly differentiated lineages that hybridize and fuse in sympatry (differential fusion).

  6. Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to Geomagnetic Storms at ISS Altitudes (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Neergaard Parker, Linda


    Spacecraft charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is dominated by interaction of the US high voltage solar arrays with the F2-region ionosphere plasma environment. ISS solar array charging is enhanced in a high electron density environment due to the increased thermal electron currents to the edges of the solar cells. High electron temperature environments suppress charging due to formation of barrier potentials on the charged solar cell cover glass that restrict the charging currents to the cell edge [Mandell et al., 2003]. Environments responsible for strong solar array charging are therefore characterized by high electron densities and low electron temperatures. In support of the ISS space environmental effects engineering community, we are working to understand a number of features of solar array charging and to determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ plasma density and temperature measurements. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that occur at ISS orbital altitudes (approximately 400 km) over time scales of days, the latitudes over which significant variations occur, and the time periods over which the disturbances persist once they start. This presentation provides examples of mid-latitude electron density and temperature disturbances at altitudes relevant to ISS using data sets and tools developed for our ISS plasma environment study. "Mid-latitude" is defined as the extra-tropical region between approx. 30 degrees to approx. 60 degrees magnetic latitude sampled by ISS over its 51.6 degree inclination orbit. We focus on geomagnetic storm periods because storms are well known drivers for disturbances in the ionospheric plasma environment.

  7. I. Sexual, individual, and geographical variation in leucosticte tephrocotis, II.Geographical variation among North American mammals, especially in respect to size (United States)

    Allen, J.A.


    Having recently had an opportunity (through the kindness of Professor Baird) of studying with some care the magnificent series of skulls of the North American Mammalia belonging to the National Museum (amounting often to eighty or a hundred specimens of a single species), I have been strongly impressed with the different degrees of variability exhibited by the representatives of the species and genera of even the same family. The variation in size, for instance, with latitude, in the Wolves and Foxes is surprisingly great, amounting in some species (as will be shown later) to 25 per cent. of the average size of the species, while in other species of the Ferae it is almost nil. Contrary to the general supposition, the variation in size among representatives of the same species is not always a decrease with the decrease of the latitude of the locality, but is in some cases exactly the reverse, in some species there being a very considerable and indisputable increase southward. This, for instance, is very markedly true of some species of Felis and in Procyon lotor. Consequently, the very generally-received impression that in North America the species of Mammalia diminish in size southward, or with the decrease in the latitude (and altitude) of the locality, requires modification. While such is generally the case, the reverse of this too often occurs, with occasional instances also of a total absence of variation in size with locality, to be considered as forming "the exceptions" necessary to "prove the rule".

  8. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Guo, Q. L., E-mail: [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)


    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  9. Multiple sclerosis in South America: month of birth in different latitudes does not seem to interfere with the prevalence or progression of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso


    Full Text Available Objective To assess whether the month of birth in different latitudes of South America might influence the presence or severity of multiple sclerosis (MS later in life. Methods Neurologists in four South American countries working at MS units collected data on their patients' month of birth, gender, age, and disease progression. Results Analysis of data from 1207 MS patients and 1207 control subjects did not show any significant variation in the month of birth regarding the prevalence of MS in four latitude bands (0–10; 11–20; 21–30; and 31–40 degrees. There was no relationship between the month of birth and the severity of disease in each latitude band. Conclusion The results from this study show that MS patients born to mothers who were pregnant at different Southern latitudes do not follow the seasonal pattern observed at high Northern latitudes.

  10. Circulation in the high-latitude thermosphere due to electric fields and Joule heating (United States)

    Heaps, M. G.; Megill, L. R.


    Electric fields in the earth's upper atmosphere are capable of setting the neutral atmosphere in motion via ion-neutral collisions as well as pressure gradients from resultant Joule heating. By means of simple models for the high-latitude thermosphere and electric fields a simplified set of coupled equations is solved which show that moderate electric fields, when present for a period of several hours, are capable of displacing the neutral atmosphere of the order of 50 km in the vertical, a few hundred kilometers in the north-south direction and over 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  11. Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene

    CERN Document Server

    Wölfli, W


    In Arctic East Siberia many remains of mammoths have been found. In this region there is not sufficient sunlight over the year to allow for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed. Consequently the latitude of these regions must have been lower before the end of the Pleistocene than at present. It is a challenge to reconstruct this geographic shift of the poles in a manner compa- tible with known facts. A possible sequence of events is described here. It as- sumes an additional planet, which must since have disappeared. This is possible, if it moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot as a result of tidal work and solar radiation. During a few million years evaporation of this planet led to a disk-shaped cloud of ions moving around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the Earth from the solar radiation, producing the alteration of cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The degree of shielding is sensitive to the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100000 y...

  12. Sensitivity of US air quality to mid-latitude cyclone frequency and implications of 1980–2006 climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Leibensperger


    Full Text Available We show that the frequency of summertime mid-latitude cyclones tracking across eastern North America at 40°–50° N (the southern climatological storm track is a strong predictor of stagnation and ozone pollution days in the eastern US. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, going back to 1948, shows a significant long-term decline in the number of summertime mid-latitude cyclones in that track starting in 1980 (−0.15 a−1. The more recent but shorter NCEP/DOE Reanalysis (1979–2006 shows similar interannual variability in cyclone frequency but no significant long-term trend. Analysis of NOAA daily weather maps for 1980–2006 supports the trend detected in the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1. A GISS general circulation model (GCM simulation including historical forcing by greenhouse gases reproduces this decreasing cyclone trend starting in 1980. Such a long-term decrease in mid-latitude cyclone frequency over the 1980–2006 period may have offset by half the ozone air quality gains in the northeastern US from reductions in anthropogenic emissions. We find that if mid-latitude cyclone frequency had not declined, the northeastern US would have been largely compliant with the ozone air quality standard by 2001. Mid-latitude cyclone frequency is expected to decrease further over the coming decades in response to greenhouse warming and this will necessitate deeper emission reductions to achieve a given air quality goal.

  13. Sensitivity of US air quality to mid-latitude cyclone frequency and implications of 1980–2006 climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Leibensperger


    Full Text Available We show that the frequency of summertime mid-latitude cyclones tracking across eastern North America at 40°–50° N (the southern climatological storm track is a strong predictor of stagnation and ozone pollution episodes in the eastern United States. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, going back to 1948, shows a significant long-term decline in the number of summertime mid-latitude cyclones in that track starting in 1980 (−0.15 a-1. The more recent but shorter NCEP/DOE Reanalysis (1979–2006 shows similar interannual variability in cyclone frequency but no significant long-term trend. A GISS general circulation model (GCM simulation including historical forcing by greenhouse gases reproduces the cyclone trend seen in the NCEP/NCAR data. Such a long-term decrease in mid-latitude cyclone frequency over the 1980–2006 period would have offset by about a factor of 2 the ozone air quality gains from reductions in anthropogenic emissions in the northeastern United States. We find that if mid-latitude cyclone frequency had not declined, the northeastern US would have been largely compliant with the ozone air quality standard by 2001. Mid-latitude cyclone frequency is expected to decrease further over the coming decades in response to greenhouse warming and this trend needs to be considered in air quality management.

  14. Geologic mapping of MTM quads 40292 and 40297: In the Utopian lowlands north of the Nilosyrtis Mensae, Mars (United States)

    Williams, Steven H.; Zimbelman, James R.


    Geologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale of the Mars transverse Mercator (MTM) quads 40292 and 40297 is being conducted under the auspices of the Mars Geologic Mapping Program. The study area is located in the southwestern portion of Utopia Planitia immediately north of the Nilosyrtis Mensae, between latitudes 37.5 and 42.5 degrees and longitudes 290 and 300 degrees. The goals of the mapping are to identify the major geologic features in the study area and to determine the sequence and scope of the geologic events that have modified the lowland side of the global dichotomy boundary in this region in order to at least partially constrain models of dichotomy boundary origin and evolution. The progress made towards achieving these goals is reported.

  15. Seasonal variability of the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Qiang-chang; JIANG Song; TIAN Ji-wei; KONG Ling-hai; NI Guo-xi


    Seasonal variability of the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) is studied by constructing the analytic solution for the time-dependent horizontal linear shallow water quasi-geostrophic equations.Using the Florida State University wind data from 1961 through 1992,we find that the bifurcation latitude of the NEC changes with seasons.Furthermore,it is shown that the NEC bifurcation is at its southernmost latitude (12.7°N) in June and the northernmost latitude (14.4° N) in November.

  16. High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate statistical, systematic variations of the high-latitude convection cell structure during northward IMF. Using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for six and a half years (February 2001 till July 2007, and mapping the spatially distributed measurements to a common reference plane at ionospheric level in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid, we obtained regular drift patterns according to the various IMF conditions. We focus on the particular conditions during northward IMF, where lobe cells at magnetic latitudes >80° with opposite (sunward convection over the central polar cap are a permanent feature in addition to the main convection cells at lower latitudes. They are due to reconnection processes at the magnetopause boundary poleward of the cusp regions. Mapped EDI data have a particular good coverage within the central part of the polar cap, so that these patterns and their dependence on various solar wind conditions are well verified in a statistical sense. On average, 4-cell convection pattern are shown as regular structures during periods of nearly northward IMF with the tendency of a small shift toward negative clock angles. The positions of these high-latitude convection foci are within 79° to 85° magnetic latitude and 09:00–15:00 MLT. The MLT positions are approximately symmetric ±2 h about 11:30 MLT, i.e. slightly offset from midday toward prenoon hours, while the maximum (minimum potential of the high-latitude cells is at higher magnetic latitudes near their maximum potential difference at ≈−10° to −15° clock angle for the North (South Hemisphere. With increasing clock angle distances from ≈IMFBz+, a gradual transition occurs from the 4-cell pattern via a 3-cell to the common 2-cell convection pattern, in the course of which one of the medium-scale high-latitude dayside cells diminishes and disappears while the

  17. High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.


    An unusual high-latitude ionospheric pattern was observed on March 23, 1995. ionospheric convection appeared as clockwise merging convection cell focused at 84 degrees magnetic latitude around 1200 MLT. No signature of the viscous convection cell in the afternoon sector was observed....... The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z ... conditions. It is found that the location of the convection cell focus in this event is at least two hours earlier than those previously observed and about 5 hours earlier than that predicted by the MHD model. The observations may have some significant implications on the antiparallel merging theory....

  18. Past perspectives on Northern High-Latitude sensitivity to a 400ppm+ world (Invited) (United States)

    Jansen, E.; Risebrobakken, B.; Drange, H.


    The Cenozoic record of climate change displays clear relationships between global temperatures as well as the development of glaciation in both hemispheres and past atmospheric CO2-levels. A recent update is provided in IPCC AR5 and will be reviewed here. Extensive periods of the past were characterized by CO2-levels in excess of 400ppmv. Analyses of the relationship between carbon emissions and global temperature in 15 Earth System Models used in the CMIP5 experiments underpinning IPCC AR5, show that carbon emissions of about 1000 Pg produces a global warming of about 2 degrees, regardless of emission scenario, indicating that changes in carbon fluxes of this magnitude produces at least 2oC global warming (probably more due to the adjustment of the slower components of the climate system). CO2-levels at the time of 2oC warming are on the order of 400-500ppmv with regional land temperatures at high Northern Latitudes being twice the global average or more, but without major changes in the style and pattern of North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Periods with CO2-levels at 400-500ppmv apparently occurred both in the Oligocene and the Pliocene, indicating that these periods may offer insight and perspective into a future climate in equilibrium with CO2-levels between 400 and 500ppmv. Carbonate preservation data from the Nordic Seas indicate that ocean overturning and ventilation was vigourous in the Nordic Seas in the Oligocene, which stands out a colder period, compared to the Eocene and the early Miocene. Isotope data from Oligocene shelf sediments indicate Nordic seas temperatures similar to modern levels or colder, hence implying the possibility of an existing cryosphere in the surrounding region at the time. The timing of this period inside the Oligocene and comparing to the paleo-CO2 record of the Oligocene is difficult, however, in parts because the paleo pCO2-record of the Olgocene shows a declining values also to below 400ppmv in the later part

  19. Tropical rainfall over the last two millennia: evidence for a low-latitude hydrologic seesaw (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Rehfeld, Kira; Ridley, Harriet E.; Asmerom, Yemane; Prufer, Keith M.; Marwan, Norbert; Goswami, Bedartha; Kennett, Douglas J.; Aquino, Valorie V.; Polyak, Victor; Haug, Gerald H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.


    The presence of a low- to mid-latitude interhemispheric hydrologic seesaw is apparent over orbital and glacial-interglacial timescales, but its existence over the most recent past remains unclear. Here we investigate, based on climate proxy reconstructions from both hemispheres, the inter-hemispherical phasing of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the low- to mid-latitude teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 2000 years. A clear feature is a persistent southward shift of the ITCZ during the Little Ice Age until the beginning of the 19th Century. Strong covariation between our new composite ITCZ-stack and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) records reveals a tight coupling between these two synoptic weather and climate phenomena over decadal-to-centennial timescales. This relationship becomes most apparent when comparing two precisely dated, high-resolution paleorainfall records from Belize and Scotland, indicating that the low- to mid-latitude teleconnection was also active over annual-decadal timescales. It is likely a combination of external forcing, i.e., solar and volcanic, and internal feedbacks, that drives the synchronous ITCZ and NAO shifts via energy flux perturbations in the tropics. PMID:28378755

  20. Multispectral optical observations of ionospheric F-region storm effects at low latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Y.; Bittencourt, J.A.; Takahashi, H.; Teixeira, N.R.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Tinsley, B.A.; Rohrbaugh, R.P.


    Simultaneous measurements of specified nightglow emissions have been carried out at Cachoeira Paulista, since 1982, to study the response of the low-latitude ionospheric F-region to magnetic storms. The observations obtained during three magnetic storms in Brazil in 1983 and 1984 are presented and discussed. Emissions excited by energetic particle precipitation were observed during the main phase of strong magnetic storms. In contrast to the observations reported from mid-latitude stations by other investigators, no enhancements in the OI 7774 A emission due to energetic particle precipitation were evident at our latitude. Radiative recombination is suggested as the main excitation mechanism. The OI 6300 A emission, on 7-8 August and 28-29 March, showed periodic intensity variations, which are associated with vertical oscillations of the ionospheric F-region plasma, as shown by the periodic height variations of the F-region seen from the ionograms obtained at the same location. Also, the North-South scanning observation of this wavelength on one occasion showed no meridional and longitudinal phase change, indicating the absence of propagation.

  1. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  2. Bayesian Image Classification At High Latitudes (United States)

    Bulgin, Claire E.; Eastwood, Steinar; Merchant, Chris J.


    The European Space Agency created the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to maximize the usefulness of Earth Observations to climate science. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is an essential climate variable to which satellite observations make a crucial contribution, and is one of the projects within the CCI program. SST retrieval is dependent on successful cloud clearing and identification of clear-sky pixels over ocean. At high latitudes image classification is more difficult due to the presence of sea-ice. Newly formed ice has a temperature close to the freezing point of water and a dark surface making it difficult to distinguish from open ocean using data at visible and infrared wavelengths. Similarly, melt ponds on the sea-ice surface make image classification more difficult. We present here a three- way Bayesian classifier for the AATSR instrument classifying pixels as ‘clear-sky over ocean', ‘clear-sky over ice' or ‘cloud' using the 0.6, 1.6, 11 and 12 micron channels. We demonstrate the ability of the classifier to successfully identify sea-ice and consider the potential for generating an ice surface temperature record from AATSR which could be extended using data from SLSTR.

  3. Assimilative modeling of low latitude ionosphere (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunining; Hajj, George A.; Rosen, I. Gary; Wilson, Brian D.; Mannucci, Anthony J.


    In this paper we present an observation system simulation experiment for modeling low-latitude ionosphere using a 3-dimensional (3-D) global assimilative ionospheric model (GAIM). The experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of GAIM with a 4-D variational approach (4DVAR) in estimation of the ExB drift and thermospheric wind in the magnetic meridional planes simultaneously for all longitude or local time sectors. The operational Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and the ground-based global GPS receiver network of the International GPS Service are used in the experiment as the data assimilation source. 'The optimization of the ionospheric state (electron density) modeling is performed through a nonlinear least-squares minimization process that adjusts the dynamical forces to reduce the difference between the modeled and observed slant total electron content in the entire modeled region. The present experiment for multiple force estimations reinforces our previous assessment made through single driver estimations conducted for the ExB drift only.

  4. Under-Ice Operations with AUVS in High Latitudes (United States)

    Ferguson, J.; Kaminski, C. D.


    In 2010 and 2011, ISE Explorer Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), built for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), were deployed to Canada's high Arctic. The mission was to undertake under-ice bathymetric surveys supporting Canada's submission under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). During these deployments several under-ice records were broken and several new technologies were demonstrated. The NRCan AUV is a 5000 meter depth rated vehicle, with several innovative additions to make it suitable for arctic survey work. Most notable are a depth rated variable ballast system, a 1300 Hz long-range homing system, and under-ice charging and data transfer capabilities. The Explorer's range was extended to approximately 450 km by adding a hull section to accommodate extra batteries. The scientific payload onboard included a Seabird SBE49 Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor, Knudsen singlebeam echosounder, and a Kongsberg Simrad EM2000 multibeam echosounder. In 2010, operations were conducted from an ice camp near Borden Island (78°14'N, 112°39'W) operating through an ice hole. Following several test missions, the AUV spent 10 days surveying under ice before being successfully recovered. In total, close to 1100 km of under-ice survey was undertaken at depths to 3160 meters. A further set of operations was carried out in August and September 2011 from the Canadian Icebreaker CCGS Louis St. Laurent operating with the American Icebreaker USCGS Healy. Here the operations were much further north to latitudes of 88°30' N and to depths of 3500 meters. In this paper, the 2010 ice camp and the 2011 icebreaker missions are described, with an outline of technology developments that were undertaken, the preparations that were necessary for the success of the missions and finally, the outcome of the missions themselves.

  5. Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes? (United States)

    Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.


    In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

  6. The Structure of Galactic Gas at High Latitudes: The Southern Polar Cap (United States)

    Gosachinskii, I. V.; Il'in, G. N.; Prozorov, V. A.


    We analyze the angular structure of the 21-cm interstellar neutral hydrogen emission at six and seven declinations in the northern (published previously) and southern polar caps of the Galaxy (Galactic latitudes from -40 deg to -90 deg), respectively, with an extent of 90 deg in right ascension. The RATAN-600 radio telescope has a beam width averaged over these regions of 2.0' x 30'. One-dimensional power spectra for the angular distribution of interstellar neutral hydrogen emission were computed in each 6.3-km/s-wide spectral channel by using the standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) code and were smoothed over 1 hour in right ascension. The Galactic latitude dependence of the mean parameters for the sky distribution of H I line emission at high latitudes was found to correspond to the distribution of gas in the form of a flat layer only in the northern region, while in the southern cap, the gas distribution is much less regular. In addition, the mean H I radial velocities are negative everywhere (-3.7 +/- 3.0 km/s in the north and -6.0+/-2.4 km/s in the south). The power spectra of the angular fluctuations in the range of angular periods from 10' to 6 deg appear as power laws. However, the spectral indices change greatly over the sky: from -3 to -1.2; on average, as the Galactic latitude increases and the H I column density decreases, the fluctuation spectrum of the interstellar gas emission becomes flatter. In the northern polar region, this behavior is much more pronounced, which probably stems from the fact that the gas column density in the south is generally a factor of 2 or 3 higher than that in the north. Therefore, the spectra are, on average, also steeper in the south, but the dependence on Galactic latitude is weaker. Using simulations, we show that the observed power-law spectrum of the H I emission distribution can be obtained in terms of not only a turbulent, but also a cloud model of interstellar gas if we use our previous spectra of the diameters


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeates, A. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mackay, D. H., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    A non-potential quasi-static evolution model coupling the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields is applied to the problem of filament chirality at high latitudes. For the first time, we run a continuous 15 year simulation, using bipolar active regions determined from US National Solar Observatory, Kitt Peak magnetograms between 1996 and 2011. Using this simulation, we are able to address the outstanding question of whether magnetic helicity transport from active latitudes can overcome the effect of differential rotation at higher latitudes. Acting alone, differential rotation would produce high-latitude filaments with opposite chirality to the majority type in each hemisphere. We find that differential rotation can indeed lead to opposite chirality at high latitudes, but only for around 5 years of the solar cycle following the polar field reversal. At other times, including the rising phase, transport of magnetic helicity from lower latitudes overcomes the effect of in situ differential rotation, producing the majority chirality even on the polar crowns at polar field reversal. These simulation predictions will allow for future testing of the non-potential coronal model. The results indicate the importance of long-term memory and helicity transport from active latitudes when modeling the structure and topology of the coronal magnetic field at higher latitudes.

  8. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios


    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  9. Wood anatomical variation in relation to latitude anf altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.; Baas, P.


    The wood anatomical variation within 17 eurytherm hardwood genera in relation to altitude and latitude has been studied using wood samples from 52 species. With increasing latitude a miniaturization of secondary xylem elements (shorter vessel members, narrower vessels, shorter and sometimes narrower

  10. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi


    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  11. Ambient temperature effects on photo induced gonadal cycles and hormonal secretion patterns in Great Tits from three different breeding latitudes. (United States)

    Silverin, Bengt; Wingfield, John; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Massa, Renato; Järvinen, Antero; Andersson, Nils-Ake; Lambrechts, Marcel; Sorace, Alberto; Blomqvist, Donald


    The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)Tits from northern Norway, southern Sweden and northern Italy to sub-maximal photo-stimulatory day lengths (13L:11D) under two different ambient temperature regimes (+4 degrees C and +20 degrees C). Changes in testicular size, plasma levels of LH and testosterone were measured. The main results were: (1) Initial testicular growth rate, as well as LH secretion, was affected by temperature in the Italian, but not in birds from the two Scandinavian populations. (2) Maximum testicular size, maximum LH and testosterone levels were maintained for a progressively shorter period of time with increasing latitude, regardless of whether the birds were kept on a low or a high ambient temperature. (3) In birds from all latitudes, the development of photorefractoriness, as indicated by testicular regression and a decrease in plasma levels of LH and testosterone, started much earlier (with the exception for LH Great Tits from northern Scandinavia) when kept on +20 degrees C than when kept on +4 degrees C. The prolonging effects of a low temperature was more pronounced in Mediterranean birds, than in birds from Scandinavia, and more pronounced in Great Tits from southern Scandinavia than in Great Tits from northern Scandinavia. Ecological implications of the results are discussed, as well as possible impact of global warming on the breeding success of European Great Tits from different breeding latitudes.

  12. Degree by Thesis (United States)

    Courtis, Barbara


    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  13. Turbulence in high latitude molecular clouds (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Larosa, T. N.; Magnani, L.; Chastain, R. J.; Costagliola, F.

    We summarize a continuing investigation of turbulence in high-latitude translucent molecular clouds. These low mass (~ 50 M(solar), nearby (~ 100 pc), non-star forming clouds appear to be condensing out of the atomic cirrus and must be forced by external dynamical processes, since they lack internal sources, for which we can distinguish the injection scale for the turbulence. We have now mapped three clouds -- MBM 3, MBM 16, and MBM 40 -- with high spatial (0.03 pc) and velocity resolution (<0.08 km/s) in 12CO(1-0) 13CO(1-0) (NRAO 12m and FCRAO). All three clouds show evidence for large-shear flows and we propose that the turbulent motions are powered by shear-flow instability. The densest gas is structured into filaments but the velocity profiles do not change in going across a filament indicating that shocks are not compressing the gas. The density field is more likely the result of thermal instability. The velocity-size relationship, a commonly used diagnostic of ISM turbulence, does not hold in these clouds: the linewidth does not increase with region size. The centroid velocity probability distribution function (PDF) is a more precise measure of turbulence. In these clouds the PDFs exhibit broad wings, consistent with a Lorentzian distribution and showing evidence non-Gaussian correlated processes. This is a clear signature of intermittency. We have also begun a mapping survey of CS (1-0), CS (2-1), H2CO, and HCO+ at Arecibo and OSO and willdiscuss results for the Polaris flare and L1512. We will also discusssome implications of these studies for the turbulent dissipation in these systems.

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population. (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J


    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Pvitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with geographical latitude (OR 0.910 [95% confidence intervals 0.890-0.940], Pvitamin B12 deficiency is associated with living closer to the Equator and solar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First Evaluation of the Climatological Calibration Algorithm in the Real-time TMPA Precipitation Estimates over Two Basins at High and Low Latitudes (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Ren, Liliang; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Chen, Xi; Wang, Weiguang; Wen, Yixin


    The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system underwent a crucial upgrade in early 2009 to include a climatological calibration algorithm (CCA) to its realtime product 3B42RT, and this algorithm will continue to be applied in the future Global Precipitation Measurement era constellation precipitation products. In this study, efforts are focused on the comparison and validation of the Version 6 3B42RT estimates before and after the climatological calibration is applied. The evaluation is accomplished using independent rain gauge networks located within the high-latitude Laohahe basin and the low-latitude Mishui basin, both in China. The analyses indicate the CCA can effectively reduce the systematic errors over the low-latitude Mishui basin but misrepresent the intensity distribution pattern of medium-high rain rates. This behavior could adversely affect TMPA's hydrological applications, especially for extreme events (e.g., floods and landslides). Results also show that the CCA tends to perform slightly worse, in particular, during summer and winter, over the high-latitude Laohahe basin. This is possibly due to the simplified calibration-processing scheme in the CCA that directly applies the climatological calibrators developed within 40 degrees latitude to the latitude belts of 40 degrees N-50 degrees N. Caution should therefore be exercised when using the calibrated 3B42RT for heavy rainfall-related flood forecasting (or landslide warning) over high-latitude regions, as the employment of the smooth-fill scheme in the CCA bias correction could homogenize the varying rainstorm characteristics. Finally, this study highlights that accurate detection and estimation of snow at high latitudes is still a challenging task for the future development of satellite precipitation retrievals.

  16. Impact of radiosonde data over the Arctic ice on forecasting winter extreme weather over mid latitude (United States)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Kim, Joo-hong; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Hudson, Stephen


    In February 2015, the Arctic air outbreak caused extreme cold events and heavy snowfall over the mid latitude, in particular over the North America. During the winter, special radiosonde observations were made on the Norwegian RV Lance around the north of Svalbard under the N-ICE2015 project. We investigated the impact of the radiosonde data on forecasting of a cold extreme event over the eastern North America using the AFES-LETKF experimental ensemble reanalysis version2 (ALERA2) data set. ALERA2 was used as the reference reanalysis (CTL) while the observing-system experiment (OSE) assimilated the same observational data set, except for the radiosonde data obtained by the RV Lance. Using these two reanalysis data as initial values, ensemble forecasting experiments were conducted. Comparing these ensemble forecasts, there were large differences in the position and depth of a predicted tropopause polar vortex. The CTL forecast well predicted the southward intrusion of the polar vortex which pushed a cold air over the eastern North America from the Canadian Archipelago. In the OSE forecast, in contrast, the trough associated with southward intrusion of the polar vortex was weak, which prevented a cold outbreak from Arctic. This result suggested that the radiosonde observations over the central Arctic would improve the skill of weather forecasts during winter.

  17. Campanian Climatic Change: Isotopic Evidence from Far East, North America, North Atlantic and Western Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Paleoclimatic settings have been reconstructed for the Campanian using original oxygenisotopic analyses of well-preserved molluskan and foraminifera shells from Russian Far East,Hokkaido, USA, Belgium and some DSDP holes (95, 98, 102, 390A, and 392A) in North Atlantic. Early Early Campanian climatic optimum has been recognized from data on high bottom shelf water paleotemperatures in middle latitudes of both the western circum-Pacific (to 24.2℃) and the eastern circum-Pacific (to 26.4℃) areas and high bottom shallow water paleotemperatures in high latitudes of the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), which agrees with the data on the Campanian Barykovskaya flora in high latitudes (Golovneva and Herman, 1998) and Jonker flora and its equivalents in middle latitudes. Judging from the data on comparatively high bottom shallow water paleotemperature values in high latitudes, South Alaska (19.4℃) and the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), we also expect Latest Campanian temperature maximum, which has not been confirmed, however, for low and middle latitudes by neither of isotopic nor paleobotanic data now. Main climatic tendency during the Campanian (with the exception of Latest Campanian) has been learned from isotopic composition of Campanian aragonitic ammonoid shells from the Hokkaido-South Sakhalin (Krilyon) marine basin.In contrary to Huber's et al. (2002) assumption, we expect warm greenhouse conditions during the most part of the Campanian.

  18. Dating of the 85 degrees E Ridge (northeastern Indian Ocean) using marine magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Michael, L.; Krishna, K.S.

    anomalies: the north part (up to 5°N latitude) is associated with negative gravity anomaly, whereas the south part coin- cides with positive gravity anomaly. In contrast to this, the ridge consists of alternate streaks of positive and negative magnetic...

  19. The influence of true polar wander on glacial inception in North America (United States)

    Daradich, A.; Huybers, P.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Chan, N.-H.; Austermann, J.


    The impact that long-term changes in Earth's rotation axis relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW), and continental drift have had in driving cooling of high-latitude North America since the Eocene is explored. Recent reanalyses of paleomagnetic pole positions suggest a secular drift in Earth's rotation axis of ∼ 8 ° over the last 40 Myr, in a direction that has brought North America to increasingly higher latitudes. Using modern temperature data in tandem with a simple model, a reduction in the annual sum of positive degree days (PDDs) driven by this polar and plate motion over the last 20 Myr is quantified. At sites in Baffin Island, the TPW- and continental drift-driven decrease in insolation forcing over the last 20 Myr rivals changes in insolation forcing caused by variations in Earth's obliquity and precession. Using conservative PDD scaling factors and an annual snowfall equal to modern station observations, the snowiest location in Baffin Island 20 Myr ago had a mass balance deficit of ∼0.75-2 m yr-1 (water equivalent thickness) relative to its projected mass balance at 2.7 Ma. This mass balance deficit would have continued to increase as one goes back in time until ∼40 Myr ago based on adopted paleopole locations. TPW and continental drift that moved Arctic North America poleward would have strongly promoted glacial inception in Baffin Island at ∼3 Ma, a location where the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet is thought to have originated.

  20. Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999 (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Slayback, D. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Los, S. O.; Myneni, R. B.; Taylor, M. G.


    Normalized difference vegetation index data from the polar-orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellites from 1982 to 1999 show significant variations in photosynthetic activity and growing season length at latitudes above 35 degrees N. Two distinct periods of increasing plant growth are apparent: 1982-1991 and 1992-1999, separated by a reduction from 1991 to 1992 associated with global cooling resulting from the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991. The average May to September normalized difference vegetation index from 45 degrees N to 75 degrees N increased by 9% from 1982 to 1991, decreased by 5% from 1991 to 1992, and increased by 8% from 1992 to 1999. Variations in the normalized difference vegetation index were associated with variations in the start of the growing season of -5.6, +3.9, and -1.7 days respectively, for the three time periods. Our results support surface temperature increases within the same period at higher northern latitudes where temperature limits plant growth.

  1. Solar radiation disinfection of drinking water at temperate latitudes: inactivation rates for an optimised reactor configuration. (United States)

    Davies, C M; Roser, D J; Feitz, A J; Ashbolt, N J


    Solar radiation-driven inactivation of bacteria, virus and protozoan pathogen models was quantified in simulated drinking water at a temperate latitude (34 degrees S). The water was seeded with Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium sporogenes spores, and P22 bacteriophage, each at ca 1x10(5) mL(-1), and exposed to natural sunlight in 30-L reaction vessels. Water temperature ranged from 17 to 39 degrees C during the experiments lasting up to 6h. Dark controls showed little inactivation and so it was concluded that the inactivation observed was primarily driven by non-thermal processes. The optimised reactor design achieved S90 values (cumulative exposure required for 90% reduction) for the test microorganisms in the range 0.63-1.82 MJ m(-2) of Global Solar Exposure (GSX) without the need for TiO2 as a catalyst. High turbidity (840-920 NTU) only reduced the S(90) value by 0.05). However, inactivation was significantly reduced for E. faecalis and P22 when the transmittance of UV wavelengths was attenuated by water with high colour (140 PtCo units) or a suboptimally transparent reactor lid (prob.waters and microorganisms. Although temperatures required for SODIS type pasteurization were not produced, non-thermal inactivation alone appeared to offer a viable means for reliably disinfecting low colour source waters by greater than 4 orders of magnitude on sunny days at 34 degrees S latitude.

  2. Quiet geomagnetic field representation for all days and latitudes (United States)

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.; Arora, B.R.


    Describes a technique for obtaining the quiet-time geomagnetic field variation expected for all days of the year and distribution of latitudes from a limited set of selected quiet days within a year at a discrete set of locations. A data set of observatories near 75??E longitude was used as illustration. The method relies upon spatial smoothing of the decomposed spectral components. An evaluation of the fidelity of the resulting model shows correlation coefficients usually above 0.9 at the lower latitudes and near 0.7 at the higher latitudes with variations identified as dependent upon season and field element. -from Authors

  3. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N


    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  4. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG


    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  5. The Arecibo 430-MHz Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey: Discovery of Nine Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, J; Freire, P C; Navarro, Jose; Anderson, Stuart; Freire, Paulo C.


    We have used the Arecibo Radio Telescope to search for millisecond pulsars in two intermediate Galactic latitude regions (7 deg < | b | < 20 deg) accessible to this telescope. For these latitudes the useful millisecond pulsar search volume achieved by Arecibo's 430-MHz beam is predicted to be maximal. Searching a total of 130 square degrees, we have discovered nine new pulsars and detected four previously known objects. We compare the results of this survey with those of other 430-MHz surveys carried out at Arecibo and of an intermediate latitude survey made at Parkes that included part of our search area; the latter independently found two of the nine pulsars we have discovered. At least six of our discoveries are isolated pulsars with ages between 5 and 300 Myr; one of these, PSR J1819+1305, exhibits very marked and periodic nulling. We have also found a recycled pulsar, PSR J2016+1948. With a rotational period of 65 ms, this is a member of a binary system with a 635-day orbital period. We discuss som...

  6. Oxygen isotope compositions of sinistral Neogloboquadrina pachyderma tests in surface sediments: North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.; Hillaire-Marcel, C. (Universite de Quebec a Montreal (Canada))


    Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Left-coiled) is a planktonic foraminifer indicator species for polar waters. It is present in both the glacial and interglacial sediments of the high-latitude oceans, and therefore is frequently used as a signal-carrier for constructing late Pleistocene-Holocene planktonic [delta][sup 18]O records. In this study the [delta][sup 18]O compositions of N. pachyderma (L) tests from deep-sea surface sediments are compared with surface water [delta][sup 18]O values and summer sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, and the Labrador Sea. The authors document that for a temperature range of 2-8[degrees]C, the planktonic [delta][sup 18]O values follow paleotemperature equations with an offset of less than 0.4%, and that above 8[degrees]C the planktonic [delta][sup 18]O compositions become almost independent of SST and remain nearly constant. This pattern suggests that N. pachyderma (L) precipitates its shell nearly at isotopic equilibrium with surface waters colder than 8[degrees]C, and that in warmer surface waters N. pachyderma (L) changes its habitat depth or its growth season to secrete its shell at an ambient temperature around 7-9[degrees]C.

