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Sample records for degrees fifty year

  1. Fifty years in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Doyle, Lex W; Davies, Mark W; Davis, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Neonatology, the care and study of newborn infants, is a 'young' specialty. Over the last 50 years, there have been many advances in the way that neonatologists care for newborn infants, particularly those born preterm, leading to dramatic improvements in mortality. To illustrate these advances, we describe four eras in neonatology from the point of view of the junior hospital doctor.

  2. PAs: Fifty years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ellen D; North, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

  3. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    toward larger group homes and congregations, inequality across municipalities, marketization, and new public management, but also an increasing emphasis on consumer rights and the use of the personal assistance scheme in services for people with ID. The authors conclude that diverging trends coexist......, with improvements going together with significant setbacks. They explore the trends from a political science perspective and, in particular, note how they relate to recent shifts in public management and changing drivers of change....... test of the reforms is not what happens during reform years, but after the reform energy decreases and political attention fades. Thus, developments after 2000 are of particular interest. The comparative analysis is based on research reviews in the five Nordic countries. The analysis observed a trend...

  4. Lasers: The next fifty years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärtner, Franz; Pollnau, Markus; Ueda, Ken-ichi; van Driel, Henry

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest‿ in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward

  5. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prez, Du Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry, phys

  6. Lasers: The next fifty years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärtner, Franz; Pollnau, Markus; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Driel, van Henry

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest” in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward extensio

  7. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  8. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  9. Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…

  10. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  11. Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2008-12-19

    Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.

  12. First Fifty Years of Chemoresistive Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Neri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fifty years of chemoresistive sensors for gas detection are here reviewed, focusing on the main scientific and technological innovations that have occurred in the field over the course of these years. A look at advances made in fundamental and applied research and leading to the development of actual high performance chemoresistive devices is presented. The approaches devoted to the synthesis of novel semiconducting materials with unprecedented nanostructure and gas-sensing properties have been also presented. Perspectives on new technologies and future applications of chemoresistive gas sensors have also been highlighted.

  13. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  14. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  15. Cryogenic engineering fifty years of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic Engineering: Fifty Years of Progress is a benchmark reference work which chronicles the major developments in the field. Starting with an historical background dating to the 1850s, this book reviews the development of data resources now available for cryogenic fields and properties of materials. The advances in cryogenic fundamentals are covered by reviews of cryogenic principles, cryogenic insulation, low-loss storage systems, modern liquefaction processes, helium cryogenics and low-temperature thermometry. Several well-established applications resulting from cryogenic advances include aerospace cryocoolers and refrigerators, use of LTS and HTS systems in electrical applications, and recent changes in cryopreservation. Extensive references are provided for the readers interested in the details of these cryogenic engineering advances.

  16. [Fifty years of clinical use of warfarin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-González, Jesús Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin is the most utilized oral anticoagulant for the long term prophylaxes of thrombosis. Its use has been increased as new clinical conditions, capable of leading to thrombosis, have been detected. Due to the special characteristics of warfarin, such as the variability of doses for each individual, the narrow margin between adequate and inadequate doses, interaction with multiple pharmaceutical products, interference of its action by vitamin K present in the diet and the possibility of hemorrhagic complications or thrombotic recurrence, this drug requires a very careful dosage and strict laboratory and clinical monitoring. Despite being in the market for more than de fifty years and its many disadvantages, warfarin has not been substituted for the new oral anticoagulants. In 1999, warfarin was positioned eleventh on the list of the most used medicines in the world.

  17. Fifty years of science, memories, and events

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In 2004 CERN celebrates its 50th anniversary. More precisely, on Wednesday 29 September 2004, the signature of the convention that established CERN will be 50 years old. During this special year, CERN's public web site will host a celebratory Fiftieth Anniversary web site.

  18. The Road Was Fifty Years Long

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    TIBET has always been a place of worldconcern. After the Democratic Reformin 1959, Tibet turned into a socialist societyfrom the former feudal serf system, whichwas an unprecedented historical step. Forforty years since then, the peace anddevelopment of Tibet have received specialattention and concern from the centralgovernment. Du Qiyuan, the president ofTibet Women’s Federation who grew up andhas worked in Tibet for years told me about

  19. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  20. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Kwasnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInnovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years.MethodsPatents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010 were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored.ResultsBetween 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued.ConclusionsThe application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.

  1. Fifty years ago: the Vaiont night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Spagna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geologist at the beginning of his career in the early 1960’s was a teacher of mineralogy and geology at the Agordo “Follador” Mining Institute in the Dolomites area. It was 50 years ago now when he observed the building of the Vaiont dam, and here he tells us of the night of October 9, 1963, when he rushed to the Piave Valley together with the first-aid teams, to confront the remains of Longarone. Did the dam collapse? Everybody thinks so, but the moon was not shining enough to allow an understanding of what had happened. It was only the first faint light of dawn that revealed that the dam was still standing: it was only edged by the water, from the shaping of the tremendous wave that was raised by the Mount Toc landslide when it entered the basin at 100 km/h. The dam edge contributed to the projection of the wave onto the opposite slopes, where once the water mass was released from the narrow Vaiont canyon, it raised solidly into the air, grazing the Casso village and precipitated as a massive block on the Longarone area. Everybody looked upwards with hate and despair, at the residual water streamlets that were overflowing along the concrete wall of the dam. Over the white bare esplanade people appeared extremely small. Pitiful people, gathered around the bodies wrenched from the devastated houses, denuded and buried in the mud.

  2. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N; Lehman, R; Vergino, E; Schock, R

    2004-03-15

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching

  3. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  4. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Anniversaries call for celebrations. Since it is now fifty years since the first semiconductor lasers were reported, it is highly appropriate to celebrate this anniversary with a Special Issue dedicated to the topic. The semiconductor laser now has a major effect on our daily lives since it has been a key enabler in the development of optical fibre communications (and hence the internet and e-mail), optical storage (CDs, DVDs, etc) and barcode scanners. In the early 1960s it was impossible for most people (with the exception of very few visionaries) to foresee any of these future developments, and the first applications identified were for military purposes (range-finders, target markers, etc). Of course, many of the subsequent laser applications were made possible by developments in semiconductor materials, in the associated growth and fabrication technology, and in the increased understanding of the underlying fundamental physics. These developments continue today, so that the subject of semiconductor lasers, although mature, is in good health and continues to grow. Hence, we can be confident that the pervasive influence of semiconductor lasers will continue to develop as optoelectronics technology makes further advances into other sectors such as healthcare, security and a whole host of applications based on the global imperatives to reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental impact and conserve resources. The papers in this Special Issue are intended to tell some of the story of the last fifty years of laser development as well as to provide evidence of the current state of semiconductor laser research. Hence, there are a number of papers where the early developments are recalled by authors who played prominent parts in the story, followed by a selection of papers from authors who are active in today's exciting research. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the semiconductor laser was celebrated by the publication of a number of papers dealing with the early

  5. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  6. Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s research database (ScienceDirect), Elton B. ...

  7. Fifty years of mathematical physics selected works of Ludvig Faddeev

    CERN Document Server

    Niemi, Antti J

    2016-01-01

    This unique volume summarizes with a historical perspective several of the major scientific achievements of Ludwig Faddeev, with a foreword by Nobel Laureate C N Yang. The volume that spans over fifty years of Faddeev's career begins where he started his own scientific research, in the subject of scattering theory and the three-body problem. It then continues to describe Faddeev's contributions to automorphic functions, followed by an extensive account of his many fundamental contributions to quantum field theory including his original article on ghosts with Popov. Faddeev's contributions to soliton theory and integrable models are then described, followed by a survey of his work on quantum groups. The final scientific section is devoted to Faddeev's contemporary research including articles on his long-term interest in constructing knotted solitons and understanding confinement. The volume concludes with his personal view on science and mathematical physics in particular.

  8. Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baranzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, Modigliani proposed a theory of spending in which people make intelligent choices about their spending at each age limited by the resources available over their lives. By using assets and debts, working people can provide for their retirement and tailor their spending to their needs at each age independent of income at each age. The theory predicts that national saving depends on the growth of national income, not its level, and that aggregate wealth depends on the length of retirement. Fifty years later, the life-cycle hypothesis remains an essential part of economists' thinking. Without it, we would have much less to say about the private and public provision of social security, the effects of the stock market on the economy, the effects of demographic change on national saving, the role of saving in economic growth, and the determinants of national wealth.

  9. Fifty Years of Climate Curricular Confusion and Pedagogical Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. S.; Niepold, F.

    2008-12-01

    The processes of weather and climate, including the greenhouse effect and the potential for significant, even catastrophic human impacts on the climate system, were sufficiently understood in 1958 during the International Geophysical Year that the authors of the science education booklet, Planet Earth, The Mystery with 100,000 Clues, published by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, were confident to predict that continued emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere could, in time, melt icecaps and glaciers and rise sea levels. This important scientific insight was further studied by climatologists, but is largely missing as an integral, important component of science education. Now, fifty years later, with a global population that has doubled, fossil fuel emissions that have tripled, and current energy consumption and emission trajectories that are above the IPCC Business as Usual scenario, leading politicians still doubt that our global economy can impact the climate system. NRC estimates that up to 40 percent of the approximately $10 trillion U.S. economy is affected by weather and climate events annually, making it a crucial if not dominant factor in our economic well-being, particularly for future generations. Despite the long term and short term importance of climate in our lives, society is essentially illiterate about climate science and confused about the connections between energy, economy and climate, as numerous public opinion polls and studies have shown. A key reason is that education programs and pedagogical content knowledge focusing on the basics of climate, including natural variability as well as human induced climate change, are largely missing from K12 and undergraduate education. Climate has fallen through disciplinary cracks, been avoided because of perceived controversy, and neglected because most educators lack training or expertise in the subject matter. With a focus on climate in formal education, this paper will provide an overview

  10. The Proton Synchrotron, going strong at fifty years

    CERN Multimedia

    Django Manglunki

    It was on the evening of 24 November 1959 that an incredulous Hildred Blewett, on detachment to CERN from the Brookhaven laboratory, exclaimed “Yes! We’re through transition!” The first beam of ten billion protons had not only broken through the 5.2 GeV barrier but gone on all the way to 24 GeV, the machine’s top energy at that time.   An operational screenshot from the PS, taken on its 50th anniversary. The three white peaks depict different phases (cycles) of the PS’s operation. In the first and third cycle, the PS is producing a very low-intensity beam for LHC commissioning. In the second cycle, protons are being spilled out for use in the East Area. Fifty years ago the PS, the first strong-focusing proton synchrotron using alternating gradient technology, first began to circulate beams at an unprecedented level of energy. Over the years, a complex of linear and circular accelerators and storage rings grew up around the PS. In the mid-1990s ...

  11. Fifty years of numerical modeling of baroclinic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a brief critical analysis of the main historical stages of numerical modeling for the last fifty years. It was a half a century ago that the numerical simulation of an actual baroclinic ocean was initiated by the author and his students [1, 2]. In meteorology, studies on the numerical modeling of a baroclinic atmosphere existed much earlier [21, 22]. Despite this, a similar move in oceanography was met with strong resistance. At that time, there were many studies on the calculation of the total mass transport. The founders of this field, V.B. Shtokman, H. Sverdrup, and W. Munk, were mistaken in believing that they addressed baroclinic models of the ocean. The author preferred works by V. Ekman [12] and I. Sandström and B. Helland-Hansen [19]. A generalization of recent studies made it possible to come to some conclusions on the need to use the level of the free oceanic surface as a basis rather than the function of total mass transport, on the role of the baroclinic β effect (BARBE), on the joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR), etc. The author conditionally divides these fifty years into the following three stages. (1) The first stage was 1961-1969, when the author and his students performed almost exclusively diagnostic and adaptation calculations of climatic characteristics. (2) The second stage began with papers by K. Bryan [23] and his students. This is an important and promising stage involving mainly prognostic studies and four-dimensional analysis. The major advances in modeling at this stage (the Gulf Stream separation point [61], the Kuroshio seasonal evolution [63], the formation of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea [80], the subsurface countercurrent in the Caspian Sea [25], the realistic four-dimensional analysis of the Kara Sea [60], etc.) were due to high-resolution and/or data assimilation with an adequate period of integration. (3) The third stage began with the activities of international

  12. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  13. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979566 Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Vilcek J. I...mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming... at a moving target. PubmedID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  14. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  15. [Fifty years of treating stuttering in young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, M C

    2004-08-14

    Developmental stuttering involves a disruption in the smooth connection of sounds or syllables that is characterised by multiple interruptions within a word, such as repetitions of sounds, syllables and parts of words, elongation of words and blockades. During the course of the past fifty years, three phases can be distinguished in the management of developmental stuttering, characterised by a shift in stress from the environmental factors to the role of the organic, i.e. non-psychological, factors. Initially, the parents of toddlers and pre-school children were advised to pay no attention to stuttering behaviour. Then the problem would disappear the quickest of its own accord. After 1985, the stress came to be placed on reducing the level of expectations, for example by speaking to the child more slowly and using shorter and less complex sentences. Another new aspect was that the parents learned to discuss stuttering with the child in a sympathetic and accepting manner. Since 2000, an approach has been introduced in the Netherlands in which parents are taught to respond verbally to both fluent and non-fluent speech. Emphasis is given to rewarding fluent speech, such as in the Australian Lidcombe Program, but the parents are also taught to react to stuttered speech once in a while. At present, early treatment is accepted as a way of preventing chronic stuttering, even if this means that some children will be treated that would have recovered in any case and even though the exact yield is not yet clear. Clinical practice shows that early treatment almost always succeeds in limiting the severity of stuttering to a mild form.

  16. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  17. Fifty years of fuzzy logic and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rishe, Naphtali; Kandel, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive report on the evolution of Fuzzy Logic since its formulation in Lotfi Zadeh’s seminal paper on “fuzzy sets,” published in 1965. In addition, it features a stimulating sampling from the broad field of research and development inspired by Zadeh’s paper. The chapters, written by pioneers and prominent scholars in the field, show how fuzzy sets have been successfully applied to artificial intelligence, control theory, inference, and reasoning. The book also reports on theoretical issues; features recent applications of Fuzzy Logic in the fields of neural networks, clustering, data mining, and software testing; and highlights an important paradigm shift caused by Fuzzy Logic in the area of uncertainty management. Conceived by the editors as an academic celebration of the fifty years’ anniversary of the 1965 paper, this work is a must-have for students and researchers willing to get an inspiring picture of the potentialities, limitations, achievements and accomplishments...

  18. Editorial: “Fifty years Annals of Forest Science”

    OpenAIRE

    Leban, Jean-Michel; Peiffer, Marianne; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Dreyer, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Annals of Forest Science is publishing a series of review papers to celebrate 50 years of activities as a journal in forest and wood science. The reviews emphasize the extent to which forest and wood sciences changed and developed as a large array of disciplines devoted to complex objects with sometimes many conflicting issues.

  19. Marriage and Fertility in Tianjin, China: Fifty Years of Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Burton

    A report of research conducted in Tianjin, People's Republic of China (September 1981-January 1982) describes and analyses changes in family structure, marriage, post-marital residence, and fertility in a neighborhood of factory workers over a 50-year period. Social and economic changes such as delayed marriage, increased access to education, and…

  20. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  1. [Fifty years of mortality or the result of social inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Ornelas, R

    1993-01-01

    An average of 30 years has been added to Mexican life expectancy in the past five decades. Women and men born in 1940 had life expectancies of 41.5 and 39.5 years, respectively, compared to 72.8 and 66.7 in 1990. Mortality declined most sharply between 1940 and 1960, and declined at varying rates in the subsequent decades. In the decade from 1980 to 1990, the mortality decline slowed. The differential in life expectancy between men and women amounted to 6.2 years in 1980 and 6.1 in 1990. The high life expectancy of women means that future advances will be more difficult to achieve. The greater survival of Mexicans over the five decades is due to improvements in living conditions, advances in preventive and curative medicine, and social policy. The slower pace of mortality decline in the past decade may perhaps have been due to deteriorating living conditions, reduced priority accorded to social policies in the areas of health and education, and declining real incomes. Mexican health, education, and other social policies have favored the urban and industrial centers, increasing regional disparities. A comparison of life expectancies in Oaxaca, one of the most impoverished states of Mexico, and Puebla, which has somewhat better conditions, with life expectancies in the wealthy state of Nuevo Leon and the Federal District demonstrates the influence of the level of development on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 1990 in Oaxaca and Puebla was the equivalent of that for all of Mexico ten years earlier. Men in Oaxaca live five years less on average than men in Nuevo Leon. But the gain in life expectancy for males was higher in Oaxaca between 1980 and 1990 than in the other states.

  2. Water chemistry: fifty years of change and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezonik, Patrick L; Arnold, William A

    2012-06-05

    Water chemistry evolved from early foundations in several related disciplines. Although it is difficult to associate a precise date to its founding, several events support the argument that the field as we know it today developed in the mid-20th century--at the dawn of the "environmental era"--that is, ∼1960. The field in its modern incarnation thus is about 50 years old. In celebration of this half-centenary, we examine here the origins of water chemistry, how the field has changed over the past 50 years, and the principal driving forces for change, focusing on both the "practice" of water chemistry and ways that teaching the subject has evolved.

  3. Fifty years of wilderness science: An international perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Carver; Steve McCool; Zdenka Krenova; Mark Fisher; Stephen. Woodley

    2014-01-01

    The 50th Anniversary of the U.S. Wilderness Act is a cause for celebration, not least of which is the scientific use recognized in Section 4(b) of the act. This year also marks the 20th anniversary of publication of the International Journal of Wilderness (IJW). IJW plays a unique role in wilderness stewardship, science, and advocacy, providing a forum for presentation...

  4. Bibliometric analysis of fifty years of physica status solidi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Werner [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hoffmann, Dieter [Max Planck Institute for the History of Sciences, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Bibliometric methods are used to analyze quantitatively the journal physica status solidi (pss) 50 years after its inception. First, the coverage of the journal by the relevant citation indices accessible under the Web of Science (WoS) and the field-specific INSPEC database is examined. The number of papers published per year by the journal as a whole and by the specific pss series is given. The time evolution of the pss output in terms of papers per year is compared with the output evolution of some major competing journals in the field of condensed-matter physics. The top-12 most frequently cited pss papers published within the complete time period 1961-2010 and within the two separate time periods 1974-1989 and 1990-2010 (before and after the German reunification) are listed. The citation time curves (citation history) of the three most frequently cited pss papers are presented. Furthermore, the Journal Impact Factors (JIFs) of the pss journal series (a) and (b) are discussed and their time evolution is shown. Moreover, the distribution of the pss papers over their document types and the authors is given. The countries of authors are ranked for the complete time period 1961-2010 as well as for the time periods 1973-1989 and 1990-2010. The complete ensemble of the citing papers of the pss papers is analyzed and discussed. The journals citing most often the pss papers published in the year 2000 are listed. Finally, the distribution of the pss papers over the various subject areas and classification terms based on the INSPEC database is tabled. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva; Burnet, Jean-Paul; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, Thomas

    2013-08-12

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  6. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler,Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  7. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  8. [From conventional cytogenetics to microarrays. Fifty years of Philadelphia chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jesús M; Granada, Isabel; Solé, Francesc

    2011-07-23

    In 1960 Ph-chromosome was found associated with the presence of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In these 50 years an increasing number of cytogenetic abnormalities have been found associated with hematological malignancies. The presence of these abnormalities is not only important for the diagnosis of the patient, but it also contributes to the prognosis of patients with leukemia or lymphoma. For this reason the WHO classification of hematological disease has included these studies for the correct characterization of leukemias and lymphomas. In addition, the use of FISH and micromatrix methodologies have refined the genetic lesions present in these malignancies. The cytogenetic changes observed also provide further information in relation to the therapy.

  9. The right to health fifty years on: still skeptical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M

    1999-01-01

    The drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was a crucial step in the recognition of a legal right to health. Although the past 50 years have revealed weaknesses in the Declaration, it has been an important catalyst for social and legal change worldwide and for new thinking about public health. Recently, the struggle against the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taught us that protecting the human rights of those most at risk is, in fact, a most effective means of preventing the spread of HIV. Traditional public health problems, as well as those involving new biotechnologies, must today be addressed with specific attention to human rights.

  10. Fifty years of fuel quality and vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In the late 1970s, with growing emphasis on urban air quality in Europe, CONCAWE embarked on new research related to fuels and vehicles. After only a few years, it became clear that fuel properties and specifications would be increasingly important to the future of the European refining industry, and considerable research was completed in the 1970s to better understand the impact of fuel composition on vehicle performance and emissions. This early work led to the formation of the first Fuels and Emissions Management Group (FEMG) in 1982, almost 20 years after the formation of the CONCAWE Association. Since these early days, FEMG has been responsible for ensuring CONCAWE's strategic outlook on future vehicle and fuel developments, monitoring regulatory and vehicle developments, and overseeing a diverse portfolio of fuel quality and vehicle emissions research. Since the 1980s, tremendous progress has been made in improving European air quality, in part by reducing emissions from road transport and other sectors, and major improvements in European fuel qualities have contributed to these reductions. Nevertheless, many challenges are still ahead, especially further reductions in pollutant emissions from vehicles while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport. In the near-term, these GHG reductions will largely come from improvements in engine and vehicle fuel consumption and by blending of GHG-reducing bio-blending components. Dealing with these challenges to fuel quality and performance will require a continuing focus on CONCAWE's founding principles: sound science, cost effectiveness and transparency.

  11. Fifty years of the Korean Society for Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yull

    2009-10-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

  12. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  13. Fifty Years of the Spectrum Problem: Survey and New Results

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud; Makowsky, Johann; More, Malika

    2009-01-01

    In 1952, Heinrich Scholz published a question in the Journal of Symbolic Logic asking for a characterization of spectra, i.e., sets of natural numbers that are the cardinalities of finite models of first order sentences. G\\"unter Asser asked whether the complement of a spectrum is always a spectrum. These innocent questions turned out to be seminal for the development of finite model theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper we survey developments over the last 50-odd years pertaining to the spectrum problem. Our presentation follows conceptual developments rather than the chronological order. Originally a number theoretic problem, it has been approached in terms of recursion theory, resource bounded complexity theory, classification by complexity of the defining sentences, and finally in terms of structural graph theory. Although Scholz' question was answered in various ways, Asser's question remains open. One appendix paraphrases the contents of several early and not easily accesible papers by G. Ass...

  14. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  15. Perspectives on Erving Goffman's "Asylums" fifty years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, John; Gill, Irwin; Glackin, Shane N; Kelly, Brendan D; Scanlon, Christopher; Mac Suibhne, Seamus

    2013-08-01

    Erving Goffman's "Asylums" is a key text in the development of contemporary, community-orientated mental health practice. It has survived as a trenchant critique of the asylum as total institution, and its publication in 1961 in book form marked a further stage in the discrediting of the asylum model of mental health care. In this paper, some responses from a range of disciplines to this text, 50 years on, are presented. A consultant psychiatrist with a special interest in cultural psychiatry and mental health legislation, two collaborating psychotherapists in adult and forensic mental health, a philosopher, and a recent medical graduate, present their varying responses to the text. The editors present these with the hope of encouraging further dialogue and debate from service users, carers, clinicians, and academics and researchers across a range of disciplines.

  16. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain.

  17. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  18. Fifty Years of Quasars: Physical Insights and Potential for Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Dultzin, D; D'Onofrio, M; del Olmo, A

    2014-01-01

    Last year (2013) was more or less the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. It is an interesting time to review what we know (and don't know) about them both empirically and theoretically. These compact sources involving line emitting plasma show extraordinary luminosities extending to one thousand times that of our Milky Way in emitting volumes of a few solar system diameters (bolometric luminosity log L$_{bol} \\sim $ 44-48 [erg s$^{-1}$]: D=1-3 light months $\\sim$ $10^3$ - $10^4$ gravitational radii). The advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes enables us to study them spectroscopically in ever greater detail. In 2000 we introduced a 4D Eigenvector 1 parameters space involving optical, UV and X-Ray measures designed to serve as a 4D equivalent of the 2D Hertzsprung-Russell diagram so important for depicting the diversity of stellar types and evolutionary states. This diagram has revealed a principal sequence of quasars distinguished by Eddington ratio (proportional to the accretion rate per unit mass)...