  7. Ground-Based Observations of Saturn's North Polar Spot and Hexagon. (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A; Lecacheux, J; Colas, F; Laques, P


    Ground-based observations of two conspicuous features near the north pole of Saturn, the polar vortex and the hexagonal wave structure, were made from July 1990 to October 1991, 10 years after their discovery. During this period the polar spot drifted in longitude, relative to system III, by -0.0353 degrees per day on average. Superimposed on this mean motion, the spot also underwent short-term rapid excursions in longitude of up to approximately 14 degrees at rates of up to approximately 1 degrees per day. The spot also exhibited irregular variations in its latitude location. A combination of these data together with those obtained by Voyager 1 and 2 in 1980 and 1981 shows that the spot drifted -0.0577 degrees per day for the 11-year interval from 1980 to 1991. The large lifetime of both features indicates that they are insensitive to the strong variations in the seasonal heating of the cloud layers in the upper polar atmosphere.

  8. Secular trends and latitude gradients in the male-female ratio at birth in Yugoslavia and the ex-Yugoslavian States. (United States)

    Grech, Victor


    Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) which approximates 0.515. Annual national data for Yugoslavia and the post-Yugoslavia States for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. This study analysed 22,020,729 live births. There was a increasing trend in M/F prior to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia (1950-1990, p = 0.002), followed by a decreasing trend after 1990 (p = 0.02). A latitude gradient was also noted, with more males being born in southern, warmer latitudes (p < 0.0001). There was an overall excess of 42,753 male births based on an anticipated M/F of 0.515. M/F is decreasing in this region, similar to the rest of Europe and North America. A latitude gradient is also present with more males being born in warmer (more Southern) latitudes (p < 0.0001), even in this small region and over the short time-frame studied.

  9. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree). (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  10. One Degree of Separation (United States)

    Johnson, Jean


    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  11. Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition (Invited) (United States)

    Corbett, J. J.; Browse, J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Schmidt, A.


    The retreat of Arctic sea-ice has led to renewed calls to exploit Arctic shipping routes. The diversion of ship traffic through the Arctic will shorten shipping routes and possibly reduce global shipping emissions. However, deposition of black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by additional Arctic ships could cause a reduction in the albedo of snow and ice, accelerating snow-melt and sea-ice loss. We use recently compiled Arctic shipping emission inventories for 2004 and 2050 together with a global aerosol microphysics model GLOMAP coupled to the chemical transport model TOMCAT to quantify the contribution of future Arctic shipping to high-latitude BC deposition. Emission rates of SOx (SO2 and SO4) and particulate matter (PM) were estimated for 2050 under both business-as-usual and high-growth scenarios. BC particles are assumed to be water-insoluble at emission but can become active in cloud drop formation through soluble material accumulation. After BC particles become cloud-active they are more efficiently wet scavenged, which accounts for 80% of modeled BC deposition. Current-day Arctic shipping contributes 0.3% to the BC mass deposited north of 60N (250 Gg). About 50% of modelled BC deposition is on open ocean, suggesting that current Arctic ship traffic may not significantly contribute to BC deposition on central Arctic sea ice. However, 6 - 8% of deposited BC on the west coast of Greenland originates from local ship traffic. Moreover, in-Arctic shipping contributes some 32% to high-latitude ship-sourced deposition despite accounting for less than 1.0% of global shipping emissions. This suggests that control of in-Arctic shipping BC emissions could yield greater decrease in high-latitude BC deposition than a similar control strategy applied only to the extra-Arctic shipping industry. Arctic shipping in 2050 will contribute less than 1% to the total BC deposition north of 60N due to the much greater relative contribution of BC transported from non-shipping sources

  12. Nazca - South America Convergence and Motion of the North Andes Block (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Mora-paez, H.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, G.


    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that moves (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought to be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). We investigate the kinematics of NAB motion utilizing a velocity field based on new continuous GPS networks and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador and Colombia. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vector of the NAB and interseismic elastic strain accumulation on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is rigid with transpressional deformation accommodating northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In central to northern Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several prominent shear zones. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes and upper plate faults capable of generating M>6 earthquakes.

  13. Cosmology with the WFIRST High Latitude Survey (United States)

    Dore, Olivier

    Cosmic acceleration is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades. Testing and distinguishing among possible explanations requires cosmological measurements of extremely high precision that probe the full history of cosmic expansion and structure growth. The WFIRST-AFTA mission, as described in the Science Definition Team (SDT) reports (Spergel 2013, 2015), has the ability to improve these measurements by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the current state of the art, while simultaneously extending their redshift grasp, greatly improving control of systematic effects, and taking a unified approach to multiple probes that provide complementary physical information and cross-checks of cosmological results. We have assembled a team with the expertise and commitment needed to address the stringent challenges of the WFIRST dark energy program through the Project's formulation phase. After careful consideration, we have elected to address investigations A (Galaxy Redshift Survey) and C (Weak Lensing and Cluster Growth) of the WFIRST SIT NRA with a unified team, because the two investigations are tightly linked at both the technical level and the theoretical modeling level. The imaging and spectroscopic elements of the High Latitude Survey (HLS) will be realized as an integrated observing program, and they jointly impose requirements on instrument and telescope performance, operations, and data transfer. The methods for simulating and interpreting weak lensing and galaxy clustering observations largely overlap, and many members of our team have expertise in both areas. The team PI, Olivier Dore, is a cosmologist with a broad expertise in cosmic microwave background and large scale structures. Yun Wang and Chris Hirata will serve as Lead Co-Investigators for topics A and C, respectively. Many members of our team have been involved with the design and requirements of a dark energy space mission for a decade or more, including the Co-Chair and three

  14. PRISM 8 degrees X 10 degrees North Hemisphere paleoclimate reconstruction; digital data (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Fleming, Farley R.; Holtz, Thomas R.; Ishman, Scott E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Thompson, Robert S.; Willard, Debra A.


    The PRISM 8?x10? data set represents several years of investigation by PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) Project members. One of the goals of PRISM is to produce time-slice reconstructions of intervals of warmer than modern climate within the Pliocene Epoch. The first of these was chosen to be at 3.0 Ma (time scale of Berggren et al., 1985) and is published in Global and Planetary Change (Dowsett et al., 1994). This document contains the actual data sets and a brief explanation of how they were constructed. For paleoenvironmental interpretations and discussion of each data set, see Dowsett et al., in press. The data sets includes sea level, land ice distribution, vegetation or land cover, sea surface temperature and sea-ice cover matrices. This reconstruction of Middle Pliocene climate is organized as a series of datasets representing different environmental attributes. The data sets are designed for use with the GISS Model II atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) using an 8?x10? resolution (Hansen et al., 1983). The first step in documenting the Pliocene climate involves assigning an appropriate fraction of land versus ocean to each grid box. Following grid cell by grid cell, land versus ocean allocations, winter and summer sea ice coverage of ocean areas are assigned and then winter and summer sea surface temperatures are assigned to open ocean areas. Average land ice cover is recorded for land areas and then land areas not covered by ice are assigned proportions of six vegetation or land cover categories modified from Hansen et al. (1983).

  15. Climate response to imposed solar radiation reductions in high latitudes


    M. C. MacCracken; H.-J. Shin; Caldeira, K; G. A. Ban-Weiss


    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are the primary contributor to the 0.8 °C increase in the global average temperature since the late 19th century, shortening cold seasons and lengthening warm seasons. The warming is amplified in polar regions, causing retreat of sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, mountain glaciers, and ice sheets, while also modifying mid-latitude weather, amplifying global sea level rise, and initiating high-latitude carbon feedbacks. Model simulations in which we...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei-ling; ZHANG Xiu-nian; YANG Su-yu


    Based on the composite analysis method, 12 rainstorms triggered by Bay of Bengal storms(shortened as B-storms hereafter) across the whole province of Yunnan were studied, and some interesting results of rain and circulation characteristics influenced by the storms were obtained for low-latitude plateau.Usually, when a rainstorm weather occurs in low-latitude plateau, the B-storm center locates in the central,east or north parts of the Bay of Bengal. At the same time, the subtropical high ridge moves to 15°N - 20°Nand the west ridge point moves to the Indo-china Peninsula from the South China Sea and the low-latitude plateau is controlled by southwest air streams coming from the front of the trough and the periphery of the subtropical high. The southwest low-level jet stream from the east side of the bay storm has great effect on heavy rains. On the one hand, the southwest low-level jet stream is playing the role of transporting water vapor and energy. On the other hand, the southwest low-level jet stream is helpful to keep essential dynamical condition. From the analysis of the satellite cloud imagery, it is found that mesoscale convection cloud clusters will keep growing and moving into the low-latitude plateau to cause heavy rains when a storm forms in the Bay of Bengal.

  17. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.


    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  18. High-Latitude Ionospheric Structuring at Kilometer Scales (United States)

    Bust, G. S.; Datta-Barua, S.; Su, Y.; Deshpande, K.; Hampton, D.


    Ionospheric observations in the polar and auroral zones have been made regularly with radar chains and optical imaging at larger spatio-temporal cadence. However, the observation of kilometer scale variations at sub-second cadence has not been practically realizable until recently. Quantifying the irregularities at these sizes and scales is necessary for an understanding of the dynamics leading to fine scale phenomena in the high latitude environment. We present measurements of kilometer-scale plasma variations made at the northern auroral zone using an array of specialized Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. These 6 CASES receivers (plus 1 from ASTRA, LLC) are sited at the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, and have been collecting data since late 2013. The array monitors for ionospheric scintillations, fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GPS L-band signals received due to ionospheric variations. The array spans 2 km east-west and about 1 km north-south, with a variety of intermediate baseline lengths down to about 200 m. In addition to measuring amplitude and phase scintillation with the S4 and sigma_phi indices at 100-s cadence, these receivers also record 100 Hz raw power and phase measurements from GPS baseband signal processing. These low-rate data are publicly available for download through a web portal at with high rate available upon request. A detailed case study is presented from the December 8, 2013, 0300-0400 UT time period. During this period several interesting scintillation periods were observed. We use array cross-correlation processing methods to first estimate direct ground parameters of the array including a) estimate the 2D drift velocity on the ground; b) estimate a de-correlation (or turbulent) speed; and c) parameters of correlation elliptical coordinates (axial ratio and tilt angle). We then use these results and cross-correlation measurements to derive the ground 2D spatial spectrum of

  19. LION: A dynamic computer model for the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bittencourt


    geomagnetic equators. The model runs in a normal personal computer (PC and generates color maps illustrating the typical behavior of the low-latitude ionosphere for a given longitudinal region, for different seasons, geophysical conditions and solar activity, at each instant of time, showing the time evolution of the low-latitude ionosphere, between about 20° north and south of the magnetic equator. This paper presents a detailed description of the mathematical model and illustrative computer results.

  20. Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Anderson, N. John; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou


    Climate in the Arctic region and northwestern Europe is strongly affected by the North Atlantic Oscillation(1,2) (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability at mid-latitudes in the North Atlantic region. The NAO index is an indicator of atmospheric circulation and weather patterns: when...

  1. 33 CFR 110.10 - Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire, north of Newcastle Island. (United States)


    ..., north of Newcastle Island. 110.10 Section 110.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Harbor, New Hampshire, north of Newcastle Island. From the northern most point of Goat Island to latitude... 213° to the shoreline of Newcastle Island, thence along the shoreline of Newcastle Island and...

  2. Space weather and myocardial infarction diseases at subauroral latitudes (United States)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Kleimenova, Natalia; Petrova, Palmira

    The relationship of the number of calls for the emergency medical care in Yakutsk (subauroral latitudes) in connection with myocardial infarction diseases during years near the maximum (1992) and minimum (1998) of the 11-year geomagnetic disturbance cycle to space weather parameters has been studied. It is found that at subauroral latitudes, the increase of geomagnetic activity, namely, the occurrence of night magnetospheric substorms, plays the important role in the exacerbation of myocardial infarctions. Substorms are accompanied by Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations with periods of (0.5-3.0) Hz, coinciding with heart rhythms of a human being, thus, these waves can be a biotropic factor negatively influencing on the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. The comparison of seasonal change of the number of calls for emergency medical care to patients at subauroral latitudes with a simultaneous seasonal change of fatal endings because of an infarction at low latitudes (Bulgaria) has shown their essential difference. Thus, in Bulgaria the maximum of infarctions have been marked in winter, and minimum - in summer, and in Yakutsk a few maxima coinciding with the sharp and considerable increases of the level of the planetary geomagnetic disturbances have been observed. In this case, in Bulgaria the infarctions could be connected with availability of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations. Thus, the stable quasi-sinusoidal Pc1 pulsations can be a biotropic factor influencing on the development of myocardial infarctions at middle latitudes and the Pi1 irregular geomagnetic pulsations, which do not propagate to the lower latitudes, could be a biotropic factor at subauroral latitudes.

  3. Arctic contribution to upper-ocean variability in the North Atlantic (United States)

    Walsh, John E.; Chapman, William L.


    The potential climatic leverage of salinity and temperature anomalies in the high-latitude North Atlantic is large. Substantial variations of sea ice have accompanied North Atlantic salinity and temperature anomalies. Atmospheric pressure data are used here to show that the local forcing of high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean fluctuations is augmented by antecedent atmospheric circulation anomalies over the central Arctic. These circulation anomalies are consistent with enhanced wind-forcing of thicker older ice into the Transpolar Drift Stream and an enhanced export of sea ice (fresh water) from the Arctic into the Greenland Sea prior to major episodes of ice severity in the Greenland and Iceland seas.

  4. Ozone trends at northern mid- and high latitudes – a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Orsolini


    Full Text Available The EU CANDIDOZ project investigated the chemical and dynamical influences on decadal ozone trends focusing on the Northern Hemisphere. High quality long-term ozone data sets, satellite-based as well as ground-based, and the long-term meteorological reanalyses from ECMWF and NCEP are used together with advanced multiple regression models and atmospheric models to assess the relative roles of chemistry and transport in stratospheric ozone changes. This overall synthesis of the individual analyses in CANDIDOZ shows clearly one common feature in the NH mid latitudes and in the Arctic: an almost monotonic negative trend from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s followed by an increase. In most trend studies, the Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC which peaked in 1997 as a consequence of the Montreal Protocol was observed to describe ozone loss better than a simple linear trend. Furthermore, all individual analyses point to changes in dynamical drivers, such as the residual circulation (responsible for the meridional transport of ozone into middle and high latitudes playing a key role in the observed turnaround. The changes in ozone transport are associated with variations in polar chemical ozone loss via heterogeneous ozone chemistry on PSCs (polar stratospheric clouds. Synoptic scale processes as represented by the new equivalent latitude proxy, by conventional tropopause altitude or by 250 hPa geopotential height have also been successfully linked to the recent ozone increases in the lowermost stratosphere. These show significant regional variation with a large impact over Europe and seem to be linked to changes in tropospheric climate patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Some influence in recent ozone increases was also attributed to the rise in solar cycle number 23. Changes from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s were found in a number of characteristics of the Arctic vortex. However, only one trend was found when more recent

  5. Gathering and Gardening in Alaska: Why IPM cannot be overlooked even at Latitude 64° North (United States)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. Early colonizers into the state did not encounter the pest problems of modern farmers. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased ...

  6. High-Latitude Plasma Convection from Cluster EDI Measurements: North-South Asymmetries (United States)

    Haaland, S.; Foerster, M.; Paschmann, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.


    Recent observations have shown that the ionospheric response to processes in the magnetosphere can be very dissimilar in the northern and southern hemispheres. In this paper we present a statistical study of ionospheric convection patterns obtained from 7 years of electric field observations from the Cluster mission. The results show some prominent asymmetries between the two hemispheres, but most of the differences can probably be attributed to ionospheric conductivities. The results also demonstrate that magnetospheric convection is not simply the result of processes in the magnetospheric boundaries and the magnetotail, but that it is modified and partly controlled by ionospheric effects.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Johnston, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhat, N. D. R. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), 44 Rosehill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Burke-Spolaor, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91104 (United States); Champion, D.; Ng, C. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Levin, L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); and others


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts.

  8. Large-scale plasma bubbles in the low-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, J.A.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P.R.; Takahashi, H.


    Plasma irregularities in the low-latitude ionospheric F-layer resulting from plasma instability processes have been the subject of intensive experimental and theoretical research in the past few years. The morphology and dynamics of transequatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles and smaller scale plasma irregularities can be monitored through observations of the intensities of the 630.0 nm and 777.4 nm atomic oxygen nightglow emissions arising from ionospheric recombination processes. Simultaneous north-south meridional scanning observations of these OI emissions, using ground-based scanning filter photometers, as well as observations of the OI 630.0 nm emission using an all-sky imaging system, have been made at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 deg S, 45.0 deg W, dip latitude 15.8 deg S) during both quiet and magnetically disturbed conditions, as well as in the presence of large scale field-aligned ionospheric plasma depletions. Some results of this long series of photometer and all-sky imaging observations are presented and their significant features are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Holocene pollen records from the northern mid-latitudes: syntheses, spatial patterns and gradients (Invited) (United States)

    Brewer, S.; Davis, B.; Marsicek, J.


    The northern mid-latitudes represent one of the most data-rich regions of the planet for studies of late-Quaternary paleoclimate and paleoecology. The development of well-integrated databases and the tools to mine, visualize and analyze this data have led to a number of synthetic studies looking at changes over time and space. Pollen records are perhaps the most spatial extensive source of information, and we present here a review of some recent work using these records to look at the spatial patterning of paleoclimate changes across eastern North America and Europe. At millennial scale, the results show remarkable spatial coherency in paleoenivronmental changes throughout the Holocene period, and a temporal consistency reflecting orbital-driven climate change. Comparison with output from transient paleo-GCM simulations shows that simulations capture the magnitude, but not the spatial pattern of these changes, with higher latitudes simulated climates often closer to the observations. Results from individual high time resolution sites show a number of abrupt events embedded within these longer-term changes. Using a subset of high-resolution, well dated sites, we present further results showing the timing and spatial pattern of these events for these two regions. These show the expected wide-spread impact of the major climatic transitions (e.g. Holocene start), however other abrupt events have a more regional expression.

  10. On multifractality of high-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to the understanding of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions the multifractal scaling properties of high-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations observed at the Thule observatory have been studied. Using the local observatory data and the present experimental knowledge only it seems hard to characterize directly the, presumably intermittent, mesoscale energy accumulation and dissipation processes taking place at the magnetotail, auroral region, etc. Instead a positive probability measure, describing the accumulated local geomagnetic signal energy content at the given time scales has been introduced and its scaling properties have been studied. There is evidence for the multifractal nature of the so defined intermittent field ε, a result obtained by using the recently introduced technique of large deviation multifractal spectra. This technique allows us to describe the geomagnetic fluctuations locally in time by means of singularity exponents α, which represent a generalization of the local degree of differentiability and characterize the power-law scaling dependence of the introduced measure on resolution. A global description of the geomagnetic fluctuations is insured by the spectrum of exponents f(α which represents a rate function quantifying the deviations of the observed singularities α from the expected value. The results show that there exists a multifractal counterpart of the previously reported spectral break and different types of f(α spectra describe the fluctuations in direct dissipation or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. On the time scale of substorms and storms the multi-fractal structure of the loading-unloading mode fluctuations seems to be analogous to the simple multiplicative P-model, while the f(α spectra in direct dissipation regime are close but not equal to the features of a uniform distribution. Larger deviations from the multiplicative

  11. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.


    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  12. Latitud sur y control económico del hogar por la mujer peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico R. León


    Full Text Available South latitude and household economic control by Peruvian women Southern women’s greater autonomy versus northern women’s more traditional submission to the husband were hypothesized in 1984 to explain variations in Peruvian women’s fertility desires. An analysis of data from Peru 2004-2008 Continuous Demographic and Family Health Survey supports this hypothesis by showing a significant north-to-south growth of women’s control upon husband’s income and, less consistently, household purchasing decisions. These relationships are not explained by variables also correlated with meridionality, such as aboriginal ethnicity, women’s material/informational power, age difference with the husband’s, or working for cash. Findings suggest new hypotheses, concerning the distribution of assertiveness and warmth in the Peruvian territory.

  13. Existence of a component corotating with the earth in high-latitude disturbance magnetic fields (United States)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.


    A study of the data from the high-latitude North American IMS network of magnetic stations suggests that there is a component in substorm perturbations that corotates with the earth. It is as yet not certain whether the existence of this component stems from the corotation of a part of the magnetospheric plasma involved in the substorm mechanism or if it is a 'phase change' resulting from the control of the substorm manifestations by the earth's main magnetic field which is not axially symmetric. There are other geophysical phenomena showing a persistence of longitudinal variations corotating with the earth. These phenomena are of significance for a better understanding of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  14. Is Ice-Rafted Sediment in a North Pole Marine Record Evidence for Perennial Sea-ice Cover? (United States)

    Tremblay, L.B.; Schmidt, G.A.; Pfirman, S.; Newton, R.; DeRepentigny, P.


    Ice-rafted sediments of Eurasian and North American origin are found consistently in the upper part (13 Ma BP to present) of the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) ocean core from the Lomonosov Ridge, near the North Pole (approximately 88 degrees N). Based on modern sea-ice drift trajectories and speeds, this has been taken as evidence of the presence of a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean from the middle Miocene onwards. However, other high latitude land and marine records indicate a long-term trend towards cooling broken by periods of extensive warming suggestive of a seasonally ice-free Arctic between the Miocene and the present. We use a coupled sea-ice slab-ocean model including sediment transport tracers to map the spatial distribution of ice-rafted deposits in the Arctic Ocean. We use 6 hourly wind forcing and surface heat fluxes for two different climates: one with a perennial sea-ice cover similar to that of the present day and one with seasonally ice-free conditions, similar to that simulated in future projections. Model results confirm that in the present-day climate, sea ice takes more than 1 year to transport sediment from all its peripheral seas to the North Pole. However, in a warmer climate, sea-ice speeds are significantly faster (for the same wind forcing) and can deposit sediments of Laptev, East Siberian and perhaps also Beaufort Sea origin at the North Pole. This is primarily because of the fact that sea-ice interactions are much weaker with a thinner ice cover and there is less resistance to drift. We conclude that the presence of ice-rafted sediment of Eurasian and North American origin at the North Pole does not imply a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, reconciling the ACEX ocean core data with other land and marine records.

  15. How Strong is the Case for Proterozoic Low-Latitude Glaciation? (United States)

    Evans, D. A.


    , but it should be noted that the degree of nonactualistic features required to produce polar or temperate glacial paleolatitudes is as shockingly nonuniformitarian to geophysicists as equatorial glaciation is to paleoclimatologists. Similarly, hypotheses invoking rapid paleolatitude shifts of continents to generate erroneous paleomagnetic latitudes due to lax age constraints require such motions at rates beyond what is normally considered reasonable for plate tectonics. Snowball Earth thus remains an attractive model to explain numerous anomalous features of the Neoproterozoic rock record.

  16. 80 Degrees of Seperation: Landscape in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rolley


    Full Text Available Two writers in the early 1900s, Katherine Mansfield in New Zealand and Willa Cather in the United States tallgrass prairie, chronicled both the cultural and physical nuances of their frontiers. Their stories are set in rich textural backdrops, made vivid with their descriptions of natural environments. These descriptions provide the context for this paper's exploration. The dense and evocative imagery of these two writers provides a point of departure for a comparison of the two landscapes. The agricultural settlement patterns and natural systems of the New Zealand bush and farmland and those of the United States tallgrass prairie invite comparison. Mansfield's and Cather's narratives provide the guide for this study, capturing the subtle differences and underlying similarities of the textures and patterns of these two landscapes, while emphasising the differences in colour and scale. The degrees of separation are not as distinct as the 80 degrees of latitude that lie between them. Instead there is a myriad of subtle, rather than singular, differentiations. This visual analysis is not intended to address the significant cultural differences of these two places. Rather, it is a study of visual distinctions and similarities guided by the environmental qualities identified by a native author from each locale: Mansfield (New Zealand bush and farmland, and Cather (United States tallgrass prairie. Guided by their words, my own investigation of place is a graphic exploration of the physical environment: the line, form, pattern, texture, colour, light and spatial qualities of each landscape.

  17. Impacts of Geomagnetic storms on the mid-latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere observed by a Na lidar and TIMED/GUVI (United States)

    Yuan, T.; Zhang, Y.


    In this paper, we report our findings on the correlation between the neutral temperature (around the mesopause) and thermospheric column density O/N2 ratio, along with their response to geomagnetic storms above mid-latitude of North America. A temperature/wind Doppler Na lidar, operating at Fort Collins, CO (41°N, 105°W) and later at Logan, UT (42°N and 112°W), observed significant temperature increases (temperature anomaly) above 95 km (as much as 55 K at 105 km altitude) during four geomagnetic storms (April 2002, Nov. 2004, May 2005 and Oct. 2012). Coincident TIMED/GUVI observations indicate significant depletion in the thermospheric O/N2 ratio at the lidar locations. These observations suggest that the local mesopause warming seen by the lidar is due to transport of the high-latitude Joule and particle heated neutrals at the E and F layers to the mid-latitude region.

  18. Ecosystem responses to recent oceanographic variability in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ecosystems (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Broms, Cecilie; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Friedland, Kevin D.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hunt, George L., Jr.; Melle, Webjørn; Taylor, Maureen


    As part of the international MENU collaboration, we compared and contrasted ecosystem responses to climate-forced oceanographic variability across several high latitude regions of the North Pacific (Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA)) and North Atlantic Oceans (Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank (GOM/GB) and the Norwegian/Barents Seas (NOR/BAR)). Differences in the nitrate content of deep source waters and incoming solar radiation largely explain differences in average primary productivity among these ecosystems. We compared trends in productivity and abundance at various trophic levels and their relationships with sea-surface temperature. Annual net primary production generally increases with annual mean sea-surface temperature between systems and within the EBS, BAR, and GOM/GB. Zooplankton biomass appears to be controlled by both top-down (predation by fish) and bottom-up forcing (advection, SST) in the BAR and NOR regions. In contrast, zooplankton in the GOM/GB region showed no evidence of top-down forcing but appeared to control production of major fish populations through bottom-up processes that are independent of temperature variability. Recruitment of several fish stocks is significantly and positively correlated with temperature in the EBS and BAR, but cod and pollock recruitment in the EBS has been negatively correlated with temperature since the 1977 shift to generally warmer conditions. In each of the ecosystems, fish species showed a general poleward movement in response to warming. In addition, the distribution of groundfish in the EBS has shown a more complex, non-linear response to warming resulting from internal community dynamics. Responses to recent warming differ across systems and appear to be more direct and more pronounced in the higher latitude systems where food webs and trophic interactions are simpler and where both zooplankton and fish species are often limited by cold temperatures.

  19. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh K. Singh


    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  20. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic horizontal (H field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday hours over and above the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum seen at any mid-latitude stations around the world. These slow and persistent additional decreases of H of disturbance daily variation at equatorial latitudes could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; storms and substorms

  1. Simulation studies of high-latitude magnetospheric boundary dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU; Zuyin; SHI; Quanqi; XIAO; Chijie; FU; Suiyan; ZHANG; Hu


    Magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause is studied using 2.5-dimensional Hail-MHD simulation. Concentric flow vortices and magnetic islands appear when both Hall effect and sheared flow are considered. Plasma mixing across the magnetopause occurs in the presence of the flow vortices. Reconnected structure generated in the vicinity of the subsolar point changes its geometry with increasing flow shear while moving to high latitudes. In the presence of flow shear, with the Hail-MHD reconnection a higher reconnection rate than with the traditional MHD is obtained. The out-of-plane components of flow and magnetic field produced by the Hall current are redistributed under the action of the flow shear, which makes the plasma transport across the boundaries more complicated. The simulation results provide some help in understanding the dynamic processes at the high latitude magnetopause.

  2. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes. (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V


    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. A vertical axis tracking method - theoretical consideration for photovoltaic systems at high latitude sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G. R. K; Narasimba Rao, A. V; Subramanyam S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Warangal (India)


    In photovoltaic power generation the photovoltaic array is the most cost intensive unit. In order to make the photovoltaic power competitive the array is to be loaded to its maximum capacity for the longer periods of time. One of the strategies to minimize the cosine effect is by tracking the device. In this paper a novel method of Vertical Axis tracking system with optimum tilt is described. Optimum tilt is obtained by weighting the beam radiation with the altitude of the sun over day. Oslo is chosen for the study because the system is better suited for places having higher latitudes. It is observed that the energy collected in the vertical axis tracking is almost equivalent to that of two-axis tracking mode at latitudes 66.7degrees , which is smaller compared to 47 Celsius degrees required for two-axis tracking. [Spanish] En la generacion de energia electrica fotovoltaica el arreglo fotovoltaico es la unidad mas costosa. Para hacer la energia electrica fotovoltaica competitiva el arreglo debe de ser cargado a su maxima capacidad por periodos de tiempo mas largos. Una de las estrategias para minimizar el efecto del coseno es haciendo que el dispositivo siga la trayectoria. En este articulo se describe un metodo novedoso de un sistema de seguimiento de eje vertical con inclinacion optima. La inclinacion optima se obtiene contrapesando la radiacion del rayo contra la altitud del sol durante el dia. Se escogio la Ciudad de Oslo para el estudio porque el sistema es mas adecuado para lugares que tienen altas latitudes. Se observa que la energia recolectada en el seguidor de eje vertical es casi equivalente al modo de rastreo de dos ejes a latitudes de 6.7< {phi}< 23.45. Este metodo ofrece una construccion mecanica mas simple, el cambio del angulo de rastreo en un ano es de 32 grados Celsius que es inferior si se compara con los 47grados Celsius

  4. Responses of arthropod populations to warming depend on latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Ernst, Andrew F.; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau


    Biological effects of climate change are expected to vary geographically, with a strong signature of latitude. For ectothermic animals, there is systematic latitudinal variation in the relationship between climate and thermal performance curves, which describe the relationship between temperature...... and an organism's fitness. Here we ask whether these documented latitudinal patterns can be generalized to predict arthropod responses to warming across mid and high temperate latitudes, for taxa whose thermal physiology has not been measured. To address this question, we used a novel natural experiment...

  5. Resource manager information needs regarding hydrologic regime shifts for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Jenni, Karen


    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources in North America. LCCs were established by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) in recognition of the fact that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes, and resource management challenges extend beyond most of the boundaries considered in current natural resource management. The North Pacific LCC (NPLCC) covers the range of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest, including an area of 528,360 km2 spanning 22 degrees of latitude from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to Bodega Bay, California. The coverage area includes parts of four States, two Canadian provinces, and more than 100 Tribes and First Nation language groups. It extends from alpine areas at the crest of coastal mountains across subalpine, montane, and lowland forests to the nearshore marine environment. This wide range of latitudes and elevation zones; terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats; and complex jurisdictional boundaries hosts a diversity of natural resources and their corresponding management issues are equally diverse. As evidenced by the Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (S-TEK) Strategy guiding principles, identifying and responding to the needs of resource managers is key to the success of the NPLCC. To help achieve this goal of the NPLCC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has organized several workshops with resource managers and resource scientists to identify management information needs relevant to the priority topics identified in the S-TEK Strategy. Here, we detail the results from a first workshop to address the effects of changes in hydrologic regime on rivers, streams, and riparian corridors. The workshop focused on a subset of the full NPLCC geography and was

  6. Altitude and Latitude Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor from the Narrow-Band Lunar Eclipse Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S


    The work contains the description of two narrow IR-bands observational data of total lunar eclipse of March, 3, 2007, one- and two-dimensional procedures of radiative transfer equation solution. The results of the procedure are the extinction values for atmospheric aerosol and water vapor at different altitudes in the troposphere along the Earth's terminator crossing North America, Arctic, Siberia and South-Eastern Asia. The altitude range and possible latitude and altitude resoltion of atmosphere remote sensing by the lunar eclipses observation are fixed. The results of water vapor retrieval are compared with data of space experiment, the scale of vertical water vapor distribution is found.

  7. Tropical Pacific impacts on cooling North American winters (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.


    The North American continent generally experienced a cooling trend in winter over the early 2000s. This cooling trend represented a significant deviation from expected anthropogenic warming and so requires explanation. Previous studies indicate that climate variations in the tropical Pacific contributed to many mid-latitude climate variations over the early twenty-first century. Here we show using large ensembles of fully coupled, partially coupled and uncoupled model simulations that in northwest North America the winter cooling was primarily a remote response to climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific. By contrast, in central North America the winter cooling appears to have resulted from a relatively rare fluctuation in mid-latitude circulation that was unrelated to the tropical Pacific. Our results highlight how decadal climate signals--both remote and local in origin--can together offset anthropogenic warming to produce continental-scale cooling.

  8. HIgh-Latitude Neutral Hydrogen Shells identified in GALFA-HI (United States)

    Sallmen, Shauna; Taylor, Rebecca; Korpela, Eric J.; Goldston Peek, Joshua Eli; Babler, Brian


    Supernovae and stellar winds are important processes in the development and evolution of galaxies. Due to these effects in generations of stars, the interstellar medium (ISM) is turbulent, multiphase, and filled with complex interacting structures. HI (neutral hydrogen) shells are formed when hot, expanding bubbles sweep up shells of neutral material. These shells gradually cool, slow down, and mix with the surrounding interstellar material, but we still lack a complete, detailed picture of the physical state and evolution of gas in our Galaxy's ISM. Studies of numerous shells at different stages of evolution are needed, but biases in search techniques and limitations of data quality and coverage have hindered our efforts. The Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA) 21-cm survey of the Arecibo sky provides have uniquely high angular resolution except within a few degrees of the Galactic plane. A visual search of these data can therefore identify new structures with small angular diameter at high Galactic latitudes, at all stages of evolution. We present the results of a partial search of these data, focusing on high Galactic latitudes. For each potential shell, the location, velocity, angular size, and velocity range were determined, as well as estimates of the shell wall completeness and persistence of shell completeness, shape, and location across its velocity range. To date, we have identified over 100 potential new shells, ranging in size from 0.1 to 4.5 degrees. Approximately 2/3 of these are smaller than 2 degrees in diameter, a size range that was significantly underrepresented in previous searches. The statistical properties of these newly found shells will be presented, along with details on selected examples.

  9. Characteristics of manganese nodules from sub-equatorial Indian Ocean between 4 degree 30'S and 10 degree 30'S latitudes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name I_J_Mar_Sci_19_17.pdf.txt stream_source_info I_J_Mar_Sci_19_17.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Two-dimensional ionospheric tomography over the low-latitude Indian region: An intercomparison of ART and MART algorithms (United States)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Shukla, Ashish Kumar


    Single-frequency users of a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) rely on ionospheric models to mitigate the delay due to the ionosphere. The ionosphere is the major source of range and range rate errors for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) who require high-accuracy positioning. The purpose of the present study is to develop a tomography model to reconstruct the total electron content (TEC) over the low-latitude Indian region which lies in the equatorial ionospheric anomaly belt. In the present study, the TEC data collected from the six TEC collection stations along a longitudinal belt of around 77 degrees are used. The main objective of the study is to find out optimum pixel size which supports a better reconstruction of the electron density and hence the TEC over the low-latitude Indian region. Performance of two reconstruction algorithms Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) is analyzed for different pixel sizes varying from 1 to 6 degrees in latitude. It is found from the analysis that the optimum pixel size is 5° × 50 km over the Indian region using both ART and MART algorithms.

  11. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly


    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  12. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli


    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  13. Habitat preferences of baleen whales in a mid-latitude habitat (United States)

    Prieto, Rui; Tobeña, Marta; Silva, Mónica A.


    Understanding the dynamics of baleen whale distribution is essential to predict how environmental changes can affect their ecology and, in turn, ecosystem functioning. Recent work showed that mid-latitude habitats along migratory routes may play an important role on the feeding ecology of baleen whales. This study aimed to investigate the function of a mid-latitude habitat for blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei (Balaenoptera borealis) whales occurring in sympatry during spring and summer months and to what extent their environmental niches overlap. We addressed those questions by developing environmental niche models (ENM) for each species and then making pairwise comparisons of niche overlap and relative habitat patch importance among the three species. ENMs were created using sightings from the Azorean Fisheries Observer Program from May to November, between 2004 and 2009, and a set of 18 predictor environmental variables. We then assessed monthly (April-July) overlap among ENMs using a modified Hellinger's distance metric (I). Results show that the habitat niches of blue and fin whales are strongly influenced by primary productivity and sea surface temperature and are highly dynamic both spatially and temporally due to the oceanography of the region. Niche overlap analyses show that blue and fin whale environmental niches are similar and that the suitable habitats for the two species have high degree of spatial coincidence. These results in combination suggest that this habitat may function as a mid-latitude feeding ground to both species while conditions are adequate. The sei whale model, on the other hand, did not include variables considered to be proxies for prey distribution and little environmental niche overlap was found between this species and the other two. We argue that these results suggest that the region holds little importance as a foraging habitat for the sei whale.

  14. The association of hydrogen with sulfur on Mars across latitudes, longitudes, and compositional extremes (United States)

    Karunatillake, Suniti; Wray, James J.; Gasnault, Olivier; McLennan, Scott M.; Deanne Rogers, A.; Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, William V.; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Ojha, Lujendra


    Midlatitudinal hydrated sulfates on Mars may influence brine pH, atmospheric humidity, and collectively water activity. These factors affect the habitability of the planetary subsurface and the preservation of relict biomolecules. Regolith at grain sizes smaller than gravel, constituting the bulk of the Martian subsurface at regional scales, may be a primary repository of chemical alteration, mechanical alteration, and biosignatures. The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer with hundreds of kilometers of lateral resolution and compositional sensitivity to decimeter depth provides unique insight into this component of the regolith, which we call soil. Advancing the globally compelling association between H2O and S established by our previous work, we characterize latitudinal variations in the association between H and S, as well as in the hydration state of soil. Represented by H2O:S molar ratios, the hydration state of candidate sulfates increases with latitude in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, hydration states generally decrease with latitude in the south. Furthermore, we observe that H2O concentration may affect the degree of sulfate hydration more than S concentration. Limited H2O availability in soil-atmosphere exchange and in subsurface recharge could explain such control exerted by H2O on salt hydration. Differences in soil thickness, ground ice table depths, atmospheric circulation, and insolation may contribute to hemispheric differences in the progression of hydration with latitude. Our observations support chemical association of H2O with S in the southern hemisphere as suggested by Karunatillake et al. (2014), including the possibility of Fe sulfates as a key mineral group.

  15. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko


    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  16. Multifractal analysis of low-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan


    Full Text Available The technique of large deviation multifractal spectrum has shown that the high-latitude (77.5° N, 69.2° W geomagnetic fluctuations can be described from direct dissipation process or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we analyze the H-component of low-latitude (22.4° S, 43.6° W geomagnetic field variability observed during the month of July 2000 at the Geomagnetic Observatory, Vassouras, RJ, Brazil. The variability pattern during this period is a mixture of quiet and disturbed days including the Bastille Day intense geomagnetic storm on 15 July. Due to the complexity of this data, we pursue a detailed analysis of the geomagnetic fluctuations in different time scales including a multifractal approach using the singular power spectrum deviations obtained from the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM. The results suggest, as observed from high-latitude data, the occurrence of low-latitude multifractal processes driving the intermittent coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere and geomagnetic field variations. On finer scales possible physical mechanisms in the context of nonlinear magnetosphere response are discussed.

  17. Insolation-sunshine relation with site elevation and latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Univ. of Balochistan, Quetta (Pakistan))


    Data from six meteorological stations dispersed widely over Pakistan have been used to produce a correlation between the monthly means of easily measured sunshine duration and the less frequently recorded global solar radiation, taking into account the site elevation above sea level and the latitude. The relation is shown to be valuable for other regions too.

  18. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  19. Seasonal affective disorder and latitude : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.


    Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of SAD and latitude. Methods: An overview of the epidemiological literature on the prevalence of SAD is given and studies relevant for the latitudinal dependency of prevalence will be analyzed and discussed. R

  20. Seasonal affective disorder and latitude : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.

    Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of SAD and latitude. Methods: An overview of the epidemiological literature on the prevalence of SAD is given and studies relevant for the latitudinal dependency of prevalence will be analyzed and discussed.

  1. Star Formation and Molecular Clouds at High Galactic Latitude (United States)

    McGehee, P. M.


    In this chapter we review the young stars and molecular clouds found at high Galactic latitudes (|b| ≥ 30°). These are mostly associated with two large-scale structures on the sky, the Gould Belt and the Taurus star formation region, and a handful of molecular clouds including MBM 12 and MBM 20 which, as a population, consist of the nearest star formation sites to our Sun. There are also a few young stars that are found in apparent isolation far from any molecular cloud. The high latitude clouds are primarily translucent molecular clouds and diffuse Galactic cirrus with the majority of them seen at high latitude simply due to their proximity to the Sun. The rare exceptions are those, like the Draco and other intermediate or high velocity clouds, found significantly above or below the Galactic plane. We review the processes that result in star formation within these low density and extraplanar environments as well as the mechanisms for production of isolated T Tauri stars. We present and discuss the known high-latitude stellar nurseries and young stellar objects.

  2. Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niño, Alfonso


    This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...

  3. The Unified North American Soil Map and its implication on the soil organic carbon stock in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu


    Full Text Available The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art US STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled by using the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.21 (HWSD1.21. The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density for the topsoil layer (0–30 cm and the subsoil layer (30–100 cm, respectively, of the spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 365.96 Pg, of which 23.1% is under trees, 14.1% is in shrubland, and 4.6% is in grassland and cropland. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in terrestrial ecosystem modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.

  4. Analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection and magnetic data along 13 degrees N latitude across the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Desa, M.; Reddy, S.I.; Ashalata, B.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Mital, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.; rai, S.N.; Ghosh, S.K.; Singh, R.N.; Majumdar, M.

    and the Ninetyeast Ridge), the Ninetyeast Ridge and the Sunda Arc. The study revealed eight seismic sequences, H1 to H8 of parallel continuous to discontinuous reflectors. Considering especially depth to the horozons, nature of reflection and on comparison...

  5. Holocene oscillations in temperature and salinity of the surface subpolar North Atlantic. (United States)

    Thornalley, David J R; Elderfield, Harry; McCave, I Nick


    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) transports warm salty surface waters to high latitudes, where they cool, sink and return southwards at depth. Through its attendant meridional heat transport, the AMOC helps maintain a warm northwestern European climate, and acts as a control on the global climate. Past climate fluctuations during the Holocene epoch ( approximately 11,700 years ago to the present) have been linked with changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. The behaviour of the surface flowing salty water that helped drive overturning during past climatic changes is, however, not well known. Here we investigate the temperature and salinity changes of a substantial surface inflow to a region of deep-water formation throughout the Holocene. We find that the inflow has undergone millennial-scale variations in temperature and salinity ( approximately 3.5 degrees C and approximately 1.5 practical salinity units, respectively) most probably controlled by subpolar gyre dynamics. The temperature and salinity variations correlate with previously reported periods of rapid climate change. The inflow becomes more saline during enhanced freshwater flux to the subpolar North Atlantic. Model studies predict a weakening of AMOC in response to enhanced Arctic freshwater fluxes, although the inflow can compensate on decadal timescales by becoming more saline. Our data suggest that such a negative feedback mechanism may have operated during past intervals of climate change.

  6. Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders


    The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  7. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian


    With the publication of the Manifesto for a New Nordic Cuisine in 2004, the gastronomic potentials of the Scandinavian flora and fauna became the basis for a social innovation project with ambitions far beyond fine dining and select produce. Since then New Nordic Food has become a key platform......-constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  8. Recent climate cycles on Mars: Stratigraphic relationships between multiple generations of gullies and the latitude dependent mantle (United States)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Barbieri, Lindsay


    Reconstructions of the orbital parameters of Mars spanning the last ∼20 Myr, combined with global circulation models, predict multiple cycles of accumulation and degradation of an ice-rich mantle in the mid-latitudes, driven primarily by insolation at the poles during periods when obliquity was more than ten degrees greater than it is today (i.e., >∼35°). While evidence of an ice-rich "latitude dependent mantle" (LDM) consistent with these predictions is abundant, features indicative of cycles of emplacement and degradation of this unit are isolated and rare. In addition, fundamental physical properties of the LDM, such as paleo-thickness maxima, have not been determined. Gullies, which are sinuous channels found on steep slopes in mid- and high-latitudes, interact with the LDM and provide a stratigraphic feature useful for documenting both cyclical emplacement/removal and thickness estimates in past climate regimes. In the southern hemisphere, where gullies are most common, we present extensive evidence of (1) cyclical degradation and removal of gullies in the lower mid-latitudes (30-40°S), and (2) burial and exhumation of inverted gully channels in the transitional latitude band between dissected and preserved LDM (40-50°S), which can only be accounted for if an additional tens of meters of LDM were present at these locations during channel formation. These relationships support a model in which end-to-end gully evolution is controlled by the behavior of the LDM: at lower latitudes, gullies incise an ice-rich substrate and are removed when that ice becomes unstable, and at higher latitudes gullies are buried by successive emplacement of LDM where ice remains stable near the surface. Further, the presence of dormant buried gullies implies that present-day activity within gullies, likely to be controlled by the behavior of CO2 frost, is insufficient to explain the entire gully population, and that conditions conducive to increased gully activity preceded the

  9. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business? (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer


    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  10. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South-East Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. A. Ansari


    Geomagnetic pulsations recorded on the ground are the signatures of the integrated signals from the magnetosphere. Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations are quasi-sinusoidal variations in the earth’s magnetic field in the period range 10–45 seconds. The magnitude of these pulsations ranges from fraction of a nT (nano Tesla) to several nT. These pulsations can be observed in a number of ways. However, the application of ground-based magnetometer arrays has proven to be one of the most successful methods of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the earth’s magnetosphere. The solar wind provides the energy for the earth’s magnetospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations observed in Pc3 occurrence are of vital importance because they provide evidence which can be directly related to wave generation mechanisms both inside and external to the magnetosphere. At low latitudes (L < 3) wave energy predominates in the Pc3 band and the spatial characteristics of these pulsations have received little attention in the past. An array of four low latitude induction coil magnetometers were established in south-east Australia over a longitudinal range of 17 degrees at L = 1.8 to 2.7 for carrying out the study of the effect of the solar wind velocity on these pulsations. Digital dynamic spectra showing Pc3 pulsation activity over a period of about six months have been used to evaluate Pc3 pulsation occurrence. Pc3 occurrence probability at low latitudes has been found to be dominant for the solar wind velocity in the range 400–700 km/s. The results suggest that solar wind controls Pc3 occurrence through a mechanism in which Pc3 wave energy is convected through the magnetosheath and coupled to the standing oscillations of magnetospheric field lines.

  11. The Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the North China block and the other major blocks of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the summarization of the Early Paleozoic paleomagnetic data recently obtained from the three major blocks of China, the Early Paleozoic (I.e. Cambrian and Ordovician) paleogeographic positions of the North China, South China and Tarim blocks were discussed in detail. The North China, South China and Tarim blocks were inferred to be located adjacent to East Gondwana in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Early Cambrian. During the Early-Middle Ordovician, the South China and Tarim blocks were also located in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere with some affinities of the Gondwanaland, whereas the North China block may have episodically separated from the Gondwanaland, and might be sited close to the North America and Siberia. The reestablished paleogeographic configurations are in agreement with the studies on the biogeography, paleoclimate and sedimental facies of the North China and South China blocks.

  12. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.


    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  13. Spline model of the high latitude scintillation based on in situ satellite data (United States)

    Priyadarshi, S.; Wernik, A. W.


    We present a spline model for the high latitude ionospheric scintillation using satellite in situ measurements made by the Dynamic Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite. DE 2 satellite measurements give observations only along satellite orbit but our interpolation model fills the gaps between the satellite orbits. This analytical model is based on products of cubic B-splines and coefficients determined by least squares fit to the binned data and constrained to make the fit periodic in 24 hours of geomagnetic local time, periodic in 360 degrees of invariant longitude, in geomagnetic indices and solar radio flux. Discussion of our results clearly shows the seasonal and diurnal behavior of ionospheric parameters important in scintillation modeling for different geophysical and solar activity conditions. We also show that results obtained from our analytical model match observations obtained from in situ measurements. Shishir Priyadarshi Space Research Centre, Poland

  14. Jovicentric latitude effect on the HOM radio emission observed by Ulysses/URAP at 5 AU from Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Barrow

    Full Text Available During 1994 and into 1996, Ulysses was at dis-tances of 5 AU or more from Jupiter and travelling from south to north of the ecliptic plane between jovicentric latitudes -36° to 20°. Observations by the Unified Radio and Plasma Experiment (URAP on board the Ulysses spacecraft during this period have been searched for jovian hectometric (HOM radio events. At these distances, the HOM was only received occasionally. The signals were generally weak and much care was needed to find and to identify the events. All of the HOM events were observed when Ulysses was at jovicentric latitudes between -12.2° < DUly < 14.7°, relatively close to the plane of the jovicentric equator. Both senses of polarization were observed with left-hand (LH predominant. The events occurred when the jovimagnetic latitude Df was between -8.5° and 14.2° and suggest that the HOM was only detectable within a beam some 23° wide, centred on about 3° jovimagnetic latitude. This is roughly consistent with previous work by Alexander et al. (1979 and by Ladreiter and Leblanc (1989, 1991, based upon observations made by Voyager and other spacecraft when these were relatively close to Jupiter. The results are consistent with an emission process due to the Cyclotron-Maser instability, as suggested by a number of scientists in the past.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres – Radio science (radio astronomy

  15. Oxygen isotopes in Indian Plate eclogites (Kaghan Valley, Pakistan): Negative δ18O values from a high latitude protolith reset by Himalayan metamorphism (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiz Ur; Tanaka, Ryoji; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Kobayashi, Katsura; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Eizo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Khan, Tahseenullah; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki


    Oxygen isotope compositions are reported for the first time for the Himalayan metabasites of the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan in this study. The highest metamorphic grades are recorded in the north of the valley, near the India-Asia collision boundary, in the form of high-pressure (HP: Group I) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP: Group II) eclogites. The rocks show a step-wise decrease in grade from the UHP to HP eclogites and amphibolites. The protoliths of these metabasites were the Permian Panjal Trap basalts (ca. 267 ± 2.4 Ma), which were emplaced along the northern margin of India when it was part of Gondwana. After the break-up of Gondwana, India drifted northward, subducted beneath Asia and underwent UHP metamorphism during the Eocene (ca. 45 ± 1.2 Ma). At the regional scale, amphibolites, Group I and II eclogites yielded δ18O values of + 5.84 and + 5.91‰, + 1.66 to + 4.24‰, and - 2.25 to + 0.76‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW. On a more local scale, within a single eclogite body, the δ18O values were the lowest (- 2.25 to- 1.44‰) in the central, the best preserved (least retrograded) parts, and show a systematic increase outward into more retrograded rocks, reaching up to + 0.12‰. These values are significantly lower than the typical mantle values for basalts of + 5.7 ± 0.3‰. The unusually low or negative δ18O values in Group II eclogites potentially resulted from hydrothermal alteration of the protoliths by interactions with meteoric water when the Indian plate was at southern high latitudes (~ 60°S). The stepwise increase in δ18O values, among different eclogite bodies in general and at single outcrop-scales in particular, reflects differing degrees of resetting of the oxygen isotope compositions during exhumation-related retrogression.

  16. Climatology of rapid geomagnetic variations at high latitudes over two solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljanen


    Full Text Available We investigate the characteristics of rapid geomagnetic variations at high latitudes based on the occurrence of large time derivatives of the horizontal magnetic field (dH/dt exceeding 1 nT s−1. Analysis of IMAGE magnetometer data from North Europe in 1983–2010, covering more than two solar cycles, confirms and specifies several previous findings. We show that dH/dt activity is high around the midnight and early morning hours, and nearly vanishes at noon and early afternoon. This happens during all seasons, although the midnight maximum is nearly invisible during summer. As indicated by modelled ionospheric equivalent currents, large dH/dt values occur predominantly during westward ionospheric electrojets. Before and around midnight, dH/dt tends to be north-south oriented, whereas in the morning hours, its direction is more west-east directed. dH/dt tends to be more strictly north-south oriented during winter than other seasons. The seasonal occurrence of large dH/dt values is similar to the variation of the maximum amplitude of westward equivalent currents. The yearly fraction of east-west directed large dH/dt vectors at the Kilpisjärvi station (MLAT 65.88 varies from 31 to 47 % without any clear correlation with the general geomagnetic activity nor with the yearly averages of solar wind parameters.

  17. Fargo, North Dakota, USA (United States)


    latitudes, 95 to 100oW longitudes Orientation: North at top Image Data: SRTM elevation height as brightness plus relief shading SRTM Data Acquired: February 2000

  18. Determination and analysis of local seasonal terms of latitude variations (United States)

    Soloducha, Barbara


    Local seasonal terms of latitude variations were determined on the basis of phi data of 17 BIH/IMPS stations and x, y, z data of the BIH global solution during the years 1967-1978. Some models for local corrections R to the latitude introduced by the BIH are created. The corrections R obtained from the least squares adjustment from one year data appear to be the best. The present study shows that it is necessary to determine these more frequently than once a year or to compute them for all stations simultaneously with the ERP. This will be particularly important in view of the future re-reduction of past astrometric data.

  19. Assessment of Plasma Transport and Convection at High Latitudes (United States)


    The high-latitude ionosphere is strongly coupled to the thermosphere and magnetosphere. The magnetospheric coupling occurs via electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle precipitation. Owing to the interaction of the shocked solar wind with the geomagnetic field, an electric potential difference is generated across the tail of the magnetosphere, with the resulting electric field pointing from dawn to dusk. Energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere in the auroral region leads to the creation of ionization and to electron, ion, and neutral gas heating. In order to assess the current understanding of plasma transport and convection at high latitudes, it is necessary to take account of the strong coupling between the ionosphere, thermosphere, and magnetosphere.

  20. An absence of fast radio bursts at intermediate galactic latitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Johnston, S; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D; Coster, P; Flynn, C; Keane, E F; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W; Tiburzi, C; Thornton, D


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. (2013) has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes ($-15^{\\circ}$ $< b <$ 15$^{\\circ}$) in data taken as part of the HTRU survey. No FRBs were discovered in this region. Several effects such as dispersion, scattering, sky temperature and scintillation decrease the sensitivity by more than 3$\\sigma$ in $\\sim$20\\% of survey pointings. Including all of these effects, we exclude the hypothesis that FRBs are uniformly distributed on the sky with 99\\% confidence. This low probability implies that additional factors -- not accounted for by standard Galactic models -- must be included to eas...

  1. A latitude-dependent wind model for Mira's cometary head

    CERN Document Server

    Raga, A C; De Colle, F; Esquivel, A; Kajdic, P; Rodríguez-González, A; Velázquez, P F


    We present a 3D numerical simulation of the recently discovered cometary structure produced as Mira travels through the galactic ISM. In our simulation, we consider that Mira ejects a steady, latitude-dependent wind, which interacts with a homogeneous, streaming environment. The axisymmetry of the problem is broken by the lack of alignment between the direction of the relative motion of the environment and the polar axis of the latitude-dependent wind. With this model, we are able to produce a cometary head with a ``double bow shock'' which agrees well with the structure of the head of Mira's comet. We therefore conclude that a time-dependence in the ejected wind is not required for reproducing the observed double bow shock.

  2. Cutoff latitude variation during solar proton events: Causes and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tyssøy, H Nesse


    To accurately quantify the effect of solar proton events (SPEs) on the atmosphere requires a good estimate of the particle energy deposition in the middle atmosphere (60- 100 km) and how the energy is distributed globally. Protons in the energy range 1-20MeV, depositing their energy in the middle atmosphere, are subject to more complex dynamics with strong day-night asymmetries compared to higher-energy particles. Our study targets six SPEs from 2003 to 2012. By using measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on all available Polar Orbit Environment Satellites (POES), we show that in the main phase of geomagnetic storms the dayside cutoff latitudes are pushed poleward, while the nightside cutoff latitudes have the opposite response, resulting in strong day-night asymmetries in the energy deposition. These features cannot bemeasured by the frequently used Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Assuming that the protons impact the polar atmosphere homogeneously above a...

  3. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco


    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity

  4. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco


    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe

  5. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr


    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  6. Physiological and behavioral adaptations in bats living at high latitudes. (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G; McGuire, Liam P; Boyles, Esmarie; Reimer, Jesika P; Brooks, Christopher A C; Rutherford, Robert W; Rutherford, Teresa A; Whitaker, John O; McCracken, Gary F


    Widespread animals at the extremes of the species' distribution experience ecological constraints different than individuals in the core of the distribution. For example, small endotherms at very high latitudes face short summers with cool temperatures and a lack of true darkness. In particular, insectivorous bats at high latitudes may experience constraints because of their unique life history traits, and may have different energy requirements than bats at lower latitudes. To evaluate the extent of these differences, we estimated an energy budget and refueling rates for reproductively active female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) roosting in buildings in eastern Alaska (~63°N). Physiological parameters (torpor use and metabolic rates) and daily energy expenditures (25.7±5.3kJd(-1)) were similar to, or slightly lower than, conspecifics at lower latitudes. Northern little brown bats foraged for less time than southerly conspecifics, but measurements of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations suggest that northern bats refuel at a rate considerably higher than those to the south. It appears that high refueling rates (and therefore foraging intensity) involve a dietary shift to orb-weaver spiders, which are abundant and likely offer higher energetic benefit than the small, flying insects consumed by individuals in other parts of the distribution. Environmental factors may limit species' distributions, but our results provide an example of a population at the limit of their geographic range that has compensated for environmental challenges by adopting unique behavioral strategies while the underlying physiology (including daily energy expenditure) remains similar to populations at the core of the species' range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specialization of mutualistic interaction networks decreases toward tropical latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuning, M.; Fründ, J.; Klein, A.-M.


    ] or differences in plant diversity [10, 11]. Thus, the direction of the latitudinal specialization gradient remains contentious. With an unprecedented global data set, we investigated how biotic specialization between plants and animal pollinators or seed dispersers is associated with latitude, past...... to low plant diversity. This could explain why the latitudinal specialization gradient is reversed relative to the latitudinal diversity gradient. Low mutualistic network specialization in the tropics suggests higher tolerance against extinctions in tropical than in temperate communities....

  8. Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes


    Fioletov, Vitali E.; Shepherd, Theodore G.


    The statistical relationship between springtime and summertime ozone over middle and polar latitudes is analyzed using zonally averaged total ozone data. Shortterm variations in springtime midlatitude ozone demonstrate only a modest correlation with springtime polar ozone variations. However by early summer, ozone variations throughout the extratropics are highly correlated. Analysis of correlation functions indicates that springtime midlatitude ozone, not polar ozone, is the best predictor f...

  9. Specialization of mutualistic interaction networks decreases toward tropical latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Fründ, Jochen; Klein, Alexandra-Maria


    ] or differences in plant diversity [10, 11]. Thus, the direction of the latitudinal specialization gradient remains contentious. With an unprecedented global data set, we investigated how biotic specialization between plants and animal pollinators or seed dispersers is associated with latitude, past...... that current conditions have a stronger effect on biotic specialization than historical community stability. Biotic specialization decreased with increasing local and regional plant diversity. This suggests that high specialization of mutualistic interactions is a response of pollinators and seed dispersers...

  10. The High Latitude D Region During Electron Precipitation Events (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. K.; Collis, P. N.; Korth, A.


    The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.

  11. High latitude D region during electron precipitation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, J.K.; Collis, P.N.; Korth, A.


    The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.

  12. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans (United States)


    Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans Robin D. Muench Earth & Space Research 1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210 Seattle...Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales. Journal of Geophysical Research , 87, 9601-9613. Galbraith, P.S., and D.E. Kelley, 1996: Identifying overturns in...and near Marguerite Bay during winter 2003: A SO GLOBEC study. Deep-Sea Research 2, 54. Padman, L., S.L. Howard, and R.D. Muench, 2006a: Internal

  13. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng


    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  14. North Polar Cap (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  15. Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis A; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Huey, Raymond B; Sheldon, Kimberly S; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Haak, David C; Martin, Paul R


    The impact of anthropogenic climate change on terrestrial organisms is often predicted to increase with latitude, in parallel with the rate of warming. Yet the biological impact of rising temperatures also depends on the physiological sensitivity of organisms to temperature change. We integrate empirical fitness curves describing the thermal tolerance of terrestrial insects from around the world with the projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitude. The results show that warming in the tropics, although relatively small in magnitude, is likely to have the most deleterious consequences because tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature. In contrast, species at higher latitudes have broader thermal tolerance and are living in climates that are currently cooler than their physiological optima, so that warming may even enhance their fitness. Available thermal tolerance data for several vertebrate taxa exhibit similar patterns, suggesting that these results are general for terrestrial ectotherms. Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest.

  16. Mountain biodiversity patterns at low and high latitudes. (United States)

    Molau, Ulf


    This paper presents an overview of mountain biodiversity at a multitude of scales in space, time, and function. Even though species richness is usually the focal component in nature conservation, genetic diversity within species is equally important. The small-scale distribution of species in the tropical Andes, as exemplified by the plant genera Calceolaria and Bartsia, contrasts against the situation in high-latitude mountains, e.g., the Scandes, where species have wide ranges and many are circumpolar. Recent studies on alpine plants based on molecular methods show that the intraspecific genetic diversity tends to increase with latitude, a situation brought about by the glaciation history with repeated contraction-expansion episodes of species' distributions. In tropical mountains, species distributions are geographically much narrower, often as a result of relatively recent, local speciation. Thus, whereas species richness in mountains decreases from the Equator towards the poles, genetic diversity shows the opposite trend. Finally, a comparison of ecosystem diversity in low- and high-latitude mountain ranges (tropical Andes vs. Scandes) shows that the landscapes differ profoundly with regard to timberline ecotones, snow distribution, and climate variables, and are subject to widely different impacts of global change

  17. Ionosphere Scintillation at Low and High Latitudes (Modelling vs Measurement) (United States)

    Béniguel, Yannick


    This paper will address the problem of scintillations characteristics, focusing on the parameters of interest for a navigation system. Those parameters are the probabilities of occurrence of simultaneous fading, the bubbles surface at IPP level, the cycle slips and the fades duration statistics. The scintillation characteristics obtained at low and high latitudes will be compared. These results correspond to the data analysis performed after the ESA Monitor ionosphere measurement campaign [1], [2]. A second aspect of the presentation will be the modelling aspect. It has been observed that the phase scintillation dominates at high latitudes while the intensity scintillation dominates at low latitudes. The way it can be reproduced and implemented in a propagation model (e.g. GISM model [3]) will be presented. Comparisons of measurements with results obtained by modelling will be presented on some typical scenarios. References [1] R. Prieto Cerdeira, Y. Beniguel, "The MONITOR project: architecture, data and products", Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria (Va), May 2011 [2] Y. Béniguel, R Orus-Perez , R. Prieto-Cerdeira , S. Schlueter , S. Scortan, A. Grosu "MONITOR 2: ionospheric monitoring network in support to SBAS and other GNSS and scientific purposes", IES Conference, Alexandria (Va), May 2015-05-22 [3] Y. Béniguel, P. Hamel, "A Global Ionosphere Scintillation Propagation Model for Equatorial Regions", Journal of Space Weather Space Climate, 1, (2011), doi: 10.1051/swsc/2011004

  18. Star Formation and Molecular Clouds at High Galactic Latitude

    CERN Document Server

    McGehee, Peregrine M


    In this chapter we review the young stars and molecular clouds found at high Galactic latitudes $(|b| \\ge 30^\\circ)$. These are mostly associated with two large-scale structures on the sky, the Gould Belt and the Taurus star formation region, and a handful of molecular clouds including MBM 12 and MBM 20 which, as a population, consist of the nearest star formation sites to our Sun. There are also a few young stars that are found in apparent isolation far from any molecular cloud. The high latitude clouds are primarily translucent molecular clouds and diffuse Galactic cirrus with the majority of them seen at high latitude simply due to their proximity to the Sun. The rare exceptions are those, like the Draco and other intermediate or high velocity clouds, found significantly above or below the Galactic plane. We review the processes that result in star formation within these low density and extraplanar environments as well as the mechanisms for production of isolated T Tauri stars. We present and discuss the k...

  19. Holocene temperature evolution in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes - Model-data comparisons (United States)

    Zhang, Yurui; Renssen, Hans; Seppä, Heikki; Valdes, Paul J.


    Heterogeneous Holocene climate evolutions in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes are primarily determined by orbital-scale insolation variations and melting ice sheets. Previous inter-model comparisons have revealed that multi-simulation consistencies vary spatially. We, therefore, compared multiple model results with proxy-based reconstructions in Fennoscandia, Greenland, north Canada, Alaska and Siberia. Our model-data comparisons reveal that data and models generally agree in Fennoscandia, Greenland and Canada, with the early-Holocene warming and subsequent gradual decrease to 0 ka BP (hereinafter referred as ka). In Fennoscandia, simulations and pollen data suggest a 2 °C warming by 8 ka, but this is less expressed in chironomid data. In Canada, a strong early-Holocene warming is suggested by both the simulations and pollen results. In Greenland, the magnitude of early-Holocene warming ranges from 6 °C in simulations to 8 °C in δ18O-based temperatures. Simulated and reconstructed temperatures are mismatched in Alaska. Pollen data suggest strong early-Holocene warming, while the simulations indicate constant Holocene cooling, and chironomid data show a stable trend. Meanwhile, a high frequency of Alaskan peatland initiation before 9 ka can reflect a either high temperature, high soil moisture or large seasonality. In high-latitude Siberia, although simulations and proxy data depict high Holocene temperatures, these signals are noisy owing to a large spread in the simulations and between pollen and chironomid results. On the whole, the Holocene climate evolutions in most regions (Fennoscandia, Greenland and Canada) are well established and understood, but important questions regarding the Holocene temperature trend and mechanisms remain for Alaska and Siberia.

  20. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad


    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  1. Multi-year lags between forest browning and soil respiration at high northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bond-Lamberty

    Full Text Available High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (R(S, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere, and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in R(S observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI, climate, and other variables are coupled to annual R(S based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ∼62% of observed R(S variability. We show that early-summer NDVI from previous years is generally the best single predictor of R(S, and is better than current-year temperature or moisture. This implies significant temporal lags between these variables, with multi-year carbon pools exerting large-scale effects. Areas of decreasing R(S are spatially correlated with browning boreal forests and warmer temperatures, particularly in western North America. We suggest that total circumpolar R(S may have slowed by ∼5% over the last decade, depressed by forest stress and mortality, which in turn decrease R(S. Arctic tundra may exhibit a significantly different response, but few data are available with which to test this. Combining large-scale remote observations and small-scale field measurements, as done here, has the potential to allow inferences about the temporal and spatial complexity of the large-scale response of northern ecosystems to changing climate.

  2. North Korean Relationships (United States)


    North Korea’s economy and trade, North Korea’s possible response to sanctions and outside pressures of denuclearization , The extent of North...of denuclearization . The actions of North Korea are highly monitored and any predictions would take a much more in depth look at what North Korea

  3. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E, September 1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schneider, B. [Institut fuer Ostseeforschung, Rostock-Warnemuende (Germany); Mintrop, L. [Institut fuer Meereskunde, Kiel (Germany); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)


    The North Atlantic Ocean is characterized by an intense meridional circulation cell carrying near-surface waters of tropical and subtropical origin northward and deep waters of arctic and subarctic origin southward. The related {open_quotes}overturning{close_quotes} is driven by the sinking of water masses at high latitudes. The overturning rate and thus the intensity of the meridional transports of mass, heat, and salt, is an important control parameter for the modeling of the ocean`s role in climate. The Research Vessel (R/V) Meteor Cruise 18/1 was one in a series of cruises in the North Atlantic that started in March 1991 and continued until 1995. This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured during the RIV Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (Section A1E). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the German North Atlantic Overturning Rate Determination expedition, the cruise began in Reykjavik, Iceland, on September 2, 1991, and ended after 24 days at sea in Hamburg, Germany, on September 25, 1991. WOCE Zonal Section AlE began at 60{degrees}N and 42{degrees}30{prime} W (southeast of Greenland) and continued southeast with a closely spaced series of hydrocasts to 52{degrees}20{prime} N and 14{degrees}15{prime} W (Porcupine Shelves). Measurements made along WOCE Section AlE included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and underway pCO{sub 2}. A total of 61 CTD casts were made, including 59 bottle casts and 2 calibration stations.

  4. Mudstone sedimentation at high latitudes: Ice as a transport medium for mud and supplier of nutrients (United States)

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.