  19. Fifty years of progress in speech understanding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zue, Victor

    2004-10-01

    Researchers working on human-machine interfaces realized nearly 50 years ago that automatic speech recognition (ASR) alone is not sufficient; one needs to impart linguistic knowledge to the system such that the signal could ultimately be understood. A speech understanding system combines speech recognition (i.e., the speech to symbols conversion) with natural language processing (i.e., the symbol to meaning transformation) to achieve understanding. Speech understanding research dates back to the DARPA Speech Understanding Project in the early 1970s. However, large-scale efforts only began in earnest in the late 1980s, with government research programs in the U.S. and Europe providing the impetus. This has resulted in many innovations including novel approaches to natural language understanding (NLU) for speech input, and integration techniques for ASR and NLU. In the past decade, speech understanding systems have become major building blocks of conversational interfaces that enable users to access and manage information using spoken dialogue, incorporating language generation, discourse modeling, dialogue management, and speech synthesis. Today, we are at the threshold of developing multimodal interfaces, augmenting sound with sight and touch. This talk will highlight past work and speculate on the future. [Work supported by an industrial consortium of the MIT Oxygen Project.

  20. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.

  1. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  2. Fifty-one Years of Hawaiian Hotspot Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Tuzo Wilson's ground breaking realization that the progressively increasing ages of volcanism along linear chains of Pacific islands are best explained by movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary heat source was followed by Jason Morgan's physically more plausible plume theory. Hawaii, the "mother" of all plumes/hotspots, has become the focus of a continuing burden-of-proof battle about the existence of mantle plumes. The monotonic age progression of this island chain has been amply confirmed, but the hotspot locus is not perfectly fixed, and this has been taken to be a failed test of the plume model. Numerous numerical experiments in bottom-heated settings have demonstrated that plumes are a physically natural mode of convection, but antiplumers focus on the fact that in internally heated media, plumes are unlikely. Early proposals of propagating lithospheric fractures with magma tapped from the underlying asthenosphere have never been sufficiently developed to seriously compete with the convection models. Geochemists eagerly adopted the plume model and developed highly model-dependent criteria for identifying mantle plumes, but these are easily knocked down, because most geochemical tracers carry no information about the specific mantle depth being sampled. Conversely, petrological-geochemical models invoking exclusively asthenospheric magma sources have not explained how, in the absence of a Bunsen burner, high melt production can be localized in one geographic spot for 108 years. Our work has focussed on using dynamic modelling to trace the path of geochemical heterogeneities from the base of the mantle to the volcanoes. We find that large-scale heterogeneities existing in the lower thermal boundary layer are drawn into close proximity in the plume conduit and in the erupting volcanoes. Geochemistry cannot prove mantle plumes, but plumes offer a promising path to understanding the geochemistry of the deep mantle.

  3. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  4. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-23

    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  5. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  6. Darrell Huff and Fifty Years of How to Lie with Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, J. Michael

    2005-01-01

    Over the last fifty years, How to Lie with Statistics has sold more copies than any other statistical text. This note explores the factors that contributed to its success and provides biographical sketches of its creators: author Darrell Huff and illustrator Irving Geis.

  7. Fifty Years Later: Comments on the Further Development of a Science of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years after the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", some possibilities for the future of Skinner's "science of verbal behavior" are considered. Specifically, certain areas of development or advancement are examined which might be of special importance to the expansion and influence of the functional analysis of verbal behavior.…

  8. Fifty Ninth Annual Report: United States Department of Labor. Fiscal Year 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This fifty-ninth annual report of the United States Department of Labor for the fiscal year 1971 contains a 6-page report by the Secretary of Labor, 11 separate Federal Department reports, and a variety of appended tables covering such areas as enrollments and funding for various government programs. Detailing the initiation or improvement of a…

  9. Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the Revista de Biología Tropical have been about insects and arachnids. In the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become increasingly diverse. In terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.

  10. [Fifty years ago, the double helix gave birth to molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, J

    2003-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a paper signed by two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, and reporting a model for DNA based on a double helix structure was published in the scientific review Nature in date of april 25, 1953. Although this model of striking simplicity and rare elegance was actually worked out in a few months by the two men, it was the result of quite 100 years of research aimed at the definition of the structure of the genetic material present in living organisms. The double helix was the outcome of a multidisciplinary approach initiated in the mid 19th century by the genetic laws of Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the chemical nature of the desoxyribonucleic acid by Johann Friedrich Miesher. The discovery of the DNA structure had been at the origin of major scientific progress regarding mechanisms that rule the replication and the expression of the genetic information. Theses researches have given birth to a new scientific field, molecular biology, which everyone will see very soon is actually part in a quasi symbiotic manner of all other biological fields dealing with life. The spectacular development of molecular biology during the last fifty years was in great part possible thanks to a concomitant enormous development of the different methods of investigation of the biological molecules and structure. The present rising of biotechnology applications is the direct consequence of the tremendous amount of fundamental knowledge gained during the last few decennia. They open very important and attractive perspectives both on medical or on socio-economic point of views. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will be as fruitful as the last ones.

  11. CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore. A Guide to Off-Site Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Commander, TG7.1), Bob Campbell (TG7.1 J-6), Carl Lyon (TG7.1 J-3), Garry Higgins (TG7.1 TU-12), and Roger Ray (TG7.1 J-3). Hal Plank (TG7.1 TU-1...scrupulously clear to other laboratory staff members ( Campbell 1985). January 2013 CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore Introduction 3 Soon...regular mess line for meals and had the same ration as the crew. The meat course was the least popular. The majority of the party asked for more soup

  12. Learning from the Past: A Fifty-year Perspective on Pakistan's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pervez Hasan

    1997-01-01

    In some ways, Pakistan’s economic growth since 1947 has been remarkable. The country’s economic viability was considered, in some quarters,1 in serious doubt at its emergence, but it has managed, despite a quadrupling of the population, to bring about significant improvement in the average living standards. Per capita GNP growth, on average around 2 percent per annum over a long stretch of nearly fifty years, has been the best among countries of the subcontinent. This growth has meant an incr...

  13. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  14. A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1999-12-01

    This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the

  15. Fifty Years Remembered: The First 50 Years of the Tulsa District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    District Engineer! Col. Frank Patete Project Manager! Beverly Leland Author! Ann Patton Managing Editor! Larry Silvey Production Manager! Michael Shelton...youngsters and fishermen, Pat Mayse raft riders, Keystone Triathe/on swimmers , Broken Bow hikers, and Keystone campers. SECTION 1: FIFTY YEARS OF...representative of construction contractor Hensel Phelps sign the contract for repairs to begin. REBUILDING TINKER’S 3001 It was the largest and most

  16. Fifty Years of Progress, 1937-1987 [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL, LBNL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet was prepared for the 50th anniversary of medical and biological research at the Donner Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. The intent is to present historical facts and to highlight important facets of fifty years of accomplishments in medical and biological sciences. A list of selected scientific publications from 1937 to 1960 is included to demonstrate the character and lasting importance of early pioneering work. The organizational concept is to show the research themes starting with the history, then discoveries of medically important radionuclides, then the use of accelerated charged particles in therapy, next human physiology studies then sequentially studies of biology from tissues to macromolecules; and finally studies of the genetic code.

  17. Advances in Cotton Breeding for Resistance to Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt in the Last Fifty Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Gui-liang; MA Cun; ZHENG Chuan-lin; ZOU Ya-fei

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances in cotton breeding for resistance to fusarium andverticillium wilt in the last fifty years in China. The topics discussed include main achievements, experiences,problems and countermeasures for solving.

  18. FOREWORD: Fifty years of atomic time-keeping: 1955 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry

    2005-06-01

    The year 2005 is the centenary of Einstein's four famous papers that were published in 1905. This anniversary is being widely celebrated all over the world and, indeed, 2005 has been dubbed World Year of Physics. The year 2005, however, also marks the fiftieth anniversary of the first operation of Essen and Parry's caesium beam atomic frequency standard at the NPL in May 1955. While Einstein's papers signalled a revolution in physics and in our understanding of the natural world, the first atomic clock signalled a revolution in time-keeping that has become, among other things, one of the most powerful tools in pushing back the frontiers of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. The atomic clock has also had consequences for navigation comparable to those brought about by Harrison's mechanical clocks almost exactly two hundred years before. Harrison's H3 was completed in 1757 and H4 in 1759. The atomic clock, and the creation of an atomic time scale that quickly followed, led ten years later to the adoption of an atomic definition for the SI second in Resolution 1 of the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures, 1967/68. This marked the end of time-keeping based on the movements of the heavenly bodies that had beaten the rhythm of the days and the seasons since the dawn of human civilization. Fifty years on is a good occasion to look back, to look forward and at the same time to examine where we are today, in terms of measuring time. While we still arrange for our atomic clocks to show noon when the sun is overhead on the Greenwich meridian, everything else has changed in the fifty years since 1955. In this special issue of Metrologia the reader will find articles on the development of the atomic clock, its theory and practice, how the first atomic time scale was devised and formally introduced and how we maintain atomic time today, as well as articles looking forward to even more accurate clocks and time scales. Included also are articles on

  19. Fifty years of co-evolution and beyond: integrating co-evolution from molecules to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Diego; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years after Ehrlich and Raven's seminal paper, the idea of co-evolution continues to grow as a key concept in our understanding of organic evolution. This concept has not only provided a compelling synthesis between evolutionary biology and community ecology, but has also inspired research that extends beyond its original scope. In this article, we identify unresolved questions about the co-evolutionary process and advocate for the integration of co-evolutionary research from molecular to interspecific interactions. We address two basic questions: (i) What is co-evolution and how common is it? (ii) What is the unit of co-evolution? Both questions aim to explore the heart of the co-evolutionary process. Despite the claim that co-evolution is ubiquitous, we argue that there is in fact little evidence to support the view that reciprocal natural selection and coadaptation are common in nature. We also challenge the traditional view that co-evolution only occurs between traits of interacting species. Co-evolution has the potential to explain evolutionary processes and patterns that result from intra- and intermolecular biochemical interactions within cells, intergenomic interactions (e.g. nuclear-cytoplasmic) within species, as well as intergenomic interactions mediated by phenotypic traits between species. Research that bridges across these levels of organization will help to advance our understanding of the importance of the co-evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. From pharmaceutical standardizing to clinical research: 20 years of experience with fifty-millesimal potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wania Papile Galhardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: 20 years ago we began to standardize the procedures of preparation and use of fifty-millesimal dilutions (LM or Q according to indications in the 6th edition of Hahnemann’s Organon. Aim: to describe the main stages in standardization as well as our teaching and research experience on Organon 6th edition. Results: with the use of standardized LM dilutions we observed a lower incidence of homeopathic aggravation than with our earlier experience with non standardized preparations. Organon.modus, a clinical-pharmaceutical protocol derived from the standardization was adequate for the teaching of homeopathy at Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai (São Paulo, the first Brazilian medical school with a graduate course on homeopathy. A randomized double-blind trial comparing individualized homeopathic medicines prescribed in LM dilutions and fluoxetine showed the former not be inferior to the latter in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression. Conclusion: protocol Organon.modus showed to be adequate to graduate-level teaching of homeopathy and efficient in a controlled clinical trials, favoring its use as common denominator between the art of healing and medical science.

  1. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.

  2. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  3. Reflections on fifty years of publications on the history of general biology and special embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, J M

    1975-12-01

    The publications of fifty years (1925-1974) of the histroy of biology and embryology are surveyed. In America, the earliest background for work during this period was provided by the collectors, mainly physicians, of books into extensive private libraries. The collectors, for instance Osler, Cushing, and Fulton in this country and Geoffrey Keynes abroad, became expert technical bibliographers during the early part of the half-century under consideration. High standards for medical, thus biological history, insofar as these fields overlap, were also set earlier by Sudhoff's Institut für Geschichte der Medizin in Leipzig, and American historical studies benefited when Sigerist came from Leipzig to Baltimore in the early 1930's. Textbooks of medical history are omitted from discussion here, but a number of more or less general histories of biology published within the specified period are briefly evaluated. The discussion next turns to histories of embryology, general and special. Recent monographs on the classical embryologists, Wolff and von Baer, are enumerated, as are a number of biographies and autobiographies of important embryologists published here or abroad during our half-century. Then general histories of embryology are discussed, and finally some specialized ones. Needham, Roger, and Adelmann are singled out as the most important contributors to the history of embryology, in the West, during the period covered. Few of the contributors to the history of biology and medicine during the years of 1925 through 1974 were trained as historians while students. It is concluded that the History of Science Society has performed an important contribution in professionalizing the history of biology and embryology, but it is pointed out that a great new challenge faces it in the necessity to counteract anti-historical and anti-intellectual moods and movements of today.

  4. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008: Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak. At present, the tokamak is regarded worldwide as the most viable candidate to demonstrate fusion energy generation. Numerous power plant studies (>50, extensive R&D programs, more than 100 operating experiments, and an impressive international collaboration led to the current wealth of fusion information and understanding. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century. The fusion roadmaps developed to date take different approaches, depending on the anticipated power plant concept and the degree of extrapolation beyond ITER. Several Demos with differing approaches will be built in the US, EU, Japan, China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries to cover the wide range of near-term and advanced fusion systems.

  5. Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

  6. World meat consumption patterns: An overview of the last fifty years (1961-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, P; Combris, P

    2015-11-01

    Driven by economic development and urbanisation, protein consumption has surged worldwide over the last 50years, rising from 61g per person per day in 1961 to 80g per person per day in 2011 [Corrected]. This contribution analyses the apparent convergence of dietary models worldwide with respect to the proportion of ABP and especially meat in intake. By using FAO data for 183 countries over the period 1961-2011, the authors show the connection between annual per capita GDP and the level of ABP (R2=0.62) and meat consumption (R2=0.62). They emphasise the surge in ABP intake in emerging countries (China, Brazil) which has partly replaced plant protein. However, for similar degrees of economic development, the composition of ABPs and the position of meat within this category vary significantly among countries, suggesting that historical, geographical, cultural and religious factors may be involved.

  7. Fifty Years of "Comparative Education Review" Bibliographies: Reflections on the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, the "Comparative Education Review" ("CER") has published annual bibliographic essays reflecting the changes in the field over the previous year. This year, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), the author analyzed "CER" bibliographies since 1959, in addition to…

  8. Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, H P; Hall, L K; Goggin, J P; Bahrick, L E; Berger, S A

    1994-09-01

    Spanish language tests of 801 Cuban and Mexican immigrants showed no evidence of language loss during 50 years of U.S. residence; a few years after immigration, their English vocabulary approximated that of English monolinguals. The critical-age hypothesis was not supported for the acquisition of English vocabulary when English schooling and language usage were controlled by multiple regression. Most Ss continued to speak about as much Spanish as English; but read, wrote, and heard (on television and radio) far more English than Spanish. Under these conditions, Ss maintained Spanish dominance on tests of vocabulary recognition, lexical decision, and oral comprehension. Dominance was task specific and shifted to English on a category generation task about 12 years after immigration. No evidence of bilingual language interference was found; this is attributed to the strong Spanish foundation of the participants.

  9. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  10. Fifty-year follow-up and Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Carmen L; Nigro, Matthew A; Vote, Brendan J

    2015-01-01

    The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era. The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era.

  11. Fifty years of oil exploration in Nigeria: the paradox of plenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet over many years, it has been observed that nations rich in oil, gas, or mineral ... with rich endowments of natural resources [oil as in the case of Nigeria] often ... like this had given rise to other contemporary oil nations overtaking Nigeria.

  12. Visualizing DNA domains and sequences by microscopy: a fifty-year history of molecular cytogenetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    This short review presents a historical perspective of chromosome research during the last 50 years. It shows how molecular knowledge and technology of DNA entered cytogenetics step by step making it now daily practice in almost every modem chromosome lab. A crucial milestone in these decades has be

  13. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  14. Fifty-odd years of inter-group contact: from hypothesis to integrated theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewstone, Miles; Swart, Hermann

    2011-09-01

    We review 50-odd years of research on Allport's (1954)'contact hypothesis', to assess progress, problems, and prospects. We chart the progress that has been made in understanding two distinct forms of contact: direct and indirect. We highlight the progress made in understanding the effects of each type of contact, as well as both moderating and mediating factors, and emphasize the multiple impacts of direct contact, especially. We then consider some of the main critiques of inter-group contact, focusing on empirical issues and whether contact impedes social change, and provide a research agenda for the coming years. We conclude that this body of work no longer merits the modest title of 'hypothesis', but fully deserves acknowledgement as an integrated and influential theory.

  15. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established...... as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  16. A new experimental proposal for {sup 235}U PFNS to answer a fifty years old question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilov, N.; Massey, T.; Grimes, S.; Voinov, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Univ., Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum (PFNS) from {sup 235}U(n,f) is very important for various nuclear applications. It has been investigated in different experiments. In spite of {approx}50 years of experimental efforts, a continuing conflict exists at thermal neutron energy. Microscopic experimental PFNS cannot describe macroscopic data. In this report we discuss the current status of this problem and suggest a new experiment, which could possibly resolve this problem. (authors)

  17. Fifty years of studying the Medvezhiy Glacier (West Pamirs) by the Institute of Geography, RAS

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Osipova

    2015-01-01

    Overview of researches conducted over 50 years (1963–2012) by Institute of Geography RAS on the surging glacier Medvezhiy, the West Pamirs is given. Ground investigations (changes of its surface altitude, ice movement velocity, ablation, ice thickness, temperature and others) made after surge 1963 allowed finding the basic features of this glacier regime and calculating the mass balance of its surging part for the whole cycle from the recovery phase up to a surge. Using the results a quality ...

  18. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  19. Fifty Years of Sino-Norwegian Cooperation——An Interview with Norwegian Ambassador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    Geographical distance has not hindered friendly relations, ongoing for more than two centuries, between China and Norway. Norway recognized the People's Republic of China on January 7, 1950 and diplomatic relations were established on October 5, 1954. In 1955, the two countries began to exchange ambassadors. Since then their political, economic and cultural cooperation has steadily advanced. The year 2004 marks the 50th anniversary of establishment of Sino-Norwegian diplomatic relations. In honor of the occasion, China Today spoke with Norwegian Ambassador Tor Chr. Hildan on bilateral trade and economic cooperation.

  20. A Fifty-Year Sustainability Assessment of Italian Agro-Forest Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Recanatesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically. Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and multi-scalar approaches covering long-term periods. This study provides an original approach for identifying desertification risk drivers and sustainable land management strategies within Italian agro-forest districts. An Environmental Sensitivity Area (ESA approach, based on four thematic indicators (climate, soil, vegetation and land-use and a composite index of desertification risk (ESAI, was used to evaluate changes in soil vulnerability and landscape degradation between the years 1960 and 2010. A multivariate model was developed to identify the most relevant drivers causing changes in land susceptibility at the district scale. Larger districts, and those with a higher proportion of their total surface area classified as agro-forest, had a significantly lower increase in land susceptibility to degradation during the 50 years when compared with the remaining districts. We conclude that preserving economic viability and ecological connectivity of traditional, extensive agricultural systems is a key measure to mitigate the desertification risk in the Mediterranean region.

  1. Fifty years of studying the Medvezhiy Glacier (West Pamirs by the Institute of Geography, RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Osipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of researches conducted over 50 years (1963–2012 by Institute of Geography RAS on the surging glacier Medvezhiy, the West Pamirs is given. Ground investigations (changes of its surface altitude, ice movement velocity, ablation, ice thickness, temperature and others made after surge 1963 allowed finding the basic features of this glacier regime and calculating the mass balance of its surging part for the whole cycle from the recovery phase up to a surge. Using the results a quality model for prediction of rapid motions of surging glaciers had been developed. Forecast of the next surge of the Medvezhiy Glacier made for 1973 on the basis of this model had been justified. As a result of the aerial and topographic monitoring (1989–1991 the glacier surge was quantitatively followed for the first time over its whole cycle, i.e. from a surge up to a next stage of its recovery. Results of our researches allowed formulating the foundations of the space monitoring of surging glaciers. In 2001 and 2011 surges of the glacier were detected and traced using the satellite imagery (MIR, ISS. In total for 50 years, five surges of this glacier and two full cycles of its life were investigated by various methods in different details.

  2. Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schirrmacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies.

  3. [Fifty years of psychiatry at the interface between psyche and soma: a SWOT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdenhove, B; Luyten, P

    2008-01-01

    During the past 50 years the border area between psychiatry and somatic medicine has undergone remarkable changes. Theories have become better-founded, both psychologically and neurobiologically, research has become more sophisticated, and liaison-psychiatrists and health psychiatrist/behavioural medicine psychologists have played an increasingly active role in this domain. At the beginning of the 21st century modern psychosomatic medicine is facing new challenges; these include how to create a workable diagnostic classification system, how to instruct and educate both health professionals and lay-persons to an adequate level, how to utilize innovative research paradigms without having recourse to reductionism and how to implement in medical practice treatments that are geared to the needs of the individual patient.

  4. Invertebrate learning and memory: Fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has emerged as a robust and influential model for the study of classical conditioning, thanks to the existence of a powerful Pavlovian conditioning protocol, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). In 2011, the olfactory PER conditioning protocol celebrates 50 years since it was first introduced by Kimihisa Takeda in 1961. Here, we review its origins, developments, and perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary methodological and conceptual evolutions. We show that olfactory PER conditioning has become a versatile tool for the study of questions in extremely diverse fields in addition to the study of learning and memory and that it has allowed behavioral characterizations, not only of honeybees, but also of other insect species, for which the protocol was adapted. We celebrate, therefore, Takeda's original work and prompt colleagues to conceive and establish further robust behavioral tools for an accurate characterization of insect learning and memory at multiple levels of analysis.

  5. Cognitive function fifty-six years after surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-01-01

    Our investigation at 56 postoperative years focused on cognitive skills, with some emphasis on learning and memory; a clinical examination was also performed, and the anatomical extent of the resection was determined on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Four age- and IQ-appropriate women were tested as healthy control subjects. The patient showed material-specific impairments in language and verbal memory compared with the control subjects and also compared with her own earlier performance, but her performance on other cognitive tasks did not differ from that of the control subjects. Thus, her specific deficits had worsened over time, and she was also impaired compared with healthy individuals of her age, but her deficits remained confined to the verbal sphere, consistent with her temporal lobe seizure focus and surgery.

  6. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  7. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  8. Fifty years of immunisation in Australia (1964-2014): the increasing opportunity to prevent diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Jenny; Lambert, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Medicine has seen dramatic changes in the last 50 years, and vaccinology is no different. Australia has made a significant contribution to world knowledge on vaccine-preventable diseases. Certain deadly diseases have disappeared or become rare in Australia following successful introduction of vaccines. As diseases become rarer, public knowledge about the diseases and their serious consequences has decreased, and concerns about potential vaccine side effects have increased. To maintain confidence in immunisations, sharing of detailed information about the vaccines and the diseases we are trying to prevent is integral to the continued success of our public health programme. Modern quality immunisation programmes need to communicate complex information to immunisation providers and also to the general community. Improving immunisation coverage rates and eliminating the gap in coverage and timeliness between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous people has become a high priority.

  9. Hydro-Quebec and Quebec society: fifty years of shared history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linteau, P. A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    An historical overview of Hydro-Quebec, the giant electric utility, and its influence on Quebec society was provided on the occasion of the Corporation`s fiftieth anniversary. Its role in Quebec`s economic nationalism, especially since the 1960s, and its role and achievements in research through IREQ, the Quebec electricity research institute, were explained. The challenges facing the Corporation in the years to come in terms of meeting growing demands for power, in meeting expectations in terms of their role as the engine of Quebec`s economic well-being, environmental concerns, and no less importantly, dealing with native peoples` opposition to further development of lands they claim as their own, were briefly discussed. 6 refs., photos.

  10. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records.

  11. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  12. Impacts of Climatic Change on River Runoff in Northern Xinjiang of China over Last Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuhui; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; WANG Minzhong; SUN Guili

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of climatic change and river runoff, as well as the response of river runoff to climatic change in the northern Xinjiang are analyzed on the basis of the hydrological and meteorological data over the last 50 years by the methods of Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and the nonlinear regression model. The results show that: 1) The temperature and the precipitation increased significantly in the whole northern Xinjiang, but the precipitation displayed no obvious change, or even a decreasing trend in the northern mountainous area of the northern Xinjiang. 2) River runoff varied in different regions in the northern Xinjiang. It significantly increased in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang (p=0.05), while slightly increased in the west of the northern Xinjiang. 3) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects river runoff by influencing temperature and precipita-tion. The NAO and precipitation had apparent significant correlations with the river runoff, but the temperature did not in the northern Xinjiang. Since the mid-1990s river runoff increase was mainly caused by the increasing temperature in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang. Increased precipitation resulted in increased river runoff in the west of the northern Xinjiang.

  13. The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, L R; Hess, R A; Dufour, J M; Hofmann, M C; Griswold, M D

    2016-03-01

    It has been one and a half centuries since Enrico Sertoli published the seminal discovery of the testicular 'nurse cell', not only a key cell in the testis, but indeed one of the most amazing cells in the vertebrate body. In this review, we begin by examining the three phases of morphological research that have occurred in the study of Sertoli cells, because microscopic anatomy was essentially the only scientific discipline available for about the first 75 years after the discovery. Biochemistry and molecular biology then changed all of biological sciences, including our understanding of the functions of Sertoli cells. Immunology and stem cell biology were not even topics of science in 1865, but they have now become major issues in our appreciation of Sertoli cell's role in spermatogenesis. We end with the universal importance and plasticity of function by comparing Sertoli cells in fish, amphibians, and mammals. In these various classes of vertebrates, Sertoli cells have quite different modes of proliferation and epithelial maintenance, cystic vs. tubular formation, yet accomplish essentially the same function but in strikingly different ways.