    Controls on mudstone deposition at high latitudes are poorly known relative to low latitudes. In recent sediments deposited in these environments, ice significantly influences sediment transport and primary productivity. The products of ice transport are relatively well known in glacimarine settings, but are less well known from below melting sea ice. This latter setting is significant as today it is associated with high primary organic productivity. The aim of this study is to assess how sea ice might have controlled lithofacies variability and organic-matter distribution and preservation in an ancient marine, siliciclastic mudstone-dominated succession deposited at high latitudes. Combined sedimentary logging, optical and electron optical (back-scatte red electron imagery), geochemical, and isotopic methods were used to determine sample variability in forty-five samples collected from the Lower Cretaceous succession in the Mikkelsen Bay State #1 borehole (North Slope, Alaska). The succession overall fines upward and contains muddy sandstones and sand- and silt-bearing, clay-rich mudstones towards its base in contrast to clay-rich and clay-dominated mudstones towards its top. Some of the mudstone units exhibit thin (pelleted. These mudstones are unusual in that they contain minor but very striking outsize grains, composed of subrounded to rounded sand and granule-size material. In addition, they are good petroleum source rocks, with between 2.8 and 5.9 wt % total organic carbon, of predominantly Type II kerogen. The organic matter has an isotopic signature ranging from -25.4??? ??13C to -28.1??? ??13C. Thin tuffs (pelleted the sediment. Bioturbation, which varies through the succession, indicates that sedimentation probably occurred beneath a predominantly oxic or dysoxic water column. In this setting productivity was fueled by nutrients released from melting sea ice in the marginal ice zone. The good petroleum source potential of these mudstones is attributed to

  5. Investigation of the outer and inner low-latitude boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Bauer

    Full Text Available We analyze 22 AMPTE/IRM crossings of the day-side low-latitude boundary layer for which a dense outer part can be distinguished from a dilute inner part. Whereas the plasma in the outer boundary layer (OBL is dominated by solar wind particles, the partial densities of solar wind and magnetospheric particles are comparable in the inner boundary layer (IBL. For 11 events we find a reasonable agreement between observed plasma flows and those predicted by the tangential stress balance of an open magnetopause. Thus, we conclude that, at least in these cases, the OBL is formed by a local magnetic reconnection. The disagreement with the tangential stress balance in the other 11 cases might be due to reconnection being time-dependent and patchy. The north-south component of the proton bulk velocity in the boundary layer is, on average, directed toward high latitudes for both low and high magnetic shear across the magnetopause. This argues clearly against the possibility that the dayside low-latitude boundary layer is populated with solar wind plasma primarily from the cusps. "Warm", counterstreaming electrons that originate primarily from the magnetosheath and have a field-aligned temperature that is higher than the electron temperature in the magnetosheath by a factor of 1–5, are a characteristic feature of the IBL. Profiles of the proton bulk velocity and the density of hot ring current electrons provide evidence that the IBL is on closed field lines. Part of the IBL may be on newly opened field lines. Using the average spectra of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the boundary layer, we estimate the diffusion caused by lower hybrid drift instability, gyroresonant pitch angle scattering, or kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence. We find that cross-field diffusion cannot transport solar wind plasma into the OBL or IBL at a rate that would account for the thickness ( ~ 1000 km of these sublayers. On the duskside, the dawn-dusk component of the proton

  6. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus (United States)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas


    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  7. Ultraviolet light exposure influences skin cancer in association with latitude. (United States)

    Rivas, Miguel; Araya, María C; Caba, Fresia; Rojas, Elisa; Calaf, Gloria M


    The increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet (UV) light that reaches the earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. It has been reported that excessive levels of UVA and UVB light have multiple effects, which can be harmful to humans. Experimental measurements were obtained using wide-band solar light YES biometers from 2006 to 2009 in Arica, Chile and from 2003 to 2006 in Valdivia, Chile, both instruments having been calibrated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and integrated into the Chilean Meteorological Organization network. To explain the possible effect of radiation on skin cancer, revised pathological reports in Arica and Valdivia were analyzed. In Arica, data on men and women were collected between 1997 and 1998-2002, and in Valdivia, between 1997-2000 and 2001-2007. In this study, comparative values of ultraviolet index (UVI) from the above datasets, were analyzed. Arica is a city located in the subtropical zone of northern Chile, 25 meters above sea level, with a latitude of 18˚49'S and a longitude of 70˚19'W. It has a microclimate characterized by stable meteorological conditions throughout the year, including low precipitation (<5 mm per decade), predictable winds, a high percentage of clear sky days and high ground reflectivity due to the presence of light sand. Due to its location near sea level, the population performs a great number of outdoor activities. Valdivia is a city located in the southern part of Chile, 19 meters above sea level with a latitude of 39˚38'S and a longitude of 73˚5'W. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between latitude and the risk of skin cancer in two cities with different latitudes. The incidence of skin cancer per 100,000 persons significantly (P<0.05) increased in both genders between the periods 1997-2000 and 2001-2007 in Arica. However, it decreased in men between the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2002 in Valdivia. The results

  8. Extreme air-sea surface turbulent fluxes in mid latitudes - estimation, origins and mechanisms (United States)

    Gulev, Sergey; Natalia, Tilinina


    Extreme turbulent heat fluxes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific mid latitudes were estimated from the modern era and first generation reanalyses (NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim, MERRA NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25) for the period from 1979 onwards. We used direct surface turbulent flux output as well as reanalysis state variables from which fluxes have been computed using COARE-3 bulk algorithm. For estimation of extreme flux values we analyzed surface flux probability density distribution which was approximated by Modified Fisher-Tippett distribution. In all reanalyses extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W/m2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W/m2 for higher percentiles in the western boundary current extension (WBCE) regions. Different reanalyses show significantly different shape of MFT distribution, implying considerable differences in the estimates of extreme fluxes. The highest extreme turbulent latent heat fluxes are diagnosed in NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses with the smallest being in MERRA. These differences may not necessarily reflect the differences in mean values. Analysis shows that differences in statistical properties of the state variables are the major source of differences in the shape of PDF of fluxes and in the estimates of extreme fluxes while the contribution of computational schemes used in different reanalyses is minor. The strongest differences in the characteristics of probability distributions of surface fluxes and extreme surface flux values between different reanalyses are found in the WBCE extension regions and high latitudes. In the next instance we analyzed the mechanisms responsible for forming surface turbulent fluxes and their potential role in changes of midlatitudinal heat balance. Midlatitudinal cyclones were considered as the major mechanism responsible for extreme turbulent fluxes which are typically occur during the cold air outbreaks in the rear parts of cyclones when atmospheric conditions

  9. Water transports across 6 degrees N in Bay of Bengal on mean yearly and seasonal bases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Mean vertical profiles of temperature and salinity are computed for each cell for North East Monsoon, South West Monsoon and full year. These mean profile for seven zones are used to compute mean geostrophic currents across 6 degrees N section...

  10. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree (United States)

    Duplass, James A.


    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  11. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García


    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  12. Research Degrees as Professional Education? (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria


    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  13. Alba is first heavy North Sea crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The development of the Alba oil field will constitute two North Sea firsts: the first Eocene reservoir developed, and the first development to handle heavy crude. The field was discovered in Block 16/26 of the North Sea's U.K. sector in 1984. The Alba field is in the heart of the North Sea, about midway between the northern fields of the East Shetlands basin and the southern Fulmar and Argyll fields. About 250 million bbl of the estimated 1 billion bbl reservoir of 20{degrees} gravity crude is believed recoverable.

  14. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  15. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America. (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L


    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  16. Magnetospheric effects in atmospheric electricity at high latitudes (United States)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.; Raspopov, O. M.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Struev, A. G.


    Measurements of the vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) made at auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8) and polar cap station Vostok, Antarctica (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3) in 2001-2002 have been analyzed. The measurements were made by a high-latitude computer-aided complex installed at Apatity in 2001. It consists of three spatially placed microbarographs for measurements of atmospheric waves, a device for air conductivity measurement and a device for measurement of vertical component of the atmospheric electric field. The computer-aided system permits to get information with a frequency of five times per second. The ground level atmospheric electric field was found to have systematic local diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal variations of atmospheric potential gradient were found to have a departure from the Carnegie curve. A distinct difference in the diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field has been observed also between disturbed (Kp>30) and extremely quiet (Kplatitude electric field variations appear to be the result of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Besides, we have found the similarity between the diurnal course of the atmospheric electric field under the quiet geomagnetic conditions and the diurnal variation of galactic cosmic rays. These results have been explained in terms of calculated effective Bz component of the interpalnetary magnetic field arising due to variation of the geomagnetic dipole axis inclination during the Earth's rotation. The results of analysis of the influence of extreme weather conditions (rain, snow, snowstorm, stormclouds, thunderstorms, lightning) on atmospheric electricity (electric field and conductivity) are also discussed. This work was supported by EC (grant INTAS 97-31008) and RFBR (grant 01-05-64850).

  17. Gamma-ray Source Stacking Analysis at Low Galactic Latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillis, Analia N.; /NASA, Goddard; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL; Torres, Diego F.; /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC


    We studied the problematic of uncertainties in the diffuse gamma radiation apparent in stacking analysis of EGRET data at low Galactic latitudes. Subsequently, we co-added maps of counts, exposure and diffuse background, and residuals, in varying numbers for different sub-categories of putatively and known source populations (like PSRs). Finally we tested for gamma-ray excess emission in those maps and attempt to quantify the systematic biases in such approach. Such kind of an analysis will help the classification processes of sources and source populations in the GLAST era.

  18. Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkila, W J


    The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.

  19. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)


    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  20. Latitude distribution of nonradial pulsations in rapidly rotating B stars (United States)

    Jankov, S.; Mathias, P.; Domiciano de Souza, A., Jr.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Aerts, C.


    We present a method for the analysis of latitude distribution associated with temperature and/or velocity perturbations of the stellar surface due to non-radial pulsation (NRP) modes in rapidly rotating B stars. The technique is applied together with Fourier Doppler Imaging (FDI) to high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of ɛ Per. The main advantage of this approach is that it decomposed complex multi-periodic line profile variations into single components, allowing the detailed analysis of each mode seperately. We study the 10.6-d-1 frequency that is particularly important for modal analysis of non-radial pulsations in the star.

  1. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  2. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly


    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  3. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly


    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  4. Consequences of declining snow accumulation for water balance of mid-latitude dry regions (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.


    Widespread documentation of positive winter temperature anomalies, declining snowpack and earlier snow melt in the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the consequences for regional water resources as well as wildfire. A topic that has not been addressed with respect to declining snowpack is effects on ecosystem water balance. Changes in water balance dynamics will be particularly pronounced at low elevations of mid-latitude dry regions because these areas will be the first to be affected by declining snow as a result of rising temperatures. As a model system, we used simulation experiments to investigate big sagebrush ecosystems that dominate a large fraction of the semiarid western United States. Our results suggest that effects on future ecosystem water balance will increase along a climatic gradient from dry, warm and snow-poor to wet, cold and snow-rich. Beyond a threshold within this climatic gradient, predicted consequences for vegetation switched from no change to increasing transpiration. Responses were sensitive to uncertainties in climatic prediction; particularly, a shift of precipitation to the colder season could reduce impacts of a warmer and snow-poorer future, depending on the degree to which ecosystem phenology tracks precipitation changes. Our results suggest that big sagebrush and other similar semiarid ecosystems could decrease in viability or disappear in dry to medium areas and likely increase only in the snow-richest areas, i.e. higher elevations and higher latitudes. Unlike cold locations at high elevations or in the arctic, ecosystems at low elevations respond in a different and complex way to future conditions because of opposing effects of increasing water-limitation and a longer snow-free season. Outcomes of such nonlinear interactions for future ecosystems will likely include changes in plant composition and productivity, dynamics of water balance, and availability of water resources.

  5. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees (United States)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  6. Killing horizons kill horizon degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, L


    Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  7. Day-to-day variability of geomagnetic hourly amplitudes at low latitudes (United States)

    Okeke, F. N.; Agodi Onwumechili, C.; Rabiu, Babatunde A.


    A study of the variability of the amplitude of Sq at a fixed hour from one day to the next at nine stations from the dip equator to about 22° north of it has produced interesting results. The amplitude and sign of the variability change virtually randomly, making the mean practically zero. The variability occurs at all hours of the day. Its magnitudes in the components D, H and Z have the same diurnal variation, which peaks in the noon period like Sq(H) in low latitudes, and a weak seasonal variation that peaks at the June solstice (local summer). It is demonstrated that changes in the current intensities of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the worldwide part of the Sq (WSq) current layers have contrasting phases and can sometimes be in antiphase. Indeed, the changes are mostly independent. Inclusion of the magnetic element D revealed that the EEJ current system has not only an east-west but also a north-south component. The study shows that the meridional component of the EEJ current intensity evidenced at the Kodaikanal and Annamalainagar stations is an integral part of the zonal component at Trivandrum. This confirms the results of Rastogi (1996) and validates those of Onwumechili (1997). The results suggest that ionospheric conductivity mainly controls the magnitude, while the electric field and ultimately winds mainly control the phase and randomness of the day-to-day variability of the hourly amplitudes of Sq. The random component is attributed to local and/or regional atmospheric winds, probably of gravity wave origin.

  8. GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015 (United States)

    Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Weygand, J. M.; Viljanen, A.; Connors, M.; Danskin, D. W.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Jacobsen, K. S.; Andalsvik, Y. L.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Durgonics, T.; Oksavik, K.; Zhang, Y.; Spanswick, E.; Aquino, M.; Sreeja, V.


    The geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015 was caused by the impacts of a coronal mass ejection and a high-speed plasma stream from a coronal hole. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers, and magnetometers. The phase scintillation index is computed for signals sampled at a rate of up to 100 Hz by specialized GPS scintillation receivers supplemented by the phase scintillation proxy index obtained from geodetic-quality GPS data sampled at 1 Hz. In the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, it is shown that GPS phase scintillation is primarily enhanced in the cusp, the tongue of ionization that is broken into patches drawn into the polar cap from the dayside storm-enhanced plasma density, and in the auroral oval. In this paper we examine the relation between the scintillation and auroral electrojet currents observed by arrays of ground-based magnetometers as well as energetic particle precipitation observed by the DMSP satellites. Equivalent ionospheric currents are obtained from ground magnetometer data using the spherical elementary currents systems technique that has been applied over the ground magnetometer networks in North America and North Europe. The GPS phase scintillation is mapped to the poleward side of strong westward electrojet and to the edge of the eastward electrojet region. Also, the scintillation was generally collocated with fluxes of energetic electron precipitation observed by DMSP satellites with the exception of a period of pulsating aurora when only very weak currents were observed.

  9. Using Carbon Isotopes in Cenozoic Soil Carbonates to Quantify Primary Productivity from Mid-Latitude Regions (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Kramer, S. H.; Ibarra, D. E.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    The carbon isotope composition of pedogenic carbonates (δ13Ccarb) from paleosols has been extensively used as a proxy to estimate atmospheric pCO2 over the Phanerozoic. However, a number of other factors - including the concentration of plant-respired CO2 and the isotopic composition of both atmospheric and plant-respired carbon - influence the δ13C of pedogenic carbonates. For example, δ13Ccarb records from the mid-latitudes in central Asia and western North America show increasing trends in δ13Ccarb despite decreasing pCO2 during the late Cenozoic, which suggests that other factors play an important role in determining the isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates. Instead, we suggest that these records are primarily recording changes in primary productivity rather than changes in atmospheric pCO2 and therefore propose a novel use of paleosol carbonate records to understand paleo-ecosystem dynamics. Here, we compile existing paleosol carbonate records, and present three new records from Wyoming, to estimate soil respiration and primary productivity in western North America during the Paleogene and early Neogene. We observe both an overall increase in δ13Ccarb after the early Eocene, and spatially heterogeneous δ13Ccarb values across western US basins. We combine this δ13Ccarb data with compilations of atmospheric pCO2 to estimate soil respiration and plant productivity. The long-term increase in δ13Ccarb indicates a decrease in plant productivity as conditions became more arid across much of the western US, congruent with both records of regional uplift and of global cooling. Furthermore, significant spatial heterogeneity in δ13Ccarb indicates that regional factors, such as the presence of paleolakes and/or local paleotopography may have provided a second-order control on local and regional productivity. Thus, our results provide a first-order estimate linking changes in primary productivity with regional tectonics and global climatic change.

  10. Millennial-scale interhemispheric asymmetry of low-latitude precipitation: Speleothem evidence and possible high-latitude forcing (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.; Cheng, Hai; Ito, Emi

    During the last glacial period, global climate was characterized by numerous millennial-scale abrupt changes. Mechanisms of these events, however, are not yet resolved. Here, we use phasing information between climate records from different localities to distinguish between mechanisms. We establish a 90,000 year-long oxygen isotopic record of cave calcite, with our previously reported and newly obtained data from Caverna Botuverá, southern Brazil. The record was precisely dated with uranium-series methods. Using independent absolute-dated chronologies, we compare the southern Brazil record with contemporaneous oxygen isotopic records of cave calcite from eastern China and the record of speleothem growth periods from northeastern Brazil. Our record anti-correlates remarkably with the eastern China profile, while it correlates positively with the northeastern Brazil one, on both millennial and orbital scales. Thus, rainfall patterns are antiphased between southern Brazil and eastern China but in-phase between the two Brazilian regions. The in-phase Brazilian relationship argues against a Super El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Super-ENSO) mechanism as modern rainfall at these sites is out of phase during ENSO years. Rather, the relationship among the three records is likely related to displacement in the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry in Hadley circulation, which leads to an interhemispheric anti-phasing of rainfall between the southern and northern low latitudes. The abrupt climate events during the last glacial-interglacial cycle are probably triggered by meridional overturning circulation changes initiated in the high latitudes and then amplified through air-sea dynamics, resulting in the observed pattern of low-latitude precipitation.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Atmosphere-Ocean-Sea Ice Interaction During Interannual Cycle in High Northern Latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying; LIU Hailong; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Rucong; YU Yongqiang


    The interannual atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interaction (AOSI) in high northern latitudes is studied with a global atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled model system, in which the model components of atmosphere and land surface are from China National Climate Center and that of ocean and sea ice are from LASG,Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A daily flux anomaly correction scheme is employed to couple the atmosphere model and the ocean model with the effect of inhomogenity of sea ice in high latitudes is considered. The coupled model system has been run for 50 yr and the results of the last 30 years are analyzed. After the sea level pressure (SLP), surface air temperature (SAT), sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice concentration (SIC), and sea surface sensible heat flux (SHF) are filtered with adigital filter firstly, their normalized anomalies are used to perform the decomposition of combined complex empirical orthogonal function (CCEOF) and then they are reconstructed with the leading mode. The atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interactions in high northern latitudes during a periodical cycle (approximately4 yr) are analyzed. It is shown that: (1) When the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is in its positive phase, the southerly anomaly appears in the Greenland Sea, SAT increases, the sea loses less SHF, SST increases and SIC decreases accordingly; when the NAO is in its negative phase, the northerly anomaly appears in the Greenland Sea, SAT decreases, the sea loses more SHF, SST decreases and SIC increases accordingly. There are similar features in the Barents Sea, but the phase of evolution in the Barents Sea is different from that in the Greenland Sea. (2) For an average of multi-years, there is a cold center in the inner part of the Arctic Ocean near the North Pole. When there is an anomaly of low pressure, which is closer to the Pacific Ocean, in the inner part of the Arctic Ocean, anomalies of warm advection appear in the region near the

  12. Response of thermosphere density to high-latitude forcing (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Kosch, M. J.; Vickers, H.; Sutton, E. K.; Ogawa, Y.


    Solar wind-magnetospheric disturbances cause enhancements in the energy input to the high-latitude upper atmosphere through particle precipitation and Joule heating. As the upper atmosphere is heated and expanded during geomagnetically disturbed periods, the neutral density in the thermosphere increases at a fixed altitude. Conversely, the thermosphere contracts during the recovery phase of the disturbance, resulting in a decrease of the density. The main objectives of this study are (1) to determine the morphology of the global thermospheric density response to high-latitude forcing, and (2) to determine the recovery speed of the thermosphere density after geomagnetic disturbances. For (1), we use thermospheric density data measured by the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite during 2000-2010. It is demonstrated that the density enhancement during disturbed periods occurs first in the dayside cusp region, and the density at other regions slowly follows it. The reverse process is observed when geomagnetic activity ceases; the density enhancement in the cusp region fades away first, then the global density slowly goes back to the quiet level. For (2), we analyze EISCAT Svalbard radar and Tromso UHF radar data to estimate thermospheric densities during the recovery phase of geomagnetic disturbances. We attempt to determine the time constant for the density recovery both inside and outside the cusp region.

  13. Solar Transients disturbing the Terrestrial Magnetic Environment at Higher Latitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Parvaiz A; Troshichev, O A; Waheed, Malik A; M., Aslam A; Gwal, A K


    Geomagnetic field variations during five major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 23 have been investigated in the present study. The SEP events of 01 oct 2001, 04 Nov 2001, 21 Apr 2002 and 14 May 2005 have been selected to study the geomagnetic field variations at two high-latitude stations, Thule and Resolute Bay of the northern polar cap. We have used the GOES protn flux in seven different energy channels. All the proton events were associated with geoeffective or Earth directed CMEs that caused intense geomagnetic storms in response to geospace. We have taken high-latitude indices, AE and PC, under consideration and found fairly good correlation of thees with the ground magnetic field records during the five proton events. The departure of H component during the events were calculated from the quietest day of the month for each event. The correspondence of spectral index, inferred from event integrated spectra, with ground magnetic signatures along with Dst and PC indices have been broug...

  14. Statistical characteristics of low-latitude ionospheric scintillation over China (United States)

    Liu, Kangkang; Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Hu, Lianhuan; Li, Hongke


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) L-band ionospheric scintillation produced by electron density irregularities in the ionospheric E- and F-regions, is mainly a low- and high-latitude phenomenon. In this study, the statistical behavior of GPS ionospheric scintillation over a Chinese low-latitude station Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E; dip lat: 12.8°N) has been investigated. A detailed study on the seasonal and solar activity dependence of scintillation occurrence during July 2004-December 2012 show that the amplitude scintillation pattern, with a maximum occurrence during equinox of solar maximum, agrees with plasma bubble observations by in situ satellites in this longitude. A few daytime periodic scintillation events are found during June solstice months of solar minimum. Interestingly, a significant equinoctial asymmetry of scintillation onset time is found in 2011-2012. The initiation of scintillation during September-October is on average earlier than that of March-April about 25 min. Meanwhile, the zonal drifts of irregularities estimated using two spatially separated GPS receivers over Sanya show a similar behavior during the two equinoxes, slowly decreasing from 150 m/s at post-sunset to 50 m/s near midnight. The possible mechanisms responsible for the occurrence characteristics of GPS scintillation over Sanya, and relevant aspects of the zonal drifts of the irregularities are discussed.

  15. Postmidnight ionospheric troughs in summer at high latitudes (United States)

    Voiculescu, M.; Nygrén, T.; Aikio, A. T.; Vanhamäki, H.; Pierrard, V.


    In this article we identify possible mechanisms for the formation of postmidnight ionospheric troughs during summer, in sunlit plasma. Four events were identified in measurements of European Incoherent Scatter and ESR radars during CP3 experiments, when the ionosphere was scanned in a meridional plan. The spatial and temporal variation of plasma density, ion, and electron temperatures were analyzed for each of the four events. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network plasma velocity measurements were added, when these were available. For all high-latitude troughs the ion temperatures are high at density minima (within the trough), at places where the convection plasma velocity is eastward and high. There is no significant change in electron temperature inside the trough, regardless of its temporal evolution. We find that troughs in sunlit plasma form in two steps: the trough starts to form when energetic electron precipitation leads to faster recombination in the F region, and it deepens when entering a region with high eastward flow, producing frictional heating and further depleting the plasma. The high-latitude plasma convection plays an important role in formation and evolution of troughs in the postmidnight sector in sunlit plasma. During one event a second trough is identified at midlatitudes, with different characteristics, which is most likely produced by a rapid subauroral ion drift in the premidnight sector.

  16. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock


    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  17. Geomagnetic response to IMF and solar wind over different latitudes (United States)

    Aslam, A. M.; Tripathi, Sharad Chandra; Mansoori, Azad Ahmad; Waheed, Malik Abdul


    In this paper a study on the response of geomagnetic field characteristics to the solar wind variation during three solar cycles (SC 21, SC 22, SC 23) have been conducted in a long term scale. The difference in the response of two different latitudinal characteristic indices has been investigated. For the purpose we have considered the high latitude index AE and the mid-latitude aa index and both gives the knowledge about the perturbations in the geomagnetic field conditions. Eventually we can infer the idea about the ionospheric current system changes in response to the solar wind conditions. The variation found in the AE and aa indices have been found to follow a 11 year cycle as similar to the sunspot variation. Also the correlation between the annual means of the solar wind parameters velocity V, magnetic filed B and the composite parameters BV and BV ^{2 } have been calculated . A difference was found between the correlations obtained for the AE and aa indices. We could also see that the difference in correlation follows a cyclic pattern i.e. the large difference is found during the solar maxima while a small difference is observed during the minima.

  18. Magnetic field draping at the low-latitude magnetopause (United States)

    Richard, R. L.; Lotko, W.


    Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the structure of the low-latitude magnetopause for interplanetary magnetic field conditions with a dominant southward component. The structure is self-consistently calculated as an initial-value problem in which the system is allowed to evolve into a quasi-steady state. All components of the 3D velocity and magnetic field as well as compressibility, resistivity, and viscosity are included in the 2D calculation. The simulation model shows that magnetic field draping can occur at the magnetopause boundary when magnetic merging takes place in the presence of a tangential shear flow. For 'normal' (positive Bx) draping, the higher-latitude portion of the field lines are curved toward the sun on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause and away from the sun on the magnetosheath side. The thickness of the normal draping structure scales with the viscosity. The field-aligned current system that accompanies normal magnetic draping is consistent with the sense of the region 1 currents that flow into the dayside ionosphere.

  19. Application of Astronomic Time-latitude Residuals in Earthquake Prediction (United States)

    Yanben, Han; Lihua, Ma; Hui, Hu; Rui, Wang; Youjin, Su


    After the earthquake (Ms = 6.1) occurred in Luquan county of Yunnan province on April 18, 1985, the relationship between major earthquakes and astronomical time-latitude residuals (ATLR) of a photoelectric astrolabe in Yunnan Observatory was analyzed. ATLR are the rest after deducting the effects of Earth’s whole motion from the observations of time and latitude. It was found that there appeared the anomalies of the ATLR before earthquakes which happened in and around Yunnan, a seismic active region. The reason of the anomalies is possibly from change of the plumb line due to the motion of the groundmass before earthquakes. Afterwards, using studies of the anomalous characters and laws of ATLR, we tried to provide the warning information prior to the occurrence of a few major earthquakes in the region. The significant synchronous anomalies of ATLR of the observatory appeared before the earthquake of magnitude 6.2 in Dayao county of Yunnan province, on July 21, 2003. It has been again verified that the anomalies possibly provide the prediction information for strong earthquakes around the observatory.

  20. Silicon-carbon interactions in high latitude watersheds (United States)

    Humborg, C.; Morth, C.; Struyf, E.; Conley, D. J.


    Changes in climate and hydrology in high latitude regions could liberate large amounts of previously inactive organic carbon (OC) during a prolonging thawing period, and new studies have shown that a great deal of this organic C is remineralized as CO2 during its transport to the sea. However, OC (with its origin in atmospheric carbon) and dissolved silicate (DSi) concentrations in taiga and tundra rivers are intimately linked, and higher concentrations of weathering products are found in taiga and tundra rivers with a higher percentage of peat in their watersheds. It appears that the weathering regime of taiga and tundra watersheds is tightly linked to carbon-silicon interactions, in which carbon acts both as a weathering agent (soil CO2 from degradation of OC) and as a weathering product (DSi and bicarbonate). Whereas respiration of OC can be regarded as a positive feedback to global warming, weathering can be regarded as a negative feedback to global warming since atmospheric CO2 is converted to bicarbonate and thereby locked into the aquatic phase for geological time scales. Thus, bicarbonate export may compensate for significant amounts of exported OC thereby reducing the positive feedback to atmospheric CO2. However, the silicon-carbon interactions are not straight forward as suggested by classical inverse modelling,using the stochiometry of rock forming minerals as base, since high latitude wetlands contain a massive stock of amorphous silica (diatoms and phytoliths) buffering the actual DSi export, suggesting that the Si cycle is to a large extent biologically controlled.

  1. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Keane, E. F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Miller, R.; Andreoni, I.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bernard, S. R.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Farnes, J. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M.; Kramer, M.; Littlefair, S. P.; Macquart, J. P.; Mickaliger, M.; Possenti, A.; Pritchard, T.; Ravi, V.; Rest, A.; Rowlinson, A.; Sawangwit, U.; Stappers, B.; Sullivan, M.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; ANTARES Collaboration; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. De Los; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schüssler, F.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Walt, D. J. Van Der; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.


    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm-3, a pulse duration of 2.8^{+1.2}_{-0.5} ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66°, 5.28° and 25° away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found to be 43 ± 5 per cent linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) in the range -9 magnetic field reversals along the line of sight, a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way, or some combination of these effects. A lower Galactic DM contribution might explain why this burst was detectable whereas previous searches at low latitude have had lower detection rates than those out of the plane.

  2. A filament of energetic particles near the high-latitude dawn magnetopause (United States)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Christon, S. P.; Jacquey, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.


    The Geotail satelite detected a filament of tailward-streaming energetic particles spatially separated from the boundary layer of energetic particles at the high-latitude dawn magnetopause at a downstream distance of approximately 80 R(sub E) on October 27, 1992. During this event, the composition and charge states of energetic ions at energies above approximately 10 keV show significant intermix of ions from solar wind and ionospheric sources. Detailed analysis leads to the deduction that the filament was moving southward towards the neutral sheet at an average speed of approximately 80 km/s, implying an average duskward electric field of approximately 1 mV/m. Its north-south dimension was approximately 1 R(sub E) and it was associated with an earthward directed field-aligned current of approximately 5 mA/m. The filament was separated from the energetic particle boundary layer straddling the magnetopause by approximately 0.8 R(sub E) and was inferred to be detached from the boundary layer at downstream distance beyond approximately 70 R(sub E) in the distant tail.

  3. Ecological legacies of Indigenous fire management in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests, Canada (United States)

    Hoffman, K.; Lertzman, K. P.; Starzomski, B. M.


    Anthropogenic burning is considered to have little impact on coastal temperate rainforest fire regimes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America, yet few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in these forests. We use a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct the ecological impact, scale, and legacies of historic fire regime variability in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests located in British Columbia, Canada. We map seven centuries of fire activity with fire scars and records of stand establishment, and examine patterns in the distribution and composition of vegetation to assess whether fire was historically used as a tool for resource management. We conduct a paired study of 20 former Indigenous habitation and control sites across a 100 km2 island group to relate historic fire activity with long-term patterns of human land use and contemporary lightning strike densities. Fires were significantly associated with the locations of former Indigenous habitation sites, low and mixed in severity, and likely intentionally used to influence the composition and structure of vegetation, thus increasing the productivity of culturally important plants such as western redcedar, berry-producing shrubs, and bracken fern. Centuries of repeated anthropogenic burning have resulted in a mosaic of vegetation types in different stages of succession. These data are directly relevant to the management of contemporary forests as they do not support the widespread contention that old growth coastal temperate rainforests in this region are pristine landscapes where fire is rare, but more likely the result of long-term human land use practices.

  4. High latitude temperature evolution across the Last Interglacial: a model-data comparison (United States)

    Capron, Emilie; Stone, Emma; Govin, Aline; Loutre, Marie-France; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mulitza, Stefan; Otto-Bliesner, Betty; Sime, Louise; Waelbroeck, Claire; Wolff, Eric W.


    The Last Interglacial (LIG, 129-116 thousand of years, ka) represents an interesting test bed for climate model feedbacks for warmer-than-present high latitudes. However, mainly because synchronising different paleoclimatic archives from different parts of the world is not trivial, a global picture of LIG temperature changes is difficult to obtain. In the framework of the UK iGlass consortium and the European Past4Future project, we have selected 49 polar ice core and sub-polar marine sediment records and developed a strategy to synchronise them onto the recent AICC2012 ice core chronology. This new synthesis enables us to describe the spatial and temporal climatic patterns over polar ice sheets (surface air temperature) and around the ice margins (sea surface temperatures) at a pluri-centennial to millennial-scale. Major features highlighted are (i) non synchronous maximum temperature change between the two hemispheres with the Southern Ocean and Antarctica records showing an early warming compared to North Atlantic records and (ii) Southern hemisphere records exhibiting warm conditions for a longer time period compared to records from the Northern Hemisphere and smaller temperature amplitude changes. Our compiled records are compared with recent snapshot and transient model experiments performed with three state of the art General Circulation Models (HADCM3, CCSM3, FAMOUS) and an Earth Model of Intermediary Complexity (LOVECLIM). Such an exercise enables us to investigate the climate feedbacks which causes the most apparent model-data differences.

  5. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.


    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Christopher C.


    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field--the secular variation--provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km yr-1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating phase may be part of a longer-term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastward and westward movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional-wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  7. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Livermore, Philip; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Chris


    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field—the secular variation—provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense...... field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core...... that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000–2016 to about 40 km yr−1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating...

  8. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef MacLeod


    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  9. Ecological context for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Taylor, Audrey; Weekes, Anne


    The North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NPLCC) encompasses the temperate coastal rainforest and extends from the coastal mountains to the near-shore from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska to Bodega Bay, California. The area spans multiple agency, state, and international boundaries over more than 22 degrees of latitude, including a wide range of type and intensity of human land-use activities. Development of NPLCC goals and administrative structures will be facilitated by a shared ecological context for discussing this expansive, diverse, and complex landscape. In support of activities to organize the NPLCC, we provided conceptual models to describe the ecological structure of the NPLCC. Recognizing that the boundaries of LCCs were primarily based on Level 2 of the hierarchical ecoregional classification of Omernik (Comission for Environmental Cooperation 1997), we used nested Level 3 ecoregions to define subregions within the NPLCC. Rather than develop conceptual models for all nine constituent subregions, we opted to consider five groups: Puget-Georgia Basin Lowland and Willamette Valley, Alaska-British Columbia Coast, Alaska-British Columbia Mountains, Klamath-Olympic-Cascade Mountains, and Washington-Oregon-Northern California Coast. At the conclusion of the project, we felt that the close relationship between mountain and coastal areas support combining them to create three major subregions: Alaska-British Columbia coast and mountains, Washington-Oregon-Northern California coast and mountains, and the lowlands of the Georgia Basin and Willamette Valley. The following figures present the Omernik Level 3 ecoregions comprising the NPLCC; how the ecoregions were grouped to create conceptual models; and conceptual models for each group. The five models each consist of a table listing resources, stressors, potential climate change impacts; a landcover map; and a cartoon to summarize the table and evoke the landscape. A final figure summarizes resources

  10. Teacher Preferences for an Advanced Masters Degree Based on NBPTS and NCATE Standards. (United States)

    Dawkins, Karen; Penick, John

    This study reports on a survey of mathematics and science teachers' beliefs and attitudes toward what they value most in a masters degree program. The survey gathered demographic data from 300 teachers and assessed beliefs and attitudes about the proposed advanced masters degree in North Carolina. Findings indicate that teachers are more…

  11. Commonwealth Degrees from Class to Equivalence: Changing to Grade Point Averages in the Caribbean (United States)

    Bastick, Tony


    British Commonwealth universities inherited the class system for classifying degrees. However, increasing global marketization has brought with it increasing demands for student exchanges, particularly with universities in North America. Hence, Commonwealth universities are considering adopting grade point averages (GPAs) for degree classification…

  12. Climate change in the North American Arctic: A one health perspective (United States)

    Climate change is expected to increase the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases among human and animal populations within the Arctic and sub-Arctic latitudes of North America. Warmer temperatures are expected to increase disease risks from food-borne pathogens, water-borne diseases, and vector-...

  13. Micropaleontological evidence for increased meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean during the pliocene (United States)

    Dowsett, H.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Poore, R.Z.; Thompson, R.S.; Whatley, R.C.; Wood, A.M.


    The Middle Pliocene (???3 million years ago) has been identified as the last time the Earth was significantly warmer than it was during the Last Interglacial and Holocene. A quantitative micropaleontological paleotemperature transect from equator to high latitudes in the North Atlantic indicates that Middle Pliocene warmth involved increased meridional oceanic heat transport.

  14. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A


    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  15. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.


    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  16. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.


    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  17. Interaction of polar and tropical influences in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Mi-1 deglaciation (United States)

    Fox, B. R. S.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Lee, D. E.; Wartho, J.-A.


    It is well-known from geologic archives that Pleistocene and Holocene climate is characterised by cyclical variation on a wide range of timescales, and that these cycles of variation interact in complex ways. However, it is rarely possible to reconstruct sub-precessional (insolation cycle. This semi-precession cycle has been identified in a number of records from the Pleistocene and Holocene and has recently been suggested to indicate that insolation in low-latitude regions may be an important driver of millennial-scale climate response to orbital forcing (Feretti et al., 2015). This is the first time this cycle has been identified in a mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere climate archive, as well as the first identification in pre-Pleistocene records. The 11-kyr cycle appears at around 23.01 Ma, which coincides with the initiation of a major phase of Antarctic deglaciation, and strengthens during the subsequent period of rapid ice decay. This pattern suggests that the westerly winds may have expanded north of 50°S at the height of Mi-1, excluding tropical influence from the Foulden Maar site, and subsequently contracted polewards in tandem with warming deep-sea temperatures and Antarctic deglaciation, allowing the advection of tropical waters further south.

  18. Impacts of Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation to summer atmospheric circulation in the northern mid-latitude (United States)

    Lin, Jianshe


    Previous studies indicated that Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) has significant impacts on regional and global climate. The impacts of the AMO on the summertime atmospheric circulation over the mid latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and possible mechanisms were investigated througal observational analysis and numerical experiments by AGCMs. The results show that the interdecadal oscillation pattern of land surface temperature in the mid-latitudes are highly associated with the AMO. The eastern Europe, East Asia and the United States were warmer, while central Asia and northwest of the North America were cold during the positive phase of the AMO. Associated geopotential height anomalies is dominated by a barotropic wave train propagating along the jet stream, with zonal wavenumber 4 or 5. Basically, positive (negative) geopotential height anomalies correspond to warm (cold) anomalies of land surface temperature. The wave train pattern is called as interdecadal circumglobal teleconnection pattern Idealized numerical experiment by AGCMs indicates that the AMO-related SST anomalies tend to induce the teleconnection pattern, which was primarily forced by extratropical component of the AMO.

  19. Antarctic-type blue whale calls recorded at low latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tolstoy, Maya; Chapp, Emily; Mellinger, David K.; Moore, Sue E.


    Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, were once abundant around the Antarctic during the austral summer, but intensive whaling during the first half of the 20th century reduced their numbers by over 99%. Although interannual variability of blue whale occurrence on the Antarctic feeding grounds was documented by whalers, little was known about where the whales spent the winter months. Antarctic blue whales produce calls that are distinct from those produced by blue whales elsewhere in the world. To investigate potential winter migratory destinations of Antarctic blue whales, we examined acoustic data for these signals from two low-latitude locales: the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Antarctic-type blue whale calls were detected on hydrophones in both regions during the austral autumn and winter (May-September), with peak detections in July. Calls occurred over relatively brief periods in both oceans, suggesting that there may be only a few animals migrating so far north and/or producing calls. Antarctic blue whales appear to use both the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans concurrently, indicating that there is not a single migratory destination. Acoustic data from the South Atlantic and from mid-latitudes in the Indian or Pacific Oceans are needed for a more global understanding of migratory patterns and destinations of Antarctic blue whales.

  20. Reverse relationship between drought of mid-latitudes in East Asia and Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency in summer (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun


    This study found that there is a significant negative correlation between summer drought in Korea, China and Japan and the frequency of tropical cyclone (TC) in the subtropical western North Pacific (SWNP) using effective drought index (EDI). The frequency of TCs that affect Korea is low (high) in a year of summer drought (non-drought). As a case study, in 1994 when there is extremely severe summer drought in Korea, there was high frequency of TCs while in 2003 when there was least severe summer drought, the frequency of TCs is the lowest. Changes in the anomalous secondary circulation, namely anomalous upward (downward) flow in the SWNP and anomalous downward (upward) flow in the mid-latitudes of East Asia, are one of the causes of drought (non-drought).

  1. Lower Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Gluten-Related Disorders in Persons Living in Southern vs Northern Latitudes of the United States. (United States)

    Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Ruhl, Constance E; Choung, Rok Seon; Brantner, Tricia L; Murray, Joseph A


    The association between prevalence of celiac disease and geographic region is incompletely understood, but the occurrence of several autoimmune disorders has been found to vary along a North-South gradient. We examined geographic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet in the United States. In a population-based study, we analyzed data on gluten-related conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2009 through 2014, on 22,277 participants 6 years and older. We identified persons with celiac disease based on results of serum tests for IgA against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium or on both a health care provider diagnosis and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was defined as adherence to a gluten-free diet without a diagnosis of celiac disease. We compared mean serum levels of biochemical and nutritional markers based on status of gluten-related conditions. We found 0.7% of participants to have celiac disease and 1.1% of participants to avoid gluten without celiac disease. Celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 35°-39° North (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.1) or at latitudes of 40° North or more (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.6-11.3) than individuals who lived at latitudes below 35° North, independent of race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 40° North or more, independent of demographic factors and body mass index. Participants with undiagnosed celiac disease (identified by positive results from serologic tests) had lower mean levels of vitamin B-12 and folate (data collected from 2009 through 2012) than persons without celiac disease. Participants with a health care provider diagnosis of celiac disease had a lower mean level of hemoglobin than persons

  2. Statistical Evaluation of Forecasts Over the Low-Latitudes. (United States)


    o o .x 1. Introduction .. . ........ .. .- 2. The Models . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... 4 2.1 Filtered barotropic modelo . ....... ... 4 2.1.1...boundaries, producing a continuity of the analysis in a cyclic Ct 7 sense . The north and south bounderies were treated differently. The initial

  3. Altitude and latitude dependence of the equatorial electrojet (United States)

    Singh, A.; Cole, K. D.


    A self-consistent and high-resolution dynamo model is used to investigate the effects of day-to-day or seasonal variation of altitude and latitude profiles of the E-plasma density in the equatorial ionosphere on equatorial electrojet (EEJ) structure. Variations in the E-layer peak altitude and amplitude are shown to significantly affect EEJ structure. The results indicate that, for any shape, the EEJ peak appears at or below the E-layer peak altitude. Distinct double peaks occur in the EEJ structure if the E-layer peak is above 105 km or if the gradient is large. The effect of the latitudinal variation of the integrated conductivities of ionospheric field lines upon the amplitude and altitude of the EEJ peak is discussed.

  4. High-latitude geomagnetic studies (22-23 millihertz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (USA) City Univ. of New York, Brooklyn (USA)); Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.C.; Medford, L.V. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (USA))


    Geomagnetic field measurements were initiated at Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay) in the Northwest Territories of Canada during July 1985 (Wolfe et al. 1986). This site was selected because it was calculated to be in the conjugate area to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station where extensive geomagnetic research has been conducted. The principal scientific objectives are to study the conjugacy of high-latitude magnetic fluctuations observed at Iqaluit and South Pole (L{approximately}13). In this report, the authors extend the previous report of Wolfe et al. (1987) and comment upon the conjugacy of the stations for magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc3 (22-33 millihertz) hydromagnetic regime and upon the penetration of hydromagnetic energy deeper into the magnetosphere on the local dayside.

  5. DHIGLS: DRAO H I Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blagrave, K; Joncas, G; Kothes, R; Stil, J; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Lockman, Felix J; Taylor, A R


    Observations of Galactic H I gas for seven intermediate Galactic latitude fields are presented at 1' angular resolution using data from the DRAO Synthesis Telescope (ST) and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DHIGLS data are the most extensive arcminute resolution measurements of the diffuse atomic interstellar medium beyond those in the Galactic plane. The acquisition, reduction, calibration, and mosaicking of the DRAO ST data and the cross calibration and incorporation of the short-spacing information from the GBT are described. The high quality of the DHIGLS data enables a variety of new studies in directions of low Galactic column density. We find evidence for dramatic changes in the structures in channel maps over even small changes in velocity. This narrow line emission has counterparts in absorption spectra against bright background radio sources, quantifying that the gas is cold and dense and can be identified as the cold neutral medium phase. We analyze the angular power spectra of maps of the integ...

  6. The CH fraction of Carbon stars at high Galactic latitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Aruna; Shantikumar, N S


    CH stars form a distinct class of objects with characteristic properties like iron deficiency, enrichment of carbon and overabundance in heavy elements. These properties can provide strong observational constraints for theoretical computation of nucleosynthesis at low-metallicity. An important question is the relative surface density of CH stars which can provide valuable inputs to our understanding on the role of low to intermediate-mass stars in the early Galactic chemical evolution. Spectroscopic characterization provides an effective way of identifying CH stars. The present analysis is aimed at a quantitative assessment of the fraction of CH stars in a sample of stars using a set of spectral classification criteria. The sample consists of 92 objects selected from a collection of candidate Faint High Latitude Carbon stars from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Medium resolution (R ~ 1300) spectra for these objects were obtained using OMR at VBO, Kavalur and HFOSC at HCT, IAO, Hanle, during 2007 - 2009 spanning a wav...

  7. Computing rare transitions between zonal mid-latitude jets (United States)

    Simonnet, Eric; Bouchet, Freddy


    Zonal jets are known to naturally emerge from beta-plane turbulence due to the arrest of inverse energy cascade by Rossby waves.Transitions between jets of different wavenumber are indeed observed in particular regimes showing a striking example of bimodality in the context of 2-D turbulence. As the Rayleigh dissipation and stochastic forcing are decreased these transitions become more and more rare. The aim of this talk is to show that it is possible to compute large ensembles of reactive trajectories connecting the different metastable states even at very low probability regimes when direct numerical simulations are not possible. We use an adaptive version of multilevel splitting algorithms on a barotropic quasi geostrophic model of mid-latitude atmosphere. We are able to obtain a detailed statistical description of the high-dimensional phase space as well as the typical transitions. A large-deviation result is also obtained.

  8. The structure of convective rain cells at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rebora


    Full Text Available Rain cells are structures which represent an important component of convective precipitation and a study of their properties represents a necessary step both towards improved stochastic models of small-scale precipitation and for the verification of deterministic high resolution local-area models. The case of intense convective precipitation in the tropics has been analysed in a recent study (von Hardenberg et al., 2003. Here we extend the analysis to mid-latitudes and we present results on the structure of convective rain cells observed by radar measurements in Italy. In particular we consider the average shape of precipitation cells and its dependence on radar resolution and the distributions of ellipticities.

  9. Arctic climate and its interaction with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming in a global coupled climate model (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent


    Three quasi-equilibrium simulations using constant greenhouse gas forcing corresponding to years 2000, 2015 and 2030 have been performed with the global coupled model EC-Earth in order to analyze the Arctic climate and interactions with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming. The model simulations indicate an accelerated warming and ice extent reduction in the Arctic between the year-2030 and year-2015 simulations compared to the change between the year-2015 and year-2000 simulations. Both Arctic warming and sea ice reduction are closely linked to the increase of ocean heat transport into the Arctic, particularly through the Barents Sea Opening. Decadal variations of Arctic sea ice extent and ice volume are of the same order of magnitude as the observed ice extent reductions in the last 30 years and are dominated by the variability of the ocean heat transports through the Barents Sea Opening and the Bering Strait. Despite a general warming of mid and high northern latitudes, a substantial cooling is found in the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic under year-2015 and year-2030 conditions. This cooling is related to a strong reduction in the AMOC, itself due to reduced deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. The observed trend towards a more negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the observed linkage between autumn Arctic ice variations and NAO are reproduced in our model simulations for selected 30-year periods but are not robust over longer time periods. This indicates that the observed linkages between ice and NAO might not be robust in reality either, and that the observational time period is still too short to reliably separate the trend from the natural variability.

  10. Arctic climate and its interaction with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming in a global coupled climate model (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent


    Three quasi-equilibrium simulations using constant greenhouse gas forcing corresponding to years 2000, 2015 and 2030 have been performed with the global coupled model EC-Earth in order to analyze the Arctic climate and interactions with lower latitudes under different levels of anthropogenic warming. The model simulations indicate an accelerated warming and ice extent reduction in the Arctic between the year-2030 and year-2015 simulations compared to the change between the year-2015 and year-2000 simulations. Both Arctic warming and sea ice reduction are closely linked to the increase of ocean heat transport into the Arctic, particularly through the Barents Sea Opening. Decadal variations of Arctic sea ice extent and ice volume are of the same order of magnitude as the observed ice extent reductions in the last 30 years and are dominated by the variability of the ocean heat transports through the Barents Sea Opening and the Bering Strait. Despite a general warming of mid and high northern latitudes, a substantial cooling is found in the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic under year-2015 and year-2030 conditions. This cooling is related to a strong reduction in the AMOC, itself due to reduced deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. The observed trend towards a more negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the observed linkage between autumn Arctic ice variations and NAO are reproduced in our model simulations for selected 30-year periods but are not robust over longer time periods. This indicates that the observed linkages between ice and NAO might not be robust in reality either, and that the observational time period is still too short to reliably separate the trend from the natural variability.

  11. Speciation, Ecological Opportunity, and Latitude (American Society of Naturalists Address). (United States)

    Schluter, Dolph


    Evolutionary hypotheses to explain the greater numbers of species in the tropics than the temperate zone include greater age and area, higher temperature and metabolic rates, and greater ecological opportunity. These ideas make contrasting predictions about the relationship between speciation processes and latitude, which I elaborate and evaluate. Available data suggest that per capita speciation rates are currently highest in the temperate zone and that diversification rates (speciation minus extinction) are similar between latitudes. In contrast, clades whose oldest analyzed dates precede the Eocene thermal maximum, when the extent of the tropics was much greater than today, tend to show highest speciation and diversification rates in the tropics. These findings are consistent with age and area, which is alone among hypotheses in predicting a time trend. Higher recent speciation rates in the temperate zone than the tropics suggest an additional response to high ecological opportunity associated with low species diversity. These broad patterns are compelling but provide limited insights into underlying mechanisms, arguing that studies of speciation processes along the latitudinal gradient will be vital. Using threespine stickleback in depauperate northern lakes as an example, I show how high ecological opportunity can lead to rapid speciation. The results support a role for ecological opportunity in speciation, but its importance in the evolution of the latitudinal gradient remains uncertain. I conclude that per capita evolutionary rates are no longer higher in the tropics than the temperate zone. Nevertheless, the vast numbers of species that have already accumulated in the tropics ensure that total rate of species production remains highest there. Thus, tropical evolutionary momentum helps to perpetuate the steep latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

  12. Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude (United States)

    Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim


    Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).

  13. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara


    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields (United States)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.


    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  15. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.


    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  16. Quantifying Black Carbon emissions in high northern latitudes using an Atmospheric Bayesian Inversion (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.


    Black carbon (BC) is the main light absorbing aerosol species and it has important impacts on air quality, weather and climate. The major source of BC is incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and the burning of biomass or bio-fuels (soot). Therefore, to understand to what extent BC affects climate change and pollutant dynamics, accurate knowledge of the emissions, distribution and variation of BC is required. Most commonly, BC emission inventory datasets are built by "bottom up" approaches based on activity data and emissions factors, but these methods are considered to have large uncertainty (Cao et al, 2006). In this study, we have used a Bayesian Inversion to estimate spatially resolved BC emissions. Emissions are estimated monthly for 2014 and over the domain from 180°W to 180°E and 50°N to 90°N. Atmospheric transport is modeled using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; 2005), and the inversion framework, FLEXINVERT, developed by Thompson and Stohl, (2014). The study domain is of particular interest concerning the identification and estimation of BC sources. In contrast to Europe and North America, where BC sources are comparatively well documented as a result of intense monitoring, only one station recording BC concentrations exists in the whole of Siberia. In addition, emissions from gas flaring by the oil industry have been geographically misplaced in most emission inventories and may be an important source of BC at high latitudes since a significant proportion of the total gas flared occurs at these high latitudes (Stohl et al., 2013). Our results show large differences with the existing BC inventories, whereas the estimated fluxes improve modeled BC concentrations with respect to observations. References Cao, G. et al. Atmos. Environ., 40, 6516-6527, 2006. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Environ., 32(24), 4245-4264, 1998. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5(9), 2461-2474, 2005. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13

  17. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang


    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  18. Environmental conditions for alternative tree-cover states in high latitudes (United States)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor


    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, an open woodland state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate.We study the link between the tree-cover fraction distribution and eight globally observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0 °C, permafrost distribution, mean spring soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, soil texture, and mean thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, conditional histograms, and phase-space analysis, we find that environmental conditions exert a strong control over the tree-cover distribution, uniquely determining its state among the three dominant modes in ˜ 95 % of the cases. Additionally, we find that the link between individual environmental variables and tree cover is different within the four boreal regions considered here, namely eastern North Eurasia, western North Eurasia, eastern North America, and western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on rainfall, minimum temperatures, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire frequency, and soil texture, we show the location of areas with potentially alternative tree-cover states under the same environmental conditions in the boreal region. These areas, although encompassing a minor fraction of the boreal area ( ˜ 5 %), correspond to possible transition zones with a reduced resilience to disturbances. Hence, they are of interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  19. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism (United States)


    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  20. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism (United States)


    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  1. Life after a Humanities Degree (United States)

    Masola, Athambile


    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  2. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)


    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo


    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València.

  3. The Top Theological Degree Producers (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012


    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  4. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12


    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  5. Possible relationship between North Korean total rainfall and Arctic Oscillation in May (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong


    In this study, a negative correlation between the rainfall over North Korea in May and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the same month is analyzed. The reasons for rainfall declines in the positive AO phase are as follows: (a) the strengthening of anomalous anticyclone in the Maritime Province of Siberia, (b) the weakening of the subtropical western North Pacific high, and (c) the stabilization across all the atmospheric layers in North Korea. Anomalous anticyclone strengthened in the Maritime Province of Siberia plays a critical role in placing the North Korean region under the influence of anomalous northeasterlies. In addition, the development of the anomalous northeasterlies results in the supply of a large amount of cold and dry air into North Korea. This consequently stabilizes the atmosphere in North Korea. Moreover, the reinforcement of anomalous cold sea surface temperature in the mid-latitude region of East Asia is found to be another reason for the atmospheric stabilization.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L., E-mail: [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)


    Based on a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotations Nos. 1625 to 2135 (from 1975 February to 2013 March), the sidereal rotation rates of the positive and negative magnetic fields in the latitude range of ±60° are obtained, and the rotation rate differences between them are investigated. The time–latitude distribution of the rate differences is shown, which looks like a butterfly diagram at the low and middle latitudes. For comparison, the time–latitude distribution of the longitudinally averaged photospheric magnetic fields is shown. We conclude that the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere rotate faster than those exhibiting the opposite polarity at low and middle latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere do not always rotate faster than those with the opposite polarity. Furthermore, the relationship between the rotation rate differences and solar magnetic fields is studied through a correlation analysis. Our result shows that the correlation coefficients between them reach maximum values at 13° (14°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, and change sign at 28° latitude in both hemispheres, then reach their minimum values at 58° (53°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere.

  7. 33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits. (United States)


    ... North latitude in the Atlantic Ocean or south of 35 degrees North latitude in all other waters. (a) Each... light that is approved under 46 CFR 161.012. Each light must be securely attached to the front...

  8. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng


    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  9. Fruits of icacinaceae (tribe iodeae) from the late paleocene of Western north america. (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Manchester, Steven R; Devore, Melanie L


    The Icacinaceae occur pantropically today, but are well represented by fossil fruits of the warm Early Middle Eocene, when tropical plants that currently occupy low latitudes were more widely distributed in higher latitudes. Members of this family are first known in the Late Cretaceous; however, fossil fruits of tribe Iodeae are quite rare before the Eocene. In this paper we describe the first formally recognized Late Paleocene icacinaceous taxa from western North America. We name two new species of Icacinicarya based on anatomically preserved fruits and establish a new genus, Icacinicaryites, for impressions with a strong similarity to Icacinicarya that lack anatomical preservation. These new records from the Almont/Beicegel Creek flora in North Dakota and several localities in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana complement records known from the Early Eocene of England and document an increased diversity of Iodeae and related forms in the Paleogene of western North America.

  10. Continuous measurements of atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide on a North Sea gas platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Neubert, R.E.M.; Laan, S. van der; Meijer, H.A.J.; Toohey, D.


    A new atmospheric measurement station has been established on the North Sea oil and gas production platform F3, 200 km north off the Dutch coast (54 degrees 51' N, 4 degrees 44' E). Atmospheric concentrations of O(2) and CO(2) are continuously measured using fuel cell technology and compact infrared

  11. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.


    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  12. The spectral nature of Titan's mid-latitude region (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Drossart, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Philippe, Sylvain; Janssen, Michael; Le Gall, Alice; Lawrence, Kenneth; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Sohl, Frank; Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Brown, Robert; Villanueva, Edward; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Christos; Schoenfeld, Ashley


    We infer surface properties, such as surface albedo and atmospheric contributions in the form of haze content, of the mid-latitude region of Titan. In previous studies [1;2] we reported results on two areas presenting indications for possible changes in surface albedo with time [2]. We also investigate the endogenic or exogenic processes linked to the formation of the various mid-latitude geomorphological units. These could be aeolian, fluvial, sedimentary, cryovolcanic, lacustrine, and more. Furthermore, deposition of organics through the atmosphere seems to be predominantly present [1]. We now focus on constraining the chemical composition of the various geomorphological units [5;6] by investigating the lower atmosphere of Titan from Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) spectro-imaging data by use of a recently updated radiative transfer code in the near-IR range. For the distinction of geomorphological units we use RADAR/SAR data [4]. We study the units of interest identified in [1;3] and [4]: mountains, plains, labyrinths, dune fields, and possible cryovolcanic and/or evaporitic features (the latter two are albedo features, [4;5]). Our findings indicate that many of the regions from the same geomorphological unit show compositional variations depending on location, while units of significant geomorphological differences seem to consist of very similar material mixtures. Preliminary results on the chemical composition of the regions that have shown temporal changes (i.e. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera; [6]) are also presented. The albedo differences and similarities among the various geomorphological terrains set constraints on the possible geological processes that govern Titan's surface. References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 270, 162-182, 2016; [2] Solomonidou, A., et al.: Icarus, 270, 85-99, 2016; [3] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 205, 540-558, 2010; [4] Malaska, M., et al.: Icarus, 270, 130-161, 2016; [4] Barnes, J., et al.: Pl. Scie., 2

  13. Six degree of freedom sensor (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.


    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  14. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;


    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  15. Using dual temperature difference two source energy balance model and MODIS data to estimate surface energy fluxes at regional scales in northern latitudes (United States)

    Guzinski, R.; Anderson, M.; Kustas, W.; Nieto, H.; Sandholt, I.


    A Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) thermal-based modeling scheme has previously been used to successfully estimate surface latent and sensible heat fluxes at regional to continental scales with the help of satellite surface radiometric temperature observations. The Dual Temperature Difference (DTD) model introduced a simple methodology to address the sensitivity of the thermal-based energy balance models to the absolute measurement of land surface temperature (LST), which when derived with the help of satellites can have errors of several degrees. The original DTD model formulation required an early morning LST observation (1 hour after local sunrise) when fluxes were minimal followed by another LST observations later in the morning or afternoon and so was limited in use to data provided by geostationary satellites having high temporal resolution. This, however, made it unsuitable for areas at higher latitudes, such as northern Eurasia and northern North America. In this poster we present a number of modifications to the DTD model which allows it to exploit the day and night LST observations by the MODIS sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites. Firstly, we look at whether taking the first LST observation around the time of Aqua's night overpass, when fluxes are small but not insignificant, would greatly affect the accuracy of the model. Secondly, we consider the issues directly related to using the MODIS sensor to measure the LST. This includes different view zenith angles of the day and night LST observations, the two observations possibly coming from the two different satellites and the accuracy of the instrument itself. We also evaluate two approaches for estimating αPT, the Priestley-Taylor parameter used in the TSEB modeling scheme to estimate heat fluxes of the vegetation canopy, to improve the performance of the model in coniferous and deciduous forests. The first approach estimates αPT based on tree height, while the second uses

  16. In situ northern mid-latitude observations of ClO, O3, and BrO in the wintertime lower stratosphere (United States)

    Brune, W. H.; Toohey, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.; Starr, W. L.; Vedder, J. F.; Danielsen, E. F.


    In order to test photochemical theories linking chlorofluorocarbon derivatives to O3 depletion at high latitudes in the springtime, several related atmospheric species, including O3, ClO, and BrO were measured in the lower stratosphere. The flight path extended to the center of the polar jet associated with but outside of the Arctic vortex, in which the abundance of O3 was twice its midlatitude value, whereas BrO levels were five parts per trillion (pptv) by volume between 18 and 21 km, and 2.4 pptv below that altitude. The ClO mixing ratio was as much as 65 pptv at 60 N latitude at an altitude of 20 km, and was enhanced over midlatitude values by a factor of three to five at altitudes above 18 km and by as much as a factor of 40 at altitudes below 17 km. Levels of ClO and O3 were highly correlated on all measured distance scales, and both showed an abrupt change in character at 54 N latitude. The ClO abundance north of 54 N was probably caused by low NO2 levels in the flight path.

  17. Late Miocene increase in precipitation in the Western Cordillera of the Andes between 18-19°S latitudes inferred from shifts in sedimentation patterns (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Norton, Kevin P.; Delunel, Romain; Ehlers, Todd A.; Madella, Andrea


    Modern climate in the Andes is characterized by strong N-S decreasing trends in precipitation rates. Here we use stratigraphic records to show that this pattern has been established since as early as 12-11 Ma, at least on the western Andean margin of Northern Chile. The stratigraphic architecture on the western Andean margin documents a transition between 19°-20°S latitude where matrix-supported debris flow deposits shift to fluvial conglomerates between 12-11 Ma. The deposition of fluvial sediments has been maintained to the present north of 19°-20°S, while the occurrence of post 11 Ma aeolian sand, matrix-supported breccias with conglomerate interbeds south of these latitudes implies ongoing sedimentation with less water and thus under drier conditions. We relate these changes to the tectonic development of the Andes. Existing palaeoclimate models suggest that an elevated plateau deflects the Andean jet towards the south, thereby focusing moisture from the equatorial Atlantic to the northeastern flanks of the Altiplano. In addition, the formation of the eastern Andean foothills most likely intercepted moisture transport, and shifted it farther to the east, thereby keeping the western Andean margin dry south of 19°-20°S latitudes. The sedimentological data support a strong linkage between orographic precipitation and stratigraphy whereby central Andean deformation controls the distribution of available moisture on the western flank through a combination of orographic precipitation and deflection of air masses.

  18. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C.


    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  19. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng


    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  20. Cluster observations of mid-latitude hiss near the plasmapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Masson


    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the plasmapause, around the geomagnetic equator, the four Cluster satellites often observe banded hiss-like electromagnetic emissions (BHE; below the electron gyrofrequency but above the lower hybrid resonance, from 2kHz to 10kHz. We show that below 4kHz, these waves propagate in the whistler mode. Using the first year of scientific operations of WHISPER, STAFF and WBD wave experiments on Cluster, we have identified the following properties of the BHE waves: (i their location is strongly correlated with the position of the plasmapause, (ii no MLT dependence has been found, (iii their spectral width is generally 1 to 2kHz, and (iv the central frequency of their emission band varies from 2kHz to 10kHz. All these features suggest that BHE are in fact mid-latitude hiss emissions (MLH. Moreover, the central frequency was found to be correlated with the Kp index. This suggests either that these banded emissions are generated in a given f/fce range, or that there is a Kp dependent Doppler shift between the satellites and a possible moving source of the MLH.

  1. A review of recent MLT studies at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Clemesha


    Full Text Available Recent years have shown a continuing interest in studies of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region at low latitudes, with more than 50 papers dealing specifically with this area published over the past 5 years. Experimental ground-based work has been carried out mainly in South America and the Caribbean, India and the Pacific areas. Subjects of interest include gravity waves, tides and planetary waves, the temperature structure of the mesopause region, with special reference to temperature inversions and the two-level mesopause, sporadic neutral layers and their relationship with ionized layers, the possible effects of the micrometeoroid influx, and long-term trends in the MLT region. Experimental techniques in use include MF, MST and meteor radar, lidar, airglow (including satellite-borne limb-scanning measurements and rocket-borne instruments. Airglow imaging has shown itself to be a particularly useful technique, mainly for studying gravity wave propagation in the MLT region. This paper will present highlights of recent work and will discuss some of the problems which remain to be resolved.

  2. A polarised fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude (United States)

    Petroff, Emily; SUPERB Collaboration; HESS Collaboration; ANTARES Collaboration


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a growing population of transients detected with radio telescopes which are thought to originate outside the Milky Way. Fewer than 20 sources exist in the literature and the majority of bursts have been found away from the plane of the Galaxy or where the Galactic contribution to the total electron column density is low. Here we report on the discovery of a new burst, FRB 150215, discovered with the Parkes radio telescope in real-time in February 2015. The burst was found to be 43±5% linearly polarised with an imprecisely determined rotation measure (RM) consistent with zero. The burst was followed-up with 9 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, γ-ray and neutrino emission from the location of the burst. No transient or variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in nine hours of Parkes observations. Radio images of the field were obtained following the FRB but would not have been sensitive enough to pick up a signal like the one emanating from WISE J071634.59-190039.2 following FRB150418 if it had been present. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the Galactic RM foreground may approach a null along this sightline, corresponding to a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way. This might explain why this burst was detectable at low latitude whereas previous searches have been relatively unsuccessful.

  3. Latitude, elevational climatic zonation and speciation in New World vertebrates. (United States)

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Kozak, Kenneth H; Gómez, Juan Pablo; Parra, Juan Luis; McCain, Christy M; Bowie, Rauri C K; Carnaval, Ana C; Moritz, Craig; Rahbek, Carsten; Roberts, Trina E; Sanders, Nathan J; Schneider, Christopher J; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Zamudio, Kelly R; Graham, Catherine H


    Many biodiversity hotspots are located in montane regions, especially in the tropics. A possible explanation for this pattern is that the narrow thermal tolerances of tropical species and greater climatic stratification of tropical mountains create more opportunities for climate-associated parapatric or allopatric speciation in the tropics relative to the temperate zone. However, it is unclear whether a general relationship exists among latitude, climatic zonation and the ecology of speciation. Recent taxon-specific studies obtained different results regarding the role of climate in speciation in tropical versus temperate areas. Here, we quantify overlap in the climatic distributions of 93 pairs of sister species of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles restricted to either the New World tropics or to the Northern temperate zone. We show that elevational ranges of tropical- and temperate-zone species do not differ from one another, yet the temperature range experienced by species in the temperate zone is greater than for those in the tropics. Moreover, tropical sister species tend to exhibit greater similarity in their climatic distributions than temperate sister species. This pattern suggests that evolutionary conservatism in the thermal niches of tropical taxa, coupled with the greater thermal zonation of tropical mountains, may result in increased opportunities for allopatric isolation, speciation and the accumulation of species in tropical montane regions. Our study exemplifies the power of combining phylogenetic and spatial datasets of global climatic variation to explore evolutionary (rather than purely ecological) explanations for the high biodiversity of tropical montane regions.

  4. Distance to the northern high-latitude HI shells

    CERN Document Server

    Puspitarini, Lucky


    A detailed 3D distribution of interstellar matter in the solar neighborhood is increasingly necessary. As part of a 3D mapping program, we aim at assigning a precise distance to the high-latitude HI gas in particular the northern part (b \\geq 55^{circ}) of the shell associated with the conspicuous radio continuum Loop I. This shell is thought to be the expanding boundary of an interstellar bubble inflated and recently reheated by the strong stellar winds of the nearby Scorpius-Centaurus OB. We recorded high-resolution spectra of 30 A-type target stars located at various distances in the direction of the northern part of Loop I. Interstellar NaI 5889-5895 and CaII K-H 3934-3968 {\\AA} are modeled and compared with the HI emission spectra from the LAB Survey. About two-thirds of our stellar spectra possess narrow interstellar lines. Narrow lines are located at the velocity of the main, low-velocity Loop 1 HI shell ([-6,+1] km/s in the LSR). Using Hipparcos distances to the target stars, we show that the closest ...

  5. Surface changes in mid-latitude regions on Titan (United States)

    Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Stephan, K.; Sotin, C.; Drossart, P.; Lawrence, K.; Le Mouélic, S.; Bratsolis, E.; Jaumann, R.; Brown, R. H.; Malaska, M.


    We present a study focused on the mid-latitude and close to the equator surface regions on Titan that present an interest on their spectral behavior and/or morphology. These are regions where spectroscopic anomalies have been reported in the evolution of the brightness and several interpretations have been proposed (cryovolcanic candidates, evaporates, lacustrine, etc [1;2;5]). Also in our work here we have included analysis of some undifferentiated plains (also referred to as 'blandlands'), which are vast expanses of terrains that appear bland in the radar data [3]. By applying a Radiative transfer code [4;2] we have analyzed these regions to look for evolution with time through their spectral behavior. We use as reference point and calibration tool the surface albedo retrieval of the Huygens Landing site (Titan's ground truth) and we also check the variability of the surface albedo of these regions against areas that are not expected to change with time (e.g. dune fields), by retrieving their albedo differences at all wavelengths [2]. We report here surface albedo changes with time for some of these regions of interest that imply connection to exogenic and/or endogenic processes.