  14. Fifty years of hypersonics: where we've been, where we're going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, J.J.; Cummings, R.M. [United States Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Department of Aeronautics

    2003-10-01

    Hypersonic flight has been with us since 22 September 1963, when Robert M. White flew the North American X-15 at 4520 mph at an altitude of 354,200 ft - a Mach number of 6.7. This remarkable achievement was accomplished over six decades due to intensive research and development by a large number of scientists and engineers. In spite of that momentous achievement, designers have found the hypersonic environment to be harsh and non-forgiving. New programs since the 1960s have often uncovered the unknown unknowns, usually the hard way - early flights of new systems have often revealed problems of which the designers are unaware. Such problems include: the ineffectiveness of the body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, the viscous/inviscid interactions produced by the umbilical fairings that damaged the conical section tile protection system of the Gemini Capsule, and the shock/shock interaction that damaged the X-15A-2 when it carried the hypersonic ramjet experiment. In order to continue to make advances in hypersonic flight a sustained and visionary effort is essential to generate required knowledge and technology. In order to better prepare for future developments in hypersonic flight, this article reviews the advances made within the past 50 years and then looks into the future, not just for new technological developments, but for new ways of thinking about the unknown challenges that lie ahead. (author)

  15. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  16. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  18. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  19. Homo cyborg: fifty years old Homo Ciborg: Cincuenta años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.Mientras la terminología “ciborg” tiene apenas 50 años, son mucho más antiguos los procesos de “ciborgización”: la evolución humana. Los humanos evolucionaron para modificar su entorno y a sí mismos, especialmente a través de la cultura y las tecnologías. La cultura es parte de la naturaleza. De ella resultan los i-ciborgs mundanos de la actualidad,  los aviones militares no tripulados, la fusión íntima humano-máquina y la ingeniería genética: lo que a su vez produce sensaciones de inquietud, arrogancia y miedo. La política contemporánea debe de considerar si estamos asegurando un futuro sostenible y vivible para nuestros descendientes. Algunos experimentos sociales como el Burning Man son una prefiguración de esta necesidad creativa por la concienciación tecno-social.

  20. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  1. Fifty years of cytogenetics: a parallel view of the evolution of cytogenetics and genotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J M

    2008-01-01

    A parallelism exists between human cytogenetics and cytogenetic toxicology. The breakthroughs, mostly coming from and used in clinical genetics, are widely used in genetic toxicology. The birth of human cytogenetics occurred in 1956 when it was published that the diploid number of chromosomes in humans is 46. The first stage in chromosome-induced mutagenesis began in 1938 when Sax published the effects of X-rays on the chromosomes of Drosophila. In 1959, the cytogenetic anomalies for Down, Klinefelter, and Turner syndromes were described, and parallelly in 1960, the first publication on chromosomal aberrations in man caused by ionizing radiation appeared. The cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cell cultures is considered one of the primary methods to evaluate induced mutagenesis. At the end of the 1960s, banding techniques allowed chromosomes to be individually identified, in parallel, the sister chromatid exchange analysis technology was described. Another milestone in the history of induced mutagenesis was the discovery that mutagenic agents were able to alter chromosomal division and segregation in gonads inducing meiotic nondisjunction. Here we review new approaches and applications such as biological dosimetry, translocation scoring using FISH, and micronucleus test. Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus test are now effective cytogenetic biomarkers of early effect used as cancer predictors. Human cytogenetics has proven to be effective over its 50-year lifespan and, although each new technique that has appeared seemed to announce its end, the fact is that the current state of cytogenetics is in reality a collection of techniques that, while common, are cheap, fast, and wide-ranging. Therefore, in genotoxicology, they continue to be useful to identify mutagenic agents as well as to evaluate and analyze exposed populations.

  2. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  3. Fifty Years of Botanical Gardens in China%中国植物园五十年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺善安

    2002-01-01

    概述了中国140多个植物园过去50年发展的历史过程、分布和特征,以及植物园在研究、保护、展示和利用生物多样性等方面的功能.评述了中国植物园早期在经济作物烟草、药用植物薯蓣和野生果树资源研究中对社会和经济发展的贡献,以及近年来在种子科学、物种保护、经济植物引种驯化和育种等方面的理论和应用研究成果.介绍了中国植物园活植物收集的现状.其中木兰科、姜科、苏铁类、药用植物、猕猴桃属和杜鹃属等收集圃的建设已属世界领先.介绍了植物园科普和旅游的发展和中国植物园特有的盆景艺术园和硅化木收集园.%The development, distribution and features of one hundred and forty botanical gardens (BGs) in China are reported and their functions on research, conservation, display and utilization of biodiversity are summarized in this paper. The contributions to the social and economic development in the early stage of Chinese BGs with the researches of economic plant (tobacco), medicinal plant (yam) and wild fruit tree resources are evaluated. The theoretical and applied achievements in recent years in seed science, plant conservation, economic plant introduction, acclimatization and breeding are also described. A general scope of living plant collections in Chinese BGs is presented and the outstanding ones, including Magnoliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cycadaceae, medicinal plants, Actinidia and Rhododendron are particularly mentioned. With special reference to Chinese penjing art garden and silicified wood garden, the development of scientific popularization and tourism in BGs is reviewed.

  4. Magnetite Biomineralization: Fifty years of progress, from beach-combing to the SQUID microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Dixson, A. D.; Raub, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetite biomineralization was first discovered 50 years ago as a hardening agent in the teeth of the Polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons) by the late Prof. Heinz A. Lowenstam of Caltech, when he noticed unusual erosional effects produced by their grazing in the intertidal zones of Palau (Lowenstam, 1962). Since then, biogenic magnetite has been detected in a broad range of organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria, protists, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. In many species, the role of ferromagnetic material as a neurophysiological transducer is demonstrated clearly through the effects of pulse-remagnetization on behavior. A brief (1 uS), properly configured magnetic discharge from a rectified LC circuit, tailored to exceed the coercivity of the magnetite, will often abolish a magnetic behavioral response, or in some cases make the organism go the wrong way. This is a unique ferromagnetic effect. The genes controlling magnetite biomineralization are well characterized in several species of bacteria, and the ability of some of these bacterial genes to initiate magnetite precipitation in mammalian cell lines argues for a common descent, probably via a magnetotactic mitochondrial ancestor. Previous studies in fish reported the presence of single-domain magnetite crystals in cells near projections of the trigeminal nerve, co-located in the olfactory epithelium. Although the cells are rare, the recent development of a spinning magnetic field technique allows easy identification and isolation of these cells for individual study (Eder et al., 2012). The cells are surprisingly magnetic, with moments hundreds of times larger than typical magnetotactic bacteria. Subsequent efforts to identify the anatomical seat of magnetoreceptors have focused on the same locations in new organisms, excluding other areas. Using SQUID moment magnetometry and SQUID scanning microscopy, we report here the unexpected presence of biogenic magnetite in

  5. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C.

    2005-09-20

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and

  6. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus t...

  7. Fifty years later: Emerging functions of IgE antibodies in host defense, immune regulation, and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettgen, Hans C

    2016-06-01

    Fifty years ago, after a long search, IgE emerged as the circulating factor responsible for triggering allergic reactions. Its extremely low concentration in plasma created significant hurdles for scientists working to reveal its identity. We now know that IgE levels are invariably increased in patients affected by atopic conditions and that IgE provides the critical link between the antigen recognition role of the adaptive immune system and the effector functions of mast cells and basophils at mucosal and cutaneous sites of environmental exposure. This review discusses the established mechanisms of action of IgE in pathologic immediate hypersensitivity, as well as its multifaceted roles in protective immunity, control of mast cell homeostasis, and its more recently revealed immunomodulatory functions.

  8. Editing and publishing activities of the Korean Physical Society during the first fifty years since its inauguration in 1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Suk Koh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical review concerning the development of the editing and publishing activities of the Korean Physical Society, unique in its kind in South Korea, during its first fifty years since inauguration. It was founded in 1952, in the midst of the Korean War, and issued its first publication only in 1961. Despite such a late start, the society made great efforts to boost its activities thereafter, developing five different periodicals, including two Science Citation Index-listed journals, established by 2002. It can be seen as a remarkable success story of the Korean physics community, having overcome many hardships, which included the meager human and material resources that it started with and also the social unrest and destruction owing to the Korean War and its aftermath. The development and progress of the Korean Physical Society during this period, with a main focus on its editing and publishing practices, are briefly described.

  9. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesa, Maria D; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    ...) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects...

  10. The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2009-01-01

    Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues.

  11. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We develop a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As the result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, indicating SMAPI is capable of indentifying the onset of a drought event, its progressing, as well as its ending. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts on China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North during the recent fifty-nine years. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been week in the rest five regions South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been wetting steadily since the 1950s. Two regional dry centers are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first center is located in the area partially covered by two

  12. Florence Richardson Wyckoff (1905-1997), Fifty Years of Grassroots Social ActivismVolume III: Watsonville Years 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Florence Wyckoff's three-volume oral history documents her remarkable, lifelong work as a social activist, during which she has become nationally recognized as an advocate of migrant families and children. From the depression years through the 1970s, she pursued grassroots, democratic, community-building efforts in the service of improving public health standards and providing health care, education, and housing for migrant families. Major legislative milestones in her career of advocacy were...

  13. Thirty-five-year results after Charnley total hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years old. A concise follow-up of previous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Klaassen, Alison L; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2014-11-05

    We report the updated results for a previously described cohort of patients who were less than fifty years old at the time of the index Charnley total hip arthroplasty with cement. The original cohort consisted of ninety-three consecutive hips in sixty-nine patients. The patients were followed for a minimum of thirty-five years after surgery or until death. At the latest follow-up evaluation, there were forty-one total hip replacements (44%) in thirty-two living patients. Thirty-four (37%) of the ninety-three total hip replacements in the original cohort had been revised or removed. Twenty acetabular (22%) and seven femoral (8%) components had been revised for aseptic loosening. Since the twenty-five-year follow-up, the average six-minute-walk distance decreased from 395 m to 171 m, and this decrease correlated with increasing comorbidity. This study demonstrates the durability of cemented total hip replacements in a young patient population. Although 63% (fifty-nine) of the ninety-three original hip replacements were functioning at the latest follow-up or at the time of death, a significant decrease in activity level was seen over time (p < 0.001). Of the forty-one original implants in the patients who were alive at the time of the thirty-five-year follow-up, only 46% (nineteen) were retained. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  14. Genetic diversity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in China and the temporal trends in recent fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To understand geographical distribution of the genetic diversity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) and its trends in recent fifty years in China, 453 accessions were analyzed by 36 microsatellites loci and 42 phenotypic traits. Results revealed that the genetic diversity by SSRs is highly consistent with that by phenotypic traits and the genetic diversity of indica cultivars was higher than that of japonica cultivars; the genetic diversity of cultivars declined from 1950s to 1980s and then increased greatly; among the six rice ecological zones (REZs), genetic diversity of REZⅡ was the highest and those of REZⅤ and REZⅥ were the lowest at both DNA and phenotypic level. Jiangsu and Jiangxi provinces in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Sichuan province in southwest of China were the areas with the highest genetic diversity. Breeders in REZⅤ which is an important japonica rice area but with very low genetic diversity should explore more gene resources to widen the genetic backgrounds of cultivars.

  15. From conditioning to learning communities: implications of fifty years of research in e-learning interaction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ravenscroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider e-learning in terms of the underlying learning processes and interactions that are stimulated, supported or favoured by new media and the contexts or communities in which it is used. We will review and critique a selection of research and development from the past fifty years that has linked pedagogical and learning theory to the design of innovative e-learning systems and activities, and discuss their implications. It will include approaches that are, essentially, behaviourist (Skinner and Gagné, cognitivist (Pask, Piaget and Papert, situated (Lave, Wenger and Seely-Brown, socioconstructivist (Vygotsky, socio-cultural (Nardi and Engestrom and community-based (Wenger and Preece. Emerging from this review is the argument that effective elearning usually requires, or involves, high-quality educational discourse, that leads to, at the least, improved knowledge, and at the best, conceptual development and improved understanding. To achieve this I argue that we need to adopt a more holistic approach to design that synthesizes features of the included approaches, leading to a framework that emphasizes the relationships between cognitive changes, dialogue processes and the communities, or contexts for e-learning.

  16. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, R J; Cooper, S; Brooke, J M; Knowles, J D

    2016-01-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as...

  17. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Brooke, J. M.; Knowles, J. D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as survey-independent as possible. Using these features our new approach can process millions of candidates in seconds (˜1 million every 15 seconds), with high levels of pulsar recall (90%+). This technique is therefore applicable to the large volumes of data expected to be produced by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Use of this approach has assisted in the discovery of 20 new pulsars in data obtained during the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS).

  18. 50 años de música electroacústica en Chile Electroacustic Music in Chile: Fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Schumacher Ratt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta años han pasado desde que León Schidlowsky compusiera Nacimiento, la primera obra electroacústica chilena. Cincuenta años de una historia a menudo desconocida, compuesta de algunos éxitos resonantes, de desarrollos a veces truncos y de silencios bastante expresivos. La música electroacústica en Chile ha tenido un desarrollo pendular: de momentos de gran pasión e interés ha pasado al desconocimiento casi absoluto, y viceversa. A pesar de ya medio siglo de historia en el país -y algo más en el mundo- pareciera que los alcances y posibilidades de la música electroacústica, o más bien del concepto que en ella subyace (la tecnología aplicada a la música, en este caso más precisamente, la informática musical, no son en nuestro medio aún lo suficientemente bien analizados, comprendidos y proyectados en cuanto a la producción musical actual y futura. En este artículo, intentamos aproximarnos a las posibilidades y exigencias que ofrece actualmente esta disciplina desde el punto de vista del análisis, de la composición y de la interpretación musical. Como ubicación, se revisará algo de nuestra historia poniendo el acento en los extremos, en sus inicios y en los años que nos son más próximosFifty years ago, León Schidlowsky wrote Nacimiento (Birth, the first electroacustic work in composed Chile. Fifty years have elapsed of a history which very frequently has been forgotten. It is mude up of resounding achievements, periods of development, sometimes interrupted, and very meaningful gaps. Like a pendulum, electroacustic music in Chile has swung from periods of great passion and interest to other periods when has been practically ignored, and viceversa. In spite of almost half a century of history in Chile and a slightly longer period in the world, it would seem that the extent and possibilities of electroacustic music or better, the concept underlying this music -a technology applied to music, or more precisely to

  19. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  20. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  1. Long-term results of a modified Spitzy shelf operation for residual hip dysplasia and subluxation. A fifty year follow-up study of fifty six children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Guro Vreim; Reikerås, Olav; Terjesen, Terje

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish long-term outcome of the Spitzy shelf-operation and evaluate whether the procedure would delay osteoarthritis. During 1954-1976, 56 patients (70 hips) underwent Spitzy shelf operation at a mean age of 11.9 years (5 to 22). Indications included residual hip dysplasia or subluxation with Centre-Edge angle shelf operation. Survival was assessed by Cox regression. Univariable Cox regression was performed separately for each variable. Potential predictors (p-value shelf procedure was 39.9 years (21 to 53). Survival fell from 83 % 30 years post-operatively, to 22 % at 50 years. Fifty-three hips (76 %) had undergone total hip replacement at mean age of 49.4 years (33 to 64). Seventeen hips had not received total hip replacement, mean survival 47.9 years (39 to 53). The study showed that Spitzy shelf-operation had satisfactory long-term outcome with hip-survival in almost 90 % at patient age 40 years. The results indicate that Spitzy shelf-operation postpone total hip replacement. We consider Spitzy shelf-operation a good alternative in patients above 8 years. In younger children the procedure is not recommended due to increased frequency of graft resorption.

  2. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  3. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Sedlak; Jana Pařízková; Robert Daniš; Hana Dvořáková; Jana Vignerová

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the ach...

  4. Interdisciplinary robotics project for first-year engineering degree students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Aznar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of both transversal and specific competences cannot be achieved using conventional methodologies. New methodologies must be applied that promote the necessary competences for proper professional development. Interdisciplinary projects can be a suitable tool for competence-based learning. A priori, this might be complicated, as subjects are traditionally studied at the university level in isolated compartments, with a fragmented structure. Taking advantage of the creation of new degree programs in Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Engineering and Industrial Automation, in the 2010-11 academic year we decided to add an interdisciplinary project (IP to our teaching methodology. The importance of this project lies in the fact that it requires the participation of all the courses in all the academic years in the degree program. The present article explains the methodology used in the interdisciplinary project and how it was implemented in the first year of the Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Engineering and Industrial Automation degree programs. Furthermore, an evaluation is conducted of all four years of the interdisciplinary project, revealing the main problems with its execution and how they have been addressed.

  5. Fifty-year old and still ticking.... an interview with Emile Zuckerkandl on the 50th anniversary of the molecular clock. Interview by Giacomo Bernardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerkandl, Emile

    2012-06-01

    In 1962, a young post-doctoral fellow and a prominent Nobel Prize winner, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, published a seminal paper that described the relationship between the average number of aminoacid replacements and divergence time, known as the molecular clock (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962). Fifty years after the original publication, I was fortunate enough to interview Emile Zuckerkandl. We shared thoughts on his life and the historical events that led to the discovery of the molecular clock.

  6. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life. PMID:26380296

  7. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  8. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sedlak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n=3678 height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  9. Recovery dynamics and invasibility of herbaceous plant communities after exposure to fifty-year climate extremes in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Dreesen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance events such as climatic extremes may enhance the invasibility of plant communities, through the creation of gaps and the associated local increase in available resources. In this study, experimental herbaceous communities consisting of three species were subjected to 50 yr extreme drought and/or heat events, in spring, summer or autumn. In the year of the induced extremes, species mortality and end-of-season biomass were examined. In two subsequent years without further disturbances, establishment of new species was recorded. The drought and drought + heat extremes in summer and autumn induced greater plant mortality compared with the heat extremes in those seasons and compared with all extremes applied in spring, in all three originally planted species. Recovery in terms of biomass towards the end of the growing season, however, was species-specific. The dominant species, the nitrogen fixer Trifolium repens, recovered poorly from the drought and drought + heat extremes which governed the community response. Community biomass, which was heavily affected by the drought and especially by the drought + heat events in summer and autumn, reached control values already one year later. Invasibility was increased in the communities that underwent the drought + heat extremes in the first year following the extreme events, but no longer in the second year. During the two years of invasion, the community composition changed, but independently of the type and impact of the extreme event. In short, the extreme climate events greatly affected the survival and productivity of the species, modified the species composition and dominance patterns, and increased the invasibility of our plant communities. However, none of these community properties seemed to be affected in the long term, as the induced responses faded out after one or two years.

  10. 成批烧伤救治50年%Experiences in rescue and treatment of mass burn casualties in fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一平

    2008-01-01

    The article reviewed the history and the main experiences of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment during the past fifty years in China. Some issues including medical support for mass burn casually and treatment regime in future, such as the prevention of burn calamities, further elevation of the eure rate and lowering in the rate of disability, further development in network of burn care and preliminary scheme of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment, accelerating the development and study on the substitutes of allo-skin graft were discussed.

  11. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C.(ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  13. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Luiz de Oliveira ROSA; Tiago Machado SILVA; Lima, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; Piva,Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI -...

  14. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: fifty years of scientific research: the importance of scholarship and the influence of politics and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Over the past 50 years our laboratory has performed and published many studies in the fields of teratology, radiation biology and radiation embryology. The early work took place when I was a research employee at the University of Rochester Manhattan Project in 1944 and where I had my introduction to embryology and genetics. Over the years our lab has provided consultations dealing with the risks of various environmental toxicant exposures during pregnancy. With the advent of the Internet, consulting has become more rapid and efficient. In the past year our pregnancy Web site of the Health Physics Society received approximately 154,000 hits, of which over a thousand contacts were still quite anxious after reading the Web site answers and requested a personal consultation. From this extensive experience we have learned that many physicians and other counselors are not prepared to counsel patients concerning radiation risks. Approximately 8% of the patient contacts who have consulted a professional have been provided with inaccurate information that would have resulted in an unnecessary interruption of a wanted pregnancy. There are five areas of radiation embryology that are considered to be controversial. 1) Can the fetus be harmed by ionizing radiation if the fetus is not directly exposed? 2) Is the production of mental retardation from radiation during pregnancy a threshold phenomenon? 3) Does fractionation and protraction of radiation decrease the magnitude of the reproductive and developmental risks? 4) Is there a period during pregnancy when radiation will result in an increased mortality but not an increase in malformations? 5) How sensitive is the fetus to the oncogenic effects of radiation? We utilize the scientific information obtained from studies in these five areas to counsel patients concerning pregnancy radiation risks. The willingness and persistence of scientists to debate the controversial aspects of this research and apply the best available

  15. A vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy. Vision and strategies; Wizja drugiego piecdziesieciolecia energetyki jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M. [International Nuclear Societies Council (Poland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The paper is the Polish issue of the report worked out by International Nuclear Societies Council published in 1996. The report contains the experts opinion on development of nuclear energy and applications of radiation techniques and sources worldwide during the next 50 years. The worldwide energy demand prognosis as well as needs of different branches of industry, agriculture, medicine, etc. have been taken into account. The broad spectrum of aspects (safety assurance, economy, environmental impacts) connected with nuclear technology utilization has been also discussed. Transl., 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  16. Suicides in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century and trends in the past fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 in Serbia, 1444 persons committed suicide (19.5 per 100.000 population. Compared to the early 50s of the 20th century, the number of suicides has nearly doubled, but there has been a moderate decrease in the last 15 years. Similar, but somewhat more moderate tendencies are noted in the change of the value of the suicide rates. The lowest suicide rates were recorded during the 1950s, around 12 per 100.000, and the highest in the last decade of the 20th century when the rate reached 20 suicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The highest suicide rate is among the elderly, and there is also a noticeable tendency of increase in the share of the elderly in the total number of suicides, which is primarily the consequence of intense demographic aging. With youth, the last thirty years note a decline of both the number of suicides and the value of the suicide rates. The number of young people aged 15-24 who have committed suicide in 2006 is less than half of the number from 1971 (decreased from 150 to 66, and the values of suicide rates are also significantly low (decreased from 11.5 to 6.9 per 100.000. Despite certain changes in the values of age-specific suicide rates achieved in the last 50 years, their age patterns of suicide mortality can be characterized as stable. Men are dominant among persons who have committed suicide, with double the number of women, and the highest recorded value of the suicide rate of women never surpassed the value of the lowest suicide rate in men. In terms of marital status, the total rate of suicides is highest with widowers then divorced persons, married persons, and lowest rates are with celibates. In all four groups, suicide rates are at least 3 times higher for men. There is also a clear connection between the level of education and suicide rates for both sexes, with the suicide rate decreasing with higher educational level. In terms of total suicide rate, Serbia is currently in the top half of the European list of

  17. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard (Radium Center, Finsen Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T. (DBCG Registry, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-05-15

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis

  18. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis.

  19. Fifty years of Weibel-Palade bodies: the discovery and early history of an enigmatic organelle of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, E R

    2012-06-01

    In 1962, a rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelle of endothelial cells, later called the Weibel-Palade body, was serendipitously discovered by electron microscopy. It contains a set of parallel tubules and is wrapped in a membrane. Subsequent studies in the following decades established the unique localization of this organelle in endothelial cells of all vertebrates studied, meaning that it could serve as a marker of endothelial cells in tissue cultures. However, these studies did not reveal its functional significance, except for an indication that it could be related to an undefined thromboplastic substance. Twenty years after its discovery as a structural entity, it was shown by others that it houses von Willebrand factor and is thus clearly related to the coagulation system. In this review, I provide a personal historical account of the discovery and the subsequent limited work that I carried out on the organelle, putting it in the perspective of the current state of knowledge after half a century of research by many scientists.