  6. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter


    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  7. Cosmic rays linked to rapid mid-latitude cloud changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Laken


    Full Text Available The effect of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR flux on Earth's climate is highly uncertain. Using a novel sampling approach based around observing periods of significant cloud changes, a statistically robust relationship is identified between the rate of GCR flux and the most rapid mid-latitude (60°–30° N/S cloud decreases operating over daily timescales; this signal is verified in surface level air temperature (SLAT reanalysis data. A General Circulation Model experiment is used to test the causal relationship of the observed cloud changes to the detected SLAT anomalies. Results indicate that the cloud anomalies were responsible for producing the observed SLAT changes, implying a link between significant decreases in the rate of GCR flux (~0.79%/day (relative to the peak-to-peak amplitude of 11-yr solar cycle, decreases in cloud cover (~1.9%/day and increases in SLAT (~0.05 K/day. The influence of GCRs is clearly distinguishable from changes in solar irradiance and the interplanetary magnetic field. These results provide the most compelling evidence presented thus far of a GCR-climate relationship. From this analysis we conclude: (i a GCR-climate relationship is governed by both the rate of GCR flux and internal precursor conditions; and (ii it is likely that this natural forcing has not contributed significantly to recent anthropogenic temperature rises.

  8. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L. (Defence Research Agency, Farnborough (United Kingdom). Space and Communications Dept.); Johansson, K.; Pettersson, H. (SAAB Military Aircraft, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Farren, J. (AEA Technology, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Harwell Lab.)


    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight.

  9. Birkeland current effects on high-latitude groundmagnetic field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Lehtinen, N; Gjerloev, J W; Østgaard, N; Tenfjord, P; Reistad, J P; Snekvik, K; Milan, S E; Ohtani, S; Anderson, B J


    Magnetic perturbations on ground at high latitudes are directly associated only with the divergence-free component of the height-integrated horizontal ionospheric current, $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$. Here we show how $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$ can be expressed as the total horizontal current $\\textbf{J}_\\perp$ minus its curl-free component, the latter being completely determined by the global Birkeland current pattern. Thus in regions where $\\textbf{J}_\\perp = 0$, the global Birkeland current distribution alone determines the local magnetic perturbation. We show with observations from ground and space that in the polar cap, the ground magnetic field perturbations tend to align with the Birkeland current contribution in darkness but not in sunlight. We also show that in sunlight, the magnetic perturbations are typically such that the equivalent overhead current is anti-parallel to the convection, indicating that the Hall current system dominates. Thus the ground magnetic field in the polar cap relates to different c...

  10. UBVR polarimetry of high-galactic latitude carbon stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. López


    Full Text Available Presentamos polarimetría y fotometría en las bandas UBVR, en el periodo de un año, de ocho estrellas de carbón de alta latitud galáctica: V Hya, CZ Hya, R For, R Lep, Y Cvn, T Dra, RV Aqr y RT Cap. La polarización observada alcanza su máximo valor en la banda U y es muy variable en el tiempo. Similarmente, la polarización en la banda B es muy variable pero sus valores son siempre inferiores a los obtenidos en la banda U. El origen y la variabilidad de la polarización en estas bandas puede explicarse como el resultado de la dispersión de la radiación de la estrella central en las regiones interiores de la envolvente circunestelar donde los granos de polvo y las moléculas son creados, destruidos y mezclados por ondas de choque.

  11. MBM 12: young protoplanetary discs at high galactic latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Meeus, G; Henning, T; Bouwman, J; Chen, C; Lawson, W; Apai, D; Pascucci, I; Sicilia-Aguilar, A


    (abridged) We present Spitzer infrared observations to constrain disc and dust evolution in young T Tauri stars in MBM 12, a star-forming cloud at high latitude with an age of 2 Myr and a distance of 275 pc. The region contains 12 T Tauri systems, with primary spectral types between K3 and M6; 5 are weak-line and the rest classical T Tauri stars. We first use MIPS and literature photometry to compile spectral energy distributions for each of the 12 members in MBM 12, and derive their IR excesses. The IRS spectra are analysed with the newly developed two-layer temperature distribution (TLTD) spectral decomposition method. For the 7 T Tauri stars with a detected IR excess, we analyse their solid-state features to derive dust properties such as mass-averaged grain size, composition and crystallinity. We find a spatial gradient in the forsterite to enstatite range, with more enstatite present in the warmer regions. The fact that we see a radial dependence of the dust properties indicates that radial mixing is not...

  12. Molecular cores of the high-latitude cloud MBM 40 (United States)

    Chol Minh, Y. C. Young; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Lee, Youngung; Park, Hyeran; Kim, Kwang-Tae; Park, Yong-Sun; Joon Kim, Sang


    Towards the high-latitude cloud MBM 40, we identify 3 dense molecular cores of M˜0.2-0.5 M ⊙, and sizes of ˜0.2 pc in diameter embedded in the H I cloud of ˜8 M ⊙ which is observed to be extended along the northeast-southwest direction. The molecular cloud is located almost perpendicularly to the H I emission. We confirm the previous result of Magnani et al. that MBM 40 is not a site for new star formations. We found a very poor correlation between the H I and the IRAS 100 μm emissions, but the CO (1-0) and 100 μm emissions show a better correlation of WCO/ I100=1±0.2 K km s -1 (MJy sr -1) -1. This ratio is larger by a factor of ≥5 than in dense dark clouds, which may indicate that the CO is less depleted in MBM 40 than in dense dark clouds.

  13. Palynological composition of a Lower Cretaceous South American tropical sequence: Climatic implications and diversity comparisons with other latitudes. (United States)

    Mejia-Velasquez, Paula J.; Dilcher, David L.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Manchester, Steven R.


    Premise of the study: Reconstruction of floristic patterns during the early diversification of angiosperms is impeded by the scarce fossil record, especially in tropical latitudes. Here we collected quantitative palynological data from a stratigraphic sequence in tropical South America to provide floristic and climatic insights into such tropical environments during the Early Cretaceous. Methods: We reconstructed the floristic composition of an Aptian-Albian tropical sequence from central Colombia using quantitative palynology (rarefied species richness and abundance) and used it to infer its predominant climatic conditions. Additionally, we compared our results with available quantitative data from three other sequences encompassing 70 floristic assemblages to determine latitudinal diversity patterns. Key results: Abundance of humidity indicators was higher than that of aridity indicators (61% vs. 10%). Additionally, we found an angiosperm latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) for the Aptian, but not for the Albian, and an inverted LDG of the overall diversity for the Albian. Angiosperm species turnover during the Albian, however, was higher in humid tropics. Conclusions: There were humid climates in northwestern South America during the Aptian-Albian interval contrary to the widespread aridity expected for the tropical belt. The Albian inverted overall LDG is produced by a faster increase in per-sample angiosperm and pteridophyte diversity in temperate latitudes. However, humid tropical sequences had higher rates of floristic turnover suggesting a higher degree of morphological variation than in temperate regions.

  14. Persistent spread in seasonal albedo change radiative forcings linked to forest cover changes at northern latitudes (United States)

    Bright, R. M.; Myhre, G.; Astrup, R. A.; Antón-Fernández, C.; Strømman, A. H.


    Large-scale land use and land cover change (LULCC) can significantly affect regional climates from changes in surface biogeophysics, and a substantial part of historical LULCC from forest to crop or pasture occurred in the mid- and high-latitudes of North America and Eurasia where the snow-masking effect of forests often leads to a negative radiative forcing from albedo changes linked to deforestation. Results from several recent historical LULCC modeling studies, however, reveal an order of magnitude spread in climate forcing from the snow-masking effect by forests. This is likely because, in months with snow cover, the interactions between vegetation and snow significantly complicate the relationship between the change in forest cover fraction and albedo, thus accurate characterizations of land surface-albedo dynamics are essential given the importance of albedo feedbacks when ground or canopy surfaces are covered in snow Here, we evaluate snow masking parameterization schemes of seven prominent climate models in greater detail in order to pinpoint major sources of the persistent variability in albedo predictions across models. Using a comprehensive dataset of forest structure, meteorology, and daily MODIS albedo observations spanning three winter-spring seasons in three regions of boreal Norway, we estimate radiative forcings connected to canopy snow masking and compare it to the observed forcings. We develop a physically-based regression model and compare its performance to existing modeling schemes, concluding with a discussion on the utility of purely empirical parameterizations relative to those rooted in radiative transfer theory and/or process-based modeling.

  15. The hydrography of the mid-latitude northeast Atlantic Ocean. I: The deep water masses (United States)

    van Aken, Hendrik M.


    The circulation of the deep water masses in the mid-latitude northeast Atlantic Ocean was studied by analysis of the distributions of potential temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, and silicate. Pre-formed nutrients were used to allow a quantitative description of the deep water masses, especially the Northeast Atlantic Deep Water, in terms of four local source water types: Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water, Lower Deep Water, Labrador Sea Water, and Mediterranean Sea Water. Over the Porcupine Abyssal Plain between 2500 and 2900 dbar Northeast Atlantic Deep Water appears to be a mixture of mainly Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water and Labrador Sea Water (˜80%), with minor contributions of Lower Deep Water and Mediterranean Sea Water. When the Northeast Atlantic Deep Water re-circulates in the north-eastern Atlantic and flows southwards towards the Madeira Abyssal Plain, contributions of the former two water types of northern origin diminish to about 50% due to diapycnal mixing with the overlying and underlying water masses. The observed meridional and zonal trends of dissolved oxygen and nutrients in the Northeast Atlantic Deep Water appear to be caused both by diapycnal mixing with the underlying Lower Deep Water and by mineralization of organic matter. The eastward decrease of oxygen and increase of nutrients especially require considerable mineralization of organic matter near the European continental margin. At deeper levels (˜4100 dbar), where the nutrient rich Lower Deep Water is found near the bottom, the meridional gradients of oxygen and nutrients are opposite to those found between 2500 and 2900 dbar. Diapycnal mixing cannot explain this change in gradients, which is therefore considered to be a qualitative indication of ageing of the Lower Deep Water when it flows northwards. A considerable part of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water and the Lower Deep Water that enter the northeast Atlantic may be removed by deep upwelling in the Bay

  16. Interhemispheric differences and solar cycle effects of the high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns deduced from Cluster EDI observations (United States)

    Förster, Matthias; Haaland, Stein


    Here, we present a study of ionospheric convection at high latitudes that is based on satellite measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on-board the Cluster satellites, which were obtained over a full solar cycle (2001-2013). The mapped drift measurements are covering both hemispheres and a variety of different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The large amount of data allows us to perform more detailed statistical studies. We show that flow patterns and polar cap potentials can differ between the two hemispheres on statistical average for a given IMF orientation. In particular, during southward directed IMF conditions, and thus enhanced energy input from the solar wind, we find that the southern polar cap has a higher cross polar cap potential. We also find persistent north-south asymmetries which cannot be explained by external drivers alone. Much of these asymmetries can probably be explained by significant differences in the strength and configuration of the geomagnetic field between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Since the ionosphere is magnetically connected to the magnetosphere, this difference will also be reflected in the magnetosphere in the form of different feedback from the two hemispheres. Consequently, local ionospheric conditions and the geomagnetic field configuration are important for north-south asymmetries in large regions of geospace. The average convection is higher during periods with high solar activity. Although local ionospheric conditions may play a role, we mainly attribute this to higher geomagnetic activity due to enhanced solar wind - magnetosphere interactions.

  17. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Markey

    Full Text Available In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of 'heat tolerant' coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile. Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011 has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them.

  18. Ocean acidification at high latitudes: potential effects on functioning of the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonda Cummings

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels. This is of concern for organisms utilising calcium carbonate (CaCO(3 to generate shells or skeletons. Studies of potential effects of future levels of pCO(2 on high latitude calcifiers are at present limited, and there is little understanding of their potential to acclimate to these changes. We describe a laboratory experiment to compare physiological and metabolic responses of a key benthic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, at pCO(2 levels of their natural environment (430 µatm, pH 7.99; based on field measurements with those predicted for 2100 (735 µatm, pH 7.78 and glacial levels (187 µatm, pH 8.32. Adult L. elliptica basal metabolism (oxygen consumption rates and heat shock protein HSP70 gene expression levels increased in response both to lowering and elevation of pH. Expression of chitin synthase (CHS, a key enzyme involved in synthesis of bivalve shells, was significantly up-regulated in individuals at pH 7.78, indicating L. elliptica were working harder to calcify in seawater undersaturated in aragonite (Ω(Ar = 0.71, the CaCO(3 polymorph of which their shells are comprised. The different response variables were influenced by pH in differing ways, highlighting the importance of assessing a variety of factors to determine the likely impact of pH change. In combination, the results indicate a negative effect of ocean acidification on whole-organism functioning of L. elliptica over relatively short terms (weeks-months that may be energetically difficult to maintain over longer time periods. Importantly, however, the observed changes in L. elliptica CHS gene expression provides evidence for biological control over the shell formation process, which may enable some degree of adaptation or acclimation to future ocean acidification scenarios.

  19. Stability of the unlinked Latitude total elbow prosthesis: A biomechanical in vitro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, Marc L.; Vos, de Maarten J.; Hendriks, Jan C.M.; Eygendaal, Denise; Verdonschot, Nico


    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the valgus and varus laxity of the unlinked version of the Latitude total elbow prosthesis and the effects of radial head preservation or replacement. Methods Biomechanical analysis of the valgus and varus laxity of the unlinked Latitude was perform

  20. Stability of the unlinked Latitude total elbow prosthesis: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, M.L.; Vos, M.J. de; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Eygendaal, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the valgus and varus laxity of the unlinked version of the Latitude total elbow prosthesis and the effects of radial head preservation or replacement. METHODS: Biomechanical analysis of the valgus and varus laxity of the unlinked Latitude was perfor

  1. Circadian Rhythms of Locomotor Activity in Captive Birds and Mammals : Their Variations with Season and Latitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Aschoff, Jürgen


    1. The seasonal variations in time of daily onset and end of locomotor activity are described for 3 species of mammals and 5 species of birds kept in captivity at the arctic circle and at lower latitude. These variations are most pronounced at high latitude. 2. The duration of daily activity plotted

  2. Abrupt climate change and high to low latitude teleconnections as simulated in climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana

    High to low latitude atmospheric teleconnections have been a topic of increasing scientific interest since it was shown that high latitude extratropical forcing can induce tropical precipitation shifts through atmosphere-surface ocean interactions. In this thesis, several aspects of high to low l...

  3. Schizophrenia and vitamin D related genes could have been subject to latitude-driven adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monticelli Antonella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many natural phenomena are directly or indirectly related to latitude. Living at different latitudes, indeed, has its consequences with being exposed to different climates, diets, light/dark cycles, etc. In humans, one of the best known examples of genetic traits following a latitudinal gradient is skin pigmentation. Nevertheless, also several diseases show latitudinal clinals such as hypertension, cancer, dismetabolic conditions, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and many more. Results We investigated, for the first time on a wide genomic scale, the latitude-driven adaptation phenomena. In particular, we selected a set of genes showing signs of latitude-dependent population differentiation. The biological characterization of these genes showed enrichment for neural-related processes. In light of this, we investigated whether genes associated to neuropsychiatric diseases were enriched by Latitude-Related Genes (LRGs. We found a strong enrichment of LRGs in the set of genes associated to schizophrenia. In an attempt to try to explain this possible link between latitude and schizophrenia, we investigated their associations with vitamin D. We found in a set of vitamin D related genes a significant enrichment of both LRGs and of genes involved in schizophrenia. Conclusions Our results suggest a latitude-driven adaptation for both schizophrenia and vitamin D related genes. In addition we confirm, at a molecular level, the link between schizophrenia and vitamin D. Finally, we discuss a model in which schizophrenia is, at least partly, a maladaptive by-product of latitude dependent adaptive changes in vitamin D metabolism.

  4. Investigation of High-Latitude Phenomena Using Polar Data and Global Simulations (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Hoffman, Robert (Technical Monitor)


    The goal of this one-year project was to use data from the Polar satellite in conjunction with global simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to investigate phenomena in the high-latitude magnetosphere. Specifically, we addressed reconnection at the cusp during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the effects of substorms on the high-latitude magnetosphere.

  5. Latitudinal Change of Tropical Cyclone Maximum Intensity in the Western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi


    Full Text Available This study obtained the latitude where tropical cyclones (TCs show maximum intensity and applied statistical change-point analysis on the time series data of the average annual values. The analysis results found that the latitude of the TC maximum intensity increased from 1999. To investigate the reason behind this phenomenon, the difference of the average latitude between 1999 and 2013 and the average between 1977 and 1998 was analyzed. In a difference of 500 hPa streamline between the two periods, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strong in 30°–50°N, while anomalous monsoon trough was located in the north of South China Sea. This anomalous monsoon trough was extended eastward to 145°E. Middle-latitude region in East Asia is affected by the anomalous southeasterlies due to these anomalous anticyclonic circulations and anomalous monsoon trough. These anomalous southeasterlies play a role of anomalous steering flows that make the TCs heading toward region in East Asia middle latitude. As a result, TCs during 1999–2013 had higher latitude of the maximum intensity compared to the TCs during 1977–1998.

  6. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.


    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds

  7. On the cause of IMF By related mid- and low latitude magnetic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils


    An analysis of the effect of the IMF By on near-Earth low and mid-latitude magnetic disturbances is presented. In particular the contribution from field-aligned currents ( FACs) connected to the polar regions is investigated. Based on statistically determined high-latitude FAC patterns for various...... Interplanetary Magnetic Field ( IMF) directions, we estimate the FAC contribution to the mid-and low latitude magnetic disturbance and its dependence on the IMF. The estimated perturbations are compared with observations from the ground and from the low-altitude polar orbiting satellite Oersted. It is found...... that the long-distance effect of the high-latitude FACs constitute the major source to IMF By and B-z related magnetic east-west disturbances at mid-and low latitudes....

  8. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  9. Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations (United States)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Gerding, Michael; Stevens, Michael H.; Stockwell, Robert; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.; Stober, Gunter


    Observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to examine noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their environment at middle latitudes ( 56°N and 52°S). Because SOFIE is uniquely capable of measuring NLC, water vapor, and temperature simultaneously, the local cloud environment can be specified to examine what controls their formation at mid-latitudes. Compared to higher latitudes, mid-latitude NLCs are less frequent and have lower ice mass density, by roughly a factor of five. Compared to higher latitudes at NLC heights, mid-latitude water vapor is only 12% lower while temperatures are more than 10 K higher. As a result the reduced NLC mass and frequency at mid-latitudes can be attributed primarily to temperature. Middle and high latitude NLCs contain a similar amount of meteoric smoke, which was not anticipated because smoke abundance increases towards the equator in summer. SOFIE indicates that mid-latitude NLCs may or may not be associated with supersaturation with respect to ice. It is speculated that this situation is due in part to SOFIE uncertainties related to the limb measurement geometry combined with the non-uniform nature of NLCs. SOFIE is compared with concurrent NLC, temperature, and wind observations from Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°N) during the 2015 summer. The results indicate good agreement in temperature and NLC occurrence frequency, backscatter, and height. SOFIE indicates that NLCs were less frequent over Europe during 2015 compared to other longitudes, in contrast to previous years at higher latitudes that showed no clear longitude dependence. Comparisons of SOFIE and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) indicate good agreement in average ice water column (IWC), although differences in occurrence frequency were often large.

  10. The Association Between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Interannual Variability of the Tropospheric Transport Pathways in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orza, J.A.G.; Cabello Ganuza, M.; Galiano, V. [SCOLAb, Fca Aplicada, Universidad Miguel Hernez, Elche (Spain); Vermeulen, A.T. [Environmental Assessment, ECN-Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Stein, A.F. [Earth Resources Technology, Inc., Laurel, Maryland (United States)


    The variations in tropospheric transport pathways over a 20 year period, 1990-2009, are studied at six locations in Europe. Three Atlantic (Lisbon, Mace Head, and Cabauw) and three Mediterranean sites (Malaga and Elche in the western part and Lecce in the central Mediterranean) are considered. The work is based on the identification of flow types at each location by robust cluster analysis of the trajectories, the assessment of temporal trends for each advection pattern, and subsequent quantification of the association, at the monthly scale, between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (NAOi) and the frequency of occurrence of the identified flows. This exploratory study demonstrates the usefulness of the approach for specific locations in a context where synoptic circulation/weathertype classifications are usually used. A different number of advection pathways were identified at each location. Common features to all the sites were prevalence of westerly flows, strong seasonal variability, and association of the air flow types to known synoptic situations in both phases of the NAO. The degree of association varies strongly with latitude, location within the Mediterranean basin, and closeness to the action centers. Overall, flows reaching Mace Head and Cabauw present stronger association to the NAO, which is substantially reduced at lower latitudes and is not significant at Lisbon. Significant temporal trends are found for northerly flows at Mace Head and Malaga, associated to changes at the beginning of the study period that are also present in the NAOi time series. WSW flows at Mace Head exhibit a steady decreasing trend over the whole period.

  11. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe;


    It remains hotly debated whether latitudinal diversity gradients are common across taxonomic groups and whether a single mechanism can explain such gradients. Investigating species richness (SR) patterns of European land plants, we determine whether SR increases with decreasing latitude, as predi...

  12. Developing a Four-Year Baccalaureate Degree in Applied Psychology: Experiences in Degree Development at a Former Two-Year Postsecondary Institution (United States)

    Hamilton, Kevin; Charlton, Steve; Elmes, Roger


    Population growth and demographic trends in North American urban centers combined with job markets demanding higher levels of education have placed considerable pressure in recent years on postsecondary institutions to provide better access to undergraduate and graduate degree programs (Levin 2004; Zhang 2005). Kwantlen University College,…

  13. Synthesis of Trace Gas and Aerosol Observations and Evaluation of Modelled Short-lived Climate Pollutants Across the Pan-Eurasian High Latitudes (United States)

    Arnold, S.; Nieminen, T.


    Model calculations suggest that changes in short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as ozone and aerosol may have contributed significantly to rapid Arctic warming over the past century. Arctic tropospheric budgets of SLCPs are impacted by long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols from Europe, Asia and N. America, but also by local sources such as gas flaring, shipping and boreal fires. Recently, the POLARCAT Model Intercomparison Project (POLMIP) showed that significant model biases persist through the depth of the European and North American high latitude troposphere in modelled trace-gas abundances. Evaluation of models over the Siberian high latitudes is challenging due to a severe paucity of available observations, despite the potential importance of this region as a route for European pollution export to the Arctic. Despite the existence of a number of limited datasets, which could be used for model evaluation in this region, until now no effort has been made to synthesise and exploit these observations to evaluate modelled abundances of SLCPs such as tropospheric ozone & aerosol. In this presentation, we will show evaluation of simulated aerosol, tropospheric ozone, and precursor species in several global chemical transport models, using a synthesis of available surface, aircraft and satellite observations over the high latitude pan-Eurasian region. We use models and observations to investigate source regions contributing to remote Siberian SLCP abundances over the annual cycle, and show substantial biases in simulated aerosol and trace gas concentrations that are consistent across a suite of different models. These comparisons constitute the first multi-model evaluation of tropospheric composition in the pan-Eurasin region using observations from across the broad region. Finally, we use the model simulations to determine optimum locations for the development of future monitoring activities in high latitude Eurasia with an aim of better

  14. Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling in Jupiter's Low Latitudes (United States)

    Stallard, T.; Melin, H.; Johnson, R.; O'Donoghue, J.; Moore, L.; Miller, S.; Tao, C.; Achilleos, N. A.; Smith, C.; Ray, L. C.; Yates, J. N.


    One of the leading problems in our understanding of Jupiter's atmosphere, known colloquially as the 'energy crisis', is that the upper atmosphere has global temperatures far in excess of that predicted by solar heating. Unlike the Earth, solar heating has only a small effect on the thermosphere, varying little in temperature with local time, and with equatorial neutrals co-rotating with the planet due to meridional advection. Within the auroral region, ionosphere-thermosphere coupling produces strong flows and results in huge Joule Heating from auroral currents. In this region, the temperature excess can be explained, but Jupiter's fast rotation means that Coriolis forces prevent energy in the poles from transferring equatorward, so there remains no explanation of why low latitudes are overheated by a factor of 3-5 over that predicted by solar heating alone.Despite this anomaly, although the past twenty years has seen a wealth of new data and results in Jupiter's auroral region, studies of the equatorial region have been somewhat limited. This lack of investigation comes partly from the apparent uniform nature of the equatorial region, and partly from the difficulty in observing this region. It is only in the past three years that observers begun to re-examine this region, revealing evidence of complex interactions between the thermosphere and ionosphere, including what appears to be thermospheric weather patterns at a fixed planetary longitudes, stable over two decades; perhaps caused by continuous flows from the auroral region. Here, we introduce our recent research, in order to compare and contrast what has been observed at Jupiter with the more well understood interactions between Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We hope that this will open a discussion between the communities that will improve our understanding of the underlying physical processes, as they occur at both planets.

  15. Mid-Latitude Circulation and Extremes in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Mid-latitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage. Yet large uncertainties remain in climate model projections of heat waves, droughts, and heavy rain/snow events on regional scales, limiting our ability to effectively use these projections for climate adaptation and mitigation. These uncertainties can be attributed to both the lack of spatial resolution in the models, and to the lack of a dynamical understanding of these extremes. The approach of this project is to relate the fine-scale features to the large scales in current climate simulations, seasonal re-forecasts, and climate change projections in a very wide range of models, including the atmospheric and coupled models of ECMWF over a range of horizontal resolutions (125 to 10 km), aqua-planet configuration of the Model for Prediction Across Scales and High Order Method Modeling Environments (resolutions ranging from 240 km – 7.5 km) with various physics suites, and selected CMIP5 model simulations. The large scale circulation will be quantified both on the basis of the well tested preferred circulation regime approach, and very recently developed measures, the finite amplitude Wave Activity (FAWA) and its spectrum. The fine scale structures related to extremes will be diagnosed following the latest approaches in the literature. The goal is to use the large scale measures as indicators of the probability of occurrence of the finer scale structures, and hence extreme events. These indicators will then be applied to the CMIP5 models and time-slice projections of a future climate.

  16. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.


    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  17. Impact of interactive radiation on idealized mid-latitude storms (United States)

    Schäfer, Sophia; Voigt, Aiko


    The evolution of mid-latitude storms is controlled by the interacting impacts of large-scale advection, vertical motion and diabatic processes. It is widely accepted that understanding and accurately representing the diabatic impact of latent heating is crucial for capturing storm dynamics and their response to climate change. By contrast, little, if any, work has been done to study how radiative heating might impact storms. Here, we address this question by comparing idealized baroclinic lifecycles in the state-of-the-art global atmosphere model ICON in full spherical geometry when radiation is included and when radiative effects are neglected. Following previous work, the level of initial moisture is varied to study possible interactions between latent and radiative impacts. We find that in contrast to latent heating, radiation slows the evolution of the storm and leads to an overall weaker storm. Specifically, including radiation leads to a 10 hPa higher storm central pressure and a 30% to 50% weaker domain-averaged eddy-kinetic energy. The overall weakening impact of radiation is independent of the initial moisture content. However, there is some indication that radiation changes the qualitative evolution of the storm when initial moisture is high. For example, with radiation the low-level eddy-kinetic energy and the storm central pressure are non-monotonic functions in time and show a double peak at day 5 and day 7. This does not occur when radiation is neglected, or when the initial moisture is set to zero. Further simulations will be presented to disentangle the radiative impact of clouds, and to investigate the impact of low-level vs. high-level clouds. Moreover, an analysis of the surface pressure tendency equation will be applied to analyze and compare the impact of adiabatic processes, latent heating and radiative heating. Overall, our results show that radiation, while so far neglected, can play a first-order role for the evolution of individual storms.

  18. Kinematics and chemistry of faint high latitude dwarf carbon stars (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Beers, Timothy C.; Dietz, Sarah; Lee, Young Sun; Placco, Vinicius M.


    The diffuse halo system of the Milky Way is complex, and has been shown to comprise at least two main components: a near-zero net rotation inner-halo and a more rapidly rotating outer-halo component. Studies of the ancient, very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo system are crucial for understanding its early formation history. The so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are an important subset of the stars in the halo system, which exhibit distinctive kinematic and chemical signatures that can be used to constrain the star-formation histories and assembly of the various Galactic components.We have examined the sample of main-sequence dwarf and other faint high Galactic latitude carbon-enhanced stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey studied by Green (2013). As noted by Green, many of these starsexhibit high proper motions, which have been later claimed to be related to possible binary ejection models Plant et al. (2016). By use of the CEMP sub-classification approach of Yoon et al. (2016), we investigate whether the kinematics of these stars might instead result from their membership in the inner/outer halo populations of the Galaxy.ReferencesGreen, P. 2013, ApJ, 765, 12Plant, K. et al. 2016, AAS 227.34115Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in pressAcknowledgementThis work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).

  19. Thermospheric zonal temperature gradients observed at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Fagundes

    Full Text Available Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI measurements of thermospheric temperatures from the Doppler widths of the OI 630 nm nightglow emission line have been carried out at Cachoeira Paulista (23° S, 45° W, 16° S dip latitude, Brazil. The east-west components of the thermospheric temperatures obtained on 73 nights during the period from 1988 to 1992, primarily under quiet geomagnetic conditions, were analyzed and are presented in this paper. It was observed that on 67% of these nights, the temperatures in both the east and west sectors presented similar values and nocturnal variations. However, during 33% of the nights, the observed temperatures in the west sector were usually higher than those observed in the east sector, with zonal temperature gradients in the range of 100 K to 600 K, over about an 800 km horizontal distance. Also, in some cases, the observed temperatures in the east and west sectors show different nocturnal variations. One of the possible sources considered for the observed zonal temperature gradients is the influence of gravity wave dissipation effects due to waves that propagate from lower altitudes to thermospheric heights. The observed zonal temperature gradients could also be produced by orographic gravity waves originated away, over the Andes Cordillera in the Pacific Sector, or by dissipation of orographic gravity waves generated over the Mantiqueira Mountains in the Atlantic sector by tropospheric disturbances (fronts and/or subtropical jet streams.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (air-glow and aurora; thermosphere - composition and chemistry Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere

  20. DHIGLS: DRAO H i Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey (United States)

    Blagrave, K.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Kothes, R.; Stil, J. M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Lockman, Felix J.; Taylor, A. R.


    Observations of Galactic H i gas for seven targeted regions at intermediate Galactic latitude are presented at 1\\prime angular resolution using data from the DRAO Synthesis Telescope (ST) and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DHIGLS data are the most extensive arcminute-resolution measurements of the diffuse atomic interstellar medium beyond those in the Galactic plane. The acquisition, reduction, calibration, and mosaicking of the DRAO ST data and the cross calibration and incorporation of the short-spacing information from the GBT are described. The high quality of the resulting DHIGLS products enables a variety of new studies in directions of low Galactic column density. We analyze the angular power spectra of maps of the integrated H i emission (column density) from the data cubes for several distinct velocity ranges. In fitting power-spectrum models based on a power law, but including the effects of the synthesized beam and noise at high spatial frequencies, we find exponents ranging from ‑2.5 to ‑3.0. Power spectra of maps of the centroid velocity for these components give similar results. These exponents are interpreted as being representative of the three-dimensional density and velocity fields of the atomic gas, respectively. We find evidence for dramatic changes in the H i structures in channel maps over even small changes in velocity. This narrow line emission has counterparts in absorption spectra against bright background radio sources, quantifying that the gas is cold and dense and can be identified as the cold neutral medium phase. Fully reduced DHIGLS H i data cubes and other data products are available at

  1. A numerical study of ionospheric profiles for mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-R. Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model and results for the mid-latitude ionospheric profile below the peak of the F2-layer. The basis of the model is the solving of equations for four ionic species O+, NO+, O+2 and N+2, as well as the meta-stable O+(2D and O+(2P. Diffusion and wind-induced drifts and 21 photo-chemical reactions are also taken into account. Neutral atmospheric density and temperature are derived from the MSIS86 model and solar extreme ultraviolate irradiance from the EUV91 model. In an effort to obtain a more realistic ionospheric profile, the key point at foF2 and hmF2 is fitted from the simulation to observations. The model also utilizes the vertical drifts derived from ionosonde data with the help of the Servo model. It is shown that the ionospheric height of peak can be reproduced more accurately under the derived vertical drifts from the Servo theory than with the HWM90 model. Results from the simulation are given for Wuchang (30.5°N, 114.4°E and Wakkanai (45.6°N, 141.7°E, showing the profile changes with season and solar activity, and the E-F valley structure (the depth and the width. This simulation also reveals the importance of meta-stable ions and dynamical transport processes on the formation of the F1-ledge and F1-F2 valley.

  2. Occurrence of polar mesosphere summer echoes at very high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zecha


    Full Text Available Observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE have been carried out during the summer periodes 1999–2001 and 2003–2004 at the very high latitude of 78° N using the SOUSY Svalbard Radar (53.5 MHz at Longyearbyen. Although the measurements could not be done continuously in these seasons, PMSE have been detected over more than 6600 h of 9300 h of observation time overall. Using this data base, particular PMSE occurrence characteristics have been determined. PMSE at Svalbard appear from the middle of May to the end of August with an almost permanent total occurrence in June and July. Diurnal variations are observable in the height-depend occurrence rates and in PMSE thickness, they show a maximum around 09:00–10:00 UTC and a minimum around 21:00–22:00 UTC. PMSE occur nearly exclusively between a height of 80 km and 92 km with a maximum near 85 km. However, PMSE appear not simultaneously over the entire height range, the mean vertical PMSE extension is around 4–6 km in June and July. Furthermore, typically PMSE are separated into several layers, and only 30% of all PMSE are single layers. The probability of multiple layers is greater in June and July than at the beginning and the end of the PMSE season and shows a marked 5-day-variation. The same variation is noticeable in the seasonal dependence of the PMSE occurrence and the PMSE thickness. We finally discuss potential geophysical processes to explain our observational results.

  3. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber


    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site ( Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  4. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy). (United States)

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen


    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  5. Climatology of GNSS ionospheric scintillation at high latitudes


    Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; De Franceschi, Giorgiana; Romano, Vincenzo; Aquino, Marcio H. O.; Dodson, Alan


    The ionosphere is characterized by a highly variable degree of ionization maintained by a wide range of solar radiation and by electrons and protons originating from Sun. This plasma is under the permanent solar forcing, and interacts with the geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic fields. The ionosphere shows diurnal and seasonal variations, together with a 11-year period variability related to the solar cycle. Sporadic events due to the intermittent behaviour of the Sun are superimposed to...

  6. Gathering, Gardening, and Agricultural Production in Alaska: Why IPM Cannot Be Overlooked Even at Latitude 64° North. (United States)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climate constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. Early colonizers into the state did not encounter the pest problems of modern farmers. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased 2...