  20. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Luiz de Oliveira ROSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States. Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers, synthetic resins (681 papers, dental cements (440 papers, dental alloys (392 papers and dental adhesives (361 papers. The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents, followed by dental implants (8 patents and composite resins (7 patents. Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development

  1. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  2. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Mesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d (n=26 or a reference enteral diet (n=29. Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P=0.053 in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P=0.116 with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

  3. Fifty Years of Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…

  4. A ten years follow-up of the results of surgery for Dupuytren's disease. A study of fifty-eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norotte, G; Apoil, A; Travers, V

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients (52 males and 6 females) operated on for Dupuytren contracture were examined by the same author with a more than ten year follow-up. At time of surgery the average was 55 years old. 69 hands (169 fingers) rated 4.33 according to the simplified Tubiana's score were treated by the same operative procedure: Mac Indoe's incision, digital Z plasty (if needed), subtotal fasciectomy and physiotherapy beginning 8 days postoperatively. At long term, recurrence appears for 49 hands (71%) one every two in the two first postoperative years, one out of five after five years. 24 of them were graded stage I. The recurrence appeared 14 times associated with an extension of the disease and the earlier, the higher was the initial stage. Some factors seem to be of a bad prognosis regarding recurrence: age (93% of recurrence under 50 years old) Ledderhose or Lapeyronie (100%) other associated diseases (Alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy) and severe preoperative stage. Subjective results are good: 45 patients are satisfied and only 3 underwent a second operation.

  5. 郭沫若文学研究五十年%Retrospect on Studies of Guo Mo-ruo' Writings in the Past Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱寿桐

    2001-01-01

    郭沫若文学研究是中国现代文学研究的一个重要组成部分。新中国成立后的50年间,它应合着中国现代文学学科的发展节拍而发展。三次研究高潮取得了堪称辉煌的学术成就,演化了一个逐步摆脱政治化规约的建构学术品格的历史。%Studies of Guo Mo-Ruo' writings form essential parts in academic studies of modern Chinese literature. Since the foundation of New China in 1949, researches in both fields have been developing with almost the same speed. In the past fifty years, there have been three high tides in the studies of Guo Mo-ruo''s writings, which gained brilliant academic achievements. It is also a history of constructing high academic quality and style by gradually shaking off the bonds of political interference.

  6. A 30-Year Retrospective: Degrees of Difficulty in Decreasing LOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid future revisionist history, the author offers a 30-year retrospective (1986-2016) on the evolution of strategies to reduce length of stay (LOS). She and her colleagues have been involved from the onset by developing tools such as critical paths, roles such as clinical case management, and operational systems for managing measureable outcome-driven care from the bedside to the boardroom. Acute care hospitals. The LOS for all inpatients has changed dramatically from 1970 (average LOS = 7.8 days) through solidly between 2005 and 2012 (average LOS = 4.5 days in 2012) despite a significant increase in the average age of hospital inpatients (; ). For patients 65 years and older, who comprised 38% of all inpatients, the decrease has been more drastic: from 12.6 days in 1970 to 5.5 days in 2005-2010 ().With the exception of hospitalists and case management staff, acute care hospitals have essentially doubled productivity without adding additional direct care full-time equivalents! Described in terms of "low-hanging" to "high-hanging" fruit, this article outlines the classic methods used to reduce LOS and concludes with some implications of LOS for health care reform. The U.S. health system could not have accomplished this feat without case managers and social workers. Acute care services should be very proud of their achievements and use their reputation to empower their work for the next frontier, which will be reducing cost per case, especially in risk contracts. Everything old seems new again.

  7. [Fifty years of research on tuberculosis. Lessons I have learnt during 50 years and topics to be investigated in the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, T

    2000-07-01

    I have engaged in the research on tuberculosis for 50 years, and lessons I have learnt during this period could be summarized in the following ten topics. First is great research achievements by our predecessors on the establishment of so-called primary infection theory on the pathogenesis of TB, planning of TB control principles based on the theory and development of new technologies used for TB control, such as mass miniature X-ray examination and BCG vaccination in 1920s and 1930s. TB control law was enforced in 1951, and the modern TB programme was initiated. Second, the field is a treasure house of interesting data. Several interesting data on TB soon after the World War II in Tokyo and a rural area were collected and analyzed from the mass health examination. Third, looking at the increase of tuberculin positivity with age, it was found that the tuberculin negativity decreased as the exponential function of age, and the current concept of the annual risk of TB infection was already developed in late 1940s. It was 18.1% in male and 11.6% in female in Tokyo in late 1940s. Based on this concept, age specific TB mortality was analyzed by the type of TB, and the rates of miliary TB and TB meningitis were similar to the rate of newly infected to the total population, while the rate of all forms could be divided into early and late death as shown in Fig. 1. Fourth, I suffered from TB by myself from 1951 to 1953, receiving first thoracoplasty in two stages under local anaesthesia, then right upper lobectomy and segmentectomy of superior segment of right lower lobe. From this experience, I learnt a lot about the psychology and suffering of TB patients. Fifth, the importance of recognition of real magnitude of the problem in such a disease as TB in which many TB cases did not aware of their disease. The answer to this was the first TB prevalence survey in 1953 using stratified random sampling method, and based on the results of the survey, the mass health examination

  8. Survey on the Transferability of Associate's Degree to Four-Year Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, David C.

    In January 1994, the Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges (ASBDCC) conducted a survey of state four-year systems nationwide to determine the existence of standards regarding the transferability of associate degrees and associate degree students' academic standing at receiving four-year institutions. Questionnaires were mailed to…

  9. Developing a Four-Year Baccalaureate Degree in Applied Psychology: Experiences in Degree Development at a Former Two-Year Postsecondary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kevin; Charlton, Steve; Elmes, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and demographic trends in North American urban centers combined with job markets demanding higher levels of education have placed considerable pressure in recent years on postsecondary institutions to provide better access to undergraduate and graduate degree programs (Levin 2004; Zhang 2005). Kwantlen University College,…

  10. Water transports across 6 degrees N in Bay of Bengal on mean yearly and seasonal bases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Mean vertical profiles of temperature and salinity are computed for each cell for North East Monsoon, South West Monsoon and full year. These mean profile for seven zones are used to compute mean geostrophic currents across 6 degrees N section...

  11. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  12. Physics Doctorates One Year after Degree: Data from the Follow-up Survey of Degree Recipients from the Classes of 2013 and 2014. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report presents trend data on the status of physics PhDs one year after receiving their degree. For the last decade postdoctoral fellowships were the most commonly reported positions taken by physics PhDs in the year after receiving their degree. The type of initial employment for of physics PhDs varied depending on the subfield of their…

  13. Fifty not out

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    What have the DESY laboratory in Germany, Richard Feynman's visionary lecture on nanotechnology, the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the "two cultures" debate got in common? The answer is that they are all half a century old this year. The DESY lab was officially launched on 18 December 1959 and is marking its 50th anniversary with a series of events that included the official opening of the PETRA III synchrotron last month. Initially a particle-physics lab pure and simple, DESY is now changing its focus to accelerator science and is set to open its massive new 1bn European X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2014 (p12).

  14. DMT at fifty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szára, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    The steps taken for the discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of N.N-Dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT) is described. DMT had a difficult first 50 years in medical research primarily for legal reasons as it was classified as one of the "drugs of abuse" by authorities in the USA and by the World Health Organization. It has not proved to be a "schizotoxin" as it was first suspected, but the book is not closed on its potential role in some other, high level function as an endogenous neuromodulator. Further clinical work may even substantiate its usefulness in therapeutic application, such as an adjunct to psychotherapy, perhaps not by itself, but in a modified form, or in combination with other substances.

  15. Hydrology and Ecology of the Colorado River Delta in the Face of Changing Climate and Land Use Practices: the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River Delta in the U.S. and Mexico is an internationally important aquatic biome, supporting fresh water and estuarine wetlands and a riparian corridor rich in avian and other wildlife. These rich ecosystems could be severely harmed by invasive species interacting with projected climate change and land use practices over the next 50 years. It is critical to measure land cover and monitor ecosystem and land use changes because these ecosystems are supported by fresh and brackish water flows originating from flood control releases and agricultural return flows in the U.S. and Mexico. Most climate models project a drying trend in the Colorado River watershed due to global warming, decreasing the frequency of flood releases to the Delta. Total basin water storage in the reservoir system is expected to be reduced by 32-40 percent, and flow volume is expected to meet demands in only 59-75 percent of years in 50 years. The frequency of spills (years in which water is released from the reservoirs to the Delta) will decrease under a global warming scenario. However, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and ENSO events will continue to introduce variability into river flows, and there will still be years in which water is spilled to the Delta. Agricultural return flows will decrease as more water is diverted from agriculture to metropolitan use in both countries. The salinity of the ground water in Mexico, which currently supports cottonwood and willow trees in the riparian corridor, is increasing at a rate of about 20 ppm per year, and in 50 years it might be too saline for cottonwoods and willows. The riparian zone may become dominated by saltcedar and other salt-tolerant shrubs, degrading the habitat for birds and other wildlife. As flows to the Delta diminish, monitoring and active restoration projects to maintain trees and wetlands will be needed to preserve habitat value.

  16. Parity non-conservation in beta-decay of nuclei: revisiting experiment and theory fifty years after. IV. Parity breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Mladen

    2008-01-01

    This part offers a survey of models proposed to cope with the symmetry-breaking challenge. Among them are the two-component neutrinos, the neutrino twins, the universal Fermi interaction, etc. Moreover, the broken discrete symmetries in physics are very much on the agenda and may occupy considerable time for LHC experiments next year aimed at revealing the symmetry-breaking mechanisms.

  17. Use of porous tantalum components in Paprosky two and three acetabular revision. A minimum five-year follow-up of fifty one hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecher, Xavier; Appy, Benjamin; Parratte, Sébastien; Ollivier, Matthieu; Argenson, Jean-Noel

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have reported short-term favourable results of tantalum-made components in acetabular revisions with bone loss. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mid to long-term results of such components. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome and survivorship of acetabular revision hip arthroplasty using tantalum components for loosening associated with bone loss at a minimum of five-year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients (51 hips) who had an acetabular revision using porous tantalum components at a minimum follow-up of five years. The mean age was 64 years (range, 31-87). There were 27 males and 24 females, 47 right hips and four left hips. Twenty-five (49 %) included a femoral revision. According to Paprosky's classification 18 hips were classified type 2A, 11 type 2B, ten type 2C, seven type 3A and five type 3B. No bone grafting was performed. Sixteen hips (31.3 %) required the use of additional tantalum-made augments stabilized by screws and cement at the cup-augment interface. At a mean followup of 6.8 years (range, 5.1-10 years), the Harris hip score improved from 44 pre- operatively (range, 23-72) to 84 post-operatively (range, 33-98). The mean post-operative hip centre position in relation to the teardrop was 29 mm (range, 20-43 mm) horizontally and 21 mm (range, 8-36 mm) vertically. The mean acetabular inclination was 42° (range, 17-60°). Six hips (11.7 %) required a re-operation without component revision (two for chronic instability, one ossification removal, one haematoma, one deep infection and one periprosthetic femoral fracture). One patient required a cup re-revision for septic loosening. No aseptic loosening occurred. At last followup the radiological analysis showed one evolutive osteolysis and one screw breakage. The global survivorship was 92.3 % at 64 months. If only aseptic loosening was defined as the end-point the survivorship was 100 % at 64 months. When

  18. WES Evaluation of the Three-Year Bachelor's Degree from India. Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Education Services, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Based on its research and review of fundamental changes in quality assurance in higher education in India, in 2006 World Education Services (WES) revised its assessment of selected the three-year Bachelor's degree awarded by Indian universities. This policy takes into account specific criteria regarding institutional standing and student…

  19. Predictors of Bachelor's Degree Completion among Rural Students at Four-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study explored various factors that predicted bachelor's degree attainment among rural youth attending a four-year institution. Results showed that Hispanic origin, family income, parental educational expectations, the rigor of the high school curriculum, timing and intensity of college…

  20. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Trachtenberg on Three-Year Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Philip DiSalvio, dean of the College of Advancing and Professional Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston, interviews Stephen Trachtenberg, president emeritus and University Professor of Public Service at George Washington University. Trachtenberg shares his views on the traditional four-year undergraduate degree, the…

  1. 中国虫生真菌应用50年简史%Fifty years of application of entomogenous fungi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增智

    2007-01-01

    In China, there is a long history over 2300 years of entomogenous fungi used as medicines,but their use against insect pests did not start until mid 1950′s.In 1970,the central government held a workshop to encourage the use of Beauveria bassiana against pine caterpillars,making the year a milestone in Chinese history of microbial pest control.Since then, quite a few fungi have been tried for control of over 60 forest and crop pests.In the past decades,low tech production has been being improved towards commercial production with higher techniques.Until 2006,5 products of fungal insecticides have been registered.Meanwhile,large scale application techniques have been being improved with molecular ecological approach towards a rational application strategy.

  2. The Relationship of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Lesions and Osteochondral Lesions with Meniscal Tears in Patients Younger than Fifty Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samed Ordu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL lesions and osteochondral lesions according to type and localization of the meniscal tear and age, gender in patients who have been arthroscopicaly treated, besides, to make the coexisting lesions more predictable in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 352 patients under 50 years of age who underwent surgery for a meniscal tear between 2008 and 2012. We scanned the surgical operation notes, preoperative questionnaires and the magnetic resonance imaging findings. We recorded patients who had ACL lesions, such as elongation, partial rupture and total rupture. Osteochondral lesions were classified according to the Outerbridge classification from grade 1 to grade 4. Results: Chondral lesions were present in 77.4% of patients with degenerative meniscal tears and in 63% of patients with radial meniscal tears. One the other hand, osteochondral lesions were observed in only 33.9% of patients with other types of meniscal tears. 46.6% of ACL lesions accompanied by meniscal tears with longitudinal pattern, such as longitudinal tears, bucket handle tears and root tears. For the other types of meniscal tears, this percentage was 20.7. When we excluded degenerative type meniscal tears, the mean age of the patients with radial tears was 40.86±9.03 years and the mean age of the patients with other types of tear was 35.44±9.44 years. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found close relationship between osteoarthritic chondral lesions and radial tears in the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. On the other side, longitudinal tears were related with ACL lesions. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 177-80

  3. Educational Attainment and Mortality in the United States: Effects of Degrees, Years of Schooling, and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Zajacova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U.S. adults. Results indicate that more advanced degrees and additional years of education are associated with reduced mortality risk in separate models, but when included simultaneously, only degrees remain influential. Among individuals who have earned a high school diploma only, additional years of schooling (beyond 12) and vocational school certification (or similar accreditation) are both independently associated with reduced risks of death. Degrees appear to be most important for increasing longevity; the findings also suggest that any educational experience can be beneficial. Future research in health and mortality should consider including educational measures beyond a single variable for educational attainment. PMID:27482124

  4. Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, B; Burström, L; Jonsson, H; Nathanaelsson, L; Damber, L; Nilsson, T

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in iron-ore mines in Sweden. The mortality of employees (surface and underground workers) at the iron-ore mines in Malmberget and Kiruna, Sweden was investigated. The study cohort comprised men who had been employed for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Indirect standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes. Mortality specifically from myocardial infarction was also analysed. 4504 deaths in the cohort gave an SMR for total mortality of 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.97). There was an increased risk of injuries and poisonings (SMR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.46) and respiratory diseases (SMR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28). There were 1477 cases of myocardial infarction, resulting in an SMR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18). SMR was higher (1.35, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.50) for men aged 60 years of age (1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13). Mortality from myocardial infarction was higher than expected. There was also an increased risk of death from injuries and poisonings, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, as well as higher general mortality. Our findings support the results of previous studies that there is an association between working in the mining industry and adverse health outcomes.

  5. Fifty years of changes in reef flat habitats of the Grand Récif of Toliara (SW Madagascar) and the impact of gleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, S.; Guillaume, M. M. M.; Delval, A.; Rasoamanendrika, F. M. A.; Blanchot, J.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT) in Madagascar is a large (33 km2) barrier reef system of the SW Indian Ocean that had been well investigated in the 1960s and early 1970s. A massive degradation of the reef has been reported since at least the early 1980s, just a few years after research activities ceased in the area. Examination of historical aerial photographs and modern high-resolution remote sensing images confirms a continuous loss of coral habitat on GRT outer reef flats between 1962 and 2011, with an average loss of 65 % and a range of 37-79 % loss during this 50-year period. The usual suspects of coral community declines (cyclones, bleaching and sedimentation) may have contributed to the demise of the GRT. However, an independent study (Salimo 1997) suggests that the chronic pressure of fisherman gleaning on reef flats with destructive tools is the main driver of the observed changes. Salimo's reported level of frequentation (6.8 fishermen per day and per km-2) and rates of destruction per fisherman (7.7 m2 of coral habitat h-1) yield a cumulated overall loss in agreement with the image-based rates of habitat loss. The GRT is unlikely to recover because this chronic stress is unlikely to decrease in the near future. Indeed, the GRT daily provides subsistence fishery resources for local Vezo people and to agriculturalist or pastoralist ethnic groups who have turned to exploiting coastal resources due to increasing aridity and dwindling agricultural and livestock production.

  6. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  7. Fifty years after the Nuremberg Nazi Doctors' Trial: reviewing how the laws of the Third Reich applied to individuals with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, D F

    1998-02-01

    The Nazi Doctors' Trial, held in the city of Nuremberg 50 years ago, is a landmark in the history of medicine and science. For the first time, the horrors inflicted by a group of German scientists on innocent victims became widely known. Most of the defendants received sentences that ranged from relatively short imprisonment to death. The Trial also provided elements to develop standards for permissible medical experimentation, known as the Nuremberg Code. The atrocities judged in the Nazi Doctors' Trial, however, were not isolated. They were part of an overall eugenic system that encouraged euthanasia, compulsory sterilization, and selective marriages based on "genetic health" and "racial hygiene." Individuals with oral clefts were considered subject to these laws and suffered their consequences. This paper describes the main features of the Trial, reviews the state of knowledge on oral clefts in the 1930s and 1940s, presents how the laws of the Third Reich impacted the lives of individuals with oral clefts, and speculates on the implications of past and present eugenic policies in the future of humankind.

  8. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, K S; Hafner, S D; Buff, M F

    2003-01-01

    Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km(2)) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations ofNa+ and Cl- have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km(-2) day(-1), appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km(-2) day(-1) over the 47-year period.Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na+ and Cl- still increased during the 1990s.

  9. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  10. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems.

  11. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X George

    2014-09-21

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most

  12. Fifty Years in the Technology of Acoustic Emission(1961--2011)%声发射技术五十年(1961-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allen T Green; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    This paper has a description of some of the Acoustic Emission projects that I have been involved with during the past 50 years. While my career in AE started with determining the residual strength of a glass and epoxy composite cylindrical pressure vessel it quickly expanded into many different materials, products and structures. In this paper I present information on efforts in; non-metallic and metallic pressure vessels; factors effecting AE; identification of modes of deformation; noise rejection methods; leak detection in Above Ground Storage Tanks; combining AE with UT; Acousto-Ultrasonic examination of wood particle boards; in-flight monitoring of Aircraft structure; and determination of water stress in grape plants and others.%文章对过去50年笔者所涉及的一些声发射项目做了回顾。笔者的声发射生涯是从检验玻璃环氧树脂圆柱形压力容器的剩余强度开始的,然后很快地延伸到了其它的很多材料、制品和结构中去。笔者在文中会介绍尽量多的信息,诸如:非金属和金属压力容器、影响声发射的因素、变型模式的识别、降噪技术、地上储罐泄漏探测、结合AE与UT、木材颗粒板的声-超声检验、飞行中飞机结构的监测以及葡萄科植物的缺水探测等。

  13. [Mercury and copper accumulation during last fifty years and their potential ecological risk assessment in sediment of mangrove wetland of Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Li; Chai, Min-Wei; Qiu, Guo-Yu; He, Bei

    2012-12-01

    The processes of sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in gulf region. Chronological analysis of the sediment core collected from mangrove wetland in Shenzhen Bay showed that the sedimentation rate was about 1.38 cm x a(-1). Soil buck density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) changed in range of 0.36-0.71 g x cm(-3), 6-7, 2.93 x 10(3) -4.97 x 10(3) microS x cm(-1), and 1.5% - 3.8%, respectively. With the increase of soil depth, the soil buck density and EC increased gradually. However, the TOC decreased, with no significant change of pH. Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng x g(-1) and 29-83 microg x g(-1), respectively. And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth. At 14 cm depth, contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels. Correspondingly, the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu. At 14 cm depth, the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85, respectively. The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild. The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay, China. Since the year of 2000, the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies, improving the environment for growth of mangrove. In conclusion, the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  14. Behaviour of the low degree terms of the Earth gravity field over the last 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Reinquin, F.; Deleflie, F.; Ramillien, G.; Gégout, P.

    2012-04-01

    The GRACE mission has revealed since 2002 the recent evolution of the Earth's gravity field with a resolution down to 400 km, equivalent to degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics. Precise orbit computation for altimetric satellites can obviously gain by applying these variations, which are classically given, as in recent EIGEN models, as drifts and periodic terms (yearly and semi-yearly). However extrapolating these variations to pre-GRACE periods, mainly the drifts, can be problematic for orbit computation performances on former altimetric satellites. One option is to analyse older satellite data, in particular SLR data on geodetic satellites, in order to assess the very low degree variations of the gravity field and compare it to the GRACE determination. This can be done over the last 30 years, using for instance the Lageos and Lageos-2, Starlette and Stella satellites. The spherical harmonic degrees that can be accessed in this way are degrees 2 to 4. Additional information on degree 2 can be derived from the analysis of the Earth orientation parameters, pole coordinates and length of day (LOD), which have been observed over a long period with great accuracy by astrometric, satellite geodetic and extra-galactic means. Once corrected for atmospheric and oceanic load and velocity variations, the pole coordinates will principally bring information on the C(2,1) and S(2,1) coefficients, while the LOD will principally be connected with the C(2,0). Combining these two approaches allows a better observation of the temporal evolution of the gravity field over a long time span and a more realistic modelling of it for the precise orbit computation of past altimeter missions.

  15. Chemists in Rijeka Together for Fifty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Whatever part of the World you come from, when you come to Rijeka you came to the heart of Europe. Rijeka is waiting for you with the scent of its sea and the hospitality of its people. Rijeka is a town of unusual, turbulent and intersected history. At the end of the IX Century the area of Rijeka was one of the most powerful industrial zones in Europe. Prof. Eugen Cerkovnikov, Ph. D., a much-respected chemist, first Head of the Department for Chemistry and Biochemistry on the then newly established Medical School in Rijeka, launched the initiative to form a branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society in Rijeka. On 18 January, 1958 in the Big Classroom of the Medical School in Rijeka the Founding Assembly was held, and many respected scientists of that period were present.In 1960, the Rijeka branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society merged with the Society of Chemists and Technologists and in 1973 the Biochemists section joined. In the five decades of its existence, the love towards chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, technology and chemical engineering, the love towards the basis of natural sciences and the wish to educate new, progressive generations formed the mission of the Society. The Society does not want to be closed in a guild organisation; its aim is to open its doors towards all those striving to progress.Former presidents of the Society were: Eugen Cerkovnikov (1958-1974, Marijan Kolombo (1974-1980, Josip Šilipeter (1980-1984, Marinko Oršia (1984-1996 i Nikola Bla?evia (1996-; and each one of them marked his era. Transitional circumstances have shut down forever many, until recently, extremely powerful industries in Rijeka. Today, Rijeka is searching for new paths, and we believe that our Society will continue to work on and give its contribution to this search.

  16. Fifty Years of Discoveries in Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    The complementary nature of the Vanderbilt experimental work and the theoretical work of the Frankfurt group on the rotation-vibration model, the generalized collective model, shape coexistence and cluster radioactivity is described. Recent discoveries in neutron-rich nuclei γ-vibrational bands compared with RVM and GCM are presented. Ultimate examples of cluster radioactivity in cold binary and ternary fission are discussed. Finally, we present evidence for the evolution from axial symmetry in 101Y to maximum triaxialilty in 113Rh and for chiral doublet bands in neutron-rich triaxial even-even nuclei between A=106 - 112.

  17. Military Aptitude Testing: The Past Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Enhanced Computer-Administered Testing ECFA Examen Calificacion de Feurzas Armadas EST Enlistment Screening Test ETP Enlistment Testing Program GAO...qualification standards and in part on the needs of the Service. Qualification standards are more complex than just mental standards; they also include medical...and moral standards. Mental standards include educational level as well as aptitude test scores. The military testing program (MTP) began with the

  18. Fifty years of the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Shirkov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization was the breakthrough that made quantum field theory respectable in the late 1940s. Since then, renormalization procedures, particularly the renormalization group method, have remained a touchstone for new theoretical developments. This work relates the history of the renormalization group. (17 refs).

  19. Thurstones's Discriminal Processes Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R. Duncan

    1977-01-01

    Thurstone's landmark papers on psychophysics, published in the twenties, are discussed in this presidential address to the Psychometric Society. The development of psychophysics from Thurstone to the present is presented in some detail. (JKS)

  20. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated volumes, assuming likely population growth, average economic growth of 3 percent annually, average energy efficiency of 2 percent annually, and a contribution of natural gas of more than 50 percent of total energy used. Potential additions to the resource base are from such sources as basin-centered formations, coalbed methane, sub-volcanic reservoirs, methane hydrates, among others; but many of these sources are not well understood and the practicality and cost of their availability are not known.

  1. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  2. Medical sociology: a personal fifty year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, R

    1999-06-01

    This paper reviews the author's experience in becoming a medical sociologist before the field had become formalized. The contributions to medical sociology of sociologist Selden D. Bacon and physician and medical educator William R. Willard are described. The relationship of medical sociology to medical behavioral science, as experienced at the University of Kentucky, is discussed. Finally, the thesis of the author's 1957 paper on the nature and status of medical sociology is re-examined.

  3. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  4. An analysis of yearly trends in growing degree days and the relationship between growing degree day values and reference evapotranspiration in Turpan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Bai, Yungang

    2013-08-01

    The growth and development of crops is commonly regarded as a function of time alone. However, this approach can be inadequate due to temperatures which vary from year to year caused by global climate change. This prompted the development of the growing degree day concept, which incorporates information on both the passage of time and the temperature experienced by the crop plant during that time. Crop water requirements, which are estimated by multiplying reference evapotranspiration values by a crop-specific coefficient, play a crucial role in the management of hydrologic cycles on arable land. Consequently, it would be useful to identify the relationships between cumulative growing degree days and reference evapotranspiration, in order to develop new methods for predicting crop growth and development periods and calculating reference evapotranspiration. This paper describes annual trends in cumulative growing degree days values and their impact on grape growth. Three different methods for calculating cumulative growing degree days values were evaluated as well. Several key findings were achieved. First, for the period between 1952 and 1995, the cumulative growing degree days values for specific days of the year were normally distributed. Second, the relationship between the relative cumulative growing degree days value and the passage of time can be accurately described by using a cubic polynomial function. Third, the day-to-day change in the average relative cumulative reference evapotranspiration can be described using an exponential function of time, which can be used to calculate the relative cumulative reference evapotranspiration value for any given day of the year. Fourth, there was a significant correlation between the relative cumulative growing degree days and cumulative reference evapotranspiration values during the period between grape budding and maturity, which can be described using a cubic polynomial function. Finally, a new method for

  5. Tracking Geoscience Pathways from the Undergraduate Degree through the Years as an Early Career Geoscientist (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's Workforce Program has recently launched AGI's Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the Survey of the Geoscience Workforce in an effort to provide more detailed information about the career pathways of early career geoscientists from their undergraduate degree through their first five years in the workforce. These surveys are attempting to answer long unknown questions related to the motivations of students for majoring in the geosciences, their experiences while working towards the degree, their future plans immediately after finishing their terminal degree, and their development in the workforce as they establish themselves in a career. With these surveys, AGI will be able to provide a more in depth presentation of the supply, demand, and human dynamics of the geoscience workforce. We find this effort to be very timely with the increased national focus on the STEM workforce, as well as recent discussions within the geosciences community requesting more information about the students' transition into the workforce after graduation. For AGI to be successful in this project, we need the support of geoscience departments nationally and internationally.

  6. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  7. The Educational Attainment of Chicago Public Schools Students: A Focus on Four-Year College Degrees. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kaleen; Nagaoka, Jenny; Michelman, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A four-year college degree increases a student's employment prospects and earning potential. Given this importance, it is not surprising that 75 percent of Chicago Public Schools (CPS) high school students aspire to obtain at least a four-year college degree. Yet, prior research showed that few achieved this goal: a 2006 University of Chicago…

  8. Preparing students in two-year colleges for geoscience degrees and careers: Workshop results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2012-12-01

    Building a strong and diverse geoscience workforce is a critical national challenge. Two-year colleges (2YCs) play an important role in increasing both the number and diversity of geoscience graduates. A workshop on Preparing Students from Two-year Colleges for Geoscience Degrees and Careers was held in Tacoma, WA in July 2012 to discuss the successes and challenges of programs, strategies, and activities that support career preparation of 2YC students for geoscience careers, either as geotechnical graduates or as geoscience majors at four-year colleges and universities, and to make recommendations for future efforts. At the workshop several successful partnerships between employers and two-year colleges as well as between two-year colleges and four-year institutions were discussed as potential models that could be replicated with adaptations for local employment needs. Participants shared successful techniques for supporting 2YC students in their career path such as internships, early opportunities for participating in research, joint fieldtrips with transfer institutions, and supportive curriculum alignment between two and four-year institutions. Professional organizations have much to offer including information about career options, networking opportunities, and more. Participants discussed strategies for supporting geoscience workforce development at 2YCs such as making connections between 2YCs and local employers, identifying geoscience students at 2YCs who are planning to transfer and building relationships with 4YCs, establishing internship programs, supporting student geoscience clubs, and developing a repository of geoscience employment information targeted to 2YC students. Participants recognized significant barriers to incorporating career training and information into the geoscience curriculum at two-year colleges. These barriers include a predominance of non-geoscience students in classes, lack of support or rewards for improving or increasing the

  9. Student engagement in first year of an ICT degree: staff and student perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Judy; Carbone, Angela; Hurst, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    This article reports on a study of student engagement in the first year of their undergraduate information and communication technology (ICT) degree at an Australian university. The study was conducted at Monash University in the four undergraduate ICT degrees of the Faculty of Information Technology. The study draws on data collected from staff and students using interviews and a start of semester survey. Three aspects of engagement broadly classified as behavioural, cognitive and affective are used as a framework to analyse the data. Results show that staff perceived students as demonstrating low levels of engagement in their university study. Students presented many reasons to explain the nature and extent of their engagement. Many of their reasons relate to studying in an educational landscape of changing lifestyles and work patterns and a strong reliance on technology to support their learning. This article re-conceptualises the undergraduate student learning experience in the current tertiary climate. Implications of the perceived lack of student engagement are discussed and recommendations are made for ways to increase the level of student engagement.

  10. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas' successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Rocio

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the narrative of Latina graduates who successfully navigated through community college and 4-year institutions in the STEM fields. Rather than focus on what these students lack as much of the current research does, the study explored what assets these students bring that supports their success in STEM fields. Utilizing an ethnographic interview approach, participants who attained STEM baccalaureates in California were interviewed. Qualitative findings revealed various experiences, attitudes, and cultural influences that led to successful completion of a STEM degree. First, the study found that successful community college Latina STEM graduates exhibit grit, are resilient, determined, and have positive attitudes about their underrepresentation in STEM. Second, participants sought after peer, faculty, and staff relationships that helped them be successful. Lastly, participants had the support of their families and reported a high level of connectedness to their culture. Implications, recommendations for practice, and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  12. Degree-scale cosmic microwave background polarization measurements from three years of BICEP1 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Filippini, J.; Hristov, V. V. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kovac, J. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Bierman, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Su, M. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wales, Cardiff, CF24 3YB Wales (United Kingdom); Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chiang, H. C. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Hivon, E. F. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, W. C., E-mail: dbarkats@alma.cl [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-03-10

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 ≤ ℓ ≤ 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r=0.03{sub −0.23}{sup +0.27}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  13. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  14. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Shaanxi Province During Past Fifty Years Based on Regression Models%基于评估模型的陕西省水资源气候影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程肖侠; 孙娴; 方建刚; 毛明策; 梁奇琛

    2012-01-01

    利用陕西省1961—2009年96个观测站的年降水、气温资料以及1997—2006年水利部公布的水资源资料,基于线性拟合、水资源丰枯评价指标、变差系数及产水模数等方法和指标,对陕西省近50 a来的水资源状况进行了气候影响分析。结果表明,基于降水、气温的水资源评估模型能够对陕西省水资源状况进行评估,且评估效果好于只考虑降水的评估模型。近50 a来陕西省气候趋于暖干,年平均气温自20世纪90年代升高,1996年前后发生突变;年降水自20世纪80年代中后期减少,1988年前后发生突变。受气温升高,降水减少影响,近50 a来陕西省水资源量呈减少趋势,1991年前后发生突变,水资源量显著减少。20世纪90年代之前,陕西省水资源量正常偏多,之后水资源正常偏枯,且年际变化显著,年水资源量不稳定。陕西省属于旱年缺水类型,天然供水量的减少增加了水资源利用率,水资源供需压力增大。%Employing the annual mean precipitation and temperature data from 96 meteorological stations in Shaanxi Province during the period from 1961 to 2009,and the water resource data published by Chinese Ministry of Water Resources from 1997 to 2006,the impacts of climate change on water resources of Shaanxi Province were analyzed by linear regression,water resource evaluation index,variation coefficient,and water mode.The results show that,the water resource assessment model based on both precipitation and temperature data was more reasonable in evaluation than the one merely based on precipitation data.The climate had become warmer and drier in the past fifty years,the annual mean temperature increases substantially around 1996 and the annual precipitation decreases sharply around 1988.With the declining precipitation and increasing temperature,the water resources had gradually reduced in the past 50 years,and worsened around 1991.The water resources were more than enough

  15. Physics Doctorates One Year after Degree: Data from the Follow-Up Survey of Degree Recipients from the Classes of 2011 and 2012. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Pold, Jack; Tesfaye, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Each fall the American Institute of Physics (AIP) Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the U.S. to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and the counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this…

  16. Faculty Student Mentoring of First Year Traditional Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Students to Increase Retention and Decrease Attrition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Melissa S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a faculty mentoring program of first year traditional baccalaureate degree nursing students at a university in the mid-west with multiple campuses, including three nursing campuses. One campus site was chosen for this project. The students were asked to participate in the project and informed…

  17. Transforming the Terminal Associates of Applied Science into a Four-Year Degree: A Win-Win Situation for Students, Community Colleges, Universities, and Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, David L.; Pagliari, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Associates of Applied Science (AAS) degrees were once considered terminal degrees and were developed for people seeking technical skills to join the workforce. This paper discusses the transformation from a transferable degree into technical four-year baccalaureate degree. It also discusses survey results of students currently in a degree…

  18. Do Institutional Attributes Predict Individuals' Degree Success at Two-Year Colleges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Lisbeth J.; Rosenbaum, James E.; Stephan, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores institutional attributes that matter for two-year college students and how they vary by different subpopulations of students, with an eye toward understanding what institutional attributes better support the success of underprepared students. In particular, the authors address the following questions: (1) Which institutional…

  19. Physics Bachelor's One Year after Degree: Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2011 and 2012 Combined. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts the "Survey of Enrollments and Degrees," which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the names and contact information for their recent…

  20. Examining practice: the perceptions of learners and employers on a work-based Early Years Sector Endorsed Foundation Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Urmi

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates whether work-based learning facilitates the development of practical skills and theoretical insights by early years practitioners. Foundation degrees symbolise both an opportunity and a challenge. The opportunity relates to creating a new vocational qualification which has work-based learning central to its delivery, in attempting to meet the demands of a skilled workforce necessitated by a shifting economy. The challenge is to form workable and sustainable partners...

  1. 16 degrees C rapid temperature variation in central greenland 70,000 years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang; Leuenberger; Schwander; Johnsen

    1999-10-29

    Variations in the (29)N(2)/(28)N(2) ratio of air bubbles trapped in polar ice cores and their relation to variations of the (18)O/(16)O of the ice allow past surface temperature variations and ice age-gas age differences to be determined. High-resolution measurements of (29)N(2)/(28)N(2) in Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19 (around 70,000 years before the present) in ice from Central Greenland show that at the beginning of the event, the ice age-gas age difference was 1090 +/- 100 years. With the use of a combined firn densification, temperature, and gas diffusion model, the delta(18)O(ice)-temperature coefficient alpha was determined to be 0. 42 +/- 0.05 per mil per kelvin. This coefficient implies a mean surface temperature change of 16.0 kelvin (between 14.3 and 18.1 kelvin), which differs substantially from values derived from borehole temperatures and modern spatial delta(18)O(ice)-surface temperature correlations.

  2. Six-Degree Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest: Forty Years of Development as a Physiological Analog for Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    -degrees HDT model must continue to be scrutinized, re-examined, validated and compared to other analog environments whenever possible. Only by understanding the strengths and limits of this model, will it continue to serve as a critical physiological analog to spaceflight for many more years to come.

  3. A Descriptive Summary of 1999-2000 Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year Later: With an Analysis of Time to Degree. Statistical Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburn, Ellen M.; Berger, Rachael; Xiaojile, Li; Katharin, Peter; Rooney, Kathryn

    This report provided a basic demographic profile of 1999-2000 bachelor's degree recipients and examines the institutional paths they took to complete the baccalaureate. It also describes the amount of time it took them to do so, assessed from both the time they completed high school and the time they entered postsecondary education. Estimates of…

  4. Identifying clinical learning needs using structured group feedback: first year evaluation of pre-registration nursing and midwifery degree programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Connolly, Michael; Naughton, Corina; Kow, Veronica

    2014-07-01

    Facilitating and supporting clinical learning for student nurses and midwives are essential within their practice environments. Clinical placements provide unique opportunities in preparation for future roles. Understanding the experiences of first year student nurses and midwives following clinical exposures and examining the clinical facilitators and barriers can assist in maintaining and developing clinical supports. The study used a structured group feedback approach with a convenience sample of 223 first year nursing and midwifery students in one Irish university in April 2011 to ascertain feedback on the clinical aspects of their degree programme. Approximately 200 students participated in the process. Two key clinical issues were identified by students: facilitating clinical learning and learning experiences and needs. Positive learning environments, supportive staff and increased opportunities for reflection were important issues for first year students. The role of supportive mentoring staff in clinical practice is essential to enhance student learning. Students value reflection in practice and require more opportunities to engage during placements. More collaborative approaches are required to ensure evolving and adapting practice environments can accommodate student learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 亚裔美国史学五十年:反思与展望%Fifty Years of Asian- American Historiography: Reflecting on the Past and Looking into the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心扬

    2012-01-01

    This essay aims to examine the merits and problems of Asian -American historiography in the past 50 years. In the early days, a major problem in the field was an ideology -guided, monistic approach to academic research. By only focusing on racial discrimination and by deterring others from exploring Asian immigration history from different or additional perspectives, this approach dominated the field for nearly three decades at the cost of a fuller and more balanced picture of historical events. In recent years, however, there have emerged some new trends challenging the dogmatic approach to Asian - American studies. By examining the relationships between whites, blacks, and Asians as a triangulated relationship instead of a binary one, scholars writing since the mid - 1990s have refuted the traditional "black and white" theory on race relations in America. Meanwhile, those who explore Asian - American history from a transnational perspective have argued, persuasively, that Asian immigrants had dual nationalism and dual- cultural identities. In particular, they have discovered that Japanese immigration and Japanese expansionism were closely intertwined. Behind the decision to relocate the Japanese during World War II, "military necessity" did exist, ese new trends indicate that Asian- American historiography is headed toward maturity.%回顾和检讨亚裔美国史学在过去半个世纪里所走过的道路可以发现,早期亚裔美国史学中一个最突出的问题是以意识形态为主导的一元论历史观。在近30年的时间里,学者大都仅仅从“种族歧视”这一个角度去诠释历史事件,反对从其他视野去观察亚洲移民的经历。不过,最近15年来,这个领域中出现了冲破一元论历史观束缚的趋势。新一代学者提出了白人、黑人和亚裔之间三角形关系的论点,从而否定了“有色对白种”的双重种族关系理论模式。从“跨国主义”的视野观察

  6. Should Degree Programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics be Dedicated or Integrated? : Reflections and Recommendations after more than 40 Years of Medical Informatics Education at TU Braunschweig, including 10 Years of B.Sc. and 15 Years of M.Sc. Integrated Degree Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Zeisberg, Ute

    2017-07-01

    Education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) has been established in many countries throughout the world. For degree programs in BMHI we can distinguish between those that are completely stand-alone or dedicated to the discipline vs. those that are integrated within another program. After running integrated degree medical informatics programs at TU Braunschweig for 10 years at the B.Sc. and for 15 years at the M.Sc level, we (1) report about this educational approach, (2) analyze recommendations on, implementations of, and experiences with degree educational programs in BMHI worldwide, (3) summarize our lessons learned with the integrated approach at TU Braunschweig, and (4) suggest an answer to the question, whether degree programs in biomedical and health informatics should be dedicated or integrated. According to our experience at TU Braunschweig and based on our analysis of publications, there is a clear dominance of dedicated degree programs in BMHI. The specialization in medical informatics within a computer science program, as offered at TU Braunschweig, may be a good way of implementing an integrated, informatics-based approach to medical informatics, in particular if a dual degree option can be chosen. The option of curricula leading to double degrees, i.e. in this case to two separate degrees in computer science and in medical informatics might, however, be a better solution.

  7. 近50年来祁连山及河西走廊极端气温的季节变化特征%Seasonal Characteristics of Extreme Temperature Changes in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor During Last Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文雄

    2012-01-01

    Based on daily temperature data of 18 meteorological stations in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corri- dor from 1960 to 2009, the seasonal characteristics of extreme temperature change were analyzed by methods of linear trend, Morlet wavelet and Mann-Kendall. The results indicate that extreme high temperature days in each season are on the rise significantly, especially increased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s. But that is contrary to extreme low temperature days, which decreased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s in spring and summer, and decreased after the middle and later of 1960s in autumn and winter. The changing scale of extreme temperature days is the largest in winter, and the changes of them are before ten years in win- ter than in other seasons, which indicated that the significant change of extreme temperature days took place in winter firstly. The cycle changes of extreme temperature days in different seasons are different, but they are grouped in 6-10 a, 12-16 a and 18-22 a. The major cycle of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter are changing respectivelywith 8 a, 14 a, 16 a and 16 a, and that of extreme low temperature days are changing respectively with 14 a, 16 a, 14 a and 6 a. The mutation of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter increased in 2002, 1997, 1994, 1986, respectively, but that of extreme low temperature days decreased in 2002, 1997, 1987, 1986, respectively. Except autumn, the abrupt changes of ex- treme high temperature days and extreme low temperature days in other seasons are coincident. The response to global warming of extreme temperature days is earlier in autumn and winter than that in spring and summer. The change of extreme temperature days will bring some effect to the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor. The increase of extreme high temperature days will add pressure of preventing fire for forest and grasslands in Qilian Mountains. The decrease of

  8. The Progresses of Seaport City Studies in the Last Fifty Years%20世纪60年代以来海港城市研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海壮; 栾维新

    2011-01-01

    As a special urban type,seaport cities have aroused wide concern from academic communities at home and abroad since the 1960s.Nowadays,there are plenty of academic outputs in this field,which are classi-fied into several research topics such as port-city relationship,port development and evolution,integrated plan-ning of port and city,and spatial structure of port cities.Although several scholars reviewed some subjects in this field recently,there is not a complete literature review of seaport city studies.This paper collected academic works related in recent more than 50 years,sorted them out in term of study topics firstly,and then summed up,analyzed and compared these subjects to show the research context and to find study shortages and future direc-tions in this field.After reviewing,we can draw the following conclusions.Firstly,the attention to seaport cities is increasing worldwide,but it lacks coherence at home.Secondly,research perspective has transferred from port-city evolution to port-city relationship,but the latter is relatively confined at home.Thirdly,the study meth-od has changed from qualitative to quantitative analysis,but still lacks interdisciplinary approach.Fourthly,spa-tial analysis is an essential method all the time,and scale and indicators shall be supplemented in the future study.Finally,there are many studies in this field that focus on evolution process and status of seaport cities,but there are relatively few studies on theories and their applications to newly built seaport cities.%作为一种特殊的城市类型,海港城市自20世纪60年代开始就受到国内外学术界的广泛关注,如今已有较为丰富的学术产出,可大体划归为港城关系、港口地域演化、港城一体规划和港城空间结构等研究主题,尽管前人曾对某一方面的研究进展作过评述性的工作,但仍缺乏比较系统全面的海港城市研究综述。本文搜集半个多世纪的国内外相关文献,根据研究主

  9. Fifty challenging problems in probability with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Can you solve the problem of ""The Unfair Subway""? Marvin gets off work at random times between 3 and 5 p.m. His mother lives uptown, his girlfriend downtown. He takes the first subway that comes in either direction and eats dinner with the one he is delivered to. His mother complains that he never comes to see her, but he says she has a 50-50 chance. He has had dinner with her twice in the last 20 working days. Explain. Marvin's adventures in probability are one of the fifty intriguing puzzles that illustrate both elementary ad advanced aspects of probability, each problem designed to chall

  10. Morphological and functional indicators of 10–13 year-old adolescents with the scoliosis of I–II degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Podolyaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of morphological and functional indicators of 10–13 year-old adolescents suffering with the scoliosis of I–II degree, to determine the main directions in the preparation of comprehensive rehabilitation programs for improving posture in children. Material & Methods: based on the analysis of the specialized literature and the generalization of the obtained data of the conducted study of 42 school-age children, which are divided into two groups – the basic (with scoliosis deformation of the spine and the control (practically healthy children of the same age, the main directions for the compilation of comprehensive rehabilitation programs. Results: It established the fact of violations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in children with scoliosis. Indicators of boys and girls have different directions. Conclusion: preparation of corrective programs requires not only the formation and consolidation of the habit of correct posture, the creation of a muscular corset, but also the focus on improving the development of a cardiovascular and respiratory systems with a special approach to children of different sexes.

  11. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budget over the period 1958-2009, we explore the planning and realization of fiscal policy in the Netherlands. Our key findings are the following. First, planned surpluses are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic during the first half of the samp

  12. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  13. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  14. 50 (Fifty) Years of Research on Man in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    authorized a Vito Commander position in March 1972. Colonel Dt-)pelt was appointed the first Vice Commander of the Laboratory. Colonel D oppelt wa-is...Clauser, 7184, 1972) " Development of the Systems Analysis Integrated Network ot Tasks ( SAINT ). First man system model for predicting nuclear S V effects

  15. Fifty Years of IMF Variation: The Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J

    2004-01-01

    I track the history of star count estimates of the Milky Way field star and open cluster IMFs, concentrating on the neglected mass range from 1 to 15 M${_\\odot}$. The prevalent belief in a universal IMF appears to be without basis for this mass range. Two recent estimates of the field star IMF using different methods and samples give values of the average logarithmic slope $\\Gamma$ between -1.7 and -2.1 in the mass range 1.1 to 4 M${_\\odot}$. Two older estimates between 2 and 15 M${_\\odot}$ disagree severely; the field IMF in this range is essentially unknown from star counts. Variations in $\\Gamma$ among open cluster IMFs in this mass range have not decreased despite numerous detailed studies, even for studies using homogeneous data and reduction procedures and including only clusters with a significant mass range. These cluster variations \\textit{might} be due to the combined effects of sampling, systematic errors, stellar evolution uncertainties, dynamical evolution, and unresolved binaries. If so, then th...

  16. Fifty years later: A neurodynamic explanation of Fitts' law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Dan; Bhatti, Shabana Ali; MacKenzie, I Scott; Wu, Jianhong

    2006-10-22

    An intrinsic property of human motor behaviour is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. This is classically described by Fitts' law, a model derived by assuming the human body has a limited capacity to transmit information in organizing motor behaviour. Here, we propose an alternative foundation, based on the neurodynamics of the motor circuit, wherein Fitts' law is an approximation to a more general relationship. In this formulation, widely observed inconsistencies with experimental data are a consequence of psychomotor delay. The methodology developed additionally provides a method to estimate the delay within the motor circuit from the speed-accuracy trade-off alone.

  17. The Laser: fifty years already; Le Laser: deja cinquante ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocholle, J.P. [Thales Research and Technology, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2010-09-15

    The fiftieth anniversary celebration has this characteristic which it makes it possible to carry a retrospective glance on the evolution of a subject. From this point of view, the LASER, as a scientific concept or a technological tool, does not escape the rule. This article recalls the historical contributions leading to the first demonstration of the laser effect by Theodore Maiman in 1960, starting from a theoretical concept established by Albert Einstein in 1917. This demonstration naturally opened a strong activity in the laboratories. It resulted in the creation of instruments which took part in the enrichment of knowledge in the fields of physics, chemistry and the biomedical one. In our daily life, the communications, the information storage, the imagery, lighting and the industrial tools profited from the properties of the coherent or quasi-coherent emission of the light. Each one of these applications to follow-up its own evolutions which we will also try to describe in this article. (author)

  18. Fifty years of crop protection, 1950-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    We detected the presence of fructosamine in human and bovine semen. In seminal plasma of healthy normozoospermic men (N = 17) fructosamine was found in 53% of the cases (fru+). In fru+ semen samples the concentration of fructosamine was (mean ± S.E.M., N = 9) 0.45 ± 0.09 mmol/L and varied from 0.15

  19. Ion Channels, from Fantasy to Fact in Fifty Years1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter C.

    Biologists have long recognized that the transport of ions and of neutral species across cell membranes is central to physiological function. Cells rely on their biomembranes, which separate the cytoplasm from the extracellular medium, to maintain the two electrolytes at very different composition. Specialized molecules, essentially biological nanodevices, have evolved to selectively control the movement of all the major physiological species. As should be clear, there have to be at least two distinct modes of transport. To maintain the disequilibrium, there must be molecular assemblies that drive ions and other permeable species against their electrochemical potential gradients. Such devices require energy input, typically coupling a vectorial pump with a chemical reaction, the dephosphorylation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These enzymes (biochemical catalysts) control highly concerted, and relatively slow, process, with turnovers of ≫ 100 s¡ 1.