  7. Ecological and life-history traits explain recent boundary shifts in elevation and latitude of western North American songbirds (United States)

    Sonya K. Auer; David I. King


    Species are expected to move uphill or poleward in response to climate change, yet their distributions show idiosyncratic responses; many species are moving in the predicted direction, but others are not shifting at all or are shifting downhill or towards the equator. Fundamental questions remain about the causes of interspecific variation in range responses and...

  8. Low-Latitude Western North Atlantic Climate Variability During the Past Millennium: Insights from Proxies and Models (United States)


    reconstructions [Keigwin 1996; Keigwin and Pickart, 1999; deMenocal et al., 2000; Sicre et al., 2008]. Dry LIA conditions over Central and South... Sicre , M. A., J. Jacob, U. Ezat, S. Rousse, C. Kissel, P. Yiou, J. Eiriksson, K. L. Knudsen, E. Jansen, and J. L. Turon, 2008: Decadal

  9. Observations of reactive nitrogen oxide fluxes by eddy covariance above two mid-latitude North American mixed hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Geddes


    Full Text Available Significant knowledge gaps persist in the understanding of forest–atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides, partly due to a lack of direct observations. Chemical transport models require representations of dry deposition over a variety of land surface types, and the role of canopy exchange of NOx (= NO + NO2 is highly uncertain. Biosphere–atmosphere exchange of NOx and NOy (= NOx + HNO3 + PANs + RONO2 + pNO3− + ... was measured by eddy covariance above a mixed hardwood forest in central Ontario (HFWR, and a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (PROPHET during the summers of 2011 and 2012 respectively. NOx and NOy mixing ratios were measured by a custom built two-channel analyzer based on chemiluminescence, with selective NO2 conversion via LED photolysis and NOy conversion via a hot molybdenum converter. Consideration of interferences from water and O3, and random uncertainty of the calculated fluxes are discussed. NOy flux observations were predominantly of deposition at both locations. The magnitude of deposition scaled with NOy mixing ratios, resulting in campaign-average deposition velocities close to 0.6 cm s−1 at both locations. A~period of highly polluted conditions (NOy concentrations up to 18 ppb showed distinctly different flux characteristics than the rest of the campaign. Integrated daily average NOy flux was 0.14 mg (N m−2 day−1 and 0.34 mg (N m−2 day−1 at HFWR and PROPHET respectively. Concurrent wet deposition measurements were used to estimate the contributions of dry deposition to total reactive nitrogen oxide inputs, found to be 22% and 40% at HFWR and PROPHET, respectively.

  10. Northern high-latitude climate change between the mid and late Holocene – Part 2: Model-data comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nilsson


    Full Text Available The solar orbital forcing induced changes in insolation at the mid-Holocene compared to the late Holocene, which causes an amplification of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere in the earlier period. The climate response over northern high latitudes, to this change in forcing has been investigated in three types of PMIP (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations with different complexity of the climate system. The model results have also been compared with available reconstructions from temperature proxy data. Both the reconstructions and the PMIP2 models show a warm response in annual mean temperature, as well as in summer and winter temperature. The model-model comparisons indicate the importance of including the different physical feedbacks (ocean, sea-ice, vegetation in the climate model. An objective selection method is applied in the model-data comparison to evaluate the capability of the climate model in reproducing the spatial response pattern. The comparisons between the reconstructions and the best-fit selected simulations show that over the northern high latitudes, summer temperature change follows closely to the insolation and shows a common feature with strong warming over land and relatively weak warming over ocean. A pronounced warming centre is found over Barents Sea in winter in model simulations, which is also supported by the nearby northern Eurasian continental reconstructions. The warming over Barents Sea corresponds to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The strengthened sea level pressure gradient may have caused a northward shift of the Atlantic storm track. It results in enhanced westerlies towards the northern Eurasia, which may be responsible for the winter warming over northern Fennoscandia and northern Siberia.

  11. In situ observations of BrO over Antarctica: ER-2 aircraft results from 54 S to 72 S latitude (United States)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.


    Bromine monoxide was observed in situ at approximately 18 km altitude during nine flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile (54 altitude) to 72 S latitude over the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The first flight for the BrO detection system was on 28 August. Here, the results from the flights over Antarctica and from the ferry flights from Punta Arenas to Moffett Field, CA (37 N latitude are reported. A key question concerning BrO, then, is how it is distributed with respect to the chemical containment vessel defined by elevated ClO mixing ratios. This question is answered with greatest statistical significance if the data are averaged into five regions: outside the vessel, aircraft heading south; inside the vessel on the same potential temperature surface; in the dive region; inside the vessel on a given potential temperature surface, aircraft heading north; and outside the vessel on the same surface. The result is that the BrO distribution inside the chemical containment vessel was different from that found outside. Inside, the BrO mixing ratio was (5.0 plus or minus 1.1) pptv between the 400 K and 460 K potential temperature surfaces, decreasing only slightly with potential temperature, and was less than 3.6 pptv below the 4 00 K surface. The abundance of BrO inside the chemical containment vessel showed no discernible temporal trend during the course of the nine flights. Outside the vessel, the BrO mixing ratio was (4.7 plus or minus 1.3) pptv near the 450 K surface, but decreased to (2.8 plus or minus 1.0) pptv near the 420 K surface.

  12. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song


    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  13. Divergent El Niño responses to volcanic eruptions at different latitudes over the past millennium (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Jinbao; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Li, Tim; Huang, Gang; Wang, Zhiyuan


    Detection and attribution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) responses to radiative forcing perturbation are critical for predicting the future change of ENSO under global warming. One of such forcing perturbation is the volcanic eruption. Our understanding of the responses of ENSO system to explosive tropical volcanic eruptions remains controversial, and we know little about the responses to high-latitude eruptions. Here, we synthesize proxy-based ENSO reconstructions, to show that there exist an El Niño-like response to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and tropical eruptions and a La Niña-like response to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) eruptions over the past millennium. Our climate model simulation results show good agreement with the proxy records. The simulation reveals that due to different meridional thermal contrasts, the westerly wind anomalies can be excited over the tropical Pacific to the south of, at, or to the north of the equator in the first boreal winter after the NH, tropical, or SH eruptions, respectively. Thus, the eastern-Pacific El Niño can develop and peak in the second winter after the NH and tropical eruptions via the Bjerknes feedback. The model simulation only shows a central-Pacific El Niño-like response to the SH eruptions. The reason is that the anticyclonic wind anomaly associated with the SH eruption-induced southeast Pacific cooling will excite westward current anomalies and prevent the development of eastern-Pacific El Niño-like anomaly. These divergent responses to eruptions at different latitudes and in different hemispheres underline the sensitivity of the ENSO system to the spatial structure of radiative disturbances in the atmosphere.

  14. Does greater thermal plasticity facilitate range expansion of an invasive terrestrial anuran into higher latitudes? (United States)

    Winwood-Smith, Hugh S; Alton, Lesley A; Franklin, Craig E; White, Craig R


    Temperature has pervasive effects on physiological processes and is critical in setting species distribution limits. Since invading Australia, cane toads have spread rapidly across low latitudes, but slowly into higher latitudes. Low temperature is the likely factor limiting high-latitude advancement. Several previous attempts have been made to predict future cane toad distributions in Australia, but understanding the potential contribution of phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to future range expansion remains challenging. Previous research demonstrates the considerable thermal metabolic plasticity of the cane toad, but suggests limited thermal plasticity of locomotor performance. Additionally, the oxygen-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis predicts that reduced aerobic scope sets thermal limits for ectotherm performance. Metabolic plasticity, locomotor performance and aerobic scope are therefore predicted targets of natural selection as cane toads invade colder regions. We measured these traits at temperatures of 10, 15, 22.5 and 30°C in low- and high-latitude toads acclimated to 15 and 30°C, to test the hypothesis that cane toads have adapted to cooler temperatures. High-latitude toads show increased metabolic plasticity and higher resting metabolic rates at lower temperatures. Burst locomotor performance was worse for high-latitude toads. Other traits showed no regional differences. We conclude that increased metabolic plasticity may facilitate invasion into higher latitudes by maintaining critical physiological functions at lower temperatures.

  15. A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure. (United States)

    Nilson, Finn; Moniruzzaman, Syed; Andersson, Ragnar


    Research has shown that hip fracture risk increases with latitude; hypothetically due to reduced sunlight exposure and its effect on bone quality. Sweden, with large differences in latitude and UV radiation, is ideal to study in order to analyse the association between latitude and UV radiation on age- and sex-specific hip fracture rates among elderly. Aggregated (2006-2008) age- and sex-specific hip fracture data was obtained for each Swedish municipality as well as the municipality's latitudinal coordinates and aggregated (2006-2008) UV radiation levels. Pearson correlations were calculated between hip fracture incidence rates, latitude and UV radiation. Independent t tests were calculated on tertile-categorized latitudinal data in order to investigate the difference in hip fracture risk between these categories. Statistically significant correlations were seen in all groups between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation. The independent t tests showed that this correlation was mainly due to high incidence rates in high latitude municipalities. Statistically significant correlations are seen between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation in Sweden and the northern parts of Sweden have an increased risk of hip fractures compared to the middle and southern parts. To our knowledge this is the first study using a national discharge register that shows this relationship and provides a starting point for further research to investigate why populations in northern Sweden have a higher risk of hip fractures compared to other Swedish regions.

  16. Is There a Relationship between Fish Cannibalism and Latitude or Species Richness? (United States)

    Pereira, Larissa Strictar; Keppeler, Friedrich Wolfgang; Agostinho, Angelo Antonio; Winemiller, Kirk O


    Cannibalism has been commonly observed in fish from northern and alpine regions and less frequently reported for subtropical and tropical fish in more diverse communities. Assuming all else being equal, cannibalism should be more common in communities with lower species richness because the probability of encountering conspecific versus heterospecific prey would be higher. A global dataset was compiled to determine if cannibalism occurrence is associated with species richness and latitude. Cannibalism occurrence, local species richness and latitude were recorded for 4,100 populations of 2,314 teleost fish species. Relationships between cannibalism, species richness and latitude were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Species richness was an important predictor of cannibalism, with occurrences more frequently reported for assemblages containing fewer species. Cannibalism was positively related with latitude for both marine and freshwater ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in the Southern Hemisphere. The regression slope for the relationship was steeper for freshwater than marine fishes. In general, cannibalism is more frequent in communities with lower species richness, and the relationship between cannibalism and latitude is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, weaker latitudinal gradients of fish species richness may account for the weak relationship between cannibalism and latitude. Cannibalism may be more common in freshwater than marine systems because freshwater habitats tend to be smaller and more closed to dispersal. Cannibalism should have greatest potential to influence fish population dynamics in freshwater systems at high northern latitudes.

  17. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  18. Measurements of the movement of the jet streams at mid-latitudes, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, 1979 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Hudson


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the mean latitude of the sub-tropical jet streams in both hemispheres have shifted toward the poles over the last few decades. This paper presents a study of the movement of both the subtropical and Polar fronts, the location of the respective jet streams, between 1979 and 2010 at mid-latitudes, using total ozone measurements to identify the sharp horizontal boundary that occurs at the position of the fronts. Previous studies have shown that the two fronts are the boundaries of three distinct regimes in the stratosphere, corresponding to the Hadley, Ferrel, and polar meridionally overturning circulation cells in the troposphere. Over the period of study the horizontal area of the Hadley cell has increased at latitudes between 20 and 60 degrees while the area of the Polar cell has decreased. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify the major factors associated with the movement of the subtropical jet streams. These were: (1 changes in the Tropical land plus ocean temperature, (2 direct radiative forcing from greenhouse gases in the troposphere, (3 changes in the temperature of the lower tropical stratosphere, (4 the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, and (5 volcanic eruptions. The dominant mechanism was the direct radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. Between 1979 and 2010 the poleward movement of the subtropical jet streams was 3.7 ± 0.3 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 6.5 ± 0.2 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Previous studies have shown that weather systems tend to follow the jet streams. The observed poleward movement in both hemispheres over the past thirty years represents a significant change in the position of the sub-tropical jet streams, which should lead to significant latitudinal shifts in the global weather patterns and the hydrologic cycle.

  19. Ozone trends derived from the total column and vertical profiles at a northern mid-latitude station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair


    Full Text Available The trends and variability of ozone are assessed over a northern mid-latitude station, Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP: 43.93° N, 5.71° E, using total column ozone observations from the Dobson and Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénithale spectrometers, and stratospheric ozone profile measurements from light detection and ranging (lidar, ozonesondes, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II, Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. A multivariate regression model with quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, solar flux, aerosol optical thickness, heat flux, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and a piecewise linear trend (PWLT or equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC functions is applied to the ozone anomalies. The maximum variability of ozone in winter/spring is explained by QBO and heat flux in the ranges 15–45 km and 15–24 km, respectively. The NAO shows maximum influence in the lower stratosphere during winter, while the solar flux influence is largest in the lower and middle stratosphere in summer. The total column ozone trends estimated from the PWLT and EESC functions are of −1.47 ± 0.27 and −1.40 ± 0.25 DU yr−1, respectively, over the period 1984–1996 and about 0.55 ± 0.30 and 0.42 ± 0.08 DU yr−1, respectively, over the period 1997–2010. The ozone profiles yield similar and significant EESC-based and PWLT trends for 1984–1996, and are about −0.5 and −0.8% yr−1 in the lower and upper stratosphere, respectively. For 1997–2010, the EESC-based and PWLT estimates are of the order of 0.3 and 0.1% yr−1, respectively, in the 18–28 km range, and at 40–45 km, EESC provides significant ozone trends larger than the insignificant PWLT results. Furthermore, very similar vertical trends for the respective time periods are also deduced from another long-term satellite-based data set (GOZCARDS–Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the

  20. The Energetic Constraints on the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulations in the Tropics, Midlatitudes, and High Latitudes (United States)

    Hwang, Yen-Ting

    In this doctoral thesis, I have studied the processes that affect the atmospheric energy budget and their coupling relationships with atmospheric circulations. The equator-to-pole radiation gradient at the top of the atmosphere is the fundamental driver of atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Any anomaly in the energy budget due to variations in different climate components (such as clouds, aerosols, atmospheric properties, and land surfaces) will have an effect on the atmospheric and oceanic circulations and energy transport. Variations in the energy budget of extratropical regions have a non-local effect on tropical climate and vice versa. We first investigated climate components that affect the atmospheric energy budget and their coupled relationships with the atmospheric energy transport, using CMIP multi-model ensembles. We studied how individual components affect energy transport in three latitude bands: (1) at 70 degrees, where increasing poleward energy transport may cause polar amplification, (2) at 40 degrees, where eddies are the strongest, and (3) in the deep tropics, where global climate models (GCMs) do not agree on the changes in transport in global warming scenarios. In high latitudes, positive radiative effects from melting sea ice decrease the equator-to-pole temperature gradient and prevent poleward fluxes from increasing. Models that have more melting ice tend to predict a smaller increase in the energy transport, which is counterintuitive based on the argument that increasing poleward transport can lead to melting sea ice. The cooling effect of increasing low clouds over newly open ocean along the ice edge sharpens the temperature gradient and increases the energy transport in midlatitudes. Clouds and sea ice in the extratropics can also influence energy transport at the equator. We then shifted our focus to the tropical rain belt, built on the first part that demonstrated a directly linkage from hemispheric asymmetry of the atmospheric energy

  1. Dense gas in high-latitude molecular clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reach, W.R.; Pound, M.W.; Wilner, D.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Lee, Y.


    The authors have surveyed high-latitude molecular clouds (MBM 12, 7, 55, 40) in spectral lines that are believed to be dense-gas' tracers due to the high H[sub 2] volume density required for collisional excitation. An extensive CS (2-1) line map of MBM 12 revealed emission that is not confined to clumps. Less than 20% of the integrated line emission from the cloud originates in clearly identified clumps with size between 0.2 pc and 0.02 pc in the integrated line map. The bulk of the emission originates from a relatively smooth horseshoe' structure about 0.1 pc wide and 1 pc long. The CS (2-1) map correlates with the published Bell Labs [sup 13] CO map, with significant [sup 13] CO emission even where the CS emission is undetectable. Within the central core, the C[sup 18]O(1-0) and CS(2-1) lines are positively correlated with significant scatter. There is some indication of higher CS/[sup 13]CO in the cores than the horseshoe'. The observed correlations suggest that both the diffuse CS and [sup 13]CO originate from either numerous, unresolved clumps, or the diffuse parts of the cloud. High-spatial-resolution observations of HCO[sup +] from MBM 12 obtained with the BIMA Hat Creek array demonstrated that the main core emission is primarily on spatial scales greater than 0.004 pc. It appears that the authors have resolved most of the spatial structure of the dense-gas' tracers and have found that the emission is primarily diffuse. To understand the excitation mechanism of the CS rotational levels, a multitransitional study of the 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 lines is being performed. The CS excitation may be governed by electron collisions in regions with H[sub 2] column densities an order of magnitude lower than the critical density' of [approx gt] 2 [times] 10[sup 4] cm[sup -3]. If electron collisions are populating the CS levels, then the CS and [sup 13]CO lines can both be produced in the outer parts of the cloud, explaining their positive correlation

  2. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck


    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf water

  3. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck


    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model to simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius of deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf

  4. A Mid-Latitude Skywave Propagation Experiment: Overview and Results (United States)

    Munton, D. C.; Calfas, R. S.; Gaussiran, T., II; Rainwater, D.; Flesichmann, A. M.; Schofield, J. R.


    We will describe a mid-latitude HF skywave propagation experiment conducted during 19-27 January, 2014. There were two primary goals to the experiment. First, we wanted to build an understanding of the impact that medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances have on the angles of arrival of the HF signals. The second goal was to provide a diverse data set that could serve as a baseline for propagation model development and evaluation. We structured individual tests during the experiment to increase the knowledge of temporal and spatial length scales of various ionospheric features. The experiment was conducted during both day and night periods and spanned a wide range of ionospheric states. We conducted the experiment at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and in the surrounding area. As part of the experiment, we deployed a number of active HF transmitters, and an array of dipole antennas to provide angle of arrival measurements. We also deployed a smaller array of more novel compact electro-magnetic vector sensors (EMVSs). Other instrumentation specific to the remote sensing of the ionosphere included digisondes, GNSS receivers, beacon satellite receivers, and optical instruments. We will provide a complete description of the experiment configuration and the data products.Finally, we will provide a discussion of experimental results, focusing on ionospheric conditions during the angle-of-arrival determinations, and the impact ionospheric disturbances can have on these measurements. We use the angle-of-arrival determinations to estimate TID properties, including velocity and direction.This research is based upon work supported in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via US Navy Contract N00024-07-D-6200. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements

  5. In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion (United States)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Tin, P.; Wilson, J. C.; Jonsson, H. H.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Borrmann, S.; Toohey, D. W.


    In situ measurements of stratospheric sulphate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form. This makes mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and more vulnerable to chlorine species. The effect of aerosol reactions on active nitrogen depends on gas phase reaction rates, so that increases in aerosol concentration following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion at these latitudes.

  6. High Latitude Scintillation Monitoring at UHF with the COMMX Experiment on TACSat4 (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Akins, K.; Nurnberger, M.


    UHF Beacon Transmissions at 253 MHz have provided high latitude scintillation monitoring from Gakona Alaska using the COMMX instrument on TACSat4. TACSat4 was constructed by the Naval Research Laboratory and was launched in September 2011 as an experimental communications satellite. Ground UHF transmissions are uplinked to TACSat4 using the 4 meter diameter antenna deployed to view the earth. These signals are coherently translated to other UHF frequency to be rebroadcast to the ground. Scintillation monitoring is achieved by taking the 401.25 MHz signals from ground DORIS beacons located in Cold Bay, Alaska; Yellowknife, Canada; Kauai, Hawaii; and Soccoro Island, Mexico. These signals are translated to 253 MHz and broadcast with the 4 meter antenna pointed to the UHF receiver located at Gakona, Alaska. The satellite antenna gain is 18 dB in this UHF band and the transmitter power is 2 Watts. The satellite is in an elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63 degrees and a perigee of 12,000 km. Doppler frequency shifts allow separation of each uplink from the ground DORIS beacons. This new scintillation monitoring system has been used to detect natural and artificial field aligned irregularity effects on the amplitude and phase of UHF carriers where typical scintillation amplitudes are 2dB or less. Using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska, TACSat4 was used to discover the artificial ionization clouds produce scintillation with as much as 16 dB and amplitude indices S4 greater than unity. This is the first demonstration of significant effects on radio scintillations using high power HF radio waves to disturb the ionosphere.

  7. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications


    Xiao-Guang Yue


    The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.

  8. Extended degree functions and monomial modules



    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  9. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue


    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  10. Earth's lithospheric magnetic field determined to spherical harmonic degree 90 from CHAMP satellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maus, S.; Rother, M.; Hemant, K.;


    The CHAMP magnetic field mission is providing highly reliable measurements from which the global lithospheric magnetic field can be determined in unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Using almost 5 yr of data, we derive our fourth generation lithospheric field model termed MF4, which is expanded...... to spherical harmonic degree and order 90. After subtracting from the full magnetic field observations predicted fields from an internal field model up to degree 15, an external field model up to degree two, and the predicted magnetic field signatures for the eight dominant ocean tidal constituents, we fit...... of the lithospheric field down to an altitude of about 50 km at lower latitudes, with reduced accuracy in the polar regions. Crustal features come out significantly sharper than in previous models. In particular, bands of magnetic anomalies along subduction zones become visible by satellite for the first time....

  11. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using DIRBE and WISE Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, K; Matsuura, S; Kataza, H; Arai, T; Matsuoka, Y


    Using all-sky maps obtained from COBE/DIRBE at 3.5 and 4.9 um, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 um emission at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 35 degree). At 3.5um, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 um constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ~ 2%. This was consistent with the ...

  12. Faraday Tomography of the North Polar Spur: Constraints on the distance to the Spur and on the Magnetic Field of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, X H; Gaensler, B M; Carretti, E; Reich, W; Leahy, J P; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Crocker, R M; Wolleben, M; Haverkorn, M; Douglas, K A; Gray, A D


    We present radio continuum and polarization images of the North Polar Spur (NPS) from the Global Magneto-Ionic Medium Survey (GMIMS) conducted with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory 26-m Telescope. We fit polarization angle versus wavelength squared over 2048 frequency channels from 1280 to 1750 MHz to obtain a Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) map of the NPS. Combining this RM map with a published Faraday depth map of the entire Galaxy in this direction, we derive the Faraday depth introduced by the NPS and the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) in front of and behind the NPS. The Faraday depth contributed by the NPS is close to zero, indicating that the NPS is an emitting only feature. The Faraday depth caused by the ISM in front of the NPS is consistent with zero at b>50 degree, implying that this part of the NPS is local at a distance of approximately several hundred parsecs. The Faraday depth contributed by the ISM behind the NPS gradually increases with Galactic latitude up to b=44 degree, and de...

  13. On Turing Degrees of Walrasian Models and a General Impossibility Result in the Theory of Decision Making (United States)


    Strategies," in Contributions to the Theory of Games, III, Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 39, Princeton, pp. 147-157. Rice, H.G. [1954], "Recursive...Shoenfield, J. [1971], Degrees of Unsolvability, North-Holland, Elsevier, New York. Shoefield, J. [1959], "On Degrees of Unsolvability," Annals of Mathematics 69

  14. The KELT-North Transit Survey's First Planetary Detections (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Bieryla, A.; Cohen, D.; Collins, K.; Eastman, J.; Fulton, B. J.; Gary, B.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hebb, L.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Latham, D. W.; Manner, M.; Pepper, J.; Siverd, R.; Stassun, K.; Street, R. A.


    I will present the first planetary detections from the KELT-North transit survey. KELT-North is a 42mm robotic camera system at Winer Observatory in Arizona, and survey operations are based out of the Ohio State and Vanderbilt Universities. The KELT-North survey fields are 26 by 26 degrees, and are arranged in a contiguous strip around the sky centered at a declination of +30 degrees. The small aperture and wide field of view of the telescope enables KELT-North to effectively survey some of the brightest stars in the Northern sky for transiting planets. Our focus is on planet candidates around stars between 8 CAREER grant AST-1056524.

  15. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke


    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every teena

  16. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  17. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected along a latitudinal gradient from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. (United States)

    Meador, Jarah A; Baldwin, Amy J; Catala, Phillipe; Jeffrey, Wade H; Joux, Fabien; Moss, Joseph A; Dean Pakulski, J; Stevens, Richard; Mitchell, David L


    We examined ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected from surface seawater along a latitudinal transect in the Central Pacific Ocean from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. Samples were collected predawn and incubated under ambient UVR in transparent incubators at in situ temperatures until late afternoon at which time they were filtered into primarily bacterioplankton and eukaryotic fractions. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PDs] were quantified in DNA extracts using radioimmunoassays. UVB was lowest in the polar regions and highest near the equator and correlations between UVB and DNA damage were observed. The eukaryotic fraction showed significant CPDs across the entire transect; (6-4)PDs were detected only in the tropics. The bacterial fraction showed no accumulation of (6-4)PDs at any latitude, although residual (6-4)PDs were observed. Bacterial cell volumes were greatest in the sub-Arctic and northern temperate latitudes and lower in the tropics and southern hemisphere, a unique observation that parallels Bergmann's rule. A strong negative correlation was observed between cell volume and CPDs. The environmental impact of solar UVR on marine micro-organisms in the open ocean is complex and our results suggest that several factors such as DNA repair, cell size, temperature, salinity, nutrients and species composition are important in determining relative sensitivity.

  18. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination. (United States)

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R


    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  19. Study of water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in mid-latitude prairie wetlands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for a research/management study that will provide urgently needed information on carbon dioxide, methane and energy fluxes from mid-latitude...

  20. Ocean acidification at high latitudes: potential effects on functioning of the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cummings, Vonda; Hewitt, Judi; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Currie, Kim; Beard, Samuel; Thrush, Simon; Norkko, Joanna; Barr, Neill; Heath, Philip; Halliday, N Jane; Sedcole, Richard; Gomez, Antony; McGraw, Christina; Metcalf, Victoria


    Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels...

  1. Topological Structure of Urban Street Networks from the Perspective of Degree Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin; Lu, Feng; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing


    Many complex networks demonstrate a phenomenon of striking degree correlations, i.e., a node tends to link to other nodes with similar (or dissimilar) degrees. From the perspective of degree correlations, this paper attempts to characterize topological structures of urban street networks. We adopted six urban street networks (three European and three North American), and converted them into network topologies in which nodes and edges respectively represent individual streets and street intersections, and compared the network topologies to three reference network topologies (biological, technological, and social). The urban street network topologies (with the exception of Manhattan) showed a consistent pattern that distinctly differs from the three reference networks. The topologies of urban street networks lack striking degree correlations in general. Through reshuffling the network topologies towards for example maximum or minimum degree correlations while retaining the initial degree distributions, we found...

  2. Water Balance in a Mid-Latitude, Mixed Grass Prairie (United States)

    Billesbach, D.; Arkebauer, T.


    Covering more than 50,000 square kilometers, the Nebraska Sand Hills are the largest stabilized dune field in the world. A unique feature of this region is the close proximity of the land surface to the vast High Plains Aquifier. The land-surface is classified as a mixed grass prairie, and except for a few very small instances, has never been put under the plow. The region is currently home to most of the rangeland cattle industry in Nebraska, and prior to European settlement, was the primary home-range for large herds of North American bison. The co-location of an extensive sub-surface water resource and an inherently semi-arid climate produces an interesting ecosystem, which affords many unique opportunities to study plant-water relationships. We are currently operating a pair of Energy Balance/Bowen Ratio (EBBR) systems to measure evapotranspiration and other ecosystem parameters within key land surface types. We now have 2 growing seasons or more than 20 months of data. We will discuss this data and compare the two seasons in terms of water inputs and outputs.

  3. 批评的宽度%Critical Latitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From his educational background both in France and America,Professor Pavel not only expresses his endorsement,understanding and judgment of the concept of "imposed interpretation," but also his opinion and further academic expectations.The article has three parts.First,he confirms the existence of the specific problems of "imposed interpretation,""subjective assumption prior to interpretation," and "reversed route of cognition." Second,he points out that the phenomen on of imposed interpretation is not unique in contemporary times and has existed in Western literary research since the beginning of the 19th century-firom the Zeitgeist of the age of Hegel,the social environment of positivism,the narratology of structuralism,and to contemporary literary critique,all of which have the feature of using concepts to cover the multiformity of literary works.Pavel finally points out that the contemporary phenomen on of"imposed interpretation" embodies the features of American culture and exposes the problem of American education.He hopes that scholars can keep critical latitude and vitality while rectifying the errors in literary research.%帕威尔教授从他兼具法国和美国的学术教育背景出发,一方面给出了他对“强制阐释”概念的赞同、理解和判定,另一方面也提出他的补充意见与进一步的学科期待.本文分三部分内容,首先是确认“强制阐释”核心概念下的场外征用、主观预设和反序认知等具体问题的存在;然后指出强制阐释现象并非当代独有,而是历史性地存在于19世纪初以来的西方文学研究里——从黑格尔时代的“时代精神”到实证主义的“社会环境”,再到结构主义的“叙事学”和当代的文化批评,都有以概念掩盖作品的多样性事实的特点;最后,帕威尔指出,当代的强制阐释现象体现了强烈的美国文化的特点,也暴露了美国文学教育的问题,但他希望文学研究在纠偏的同时,能

  4. MBM 12: young protoplanetary discs at high galactic latitude (United States)

    Meeus, G.; Juhász, A.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Chen, C.; Lawson, W.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.


    We present Spitzer infrared observations to constrain disc and dust evolution in young T Tauri stars in MBM 12, a star-forming cloud at high latitude with an age of 2 Myr and a distance of 275 pc. The region contains 12 T Tauri systems, with primary spectral types between K3 and M6; 5 are weak-line and the rest classical T Tauri stars. We first use MIPS and literature photometry to compile spectral energy distributions for each of the 12 members in MBM 12, and derive their IR excesses. Of the 8 stars that are detected with MIPS (spectral types between K3 and M5), only 1 lacks an IR excess - the other 7 all have an IR excess that can be attributed to a disc. This means that in MBM 12, for the detected spectral types K3-M5, we have a very high disc fraction rate, about 90%. Furthermore, 3 of those 7 excess sources are candidate transitional discs. The four lowest-mass systems in the cloud, with spectral types of M5-M6, were undetected by Spitzer. Their upper limits indicate that they either have a transitional disc, or no disc at all. The IRS spectra are analysed with the newly developed two-layer temperature distribution (TLTD) spectral decomposition method. For the 7 T Tauri stars with a detected IR excess, we analyse their solid-state features to derive dust properties such as mass-averaged grain size, composition and crystallinity. The mass-averaged grain size we determine from the 10 micron feature has a wide range, between 0.4 and 6 μm. This grain size is much smaller in the longer-wavelength region: between 0.1 and 1.5 μm. We find that later-type objects have larger grain sizes, as was already shown by earlier studies. Furthermore, we find a wide range in mass fraction of the crystalline grains, between 3 and (at least) 30%, with no relation to the spectral type nor grain size. We do find a spatial gradient in the forsterite to enstatite range, with more enstatite present in the warmer regions. The fact that we see a radial dependence of the dust properties

  5. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes


    Mihas Constantinos; Mouzakis Vasilios; Vasiliadis Elias; Grivas Theodoros B; Koufopoulos Georgios


    Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among nor...

  6. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihas Constantinos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  7. High Altitude Bird Migration at Temperate Latitudes: A Synoptic Perspective on Wind Assistance



    At temperate latitudes the synoptic patterns of bird migration are strongly structured by the presence of cyclones and anticyclones, both in the horizontal and altitudinal dimensions. In certain synoptic conditions, birds may efficiently cross regions with opposing surface wind by choosing a higher flight altitude with more favourable wind. We observed migratory passerines at mid-latitudes that selected high altitude wind optima on particular nights, leading to the formation of structured mig...

  8. A Simple Method for Calculating a Planet's Mean Annual Insolation by Latitude

    CERN Document Server

    Nadeau, Alice


    Common methods for calculating a planet's annual insolation by latitude have relied on computationally heavy or complex computer algorithms. In this paper, we show that mean annual insolation by latitude of a planet with obliquity angle $\\beta$ can be found by taking the definite integral of a function of longitude. This leads to faster computations and more accurate results. We discuss differences between our method and selected computational results for insolation found in the literature.

  9. A statistical approach to latitude measurements: Ptolemy's and Riccioli's geographical works as case studies (United States)

    Santoro, Luca


    The aim of this work is to analyze latitude measurements typically used in historical geographical works through a statistical approach. We use two sets of different age as case studies: Ptolemy's Geography and Riccioli's work on geography. A statistical approach to historical latitude and longitude databases can reveal systematic errors in geographical georeferencing processes. On the other hand, once exploiting the right statistical analysis, this approach can also lead to new information about ancient city locations.

  10. CO J = 3 -> 2 observations of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Phillips, T.G.; Black, J.H.; Gredel, R.


    Measurements were carried out on the CO J = 3-2 emission line at 345 GHz from a number of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds, as well as on the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines of both the (C-12)O and (C-13)O. It is shown that the physical conditions in the high-latitude clouds are very similar

  11. MITHRAS: A Program of Simultaneous Radar Observations of the High-Latitude Auroral Zone. (United States)


    CHATANIKA AND MILL - STONE HILL. The vertical arrow indicates local midnight. 29 electron densities. The nighttime minima are not as well reproduced by the... Nuit de Haute Latitude," Proceedings of GRECO Conference, Grenoble, France (September 1982). Senior, C., P. Bauer, C. Taieb, and Michel Petit, "Le R61e...Alignis, Precipitations Diffuses et Electrojets dans le Secteur Nuit de Haute Latitude," C. Senior, Proceedings of GRECO Conference, Grenoble, 1982. 0"On

  12. Sunspot latitudes during the Maunder Minimum: a machine-readable catalogue from previous studies


    J. M. Vaquero; Nogales, J. M.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.


    The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715 approximately) was a period of very low solar activity and a strong hemispheric asymmetry, with most of sunspots in the southern hemisphere. In this paper, two data sets of sunspot latitudes during the Maunder minimum have been recovered for the international scientific community. The first data set is constituted by latitudes of sunspots appearing in the catalogue published by Gustav Sp\\"orer nearly 130 years ago. The second data set is based on the sunspot lat...

  13. General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).

  14. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott


    Full Text Available Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over onset values by ~60 min into the expansion phase. A rudimentary inspection of the concurrent auroral evolution suggests that the duration of the flow reduction following substorm onset is dependent on the strength and duration of the expansion phase aurora and its associated conductivity enhancement.

  15. Latitude of Ephemeral Regions as Indicator of Strength of Solar Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Tlatov, Andrey G


    Digitized images of full disk CaK spectroheliograms from two solar observatories were used to study cycle variation of ephemeral regions (ERs) over ten solar cycles 14-23. We calculate monthly averaged unsigned latitude of ERs and compare it with annual sunspot number. We find that average latitude of ERs can be used as a predictor for strength of solar cycle. For a short-term prediction (dT about 1-2 years), maximum latitude of ephemeral regions (in current cycle) defines the amplitude of that cycle (higher is the latitude of ERs, larger are the amplitudes of sunspot cycle). For a long-term prediction (dT about 1.5 solar cycles), latitude of ERs at declining phase of n-th cycle determines the amplitude of (n+2)-th sunspot cycle (lower is the latitude of ERs, stronger is the cycle). Using this latter dependency, we forecast the amplitude of sunspot cycle 24 at W=92 +/- 13 (in units of annual sunspot number).

  16. Latitude-dependence and dispersion of the westward drift in the geomagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The main geomagnetic field models of IGRF1900---2000 are used to study the latitude-dependence of the westward drift in the main field. The results show that the latitude-dependence exists in the magnetic components with different wavelengths (m=l-10). The globai-average westward drift rate of the component of m=l is 0.189°/a with the maximum of 0.295°/a at latitudes 40°-45°. The component of m=2 has an average drift rate of 0.411°/a with the maximum of 1.305°/a at latitude -60°. As for the components with further shorter wavelengths, the drift is generally restricted in a limited latitude range, and has many smaller drift rates. This latitude-dependence of westward drift can not be explained by rigid rotation of the earth's core. The results of this note also show that there is a negative dispersion in the westward drift, namely the components of long wavelengths drift faster than those of short wavelengths.This dispersion feature is not in agreement with Hide's MHD model. It is likely needed to find a new mechanism for explaining the observed feature of dispersion.

  17. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest


    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  18. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter


    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  19. Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pitkänen


    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap and the auroral oval are examined in the evening sector during a substorm period on 25 November 2000 by using measurements of the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, the north-south chain of the MIRACLE magnetometer network, and the Polar UV Imager.

    The location of the polar cap boundary (PCB is estimated from electron temperature measurements by the mainland low-elevation EISCAT VHF radar and the 42 m antenna of the EISCAT Svalbard radar. A comparison to the poleward auroral emission (PAE boundary by the Polar UV Imager shows that in this event the PAE boundary is typically located 0.7° of magnetic latitude poleward of the PCB by EISCAT. The convection reversal boundary (CRB is determined from the 2-D plasma drift velocity extracted from the dual-beam VHF data. The CRB is located 0.5–1° equatorward of the PCB indicating the existence of viscous-driven antisunward convection on closed field lines.

    East-west equivalent electrojets are calculated from the MIRACLE magnetometer data by the 1-D upward continuation method. In the substorm growth phase, electrojets together with the polar cap boundary move gradually equatorwards. During the substorm expansion phase, the Harang discontinuity (HD region expands to the MLT sector of EISCAT. In the recovery phase the PCB follows the poleward edge of the westward electrojet.

    The local ionospheric reconnection electric field is calculated by using the measured plasma velocities in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. During the substorm growth phase, values between 0 and 10 mV/m are found. During the late expansion and recovery phase, the reconnection electric field has temporal variations with periods of 7–27 min and values from 0 to 40 mV/m. It is shown quantitatively, for the first time to our knowledge, that intensifications in the local reconnection electric field correlate with appearance of auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs

  20. Induction effects of geomagnetic disturbances in the geo-electric field variations at low latitudes (United States)

    Doumbia, Vafi; Boka, Kouadio; Kouassi, Nguessan; Didier Franck Grodji, Oswald; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Menvielle, Michel


    In this study we examined the influences of geomagnetic activity on the Earth surface electric field variations at low latitudes. During the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) various experiments were performed along 5° W in West Africa from 1992 to 1995. Among other instruments, 10 stations equipped with magnetometers and telluric electric field lines operated along a meridian chain across the geomagnetic dip equator from November 1992 to December 1994. In the present work, the induced effects of space-weather-related geomagnetic disturbances in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) influence area in West Africa were examined. For that purpose, variations in the north-south (Ex) and east-west (Ey) components of telluric electric field were analyzed, along with that of the three components (H, D and Z) of the geomagnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of 17 February 1993 and the solar flare observed on 4 April 1993. The most important induction effects during these events are associated with brisk impulses like storm sudden commencement (ssc) and solar flare effect (sfe) in the geomagnetic field variations. For the moderate geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 February 1993, with a minimum Dst index of -110 nT, the geo-electric field responses to the impulse around 11:00 LT at LAM are Ex = 520 mV km-1 and Ey = 400 mV km-1. The geo-electric field responses to the sfe that occurred around 14:30 LT on 4 April 1993 are clearly observed at different stations as well. At LAM the crest-to-crest amplitude of the geo-electric field components associated with the sfe are Ex = 550 mV km-1 and Ey = 340 mV km-1. Note that the sfe impact on the geo-electric field variations decreases with the increasing distance of the stations from the subsolar point, which is located at about 5.13° N on 4 April. This trend does not reflect the sfe increasing amplitude near the dip equator due the high Cowling conductivity in the EEJ belt.

  1. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch


    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  2. Analysis and Numerical Simulations of the Teleconnection Between Indian Summer Monsoon and Precipitation in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunyun; DING Yihui


    In the early 1980s, Chinese meteorologists discovered the positive correlation in summer rainfall be-tween India and North China and the correlation was later confirmed by some researches in and outside China. Based on a variety of meteorological data from 1951 to 2005 and numerical simulations, the present study investigates such a correlation between Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and precipitation in North China. Furthermore, we discuss the intrinsic relations of the positive (Northwest India)-negative (the Ti-betan Plateau)-positive (North China) precipitation anomaly teleconnection pattern from two aspects of thermal and dynamical factors, which not only confirms the precipitation teleconnection previously discov-ered again, but also reveals the influence mechanism of the ISM on the rainfall in North China. The results show that: (1) When the ISM is strong (weak), the precipitation in North China tends to be more (less) than normal; however, when the rainfall in North China is more (less) than normal, the probability of the strengthening (weakening) of the ISM is relatively lower. This implies that the ISM anomaly has more impact on the rainfall in North China. (2) The Indian low usually dominantly impacts the intensity of the ISM. When the Indian low deepens, the low troughs in mid-high latitudes are frequently strengthened, and the ridge of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) extends westward. The southwesterly water vapor transport originated from low-latitudes and the southeasterly water vapor transport along the southwestern flank of the WPSH converge in North China, which is favorable for more rainfall there than normal, and vice versa. (3) The simulations from the regional climate model developed by National Climate Center (ReGCM_NCC) capture the salient feature of the precipitation teleconnection between India and North China. The simulated anomalous atmospheric circulations are close to observations, which confirms the existence of such a

  3. Observational evidence of planetary wave influences on ozone enhancements over upper troposphere North Africa (United States)

    Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Ture, Kassahun; Sivakumar, V.


    MOZAIC instrument measured enhanced ozone on two occasions in February, 1996 and 1997 at cruise altitude over North Africa. The cause and source of ozone enhancements over the region are investigated using additional reanalysis data from ERA-Interim. The ERA-Interim reprocessed GOME ozone indicated existence of enhancement as well. Both observational data revealed that the increase in ozone has wider latitudinal coverage extending from North Europe upto North Africa. The geopotential heights and zonal wind from ERA-Interim have indicated existence of planetary-scale flow that allowed meridional airmass exchanges between subtropics and higher latitudes. The presence of troughs-ridge pattern are attributable to large amplitude waves of zonal wavenumber 1-5 propagating eastward in the winter hemisphere westerly current as determined from Hayashi spectra as well as local fractional variance spectra determined from Multitaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD) spectral method. MTM-SVD is also used to understand the role of these waves on ozone enhancement and variability during the observation period in a mechanistic approach. A joint analysis of driving field, such as wind and potential vorticity (PV) for which only signals of the dominant zonal wavenumbers of prevailing planetary waves are retained, has revealed strong linkage between wave activity and ozone enhancement over the region at a temporal cycle of 5.8 days. One of these features is the displacement of the polar vortex southward during the enhancements, allowing strong airmass, energy and momentum exchanges. Evidence of cutoff laws that are formed within the deep trough, characteristics of Rossby wave breaking, is also seen in the ozone horizontal distribution at different pressure levels during the events. The reconstruction of signals with the cycle of 5.8 days has shown that the time and strength of enhancement depend on the circulation patterns dictated by planetary-scale flow relative to the

  4. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region (United States)

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.


    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  5. 川渝地区气温随地形、经度和纬度的变化%The characteristics of temperature variability with terrain, latitude and longitude in Sichuan-Chongqing Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing'an; LI Yangbing; NI Jiupai


    @@%Using the daily temperature data of 95 meteorological stations from Sichuan-Chongqing Region and its surrounding areas,this paper adopted these methods (e.g.,linear regression,trend coefficient,geographical statistics,gray relational analysis and spatial analysis functions of GIS) to analyze the relations of temperature variability with topography,latitude and longitude.Moreover,the rank of gray correlation between temperature variability and elevation,longitude,latitude,topographic position and surface roughness also was measured.These results indicated:(1) The elevation affected temperature variability most obviously,followed by latitude,and longitude.The slope of the linear regression between temperature change rate and elevation,latitude and longitude was 0.4142,0.0293 and--0.3270,respectively.(2) The rank of gray correlation between temperature change rate and geographic factors was elevation > latitude > surface roughness > topographic position > longitude.The gray correlation degree between temperature change rate and elevation was 0.865,followed by latitude with 0.796,and longitude with 0.671.(3) The rate of temperature change enhanced with the increase of elevation.Especially,the warming trend was significant in the plateau and mountain areas of western Sichuan,and mountain and valley areas of southwestern Sichuan (with the warming rate of 0.74℃/10a during the 1990s).However,there was a weak warming trend in Sichuan Basin and its surrounding low mountain and hilly areas.(4) The effects of latitude on temperature change rate presented the specific regulation,which the warming rate of low-latitude areas was more significant than that of high-latitude areas.However,they were consistent with the regulation that the increasing of low temperature controlled most of the warming trend,due to the effects of terrain and elevation on annual mean temperature.(5) Basically,temperature variability along longitude direction resulted from the regular change

  6. Dynamic Mechanism of Interannual Sea Surface Height Variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Chui; ZHANG Li-Feng; L(U) Qing-Ping


    In this study, the dynamic mechanisms of interannual sea surface height (SSH) variability are investigated based on the first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave model, with a focus on the effects of different levels of wind stress curl (WSC)、 Maximum covariance analysis (MCA) of WSC and SSH anomalies displays a mode with significant WSC anomalies located primarily in the mid-latitude eastern North Pacific and central tropical Pacific with corresponding SSH anomalies located to the west. This leading mode can be attributed to Ekman pumping induced by local wind stress and the westward-propagating Rossby wave driven by largescale wind stress. It is further found that in the middle latitudes, the SSH anomalies are largely determined by WSC variations associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)、 rather than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sensitivity of the predictive skill of the linear first-mode baroclinic model to different wind products is also examined.

  7. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area. (United States)

    Matsumura, Kanichiro


    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  8. Spin-Down of the North Atlantic Subpolar Circulation (United States)

    Hakkinen, S.; Rhines, P. B.


    Dramatic changes have occurred in the mid-to-high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean as evidenced by TOPEX/Poseidon observations of sea surface height (SSH) in the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream. Analysis of altimeter data shows that subpolar SSH has increased during the 1990s and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data shows a decline in the gyre circulation. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the trend in the 199Os, and, together with hydrographic data show that in the mid-late 1990s the trend extends deep in the water column. We find that buoyancy forcing over the northern North Atlantic has a dynamic effect consistent with the altimeter data and hydrographic observations: a weak thermohaline forcing and the subsequent decay of the domed structure of the subpolar isopycnals would give rise to the observed anticyclonic circulation trend.

  9. Bifurcation of Pacific North Equatorial Current at the surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The grid altimetry data between 1993 and 2006 near the Philippines were analyzed by the method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the variation of bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current at the surface of the Pacific. The relatively short-term signals with periods of about 6 months, 4 months, 3 months and 2 months are found besides seasonal and interannual variations mentioned in previous studies. Local wind stress curl plays an important role in controlling variation of bifurcation latitude except in the interannual timescale. The bifurcation latitude is about 13.3°N in annual mean state and it lies at the northernmost position (14.0°N) in January, at the southernmost position (12.5°N) in July. The amplitude of variation of bifurcation latitude in a year is 1.5°, which can mainly be explained as the contributions of the signals with periods of about 1 year (1.2°) and 0.5 year (0.3°).

  10. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F


    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  11. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G


    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  12. Dynamics of the seasonal variation of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin


    The dynamics of the seasonal variation of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation is studied using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity Pacific basin model and a linear, first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave model. The model-simulated bifurcation latitude exhibits a distinct seasonal cycle with the southernmost latitude in June and the northernmost latitude in November, consistent with observational analysis. It is found that the seasonal migration of the NEC bifurcation latitude (NBL) not only is determined by wind locally in the tropics, as suggested in previous studies, but is also significantly intensified by the extratropical wind through coastal Kelvin waves. The model further demonstrates that the amplitude of the NEC bifurcation is also associated with stratification. A strong (weak) stratification leads to a fast (slow) phase speed of first-mode baroclinic Rossby waves, and thus large (small) annual range of the bifurcation latitude. Therefore, it is expected that in a warm climate the NBL should have a large range of annual migration.

  13. The mesoscale precipitation distribution in mid-latitude continental regions: observational uncertainty and evaluation of 25-km global model simulations. (United States)

    Vidale, P. L.; Schiemann, R.; Demory, M. E.; Roberts, C. J.


    Mid-latitude precipitation over land exhibits a high degree of variability due to the complex interaction of governing atmospheric processes with coastlines, the heterogeneous land surface, and orography. General circulation models (GCMs) have traditionally shown limited ability in capturing variability in the mesoscale range (here ~50-500 km), due to their low resolution. Recent advances in resolution have provided ensembles of multidecadal climate simulations with GCMs using ~25 km grid spacing. Here, we assess this class of GCM simulations, from the UPSCALE (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk) campaign. Increased model resolution also poses new challenges to the observational datasets used to evaluate models. Global gridded data products (e.g. from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project, GPCP) are invaluable for assessing large-scale precipitation features, but may not sufficiently resolve mesoscale structures. In the absence of alternative estimates, the intercomparison of specialised, regional observational datasets may be the only way to gain insight into the uncertainties associated with these observations. We focus on three mid-latitude continental regions where gridded precipitation observations based on higher-density gauge networks are available, complementing the global data sets: Europe (with a particular emphasis on the Alps), South and East Asia, and the continental US. Additional motivation, and opportunity, arises from continuing efforts to quantify the components of the global radiation budget and water cycle. Recent estimates based on radiation measurements suggest that the global mean precipitation/evaporation may be up to 10 Wm-2 (about 0.35 mm day-1) larger than the estimate obtained from GPCP. While the main part of this discrepancy is thought to be due to the underestimation of remotely-sensed ocean precipitation, there is also considerable uncertainty about 'unobserved' precipitation

  14. Relationships of Periglacial Processes to Habitat Quality and Thermal Environment of Pikas (Lagomorpha, Ochotona) in Alpine and High-Latitude Environments (Invited) (United States)

    Millar, C. I.; Smith, A. T.; Hik, D. S.


    Patterned-ground and related periglacial features such as rock-glaciers and fractured-rock talus are emblematic of cold and dry arctic environments. The freeze-thaw processes that cause these features were first systematically investigated in the pioneering work of Linc Washburn. Unusual internal and autonomous micro-climatic and hydrologic processes of these features, however, are only beginning to be understood. Such features occur also in temperate latitude mountains, often in surprising abundance in regions such as the Great Basin (NV, USA) and San Juan Mtns (CO, USA), where they occur as active as well as relict (neoglacial or Pleistocene) features. Rock-dwelling species of pikas (Ochotona) in temperate North American and Asian mountains and in North American high-latitudes have long been known for their preference for talus habitats. We are investigating geomorphic, climatic, and hydrologic attributes of these periglacial features for their role in habitat quality and thermal environment of pikas. PRISM-modeled and observed climatic conditions from a range of talus types for Ochotona princeps in California and the western Great Basin (USA) indicate that, 1) thermal conditions of intra-talus-matrix in summer are significantly colder than talus-surface temperatures and colder than adjacent slopes and forefield wetlands where pika forage; 2) near-talus-surface locations (where haypiles are situated) are warmer in winter than intra-talus-matrix temperatures; 3) high-quality wetland vegetation in talus forefields is promoted by year-round persistence of outlet springs, seeps, and streams characteristic of active taluses. The importance of snowpack to winter thermal conditions is highlighted from these observations, suggesting a greater sensitivity of habitat in dry temperate regions such as eastern California and Nevada USA to warming winter minimum temperatures than in regions or elevations where snowpacks are more persistent. In regions where warming air


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Demin


    Full Text Available Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  16. Human ecology and climate change: People and resources in the Far North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, D.R. [eds.


    This book is a collection of papers from a workshop held in October 1993 that explore and develop further ideas about the impacts of climate change on the people and ecosystems of the Far North. Included are researchers and managers from atmospheric sciences, anthropology, sociology, rural economics, northern latitude mammal and fisheries biology, and governmental and management strategies. The book discusses the range of interrelationships that will have to be addressed as natural cycles or anthropogenic causes affect global climate patterns.

  17. 25(OH)D levels in trained versus sedentary university students at 64° north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerome, Scott; Sticka, Kendra; Schnurr, Theresia Maria


    -athletes living at 64° north. Methods:University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participatein this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week.Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake....... Conclusion:TS are at increased risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency compared to theirsedentary counterparts residing at the same latitude, despite higher vitamin D intake....

  18. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David


    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  19. Paleoseismology at high latitudes: Seismic disturbance of upper Quaternary deposits along the Castle Mountain fault near Houston, Alaska (United States)

    Haeussler, P.J.; Best, T.C.; Waythomas, C.F.


    Most paleoseismic studies are at low to moderate latitudes. Here we present results from a high-latitude (61??30??? N) trenching study of the Castle Mountain fault in south-central Alaska. This fault is the only one known in the greater Anchorage, Alaska, area with historical seismicity and a Holocene fault scarp. It strikes eastnortheast and cuts glacial and postglacial sediments in an area of boreal spruce-birch forest, shrub tundra, and sphagnum bog. The fault has a prominent vegetation lineament on the upthrown, north side of the fault. Nine trenches were logged across the fault in glacial and postglacial deposits, seven along the main trace, and two along a splay. In addition to thrust and strike-slip faulting, important controls on observed relationships in the trenches are the season in which faulting occurred, the physical properties of the sediments, liquefaction, a shallow water table, soil-forming processes, the strength of the modern root mat, and freeze-thaw processes. Some of these processes and physical properties are unique to northern-latitude areas and result in seismic disturbance effects not observed at lower latitudes. The two trenches across the Castle Mountain fault splay exposed a thrust fault and few liquefaction features. Radiocarbon ages of soil organic matter and charcoal within and overlying the fault indicate movement on the fault at ca. 2735 cal. (calendar) yr B.P. and no subsequent movement. In the remaining seven trenches, surface faulting was accompanied by extensive liquefaction and a zone of disruption 3 m or more wide. The presence of numerous liquefaction features at depths of soil, but did not penetrate the interlocking spruce-birch root mat. The strength of the root mat prohibited development of a nonvegetated scarp face and colluvial wedge. In only one trench did we observe a discrete fault plane with measurable offset. It lay beneath a 2-m-thick carapace of liquefied sand and silt and displayed a total of 0.9-1.85 m of

  20. Possible crater-based pingos, paleolakes and periglacial landscapes at the high latitudes of Utopia Planitia, Mars (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Conway, S. J.; Pearce, G. D.; Dohm, J. M.; Grindrod, P. M.


    Closed-system pingos (CSPs) are perennial ice-cored mounds that evolve in relatively deep and continuous permafrost. They occur where thermokarst lakes either have lost or are losing their water by drainage or evaporation and by means of freeze-thaw cycling, permafrost aggradation and pore-water migration. The presence of CSPs on Mars, particularly on late-Amazonian Epoch terrain at near-polar latitudes, would indicate: (1) the antecedent occurrence of ponded water at the mound-formation sites; (2) freeze-thaw cycling of this water; and (3) boundary-conditions of pressure and temperature at or above the triple point of water much more recently and further to the north than has been thought possible. In 2005 we studied two crater-floor landscapes in northern Utopia Planitia and used MOC narrow-angle images to describe mounds within these landscapes that shared a suite of geological characteristics with CSPs on Earth. Here, we show the results of a circum-global search for similar crater-floor landscapes at latitudes >˜55°N. The search incorporates all relevant MOC and HiRISE images released since 2005. In addition to the two periglacially suggestive crater-floor landscapes observed by us earlier, we have identified three other crater floors with similar landscapes. Interestingly, each of the five mound-bearing craters occur within a tight latitudinal-band (˜64-69°N); this could be a marker of periglacial landscape-modification on a regional scale. Just to the north of the crater-based pingo-like mounds Conway et al. have identified large (km-scale) crater-based perennial ice-domes. They propose that the ice domes develop when regional polar-winds transport and precipitate icy material onto the floor of their host craters. Under a slightly different obliquity-solution ice domes could have accumulated at the lower latitudes where the putative CSPs have been observed. Subsequently, were temperatures to have migrated close to or at 0 °C the ice domes could have

  1. Reconstructions of Circulation in the Northeastern Pacific and Western North America since 1500 A.D.: Relation to Precipitation and Fire Conditions in California (United States)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Wahl, Eugene; Trouet, Valerie


    A reconstruction of the position of the North Pacific Jet Stream (NPJ) in wintertime over the past 500 years is. Reconstruction of NPJ behavior is driven by an analog process that employs existing paleoclimate field reconstructions of winter temperature, summer precipitation and summer soil moisture from western North America to select climate model states in millennial climate simulations that are closest to the field reconstructions. The skill of the reconstruction method is tested against the 20CR meteorological reanalysis. All three types of proxy sets individually contribute to the skill in the reconstruction of the winter atmospheric circulation. The NPJ reconstruction is also evaluated in relation to dry and wet extremes in California and extremes of Sierra Nevada fire activity. Results indicate that fire and precipitation extremes are both closely linked with NPJ winter position, with characteristic wet/low fire and dry/high fire NPJ spatial features in the northeastern Pacific adjacent to western North America. The meridional profiles of zonal wind at 200 hPa height can be classified according to winters belonging to dry and wet hydrological years and also according to summers with high or low fire activity. This classification indicates that in wet years and low-fire years the jet stream is more intense, more zonally oriented with peak winds occurring at lower latitudes. The opposite configuration occurs in dry, high-fire, years, with a more meandering jet stream peaking at higher latitudes. These features are in turn evaluated in future climate model scenarios using directly comparable transient integrations that cover the past millennium, the instrumental period, and the 21st century. Relatively wet/low fire regional conditions are reasonably possible in the later 21st century under a high greenhouse gas forcing regime (RCP 8.5), even though temperatures rise significantly. The implication of this combination of conditions in the Sierra Nevada is that


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck


    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  3. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary


    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  4. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.


    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  5. Turbulent high-latitude oceanic intrusions—details of non-smooth apparent isopycnal transport West of Svalbard (United States)

    van Haren, Hans; Greinert, Jens


    Filament intrusions are observed in high-resolution temperature (T) measurements from a 100-m and several month-long mooring in the Fram Strait in around 400-m water depth at the continental slope West of Svalbard (Spitsbergen, Norway). In this dynamic environment, a wide variety of intrusive layers are observed with thicknesses between 5 and 80 m with warmer water between cooler waters above and below. The layers typically last from several hours up to 1 day, exceeding the local buoyancy period but not lasting as long as intrusive layers in the open ocean. The intrusions are a result of an intermingling of Arctic and North-Atlantic waters and generated in the basins interior and locally via internal wave steepening upon the sloping bottom. Freely propagating semidiurnal lunar internal tides cannot exist without background vorticity at these high latitudes. Strongly nonlinear turbulent bores are not observed at the tidal periodicity, but wave fronts occur at the sub-inertial frequency of dominant baroclinic instability. The fronts are in part associated with near-buoyancy frequency internal waves (breaking). The details of the moored T observations and their spectral content demonstrate the non-smooth, relatively turbulent development including convective overturning and shear-induced instabilities when intrusions disperse in presumably salinity-compensated isopycnal layers.

  6. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.


    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  7. Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nielsen


    Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  8. Multi-model assessment of the impact of soil moisture initialization on mid-latitude summer predictability (United States)

    Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, L.; Bunzel, F.; Decremer, D.; Déqué, M.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Douville, H.; Fereday, D.; Guemas, V.; MacLachlan, C.; Müller, W.; Prodhomme, C.


    Land surface initial conditions have been recognized as a potential source of predictability in sub-seasonal to seasonal forecast systems, at least for near-surface air temperature prediction over the mid-latitude continents. Yet, few studies have systematically explored such an influence over a sufficient hindcast period and in a multi-model framework to produce a robust quantitative assessment. Here, a dedicated set of twin experiments has been carried out with boreal summer retrospective forecasts over the 1992-2010 period performed by five different global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The impact of a realistic versus climatological soil moisture initialization is assessed in two regions with high potential previously identified as hotspots of land-atmosphere coupling, namely the North American Great Plains and South-Eastern Europe. Over the latter region, temperature predictions show a significant improvement, especially over the Balkans. Forecast systems better simulate the warmest summers if they follow pronounced dry initial anomalies. It is hypothesized that models manage to capture a positive feedback between high temperature and low soil moisture content prone to dominate over other processes during the warmest summers in this region. Over the Great Plains, however, improving the soil moisture initialization does not lead to any robust gain of forecast quality for near-surface temperature. It is suggested that models biases prevent the forecast systems from making the most of the improved initial conditions.

  9. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses. (United States)

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J


    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  10. Relative Contributions of Heating and Momentum Forcing to High-Latitude Lower Thermospheric Winds (United States)

    Kwak, Y. S.; Richmond, A. D.


    At high latitudes the thermospheric dynamics are gov­erned by various heat and momentum sources. Recently several modeling studies have been attempt­ed to understand the physical process that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics. Kwak and Richmond [2007] and Kwak et al. [2007] studied the momentum forcing bal­ance that are mainly responsible for maintaining the high-latitude lower thermospheric wind system by using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermo­sphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIE-GCM). Kwak and Richmond [2014] analyzed the divergence and vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the south­ern summertime. In this study, we extend previous works by Kwak and Rich­mond [2007, 2014] and Kwak et al. [2007], which helped to better understand the physical processes maintaining thermospheric dynamics at high latitudes, and here perform a "term analysis of the potential vorticity equation" for the high-latitude neu­tral wind field in the lower thermosphere, on the basis of numerical simulations using the NCAR TIE-GCM. These analyses can provide insight into the relative strength of the heating and the momentum forcing responsible for driving rotational winds at the high-latitude lower thermosphere. The heating is the net heat including the heat transfer by downward molecular and eddy heat conduction, the absorption of solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ra­diation, auroral heating by particles, Joule dissipation of ionospheric currents, release of chemical energy by the atomic oxygen recombination, and radiative CO2, NO and O infrared emissions. The momentum forcing is associated with the viscous force and the frictional drag force from convecting ions.

  11. Responses of arthropod populations to warming depend on latitude: evidence from urban heat islands. (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D


    Biological effects of climate change are expected to vary geographically, with a strong signature of latitude. For ectothermic animals, there is systematic latitudinal variation in the relationship between climate and thermal performance curves, which describe the relationship between temperature and an organism's fitness. Here, we ask whether these documented latitudinal patterns can be generalized to predict arthropod responses to warming across mid- and high temperate latitudes, for taxa whose thermal physiology has not been measured. To address this question, we used a novel natural experiment consisting of a series of urban warming gradients at different latitudes. Specifically, we sampled arthropods from a single common street tree species across temperature gradients in four US cities, located from 35.8 to 42.4° latitude. We captured 6746 arthropods in 34 families from 111 sites that varied in summer average temperature by 1.7-3.4 °C within each city. Arthropod responses to warming within each city were characterized as Poisson regression coefficients describing change in abundance per °C for each family. Family responses in the two midlatitude cities were heterogeneous, including significantly negative and positive effects, while those in high-latitude cities varied no more than expected by chance within each city. We expected high-latitude taxa to increase in abundance with warming, and they did so in one of the two high-latitude cities; in the other, Queens (New York City), most taxa declined with warming, perhaps due to habitat loss that was correlated with warming in this city. With the exception of Queens, patterns of family responses to warming were consistent with predictions based on known latitudinal patterns in arthropod physiology relative to regional climate. Heterogeneous responses in midlatitudes may be ecologically disruptive if interacting taxa respond oppositely to warming. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. On the NH3 absorption depression observable at Northern low latitudes of Jupiter (United States)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; Vdovichenko, Vladimir D.; Lysenko, Peter G.; Karimov, Alibek M.; Kirienko, Galina A.; Bondarenko, Natalya N.; Kharitonova, Galina


    From February to April of 2016, we carried out a special series of spectrophotometric observations of Jupiter to study the current behavior of the ammonia absorption at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, where in 2004 we have found a well-defined depression of the 787 nm NH3 absorption band intensity (V.Tejfel et al., Bull.AAS, 2005, Vol. 37, p.682). In subsequent years, an existence of this depression was annually confirmed by spectral observations, although we were noticing its variable character. During observations of 2016 we obtained more than 2,500 CCD-spectrograms, including the spectra of the central meridian, the GRS, and 12 scans of Jovian disk on different dates (70 zonal spectra in each scan). The 787 nm NH3 absorption band was extracted with using of ratios of the Jovian spectra to the Saturn's disk spectrum that was taken as a reference. The depression of absorption in this band begins almost from the equator, and its maximum occurs at the planetographic latitude of 100N then the absorption increases again approaching to the latitude of 200N. The equivalent bandwidths corresponding to these latitudes are equal to 18.7 ± 1.4 A, 14.4 ± 1.0 A and 17.8 ± 0.8A. The 645 nm NH3 absorption band also shows depletion at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, but it is less pronounced. At the temperate latitudes of the Northern hemisphere this band's absorption is systematically lower than the Southern Hemisphere's ones. We will continue research in this direction, especially because recently a significant depletion of gaseous NH3 has also been found with using of the VLA with high resolution (I. de Pater et al., Science, 2016, Vol. 352, Issue 6290, p.1290-1294) at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere in the region of the NEB.

  13. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate. (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N


    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.


    Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North Atlantic Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/Ca, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North Atlantic SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.

  15. Morphological features of Triassic and Late Cretaceous high-latitude radiolarian assemblages (comparative analysis) (United States)

    Bragin, Nikita; Bragina, Liubov


    High-latitude radiolarian assemblages of Mesozoic represent particular interest for Boreal-Tethyan correlation of Mesozoic as well as for their paleobiogeography. Radiolarians are the only planktonic protists that present both in low- and high-latitude Mesozoic sections, therefore they have high importance. The aim of this work is to distinguish common and different features of Triassic and Late Cretaceous high-latitude assemblages of Radiolaria during their comparative analysis. We use material from Triassic of Omolon Massif (NE Siberia) (Bragin, Egorov, 2001) and Kotel'nyi Island (Arctic) (Bragin, Bragina, 2009; Bragin, in press) and Late Cretaceous of Western Siberia (Amon, 2000) and Kamchatka Peninsula (Vishnevskaya, 2005; Bragina, 1991). The main trends of radiolarian assemblages from these sections are: quantitative domination of some taxa, presence of characteristic high-latitude taxa that are absent or very rare in low-latitude regions, and relatively low taxonomic diversity with absence of many high taxa and many morphotypes. We made following conclusions after comparative analysis: 1. Triassic assemblages are dominated by morphotypes with bipolar main spines (Pseudostylosphaera and similar forms), and by pylomate forms (Glomeropyle). Genus Glomeropyle has bipolar distribution pattern and it is typically high-latitude taxon. Late Cretaceous assemblages are dominated by forms with bipolar three-bladed main spines (Amphisphaera, Protoxiphotractus, Stylosphaera), by prunoid morphotypes (Amphibrachium, Prunobrachium), discoid spongy forms (Orbiculiforma, Spongodiscus) by three-rayed (Paronaella, Spongotripus), four-rayed (Crucella, Histiastrum) and multirayed stauraxon forms (Pentinastrum, Multastrum). Pylomate forms (Spongopyle) are present in the Late Cretaceous high-latitude assemblages but not so common. 2. Spherical forms with spines that possess apophyses (Kahlerosphaera, Dumitricasphaera) are common for Triassic high-latitude areas, but not present in

  16. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The...

  17. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2011 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The...

  18. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, Republican River Basin in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, 2002 to 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The...

  19. Hydrographic Features of North Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. S. Rao


    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and density in the first 500 meters of the north Indian ocean water has been discussed here. Vertical sections for each parameter are drawn to identity different types of water masses. Spatial distribution of these water masses in relation to the existing surface currents is also described. Two types of water masses are present to the north of the equator. The water from bay of Bengal with its characteristic low salinity (32.60-34.00% is found upto 5 degree N and is spreading in all directions . To the south of 5 degree N the water mass is found with solinity between 35.00-35.20%. This water is existing upto 300 meters with uniform salinity along the equator. The sub-tropical salinity maximum which occurs in a thin layer just above the thermocline is observed to the north and south of equator, similar to the one encountered by defant in the atlantic ocean. The sub-tropical salinity maximum along the equator has been found to be well defined.

  20. Export of Ozone-Poor Air from the Lower Tropical Stratosphere to Mid-latitudes (United States)

    Spackman, J. R.; Weinstock, E. M.; Anderson, J. G.


    Analysis of ozonesonde profiles shows a decline in ozone of 7 to 9%/decade during the past 20 to 30 years in the northern mid-latitude lower stratosphere [Logan et al., 1999], exposing the large population at these latitudes to increased health risks. Heterogeneous processing leading to halogen-catalyzed ozone loss is not expected to occur in the mid-latitude lower stratosphere because in situ measurements indicate the air is consistently undersaturated and low in ClO in this region [Smith et al., 2001]. Furthermore, in situ measurements acquired aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) suggest that equatorward mixing of ozone-depleted air from the Arctic vortex does not contribute significantly to declines in mid-latitude lower stratospheric ozone. Instead, tracer-tracer correlations from SOLVE indicate that rapid isentropic transport from the lower tropical stratosphere coupled with diabatic descent in mid-latitudes delivers very young, ozone-poor air to the lowermost stratosphere (θ Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 26373-26399, 1999. Smith, J.B., et al., Mechanisms for midlatitude ozone loss: Heterogeneous chemistry in the lowermost stratosphere?, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 1297-1309, 2001.