  20. Recent nonmetropolitan population change in fifty-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K M; Purdy, R L

    1980-02-01

    Post-1970 nonmetropolitan population shifts are examined by dividing nonmetropolitan counties into ten cohorts based on the duration and direction of consistent population change since 1920. Analysis indicates that the post-1970 gains reported by Beale are pervasive in nonmetropolitan America, occurring even in a majority of the counties that lost population consistently from 1920 to 1970. Growth was greatest in countries adjacent to metropolitan areas but was more than urban spillover effect. In a clear break with traditional patterns, net inmigration contributed significantly to overall population gain and was particularly strong among countries without an urban center. The rate of natural increase continued to slow in the post-1970 period, with natural decrease becoming common among countries with protracted histories of population decline.

  1. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  2. Hashing in computer science fifty years of slicing and dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Konheim, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructor s manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires

  3. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.

  4. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cottet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described.

  5. Fifty years of illumination about the natural levels of adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2016-01-01

    A visionary Darwinian ahead of his time, George C. Williams developed in his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection the essentials of a unifying theory of adaptation that remains robust today and has inspired immense progress in understanding how natural selection works....

  6. Fifty years of CFD for room air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    , and to addressing situations with more steady-state solutions. The article finishes with a number of different case studies such as design of air supply openings, smoke management in buildings, cross-infection risks from the exhalation of particles and calculation of people moving in a room. The use of benchmark...

  7. Fifty-year study of the Peierls-Nabarro stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-30

    Full Text Available The origin of the Peierls model and its relation to that of Frenkel and Kontorova are described. Within this model there are three essentially different formulae for the stress required to move a dislocation rigidly through a perfect lattice...

  8. Fifty years of Szigeti's dielectric theory – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D B Sirdeshmukh; L Sirdeshmukh; K G Subhadra

    2007-10-01

    During the period 1949–1961 Szigeti published four seminal papers on the dielectric behaviour of crystals. Szigeti's theory is applicable to isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and covalent crystals with different structures. Szigeti's theory connects dielectric, spectroscopic and elastic properties. An important outcome of Szigeti's theory is the concept of the effective ionic charge (). It is pointed out that correlates with a number of physical properties and is a measure of ionicity of the interatomic bond. Since Szigeti's work, several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the fact that < 1. These models provide an insight into the complex polarization mechanisms in solids. This review summarizes Szigeti's work and the work that followed; the implications and applications of Szigeti's theory are discussed. Some new results are also included.

  9. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  10. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2013-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  11. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles. PMID:18338677

  12. Fifty shades of exploitation: Fan labor and Fifty Shades of Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploration of the debates that have taken place in fandom over the ethics of pulling fan fiction and publishing it as original work draws on the notion of the fannish gift economy, which postulates that gifts such as fan fiction and fan art have value in the fannish community because they are designed to create and cement its social structure. Tension exists between fans who subscribe to the notion of a fannish gift economy and those who exploit fandom by using it to sell their pulled-to-publish works. An examination of E. L. James's 2012 Fifty Shades trilogy (comprising the books Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Fifty Shades Freed, which began as Twilight fan fiction, in addition to Twilight fan art sold through sites such as Redbubble and Etsy, demonstrates a tension between the two modes of fan expression: sale of artworks appears to be an acceptable practice in fandom, but the commercial sale of fan fic, even when marketed as original fiction, is widely contested.

  13. Management of fourth degree obstetric perineal tear without colostomy using non - stimulated gracilis - our experience over eleven years

    OpenAIRE

    Jiten Kulkarni; Patil, Anuradha J.; Bhaskar Musande; Abhishek B Bhamare

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although gracilis muscle transposition for faecal incontinence has been well-described method, its literature for use in obstetric perineal tear without colostomy is sparse. In this study, we have tried to analyse its use in fourth-degree obstetric perineal tears. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with recto-vaginal fistula with faecal incontinence secondary to obstetric perineal tear were retrospectively studied between February 2003 and May 2014. The recto-vaginal fis...

  14. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  15. Using the Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business as a Learning Outcomes Assessment: Evidence from a Review of 20 Years of Institution-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Bochenek, Jennifer; Burkander, Kri

    2015-01-01

    By applying multilevel models with random effects, the authors reviewed and synthesized findings from 30 studies that were published in the last 20 years exploring the relationship between the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business (MFTB) and related factors. The results suggest that MFTB scores correlated…

  16. An Outline of a Proposed Five- plus Three-Year Combined Undergraduate-Master's Degree for Clinical Medicine Majors at Nanjing Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing-Ya; Yu, Rong-Bin; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    To build an effective model to train excellent doctors, Nanjing Medical University has proposed a five- plus three-year combined undergraduate-master's clinical medicine degree program. The program integrates undergraduate education, the education of research students, and standardized doctor residency training into a single system, allowing…

  17. The Relationship between Degree Type, Certification Status, and Years of Employment and the Amount of Time Spent on Rehabilitation Counseling Tasks in State--Federal Vocational Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Dan C.; Strauser, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between perceived percentage of time spent on particular rehabilitation counseling responsibilities, on one hand, and possession of an educational degree, certification as a rehabilitation counselor (CRC), and years worked for the state--federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) agency, on the…

  18. Follow-Up Survey of Students Who Received a Degree or Certificate from Napa Valley College in the 1984-85 Academic Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    A survey was conducted of Napa Valley College (NVC) graduates who completed a degree or certificate program in the 1984-85 academic year. Surveys were sent to 320 graduates to determine what percentage achieved their educational goal by the time they left NVC; graduates' satisfaction with their NVC experience; the extent to which they took…

  19. A Mixed Method Evaluation of the First Fifteen Years of the Master of Divinity with International Church Planting Degree at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Simeon Lee

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods historical study explores the first 15 years of the Master of Divinity with International Church Planting degree (2+2/3 Program) at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. The current leadership of the 2+2/3 Program requested this study be conducted, with the desire to gain historical information they may use to assess their…

  20. Management of fourth degree obstetric perineal tear without colostomy using non - stimulated gracilis - our experience over eleven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although gracilis muscle transposition for faecal incontinence has been well-described method, its literature for use in obstetric perineal tear without colostomy is sparse. In this study, we have tried to analyse its use in fourth-degree obstetric perineal tears. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with recto-vaginal fistula with faecal incontinence secondary to obstetric perineal tear were retrospectively studied between February 2003 and May 2014. The recto-vaginal fistula was explored, dissected and identification of sphincters was done using muscle stimulator. Fistula closure was done followed by sphincter repair, vaginal tightening procedure and single gracilis transposition. None of the patients had covering colostomy. Faecal incontinence was assessed pre- and post-operatively by digital rectal examination (single examiner, Park's score and Corman's score in all cases and using barium hold and transperineal ultrasonography, manometric studies in a few cases. The outcome was measured at an average follow-up of 8.8 months (7–24 months. Results: As per Park's score 26 patients had Grade I continence, two had Grade II and two patients had Grade III continence. Corman's score improved from fair to excellent in 26 patients. The patients in whom manometry was performed showed a remarkable rise in both resting and squeeze pressures. Two patients developed post-operative infections in upper 1/3 thigh incision site and three patients at gluteal region scar site. Conclusion: Satisfactory continence following gracilis muscle could be achieved.

  1. Degrees of Antioxidant Protection: A 2-Year Study of the Bioactive Properties of Organic Milk in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kuczyńska, Beata; Grodkowski, Grzegorz; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wróbel, Barbara; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Balcerak, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of organic milk in Poland, investigate the influence of diet on antioxidant capacity and degree of antioxidant protection (DAP), and to examine the effect of season on the bioactive properties of milk from organic farms. From 2014 to 2015, 820 milk samples were collected from 6 organic farms during indoor feeding season (IDS) and pasture feeding season (PS). Pasture feeding season + corn grain (PSCG) cows' daily ration during pasture feeding season was enriched with 4 kg a day of corn to improve dietary energy balance. Milk obtained during PS was found to have a higher fat content, slight but significantly lower protein content compared with milk from IDS. The study showed that the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in milk fat was strongly linked to the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and, to a lesser extent, on the supply of MUFA. The IDS data (concentration of vitamin E, A, and β-carotene) showed the lowest values compared with the PS and PSCG groups. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and DAP showed an increasing trend in organic milk. PSCG was associated with highest level of DAP (9% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS) and TAS (37% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS). The results obtained show that supplementation of the basic ration with corn grain improved both TAS and DAP. The higher DAP and TAS value is responsible for product stability, considering the risk factor related to levels of cholesterol-oxide intake in humans.

  2. Nuclear histochemistry: Its history in fifty volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Manfredi Romanini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiftieth anniversary of the double helix was marked two years ago. The elucidation of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick can rightfully be considered to be "the" milestone in modern biology because it has conditioned the explosive growth in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the structural and functional organization of single cells and multicellular organisms....

  3. 55岁以下成年移位股骨颈骨折内固定术后失败的研究分析%Failure of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞银贤; 马金忠; 朱力波; 陆海明; 桑伟林

    2012-01-01

    目的:回顾性研究年龄55岁以下成年患者移位股骨颈骨折内固定治疗失败病例以提高对其治疗的重视.方法:2007年1月至2010年6月治疗55岁以下移位股骨颈骨折内固定术后失败患者18例,男13例,女5例;年龄27~55岁,平均(48.0±6.0)岁;空心钉治疗17例,髓内钉治疗1例.入院时诊断为股骨头坏死16例,骨不连合并股骨头坏死2例.结果:18例患者内固定术后至手术失败时间8~32个月,平均23个月.复位内固定术后Garden指数不佳;入院时髋关节Harris评分33~80分,平均(56.0±12.5)分.8例股骨头坏死病例和2例骨不连合并股骨头坏死病例接受了全髋关节置换术,5例股骨头坏死病例接受了表面髋关节置换术,3例虽然影像学有股骨头坏死征象但临床症状不明显,接受了保守治疗.所有行髋关节表面置换和全髋关节置换的病例术后随访12~53个月,平均34个月,术后Harris评分(94.0±3.0)分(89~96分).结论:股骨头坏死是55岁以下成年移位股骨颈骨折闭合复位内固定术后常见并发症,必须提高对青壮年股骨颈骨折闭合复位内固定治疗的重视.%Objective:To investigate the failure of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old retrospectively inorder to pay more attention to the treatment of these fractures. Methods: From Junary 2007 to June 2010,18 failed cases of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old were treated,there were 13 males and 5 females with an average age of (48.0±6.0) years old ranging from 27 to 55. Among them, 17 patients were treated with cannulated screws and ) patient was treated with intramedullaiy nail; 16 patients were diagnosed as osteonecrosis and 2 patients as osteonecrosis associated with nonunion. Results:The average time from internal fixation to failure was 23 months (ranged, 8 to 32 months). The quality of fracture reduction in

  4. State adaptation reserves cardiorespiratory system first-year students with varying degrees of physical fitness in terms of treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the state of the cardiorespiratory system in terms of the stress test in first-year students with different levels of fitness. Material : the study involved 43 students, of which 18 boys and 25devushek basic medical group. The study used a treadmill, a pulse oximeter, spirometer. Results : more adjustment disorders were detected in students that are not involved in physical education at school. Decreased ability of the cardiorespiratory system to maintain proper oxygen supply of the organism in the stress test. This is not observed in students who were attending school in addition sports clubs. Found that students with low tolerance to physical exercise need a separate program of physical training, the dynamic control of the teachers and the need for additional medical examination. Conclusions : the treadmill test is an ideal way of revealing hidden maladjustment cardiorespiratory system in adolescence.

  5. Level of autonomy of Turkish students in the final year of university baccalaureate degree in health related fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagozoglu, Serife

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive type study was conducted for the purpose of determining the level of autonomy of final-year students at Cumhuriyet University Nursing School, School for Health Sciences Midwifery School, Medical Faculty and Doctor of Dentistry Faculty. The research was conducted with a total of 221 students. Two forms were used for data collection in the research. The first was a 25-question personal information form including factors that affect autonomy in university students, which was prepared based on information in the literature. The second was the 30-item autonomy subscale from the Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS), which was developed by Beck et al (1983). It has been adapted for Turkish and has been tested for validity and reliability by Sahin et al (1993). The research data were loaded on the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 11.0 program, and then frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, variance analysis (One-Way ANOVA) and Independent-Samples t Test were used in the evaluation of the data. According to the General Autonomy score mean from the SAS used in this study, the students' General Autonomy score mean was 80.94 +/- 15.40, the final year midwifery students had the highest level of autonomy (X = 83.48 +/- 11.98), followed by medical students (X = 81.23 +/- 15.36), nursing students (X = 77.33 +/- 15.19) and dental students (X = 72.90 +/- 14.41). According to the results obtained, the nursing students' level of autonomy was lower than the students' levels of autonomy in the other health-related branches except for dental students.

  6. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.

  7. Successful recruiting strategies for geoscience degrees and careers at the two-year college: An example from Metropolitan Community College - Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B.

    2012-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of students at 2-year colleges take geoscience courses (e.g. physical geology or physical geography) to fulfill part of the general education requirements of the Associates in Arts degree or General Education certificates for transfer to a 4-year school. It is common in community college earth science programs to have a relatively small number of students continuing on to major in geoscience programs at their transfer 4-year institution. To increase interest and retention in geosciences courses, we have developed a two prong approach - one aimed at students looking to transfer to a 4-year institution and the other aimed at students in the often overlooked career and technical education (CTE) programs. In the case of transfer students, we employ a "high touch" approach in introductory Physical Geology courses. This includes raising awareness of geoscience related careers combined with faculty mentor and advisor activities for students who express interest in science on their admission forms or in discussions of potential careers in science in first-year experience courses. Faculty mentorships have been very effective, not only in recruiting students to consider careers in geology, but also in advising a curriculum for students necessary to be successful upon transfer to a 4-year institution (such as completing college level chemistry, physics, and calculus courses prior to transfer). The second approach focuses on students pursuing certificates and degrees in CTE energy-related programs (such as HVAC, industrial engineering technology, electrician, and utility linemen). To increase awareness of vocational related geoscience careers, many of which require a good foundation in the vocational training students are currently pursing, we developed a foundation energy course - Energy and the Environment - which fulfills both the science general education component of the AA degree for students looking to transfer as well as CTE students. The

  8. Five-year stability study of free and total prostate-specific antigen concentrations in serum specimens collected and stored at -70 degrees C or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzino, D A; Schulte, K; Mack, B N; Soriano, T F; Fritsche, H A

    2007-01-01

    The stability of total (t) and free (f) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in male serum specimens stored at -70 degrees C or lower temperature for 4.7 to 4.9 years was studied. Until now, the stability of these analytes in serum has not been evaluated systematically beyond 2 years of storage at -70 degrees C. Aliquots of frozen serum were thawed in 2001 and 2006 and assayed for tPSA and fPSA using a Dade Behring Dimension(R) RxL analyzer and reagents. tPSA values ranged from 0.07 to 69.94 and 0.00 to 69.83 ng/mL in 2001 and 2006, respectively, whereas fPSA values for the tested specimens ranged from 0.02 to 5.72 and 0.00 to 5.92, respectively. Deming regression analyses showed agreement in assay values over time as tPSA values yielded a slope of 1.0112 and a y-intercept of 0.0195; fPSA values produced a slope 1.0538 and a y-intercept of -0.0442; f/tPSA values yielded a slope of 0.9631 and a y-intercept of 0.1195. A Bland-Altman analysis of the data demonstrated analyte and ratio stability over this time period. We conclude that serum, when collected properly and stored at -70 degrees C or lower temperature, may be used for tPSA and fPSA clinical studies for at least 5 years after collection.

  9. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Zero, Fifty, and One Hundred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A. Charles

    2008-01-01

    The experimental content areas represented in "JEAB" in its first volume (1958) and fifty 50 years later in Volume 87 are in many ways similar with regard to research on schedules of reinforcement, research with human subjects, and several other topics. Experimental analysis has not been displaced by quantitative analysis. Much less research on…

  10. Adenoma, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer prevalence in asymptomatic 40- to 49-year-old subjects with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio Blanco, G; Cretella, M; Paoluzi, O A; Caruso, A; Mannisi, E; Servadei, F; Romeo, S; Grasso, E; Sileri, P; Giannelli, M; Biancone, L; Palmieri, G; Pallone, F

    2013-09-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased CRC risk. Few studies have addressed if adenoma and advanced adenoma risk is increased among individuals, 40-49 years of age, with a family history of CRC. Therefore, the aim of the study was to define the prevalence and location of adenoma, advanced adenoma and CRC, according to age, in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of CRC. Retrospective study of asymptomatic FDRs, 40 to ≥70 years of age undergoing first screening colonoscopy over a 3-year period, of CRC patients. Among 464 individuals studied, the prevalence of adenoma and advanced adenoma was 18.1% and 6.4%, respectively. According to age intervals, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were 14% and 3.5%, respectively, in subjects 40-49 years of age; 14.4% and 6.3%, respectively, in subjects 50-59 years of age; 27% and 8%, respectively, in subjects 60-69 years of age; and 25% and 14%, respectively, in subjects ≥70 years of age; no significant difference was found among the four groups. No difference in lesion location was found, with similar numbers of preneoplastic lesions being present in the right colon and the left colon. CRC was diagnosed in three (0.64%) subjects, one of whom was in the 40-49 years age group. In our population of FDRs of CRC patients, 40-49 years of age, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were similar to those observed in older subjects with the same CRC risk. Our data support the current indication to perform screening colonoscopy earlier than 45 years of age in subjects at high CRC risk. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Women's Heart Disease: Cindy Parsons and Follow the Fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Cindy Parsons and Follow the Fifty Past Issues / ... Program, knowing that her personal risk factors for heart disease, including family history, were high. She watched her ...

  12. Transformationer i mediekulturen - Fifty Shades som fanfænomen

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiasen, Anja Falkner; Barding, Antonia; Eliasen, Kristina Maria Danielsen

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the Fifty Shades phenomenon where fan cultures and community building surrounding this particular universe are a few of the keywords to understanding this said phenomenon. Through Henry Jenkins’ transmedia storytelling and worldbuilding theory and Donald Horton & Richard Wohl’s theory on parasocial interactions as well as John B. Thompson’s non-reciprocal relation theory it can be concluded that the fans are what’s keeping the Fifty Shades universe alive and still rapidl...

  13. The LP-ESP(®) lumbar disc prosthesis with 6 degrees of freedom: development and 7 years of clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Aaron, Alain; Brusson, Adrien; Rakover, Jean-Patrick; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine

    2013-02-01

    The viscoelastic lumbar disk prosthesis-elastic spine pad (LP-ESP(®)) is an innovative one-piece deformable but cohesive interbody spacer providing 6 full degrees of freedom about the 3 axes, including shock absorption. A 20-year research program has demonstrated that this concept provides mechanical properties very close to those of a natural disk. Improvements in technology have made it possible to solve the problem of the bond between the elastic component and the titanium endplates and to obtain an excellent biostability. The prosthesis geometry allows limited rotation and translation with resistance to motion (elastic return property) aimed at avoiding overload of the posterior facets. The rotation center can vary freely during motion. It thus differs substantially from current prostheses, which are 2- or 3-piece devices involving 1 or 2 bearing surfaces and providing 3 or 5 degrees of freedom. This design and the adhesion-molding technology differentiate the LP-ESP prosthesis from other mono-elastomeric prostheses, for which the constraints of shearing during rotations or movement are absorbed at the endplate interface. Seven years after the first implantation, we can document in a solid and detailed fashion the course of clinical outcomes and the radiological postural and kinematic behavior of this prosthesis.

  14. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  15. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome - electrodiagnostic aspects of fifty seven symptomatic hands.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Electrodiagnostic data of fifty seven symptomatic extremities with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are described. Practice recommendations made by American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation regarding electrodiagnostic studies were considered while confirming CTS diagnosis by electrodiagnostic studies. Median sensory nerve conduction studies were the commonest abnormalities noted. The median orthod...

  17. 1977 flywheel technology symposium proceedings. [Fifty-two papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, G.C.; Stone, R.G. (eds.)

    1978-03-01

    Fifty-two papers, four paper abstracts, and four brief summaries of panel discussions are presented on flywheel energy storage technology. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 41 papers for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). Eleven papers were processed previously for inclusion in the data base. (PMA)

  18. New College Graduates at Work: Employment among 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08 Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduation. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staklis, Sandra; Skomsvold, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the employment outcomes of college graduates 1 year after earning a bachelor's degree. It compares 2007-08 bachelor's degree recipients who graduated at the start of the recent recession with their peers who graduated in 1992-93 and 1999-2000. Different labor market conditions characterized these three time…

  19. Physics & Astronomy Master's One Year after Degree: Results from the Follow-up Survey of Master's Recipients, Classes of 2009, 2010, & 2011 Combined. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Garrett, Arnell

    2013-01-01

    Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts the Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information on the number of students enrolled and the number of recent degree recipients conferred the previous academic year. This survey also asks for the names and contact information of their…

  20. Physics Bachelor's One Year Later: Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2009 and 2010 Combined. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts its "Survey of Enrollments and Degrees" which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and contact information for their…

  1. Physics Masters One Year after Degree: Results from the Follow-Up Survey of Master's Recipients, Classes of 2012, 2013, & 2014 Combined. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Exiting physics master's recipients from the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014 combined pursued a variety of different post-degree outcomes. Initial outcomes differed greatly depending on citizenship. The majority of US citizens were in the workforce following the receipt of their master's degrees. In contrast, the majority of non-US citizens…

  2. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S; von Buchwald, Christian; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    Factors influencing survival after head and neck cancer (HNC) include among others stage, age, and sex. More recently, human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity has been described as a favorable prognostic factor in relation to some HNCs. In this nationwide register-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60 years at diagnosis. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when examining five-year all-cause mortality trends according to stage. All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased significantly in Denmark from 1978 to 2010, especially for HNSCCs at sites anticipated to be strongly associated with HPV, possibly due to an increasing proportion of HPV-positive HNSCCs.

  3. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and degree of myopia in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in southeast Spain: determination and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Garcia-Medina1, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina2,3, Pablo Garrido-Fernandez1, Jose Galvan-Espinosa1, Jesus Martin-Molina1, Carlos Garcia-Maturana4, Sergio Perez-Pardo1, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Torrecardenas Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Huercal Overa Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 3Ophthalmology Research Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain; 4University of Sevilla, SpainObjective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and degree of myopia (DM in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain. To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region.Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum, and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM.Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8, the mean overall CCT was 550.12 µm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014. CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002. Subjects over 30 years (13.83 had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38 (P = 0.04. The mean overall DM was -4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001. Myopia was stable in the

  4. Evolution and degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors after 5 years of follow-up and their relationship with the incidence of peripheral arterial disease: ARTPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forés, Rosa; Alzamora, María Teresa; Pera, Guillem; Valverde, Marta; Angla, Maria; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Mundet-Tuduri, Xavier

    2017-02-09

    Although cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are well known, their degree of control is not optimal. The aim of this study is to assess the evolution and control of CVRFs after 5 years of monitoring a population-based cohort and their association with the incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Prospective cohort study recruited between 2006-2008. Second phase between 2011-2012. An ankle brachial index was determined for all participants in both phases. Demographic variables, CVRF and previous cardiovascular events, blood pressure, total cholesterol and its fractions (HDL, LDL), triglycerides, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in diabetic patients and the cardiovascular risk score according to the REGICOR table were recorded. A total of 2,125 individuals were analyzed. We observed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (HT) (15.4%), diabetes (DM) (8.2%) and hypercholesterolemia (20.4%), with no changes in obesity and smoking. The cardiovascular risk determined on the basis of the REGICOR table remained at around 5.5%. We observed an increased control of CVRF throughout the follow-up period, except in the case of DM and obesity. In the multivariate analysis, uncontrolled HT 2-folded the risk of onset of PAD (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-4.1), whereas smoking 5-folded this risk (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.5-10.2). Smoking and uncontrolled HT increase the risk of onset of PAD in this population. Despite the increase in drug treatments, the control of CVRFs continues to be suboptimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S

    2016-01-01

    associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60......-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model....... Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. RESULTS: All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly...

  6. Mathematical card magic fifty-two new effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical card effects offer both beginning and experienced magicians an opportunity to entertain with a minimum of props. Featuring mostly original creations, Mathematical Card Magic: Fifty-Two New Effects presents an entertaining look at new mathematically based card tricks. Each chapter contains four card effects, generally starting with simple applications of a particular mathematical principle and ending with more complex ones. Practice a handful of the introductory effects and, in no time, you'll establish your reputation as a ""mathemagician."" Delve a little deeper into each chapter

  7. From 2000 Bush-Gore to 2006 Italian elections: Voting at fifty-fifty and the Contrarian Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, S

    2007-01-01

    A sociophysical model for opinion dynamics is shown to embody a series of recent western hung national votes all set at the unexpected and very improbable edge of a fifty-fifty score. It started with the Bush-Gore 2000 American presidential election, followed by the 2002 Stoiber-Schr\\H{o}der, then the 2005 Schr\\H{o}der-Merkel German elections, and finally the 2006 Prodi-Berlusconi Italian elections. In each case, the country was facing drastic choices, the running competing parties were advocating very different programs and millions of voters were involved. Moreover, polls were given a substantial margin for the predicted winner. While all these events were perceived as accidental and isolated, our model suggests that indeed they are deterministic and obey to one single universal phenomena associated to the effect of contrarian behavior on the dynamics of opinion forming. The not hung Bush-Kerry 2005 presidential election is shown to belong to the same universal frame. To conclude, the existence of contraria...

  8. Carpal tunnel syndrome - electrodiagnostic aspects of fifty seven symptomatic hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrodiagnostic data of fifty seven symptomatic extremities with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are described. Practice recommendations made by American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation regarding electrodiagnostic studies were considered while confirming CTS diagnosis by electrodiagnostic studies. Median sensory nerve conduction studies were the commonest abnormalities noted. The median orthodromic sensory latencies were prolonged in 86% and sensory nerve action potential amplitude abnormalities were seen in 82%. Prolongation of the conduction in the short segment across the wrist in the median nerve was seen in 96.5% and the difference in the conduction between median and ulnar nerve across the wrist was significant in all the 57 extremities. The median motor latencies were prolonged in 67% of hands. Higher incidence of electrodiagnostic abnormalities observed in this study might be due to inclusion of patients with severe disease.

  9. The decision book fifty models for strategic thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Krogerus, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Most of us face the same questions every day: What do I want? And how can I get it? How can I live more happily and work more efficiently? A worldwide bestseller, The Decision Book distils into a single volume the fifty best decision-making models used on MBA courses and elsewhere that will help you tackle these important questions - from the well known (the Eisenhower matrix for time management) to the less familiar but equally useful (the Swiss Cheese model). It will even show you how to remember everything you will have learned by the end of it. Stylish and compact, this little black book is a powerful asset. Whether you need to plot a presentation, assess someone's business idea or get to know yourself better, this unique guide will help you simplify any problem and take steps towards the right decision.

  10. EUPHEMISTIC AND DYSPHEMISTIC LANGUAGE IN FIFTY SHADES OF GREY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Fifty Shades of Grey trilogy is beyond doubt. This great impact has also been reflected on academic literature dealing with the novel from different perspectives. However, while there is substantial research on the novels, little attention has been paid to the author's usage of language. Bearing in mind that erotic stories are a common euphemistic and dysphemistic ground, the aim of this paper is to explore euphemism, dysphemism and x-phemism (quasieuphemism and quasidysphemism in a corpus which consists of the three books of the mentioned trilogy so as to observe if the use of these devices depends on sexes and how these phenomena merge with metaphorical or metonymical devices to avoid a possible loss of face or highlight a taboo. The conclusions will show that the male and female main characters in the novels use language differently and employ these verbal devices with several intentions.

  11. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH FIFTY-YING-ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁民

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy for treatment of chronic bronchitis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: A total of 36 out- and in-patients with chronic bronchitis including 10 cases of asthma were subjected into this study. Among them, 20 cases were qi-deficiency type and 16 qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-clamp type. The changes of symptoms, T-lymphocyte subgroups of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+,CD4+/CD8+, soluble interleuki-2 receptor ( SIL-2R), interleukin-6(IL-6), IgG, IgA and IgM before and after treatment were observed and detected using monoclonal indirect fluorescence method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nephelometry respectively. Results: (1)The effective rate of qi-dificiency type was 100% and that of qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type 87.5%. (2) After acupuncture treatment, in qi-deficiency type patients, serum IgG, IgA and IgM contents increased significantly (P< 0. 001) in comparison with pre-treatment and in qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type patients, IgG level lowered obviously. Serum SIL-2R and CD4+/CD8+ decreased obviously(P<0.01, 0.001), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ increased evidently (P<0.01). Conclusion: The Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy can better clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis patients through its resultant up-regulation of the immune system function.

  12. Are Two-Year Colleges the Key to Expanding the Scientific Labor Force? Unpacking Gender and Racial-Ethnic Gaps in Undergraduate STEM Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby; Hopkins, Jordan; Nix, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Given the explosion of theoretical and empirical interest in the STEM gender gap in recent years, almost exclusively focused on four-year colleges, this paper primarily investigates the following question: How does the nature of the gender gap differ among two- and four-year college students, if at all? This study seeks to answer the following…

  13. Next Evolution of the Seneca College Outdoor Recreation Program: One Year of High Level Professional Outdoor Training and Development for Post-Diploma/Post-Degree Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    1998-01-01

    Describes the steps in utilizing fast-tracking to phase out the overloaded two-year Outdoor Recreation Technician Co-op program at Seneca College (Ontario) and phase in a one-year graduate Outdoor Recreation Certificate program with a lower teacher-student ratio. A concept model relates generalist core skills to specializations and outdoor…

  14. Spatial and Temporal Change of Precipitation Extremes in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor in Recent Fifty Years%近50年来祁连山及河西走廊地区极端降水的时空变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文雄; 张禹舜; 李宗省

    2014-01-01

    Corridor, that the day numbers and the degrees of precipitation extremes increased in the middle of Hexi Corridor, that the amounts and the de-grees increased in the east of Hexi Corridor and Qilian Mountains, and that the amounts and the degrees in-creased obviously in the middle of Qilian Mountains where it is most sensitive to global warming than other re-gions. The indexes of precipitation extreme changed abruptly in the middle of 1960s, the middle of 1970s, the first of 1980s, the middle and later of 1980s and the middle of 1990s. The abrupt spots are consistent to the times of the strong and weak change of East Asia Monsoon, South Asia Monsoon and Westerly Wind circula-tion.

  15. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  16. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior at fifty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    ...: behavior analysis history, women as journal editors, geographical distribution of editors, online publishing, B.F. Skinner I have lived my professional life by decades. It was 60 years ago, in 1928, that I arrived at Harvard as a graduate student in psychology. Behaviorism was then only 15 years old. Ten years later, in 1938, I published The Behav...

  17. Radiographic indices in one hundred fifty normal Iranian wrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ghahramani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radiography is the most widely available imaging modality. Precise evaluations of wrist x-ray can help diagnosis and evaluate the prognosis of many wrist disorders. Methods: We measured length, angles and indices in 150 posteroanterior and lateral wrist x-rays to determine normal dimensions and variations according to age and sex. All x-rays were made with standard exposure, with the wrist and forearm in a neutral position. Results: The average carpal height ratio was 0.52±0.03 with the Youm method and 1.5±0.09 with the Nattrass method. Mean ulnar variance was +0.99±1.6 mm and mean radial inclination was 25±4 degrees. The average radial tilt was 10±5.1 degrees. Mean scapholunate angle was 50±8.4 degrees (normal range 40 -60. Conclusion: Carpal height, third metacarpal and capitate length were smaller in women than in men. There was a significant positive relationship between all dimensions. Our data base may be used to follow-up in conditions such as carpal instability, osteoarthritis and osteonecrosis, as well as for clinical research.

  18. Temporal and spatial change of climate extremes in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor during last fifty years%近50a来祁连山及河西走廊极端气候的时空变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文雄

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of global warming, the frequency of extreme climate and damage of meteorological disasters are increasing. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data of 20 weather stations in the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor from 1960 to 2009, the inter-annual change trends of climate extremes were studied by methods of regression analysis and five years moving average, and the spatial distribution characteristics of inter-annual change trends and its significance of climate extremes were analyzed by method of Spline interpolation under ArcGIS environment, and the cycles of climate extremes were discussed by method of Morlet wavelet analysis under Matlab environment, so as to bring scientific accordance for local governments to deal with climate change and disaster prevention and alleviation. The results indicate the annual number of extreme high temperature days ( EHTD) is on the significant rise by the rate of 0. 79 d/a, and the trend of inter-annual change of EHTD is accelerative by larger waving scale after the middle-late of 1980s, especially the rate of EHTD getting higher after the middle-late of 1990s. This is contrary to the extreme low temperature days (ELTD) , the annual number of ELTD is decreasing significantly by the rate of -0. 54 d/a and the trend of inter-annual change of ELTD is reducing by larger waving scale after the middle-latte of 1980s, and the rate of ELTD is lower after the middle-late of 1980s. The annual number of extreme precipitation days (EPD) is increasing significantly by the rate of 0.02 d/a, and the trend of inter-annual change of EPD is rising by larger and smaller waving scale before and after the middle of 1980s respectively, but the trend became contrary after the middle-late of 1990s, and the rate of EPD is higher after the middle of 1970s. The spatial distribution characteristics of inter-annual change trends and its significance of climate extremes have some differences, but the response to the global

  19. Mercury and Copper Accumulation During Last Fifty Years and Their Potential Ecological Risk Assessment in Sediment of Mangrove Wetland of Shenzhen,China%近50年来深圳湾红树林湿地Hg、Cu累积及其生态危害评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞利; 柴民伟; 邱国玉; 贺蓓

    2012-01-01

    pH.Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng·g-1 and 29-83 μg·g-1,respectively.And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth.At 14 cm depth,contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels.Correspondingly,the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu.At 14 cm depth,the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85,respectively.The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild.The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay,China.Since the year of 2000,the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies,improving the environment for growth of mangrove.In conclusion,the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  20. Anticollagen type II antibodies are associated with an acute onset rheumatoid arthritis phenotype and prognosticate lower degree of inflammation during 5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel, Vivek Anand; Mullazehi, Mohammed; Padyukov, Leonid; Westerlind, Helga; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Rönnelid, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Antifibrillar collagen type II (anti-CII) antibody-positive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have early but not late signs of increased inflammation and joint erosions. We wanted to replicate this in a large RA cohort, and to relate to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1* alleles. Anti-CII and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)2 were measured at baseline in 773 patients with RA from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study with clinical follow-up data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (SRQ) registry, and 1476 with HLA-DRB1* information. Comparisons were done concerning C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), tender joint count (TJC), swollen joint count (SJC), Disease Activity Score encompassing 28 joints based on ESR (DAS28), DAS28CRP, pain-Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), global-VAS and Health Assessment Questionnaire Score (HAQ) at eight occasions during 5 years, and association with HLA-DRB1* alleles. Anti-CII associated with elevated CRP, ESR, SJC, DAS28 and DAS28CRP at diagnosis and up to 6 months, whereas anti-CCP2 associated with SJC and DAS28 from 6 months to 5 years, but not earlier. The anti-CII-associated phenotype was strong, and predominated in anti-CII/anti-CCP2 double-positive patients. Anti-CII was associated with improvements in CRP, ESR, SJC, TJC and DAS28, whereas anti-CCP2 was associated with deteriorations in SJC and DAS28 over time. Anti-CII-positive patients achieved European League Against Rheumatism good or moderate response more often than negative patients. Anti-CII was positively associated with HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*03, with significant interaction, and double-positive individuals had >14 times higher mean anti-CII levels than HLA double negatives. Whereas smoking was associated with elevated anti-CCP2 levels, smokers had lower anti-CII levels. Anti-CII seropositive RA represents a distinct phenotype, in many respects representing the converse

  1. [EFFICACY OF STANDARD TWO-YEAR COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY TO ACHIEVE TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE AND REGRESSION DEGREES OF REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH COMORBID HYPERTENSION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesiuk, E V

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 23 men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with comorbid arterial hypertension (AH). Mean age of patients was 56.7 years. Recurrent myocardial infarction was determined in 38.4%, cardiac failure I-III functional classes--100% of the cases. All patients underwent clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography, blood lipid profile. Standard comprehensive treatment for two years included an perindopril 5-10 mg/day, beta-blocker bisoprolol--5-10 mg/day, antisclerotic drug atorvastatin--20 mg/day and aspirin--75 mg/day. The patients after treatment was determined by a gradual increase towards the target of AT at 3, 6 and 12 to 24 months. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) before treatment was determined in 47.8%, eccentric--in 52.2% of patients. In the study of degrees of LVH I (initial) the extent to treatment was determined by 4.3%, II (moderate)--26.1%, III (large)--at 69.6%, indicating the development of cardiac remodeling. After the treatment was determined by marked reduction III (large) degree and transfer it in the II (moderate) and I (small) degree of left ventricular hypertrophy due to more or less pronounced changes remodeling left ventricular. The obtained data allow a more detailed and adequately assess the structural and functional outcome variables and determine the regression of myocardial hypertrophy in the background to achieve target blood pressure, which is important in practical cardiology.

  2. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  3. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  4. Fifty years after: some experiences of the medical care of prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, R H

    1993-08-01

    Mention is made of Italian prisoners-of-war treated in Catterick military hospital but in October 1943 Italy joined the Allied side. An account is given of the medical condition of 78 Japanese POWs and of 228 members of the Japanese Indian Forces (JIFs) in a transit hospital in eastern India (now Bangladesh). Tropical sprue appeared to occur in an epidemic form each June and July in Burma and eastern India, but did not seem to have affected the Japanese or JIFs. A brief account is given of the condition of 180 European or Australian service men who had survived harsh conditions in Japanese POW camps until liberation in September 1945, then being admitted to a military hospital in Rangoon en route for home. Some had suffered from blindness as a result of malnutrition, the precise reason being uncertain, but there was some improvement after the injection of crude liver extract.

  5. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Ph

    2017-02-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic fluid management.

  6. Draft Budget of the Organization for the Fifty-First Financial Year 2005

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A sa réunion du 15 septembre 2004 , le Comité des finances a recommandé au Conseil d'approuver le projet préliminaire de budget 2005 aux prix de 2004. La présente version tient compte des transferts du budget 2004 présentés dans le document "Budget 2004 - Transferts et dépassements de crédits" , du prélèvement dans la réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC indiqué dans le document "Réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC" et de divers ajustements mineurs. En conséquence, il est demandé au Comité des finances de recommander au Conseil d'approuver les modifications par rapport au projet préliminaire de budget 2005 présentées dans les tableaux de l'annexe 1.

  7. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant techn

  8. One family's use of domestic fuels - a fifty year history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1999-03-01

    The paper provides a detailed account of energy use (or rather energy purchased, since the records were of bills paid) in a family home since 1948 and discusses the lessons learned. From 1948-1958 the family lived in a 3-bed semi-detached house, from 1959-1967 in three 5-bed detached houses, from mid-1977 to late 1987 in a three-bedroomed terraced house on three floors and a three-bedroom detached house in Norfolk and from 1987 onwards lived in a detached house in London. (UK)

  9. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Axel D

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964-1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  10. Essay: Fifty years of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroche, Serge

    2008-10-17

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  11. Pediatric oncology at Hospital Infantil de Mexico: fifty-five years of accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanson, A; Martínez-Avalos, A; Gallegos-Castorena, S; Juárez-Villegas, L E; González-Montalvo, P; Perales-Arroyo, A; Gallegos-González, E; Ayometzi-Ouchi, M T

    2002-09-01

    The Department of Oncology at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG) was the first unit in our country, and one of the first in Latin America, to specialize in the management of children with cancer. The HIMFG is part of the National Institutes of Health of Mexico, and is a reference hospital with research, educative, and tertiary care medical function. To date, the HIMFG and the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria are the principal medical centers in which children with cancer receive comprehensive care.

  12. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  13. Selection and Classification of United States Military Officers: A fifty-Year Bibliography (1937-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Printing Office. 64 Michael , W.B. (1947). An investigation of the contribution of factors to tests and to their predictive value in two Army Air Forces...and criterion variables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9, 95-111. 83 Michael , W.o. (1949). Factor analyses of tests and criteria: A...Washington, DC: National Research Council, Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots. 834 Taussig , J.K., Jr. (1942). A proposed method of

  14. Fifty years since the nuclear accident in Palomares (Almeria). Medical repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laynez-Bretones, F; Lozano-Padilla, C

    2017-02-22

    In January 1966, 2 US military aircraft collided over the skies of Palomares (Almeria). One of them carried thermonuclear bombs, which released plutonium and other radioactive materials upon striking the ground. The most contaminated earth and plants were immediately removed. The Indalo Project was launched to study the effects of nuclear material on the inhabitants and environment of Palomares. A total of 1,077 inhabitants have been monitored since then, and the official version is that the ionising radiation has not been related to any type of disease. However, secrecy has surrounded much of the investigations, and no trustworthy epidemiological study has been conducted in the area. Approximately 500g of plutonium and americium remains in Palomares. Although the risk for the population appears to be low, this radioactive material should be removed as soon as possible.

  15. Islamic state or state Islam? Fifty years of state-Islam relations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1996-01-01

    In what appeared like a dramatic reversal of previous policies towards organised Islam, President Soeharto in December 1990 gave his personal endorsement to the establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Se-Indonesia, ICMI), a body in

  16. Fifty Years of Yang-Mills Theory and my Contribution to it

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiw, Roman W

    2004-01-01

    On the fiftieth anniversary of Yang-Mills theory, I review the contribution to its understanding by my collaborators and me. Contents: 1.Gauge Theories and Quantum Anomalies; 2.Mathematical Connections; 3. Gauge Field Dynamics other than Yang-Mills; 4. Gauge Formalism for General Relativity Variables; A. Christoffel connection as a gauge potential, B. Gravitational Chern-Simons term from gauge theory Chern-Simons term, C. Coordinate transformations in general relativity and gauge theory, (i) Response to changes in coordinates (ii) Invariant fields and constants of motion. References.

  17. Review: Fifty Years Plus of Accelerometer History for Shock and Vibration (1940–1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Walter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the history of accelerometer development and the subsequent evolution of the commercial accelerometer industry. The focus is primarily on piezoelectric and piezoresistive accelerometers, although early resistance-bridge-type accelerometers are also described. The pioneer accelerometer manufacturing companies are identified and a chronology of technology development through today is presented.

  18. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  19. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H. Warren; D Simberloff; R.E. Ricklefs; R. Aguilée; F.L. Condamine; D. Gravel; H. Morlon; N. Mouquet; J. Rosindell; J. Casquet; E. Conti; J. Cornuault; J.M. Fernández-Palacios; T. Hengl; S.J. Norder; K.F. Rijsdijk; I. Sanmartin; D. Strasberg; K.A. Trantis; L.M. Valente; R.J. Whittaker; R.G. Gillespie; B.C. Emerson; C. Thébaud

    2015-01-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, ‘An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography’, was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, isl

  20. Fifty Years of Silent Service: A Peek Inside the CIA Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlen, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) library. Highlights include security measures, a day in the life of two CIA librarians, sample reference questions, collection development, the Historical Intelligence Collection, the CIA Web site, and library modernization. (JAK)

  1. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  2. The development of soviet optics and spectroscopy during the past fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, S

    1967-11-01

    A history of Soviet spectroscopy is given, with special emphasis on various areas indicating the earliest workers in each specialty and their principal successors; for example, the work of Rozhdestvenskii (anomalous dispersion); Fok (self-consistant field calculations), Terenin (photochemistry, atomic beams), Mandelstam (combination scattering), Vavilov (luminescence, quantum properties of light), Cerenkov (radiation), Chaika (atomic lifetimes), Gross (excitons), and Volkenstein (molecular vibrations).

  3. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science...

  4. Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.

  5. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight.

  6. Fifty Years Later: The Sequence, Structure and Function of Lacewing Cross-beta Silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Mudie, Stephen T.; Huson, Mickey G.; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO)

    2009-12-01

    Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and alanine. Over 70% of each protein sequence consists of highly repetitive regions with 16-residue periodicity. The repetitive sequences can be fitted to an elegant cross-beta sheet structural model with protein chains folded into regular 8-residue long beta strands. This model is supported by wide-angle X-ray scattering data and tensile testing from both our work and the original papers. We suggest that the silk proteins assemble into stacked beta sheet crystallites bound together by a network of cystine cross-links. This hierarchical structure gives the lacewing silk high lateral stiffness nearly threefold that of silkworm silk, enabling the egg stalks to effectively suspend eggs and protect them from predators.

  7. Islamic state or state Islam? Fifty years of state-Islam relations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    In what appeared like a dramatic reversal of previous policies towards organised Islam, President Soeharto in December 1990 gave his personal endorsement to the establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Se-Indonesia, ICMI), a body in which former

  8. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067931

    2016-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic flu...

  9. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Johnson, E.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker`s mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. The jewel on the mountaintop the European Southern Observatory through fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Authored by ESO senior advisor Claus Madsen, the present book comprises 576 action-packed pages of ESO history and dramatic stories about the people behind the organisation. This is the ultimate historical account about ESO and its telescopes in the southern hemisphere, but also about a truly remarkable European success story in research. Spanning the range from the first telescopes to the future platforms of the next generation, it shows how the improvement of the telescopes leads to a continuously changing view of the Universe. With 150 photos and illustrations. Produced especially for ESO's

  11. Draft Budget of the Organization for the Fifty-third Financial Year 2007

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting of 18 October 20061, the Finance Committee recommended the Council to approve the 2007 Budget2 at 2006 prices. The present version has been up-dated to take into account the transfers from the 2006 Budget as per â? ?2006 Budget, Transfers and Expenditure in Excess of Provisionsâ??3 and various adjustments. The Finance Committee is invited to recommend Council to approve the 2007 Budget as shown in the document reviewed by this Committee in October and the additional up-dating of the present document.

  12. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  13. Fifty years of CPGs: two neuroethological papers that shaped the course of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Mulloney

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Half a century ago, two independent papers that described unexpected results of experiments on locomotion in insects and crayfish appeared almost simultaneously. Together these papers demonstrated that an animal’s central nervous system (CNS was organized to produce behaviorally important motor output without the need for constant sensory feedback. These results contradicted the established line of thought that was based on interpretations of reflexes and ablation experiments, and established that in these animals the CNS contained neural circuits that could produce complex, periodic, multisegmental patterns of activity. These papers stimulated a flowering of research on central pattern-generating mechanisms that displaced reflex-based thinking everywhere except in medical physiology texts. Here we review these papers and their influence on thinking in the 1960s, 1970s, and today. We follow the development of ideas about central organization and control of expression of motor patterns, the roles of sensory input to central pattern-generating circuits, and integration of continuous sensory signals into a periodic motor system. We also review recent work on limb coordination that provides detailed cellular explanations of observations and speculations contained in those original papers.

  14. Fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy: from alloys and oxides to glasses and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C. E., E-mail: cjohnson@utsi.edu [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications (United States); Johnson, J. A. [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The Moessbauer Effect was discovered in 1957. In 1960 Moessbauer spectroscopy was born when two important papers appeared on (i) the magnetic hyperfine interaction and (ii) the electric monopole (isomer shift) and quadrupole interactions. These transformed an interesting phenomenon into a method for probing solids. Applications to magnetism, metals and alloys, chemical compounds, biological molecules, geology, archaeology and other sciences followed and are still of current interest. Two areas of research where Moessbauer spectroscopy is making unique contributions are in determining oxidation states in (i) glasses and (ii) nanoparticles. Some recent measurements are described.

  15. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant

  16. Fifty million years of herbivory on coral reefs: fossils, fish and functional innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, D. R.; Goatley, C. H. R.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, O.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ecological processes on coral reefs was examined based on Eocene fossil fishes from Monte Bolca, Italy and extant species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using ecologically relevant morphological metrics, we investigated the evolution of herbivory in surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) and rabbitfishes (Siganidae). Eocene and Recent surgeonfishes showed remarkable similarities, with grazers, browsers and even specialized, long-snouted forms having Eocene analogues. These long-snouted Eocene species were probably pair-forming, crevice-feeding forms like their Recent counterparts. Although Eocene surgeonfishes likely played a critical role as herbivores during the origins of modern coral reefs, they lacked the novel morphologies seen in modern Acanthurus and Siganus (including eyes positioned high above their low-set mouths). Today, these forms dominate coral reefs in both abundance and species richness and are associated with feeding on shallow, exposed algal turfs. The radiation of these new forms, and their expansion into new habitats in the Oligocene–Miocene, reflects the second phase in the development of fish herbivory on coral reefs that is closely associated with the exploitation of highly productive short algal turfs. PMID:24573852

  17. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  18. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase (before 1960); b) the psychiatry community (1960-2000); and c) the differentiated system (since 2000). The essay will evidence the long march towards hospitals without walls, interdisciplinary work, tension between cure and rehabilitation and a relative decreasing budget. This in conjunction with vulnerability in organisation and leadership, attributed to tension or burn out has revealed system deficits like the trans-institution towards homelessness or towards the judiciary system. The essay will conclude with a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of the very new Law 10 that reforms the general governance of the provincial and regional health and social services and hopes for a more balanced mental health care system in Quebec.

  19. Viewpoint – Fifty Years of Hydroelectric Development in Chile: A History of Unlearned Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of hydroelectricity in Chile illustrates a situation where water resources can be both well and badly managed when a private or public utility company, in this case ENDESA, is powerful enough to operate largely outside standard policy and bureaucratic processes. It successfully increased hydroelectric capacity more than fourfold over three decades characterised by periods of significant political instability. This was done without noticeable conflict due to its recognised efficiency and absence of environmental concerns in Chilean policy until the late 1980s. Since that time there has been increasing pressure from international agencies and NGOs to place more emphasis on environmental dimensions in development. The interplay among the diversity of agendas and tactics adopted by the interest groups attempting to influence decision on hydroelectric projects has, in some cases, been counterproductive. ENDESA chose to withhold information and modify EIA procedures as tactics to reduce costs. The NGOs’ single-minded dedication to preclusion of dam proposals tended to distort public debate. The government, presumably due to risk aversion, proved unwilling to take a proactive stance by not specifying and implementing requirements for approval of a dam project, providing a comprehensive policy framework for debate or facilitating dialogue on the issues.

  20. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Abrams, S A; Davis-Street, J E; Heer, M; O'Brien, K O; Wastney, M E; Zwart, S R

    2014-01-01

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth.

  1. Reflections on Over Fifty Years in Research and Development; Some Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    man is an island, entire of itself…” John Donne, Meditation XVII A statement similar to Donne’s can be made about researchers and research...Feynman’s Lectures in Physics and the Berkeley Course in Physics. These were helpful, but I would have benefited more from classroom study. I

  2. [National Academy of Medicine, one hundred and fifty-four academic year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Olivares, Armando

    2017-01-01

    El incalculable valor que atesora la Academia Nacional de Medicina, su enorme influencia y repercusión sobre la toma de decisiones médico-científico-epidemiológicas, radica única y exclusivamente en el dominio del conocimiento, la mente científica y el talento de todos y cada uno de sus miembros, desde su fundación en 1864 hasta nuestros días.

  3. The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board: Its First Fifty Years, 1940-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Alexander D. Langmuir, James M. Ruegsegger, and Elias Strauss. Pending the construction ot a Commission laboratory at Fort Bragg, the group spent...Sanders \\1 , Gulli’.er, F D. Forchhiimer, !- 1. , Alexander . R C IEpilenliL KuratoLonjuncti’. iti, CliiaI aand I’.perimental Stud% of anl Outbreak in...fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus B. Proc. Soc Exper Biol. & ,... 19,15, 59, 192-195. Meiklejohn , G , Eaton, M. D, and ,an Herick, W

  4. Recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder after a flood in China: a 13-year follow-up and its prediction by degree of collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shimin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Cofie, Reuben; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Tubao; Tang, Xuemin; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-07-07

    Victims exposed to serious traumatic experiences may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suffer this mental health problem for a long time. Different types of trauma displayed a chronicity rate of PTSD within the range of 6.3-68.9 %. As one of the most common and severe natural disasters, the natural progression of flood related PTSD has not been revealed. The aim of this study was to estimate the chronicity rate and identify the prognostic factors of PTSD in flood victims. Flood victims, who were over the age of 16 and diagnosed with PTSD in 2000 in Huarong, Ziyang, and Anxiang counties of Hunan province, China, were enrolled in this survey. Current probable PTSD was analyzed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews and analyzed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression models. The rate of current probable PTSD was 15.4 %. The current occurrences of re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyper-arousal symptom groups were 69.3 %, 17.2 %, and 50.2 %, respectively. Significant prognostic factors for current probable PTSD were flood-related stressors (e.g., life-threatening experiences, extreme physical adversity, and extreme psychological adversity) and frequency of general collective action. The relationships still existed when taking the fluctuation of frequency of general collective action into consideration. Gender and education level showed no influence on the recovery from PTSD. The impact of age in this study was inconsistent; in the 2000 model, around 2006 model, around 2013 model, and all FGCA model, older age was positive prognosis factor for PTSD; in the univariate analysis and fluctuation model, age showed no influence on the recovery from PTSD. Our findings indicated that PTSD can persist 13 years after a flood. Demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and education level) seem to have no influence on the recovery from PTSD. Trauma-related stressors and social

  5. Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics in fifty male psoriatic spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetičanin, Miljenko; Jajić, Zrinka

    2012-01-01

    By the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis of digitopalmar ridge count in fifty male psoriatic spondylitis patients were researched 25 dermatoglyphics traits: number of epidermal ridges on the all ten fingers, their sum for five and ten fingers, four traits on the both palms, i.e. between a-b, b-c, c-d and a-d triradii, and atd angles and their bilateral sum in degrees. The data obtained were compared with those recorded in a control group of 200 pairs of imprints of phenotypically healthy males from the Zagreb area. Statistically significant differences to control were found in 13 variables in decreased ridge count in second, third, fourth and fifth finger on the right palm, and in their sum on the all five fingers, than in second, third, fourth and fifth finger on the left palm, and in their sum in the all fingers, and in the all ten fingers. Atd angle was decreased on the left palm, and on the both palm together. Accordingly a polygenetic system identical in some loci to polygenetic system predisposing to male psoriatic spondylitis susceptibility might be found responsible for dermatogliyphic pattern development.

  6. Fifty-eight cases of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong-jiang; LIU Shao-rui; LI Xiao-min; ZHUO Ye-hong; TIAN Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background The blood supply to the eye comes from the retinal central vascular system of the ophthalmic artery and the ciliary vascular system. The ophthalmic artery stems from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. If occlusion or stenosis occurs in the carotid artery, the blood perfusion to the ophthalmic artery becomes insufficient, leading to signs and symptoms of anterior and posterior ocular ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis.Methods This study was a retrospective review of 145 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Fifty-eight patients who had symptoms of ocular ischemic disease caused by carotid artery stenosis formed group A and the other 87 patients who only had carotid artery stenosis formed group B. We analyzed the causes and course of disease, and relative risk factors,by comparing the two groups.Results The degree of carotid artery stenosis in group A was higher than that in group B. And group A had a greater decrease of ophthalmic artery flow. Male, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were significantly related to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax was the most common ocular symptom in group A. The ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central/branch retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa, and ocular ischemic syndrome.Conclusions Carotid artery stenosis correlates with ocular ischemic diseases. Ophthalmologists must observe for ocular symptoms, which were the onset symptoms in some patients.

  7. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  8. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  9. Three-hundred-sixty degree barrier effect of a square-edged and an enhanced-edge intraocular lens on centripetal lens epithelial cell migration Two-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ashokkumar V; Narendran, Rajesh; Bacon, Peter J; Apple, David J

    2007-01-01

    To study the 360-degree barrier effect of an intraocular lens (IOL) with a square edge at the optic and an enhanced square edge at the optic-haptic junctions (Rayner 570C C-flex) on centripetal migration of lens epithelial cells (LECs) over a 2-year period. Department of Ophthalmology, Scarborough Hospital, Scarborough, United Kingdom. In a prospective study of 40 consecutive eyes, a C-flex IOL was implanted in the bag after phacoemulsification surgery. Eyes with intraoperative complications, requiring additional procedures, without 360-degree overlap of the optic, or with capsule block syndrome were excluded. Follow-up was at 6, 10, 18, and 24 months. At each visit, high-magnification retroillumination digital photographs were taken using a slitlamp-attached digital camera. The barrier effect to LEC migration across the optic edge and the enhanced square edge at the optic-haptic junction was graded as complete (no epithelial pearls or sheet), partial (few epithelial pearls without sheet), and minimal/none (epithelial sheet behind the IOL optic). Twenty-four patients came to the final follow-up at 24 months. Fifteen of these eyes (63%) had a complete barrier effect throughout the 360 degrees of the IOL. Three eyes (13%) had a partial barrier effect throughout the 360 degrees of the IOL. Three eyes had a complete optic barrier effect but a partial optic-haptic junction barrier effect. Three eyes had a partial optic barrier effect but a complete optic-haptic junction barrier effect. No eye had epithelial sheets extending behind the optic at any location. This study showed the barrier effect of the edge design of the C-flex IOL and the efficacy of the enhanced edge in preventing LEC migration at the optic-haptic junction. The enhanced edge was as effective as a sharp square edge in restricting the LEC migration.

  10. A mathematical medley fifty easy pieces on mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Szpiro's book provides a delightful, well-written, eclectic selection of mathematical tidbits that makes excellent airplane reading for anyone with an interest in mathematics, regardless of their mathematical background. Excellent gift material. -Keith Devlin, Stanford University, author of The Unfinished Game and The Language of Mathematics It is great to have collected in one volume the many varied, insightful and often surprising mathematical stories that George Szpiro has written in his mathematical columns for the newspapers through the years. -Marcus du Sautoy, Oxford University, author

  11. Fifty Shades of Green: Pathway to Healthy Urban Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Dadvand, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Currently half the world population lives in cities, and this proportion is expected to increase rapidly to 70% over the next years. Over the years, we have created large, mostly grey cities with many high-rise buildings and little green space. Disease rates tend to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. More green space in cities could reduce these rates. Here, we describe the importance of green space for health, and make recommendations for further research. Green space has been associated with many beneficial health effects, including reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and improved mental health, possibly through mediators, such as reduced air pollution, temperature and stress, and increased physical activity, social contacts, and restoration. Additional studies are needed to strengthen the evidence base and provide further guidelines to transport planners, urban planners, and landscape architects. We need more longitudinal studies and intervention studies, further understanding of the contribution of various mechanisms toward health, and more information on susceptible populations and on where, when, how much, and what type of green space is needed. Also needed are standardized methods for green space quality assessments and evaluations of effectiveness of green prescriptions in clinical practice. Many questions are ideally suited for environmental epidemiologists, who should work with other stakeholders to address the right questions and translate knowledge into action. In conclusion, a growing evidence base supports the hypothesis that greener cities are healthier cities.

  12. The Colima Economy from fifties to the eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villa Aguijosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Colima, from 50s to 80s decades, was characterized for three stages which are differentiated for some certain features given by the roll that plays the economic sectors from the behaviour of some basic indicators of economic activities like port, agricultural, tourism, mining and industry, an for the economic strategy proposed during these years.In the 50s and 60s years, the economic of Colima took two fundamental characteristics which transcendent to the 70s decade: the supremacy in the participation in the agricultural sector in the gross state product, specialy given with impulse of the industrialization agricultural, and the mining activation, transforming in the base of economic development to Colima. The second stage, is in the 70s decade, and is characterized by the dynamic that industrial stage takes above other sectors with more slowly growing tax, besides it is characterized for one reduction of the growth tax of the gross estate product.The characteristics of economic development of Colima during these years are: standstill of the agricultural activity, trade and services, growth of industry, the urbanization and new economic profile, and makes the bases from the new economic profile of the 80s, in the context of the trade opening. The economy of Colima presented a regional polarization of the activities, a deficient communications and transports, a tourist potential misuse, an important growing of the industrial activities, and the necessity to expand the potential of the Manzanillo port and their big expectatives in the Mexican pacific, and an important growing of an industrial sector highly polarized. This panorama impacted in the profile of the development of Colima in the next decade.The third moment which crosses the economic of Colima, and is presented in the decade of the 80s, is characterized by the beginning of an economic model based in the planning which ;designs; an integrated Colima to the

  13. Fifty most-cited articles in anterior cruciate ligament research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Rotmil, Gayle; Freedman, Kevin B

    2015-04-01

    The number of times an article has been cited in the peer-reviewed literature is indicative of its impact on its respective medical specialty. No study has used citation analysis to determine the most influential studies pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary aims of this study were to identify the classic works in ACL research using citation analysis and to characterize these articles to determine which types of studies have had the most influence on the field. A systematic query of ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was performed for articles pertaining to the ACL, and the 50 most-cited articles were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were determined for each article: number of citations, citation density, journal, publication year, country of origin, language, article type, article subtype, and level of evidence. The number of citations ranged from 219 to 1073 (mean, 326), and the citation densities ranged from 4.9 to 55.6 citations per year (mean, 18.2). All articles were published in 1 of 11 journals, with the most being published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (46%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American (30%). The most common decades of publication were the 1990s (34%), 1980s (28%), and 2000s (26%). The majority (68%) of articles originated from the United States, and all were written in English. By article type, 42% were basic science, and 58% were clinical. Of the clinical articles, 3% were Level I, 17% were Level II, 28% were Level III, and 52% were Level IV. The articles were heterogeneous with regard to article type, article subtype, and level of evidence and tended to have the following characteristics: high-impact journal of publication, recent publication year, US origin, English language, and low level of evidence. These works represent some of the most popular scientific contributions to ACL research. This list may aid residency and fellowship

  14. Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandeharion A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963 depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women.

  15. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis: fifty shades of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Roberts, Ianto; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Lucas, Mikaël; De Smet, Ive; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom; Bennett, Malcolm; Laplaze, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The developmental plasticity of the root system represents a key adaptive trait enabling plants to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought and is therefore important in the current context of global changes. Root branching through lateral root formation is an important component of the adaptability of the root system to its environment. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling lateral root development has progressed tremendously in recent years through research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These studies have revealed that the phytohormone auxin acts as a common integrator to many endogenous and environmental signals regulating lateral root formation. Here, we review what has been learnt about the myriad roles of auxin during lateral root formation in Arabidopsis.

  16. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  17. Competitiveness across the life span: the feisty fifties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Ulrich; Wozniak, Dave; Davidson, Casey; Kuhns, David; Harbaugh, William T

    2012-06-01

    Existing theories on life span changes in confidence or motivation suggest that individuals' preferences to enter competitive situations should gradually decline with age. We examined competitive preferences in a field experiment using real financial stakes in 25- to 75-year-olds (N = 543). The critical dependent variable was whether participants chose to perform a simple mental arithmetic task either under a piece-rate payment schedule (i.e., $.25 per solved item) or a competitive payment schedule ($.50 per solved item if the overall score is better than that of a randomly selected opponent, $0 otherwise). Results revealed that competitive preferences increased across the life span until they peaked around age 50, and dropped thereafter. We also found that throughout, men had a substantially larger preference for competing than women-extending previous findings on college-aged participants. The age/gender differences in preferences were neither accounted for by actual differences in performance nor individuals' subjective confidence. This first systematic attempt to characterize age differences in competitive behavior suggests that a simple decline conception of competitiveness needs to be reconsidered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  18. "Double crap!" abuse and harmed identity in Fifty Shades of Grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Altenburger, Lauren E; Walton, Nicole L

    2013-09-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 25% of women and impairs health, current societal conditions-including the normalization of abuse in popular culture such as novels, film, and music-create the context to support such violence. Fifty Shades of Grey, a best-selling novel, depicts a "romantic" and "erotic" relationship involving 28-year-old megamillionaire, Christian Grey, and a 22-year-old college student, Anastasia Steele. We argue that the relationship is characterized by IPV, which is harmful to Anastasia. All authors engaged in iterative readings of the text, and wrote narrative summaries to elucidate themes. Validity checks included double review of the first eight chapters of the novel to establish consistency in our analysis approach, iterative discussions in-person and electronically to arbitrate discrepancies, and review of our analysis with other abuse and sexual practice experts. To characterize IPV, we used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions of emotional abuse (intimidation/threats; isolation; stalking; and humiliation) and sexual violence (forced sex acts/contact against a person's will, including using alcohol/drugs or intimidation/pressure). To characterize harm, we used Smith's conceptualizations of perceived threat, managing, altered identity, yearning, entrapment, and disempowerment experienced by abused women. Emotional abuse is present in nearly every interaction, including: stalking (Christian deliberately follows Anastasia and appears in unusual places, uses a phone and computer to track Anastasia's whereabouts, and delivers expensive gifts); intimidation (Christian uses intimidating verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as routinely commanding Anastasia to eat and threatening to punish her); and isolation (Christian limits Anastasia's social contact). Sexual violence is pervasive-including using alcohol to compromise Anastasia's consent, as well as intimidation (Christian initiates sexual encounters

  19. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  20. Predictors for success for first semester, second-degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Brenkus, Rosemarie; Dugan, Nicolette

    2013-02-01

    Second-degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programmes have grown rapidly in the past 5 years to respond to the nursing shortage in many countries. The purposes of this study are to describe the relationships among age, prerequisite grades, previous degree grade point averages (GPAs), admissions test scores and first semester test scores, and to investigate the most influential predictor for success in the first semester in the nursing program. Pre-existing data from academic records were used. There were 60 participants and SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze the data. The results show that age has no relationship with the first semester performance. Fifty-four per cent of variance in the first semester GPAs (R(2) =0.54) was explained by previous degree GPAs, prerequisite GPAs and admissions test scores in the second-degree nursing student population. The most influential predictor for success for the first semester of the second-degree BSN program is admissions tests scores.

  1. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  2. Degree by Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  3. Fiction or not? Fifty Shades is associated with health risks in adolescent and young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Nemeth, Julianna M; Altenburger, Lauren E; Anderson, Melissa L; Snyder, Anastasia; Dotto, Irma

    2014-09-01

    No prior study has empirically characterized the association between health risks and reading popular fiction depicting violence against women. Fifty Shades--a blockbuster fiction series--depicts pervasive violence against women, perpetuating a broader social narrative that normalizes these types of risks and behaviors in women's lives. The present study characterized the association between health risks in women who read and did not read Fifty Shades; while our cross-sectional study design precluded causal determinations, an empirical representation of the health risks in women consuming the problematic messages in Fifty Shades is made. Females ages 18 to 24 (n=715), who were enrolled in a large Midwestern university, completed a cross-sectional online survey about their health behaviors and Fifty Shades' readership. The analysis included 655 females (219 who read at least the first Fifty Shades novel and 436 who did not read any part of Fifty Shades). Age- and race-adjusted multivariable models characterized Fifty Shades' readers and nonreaders on intimate partner violence victimization (experiencing physical, sexual and psychological abuse, including cyber-abuse, at some point during their lifetime); binge drinking (consuming five or more alcoholic beverages on six or more days in the last month); sexual practices (having five or more intercourse partners and/or one or more anal sex partner during their lifetime); and using diet aids or fasting for 24 or more hours at some point during their lifetime. One-third of subjects read Fifty Shades (18.6%, or 122/655, read all three novels, and 14.8%, or 97/655, read at least the first novel but not all three). In age- and race-adjusted models, compared with nonreaders, females who read at least the first novel (but not all three) were more likely than nonreaders to have had, during their lifetime, a partner who shouted, yelled, or swore at them (relative risk [RR]=1.25) and who delivered unwanted calls/text messages

  4. Fifty Shades a way readers put sex back in their lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    2014-01-01

    This is a guest blog from Gry Høngsmark Knudsen, a former student, who visited my “Women’s Economy” class this winter to report on her project about the reception of Fifty Shades of Grey. We all enjoyed her report, so I asked her to write a short blog for Double X Readers....

  5. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act at Fifty: A Changing Federal Role in American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    For this first "History of Education Quarterly Policy Forum," we invited participants in the special Plenary Session at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the History of Education Society (HES) in St. Louis to publish their remarks on the historical significance of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) at fifty. Organized and…

  6. Understanding the Morphological Changes in the Polypropylene/Polyamide 6 Fifty/Fifty Blends by Interfacial Modifiers Based on Grafted Atactic Polypropylenes: Microscopic, Mechanical, and Thermal Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Collar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to correlate the morphological changes observed in the modified PP/PA6 fifty/fifty blends molded at confined flow conditions with both their mechanical and thermal properties and the kind and the amount of the interfacial modifiers used. Both transmitted light optical microscopy in the positive phase contrast mode, PC TOM, and field emission scanning electronic microscopy, FE SEM, were the used techniques for, respectively, general morphology overview and fractures surface analysis. The interfacial modifiers, a succinic anhydride, aPP-SA, and a succinyl-fluorescein, aPP-SF/SA, grafted atactic polypropylenes obtained and well characterized in authors’ laboratories came from the chemical modification of an atactic polypropylene industrial by-product. The amounts of any of both the interfacial modifiers came coded by the Box-Wilson experiment design methodology applied to the overall PP/PA6 binary system, watching that the interfacial agent was not a third component on a ternary blend but a true interfacial modifier in a binary one. All the studies were carried out over suitable specimens according to each test procedure with no further material manipulations to preserve at any moment the morphology of the blends as they emerge from the compression molding step at confined flow conditions.

  7. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  8. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  9. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  10. One Degree of Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  11. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  12. Protagonismo de los alumnos en el aprendizaje: Una experiencia en el primer curso de medicina Role of students in learning: An experience in the first year of Medicine Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Hidalgo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar y analizar la experiencia realizada en una asignatura del primer curso del Grado de Medicina para abordar competencias formativas en documentación, método científico y humanismo médico. Sujetos y métodos. Participaron 151 alumnos distribuidos en grupos de 5-6 estudiantes para realizar los trabajos propuestos en forma de seminarios y aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP, utilizando, entre otros materiales, narraciones literarias e imágenes de cuadros pictóricos cuyo análisis y discusión se presentaron oralmente. En las prácticas se inició a los estudiantes en la búsqueda y evaluación de la información. Un ensayo y las clases teóricas completan los métodos utilizados. Todos los materiales a utilizar estuvieron disponibles en el campus virtual. Resultados. La asistencia a prácticas, seminarios y ABP fue próxima al 100%, y a clases teóricas, del 67%. Los alumnos mostraron inquietud intelectual en las tareas. El método ha demostrado una elevada implicación en el proceso de autoaprendizaje, capacidad de autorregulación en el trabajo, trabajo en grupo, grado de adquisición de conceptos y capacidad de redactar documentos. La adecuación de los contenidos a los objetivos ha sido considerada favorable por más del 70% de los alumnos. El grado de adquisición de las competencias fue favorable en un 80% de los casos. Conclusiones. Las características de la asignatura pueden fomentar la inquietud científica y el humanismo médico entre los alumnos. La literatura y la lectura de cuadros pueden contribuir a identificar los aspectos del acto médico y a desarrollar la observación de las características físicas y conductuales en los pacientes.Aim. To present and analyze the experience carried out in a subject of the first year of Medicine Degree to address training skills in documentation, scientific method and medical humanism. Subjects and methods. The participants were 151 students distributed in groups of 5

  13. What's a Degree Got to Do with It? The Civic Engagement of Associate's and Bachelor's Degree Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mallory Angeli

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the civic engagement of adults holding an associate's degree compared to those holding a bachelor's degree. Most prior research has focused on individuals who hold 4-year degrees; the present study, however, sought to understand differences between holders of 2-year degrees and 4-year degrees. Descriptive statistics…

  14. Fifty Shades of Unsaid: Women’s Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Towards Sexual Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Lanciano; Emanuela Soleti; Francesca Guglielmi; Ivan Mangiulli; Antonietta Curci

    2016-01-01

    The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in w...

  15. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Han; Ma, Jinkui; Tuchiya, Tomohiro; Miao, Yelian

    2015-01-01

    ...) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR...

  17. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  18. Facilitating Timely Completion of a College Degree with Optimization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Students who pursue a bachelor's degree in four-year colleges and universities often take longer than four years to complete their degrees. The reasons for prolonging the time to degree seem to fall into three broad categories: part-time enrollment, deficiencies in academic readiness, and inadequate course planning. This paper focuses on the…

  19. Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...

  20. Fifty Cases of Parkinson's Disease Treated by Acupuncture Combined with Madopar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    objective;To search for an effective therapy for trealing motor disorder due to Parkinson's disease(PD).Methods;Fifty cases in a treatrnent group were treated by acupuncture combined with madopar,and 30 cases in a control group treated by madopar only.Results;A total effective rate of 92%was achieved with obvious alleviation of motor disorder in the treatment group,which was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion;Acupuncture can enhance therapeutic effects of western medicine and lessen the dose of the medicine needed.

  1. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…

  2. Increased expression of survivin in gastric cancer patients and in first degree relatives

    OpenAIRE

    J. Yu; Leung, W K; Ebert, M P A; Ng, E K W; Go, M Y Y; Wang, H.B.; Chung, S C S; Malfertheiner, P; Sung, J. J. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Survivin was recently described as an apoptosis inhibitor. Its pathogenic role in gastric cancer is largely unknown. Expression of survivin in gastric cancer and non-cancer first-degree relatives, and its association with apoptosis and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was investigated. Fifty gastric cancer, 30 non-cancer first-degree relatives, 20 normal controls and five gastric cancer cell lines were studied. Survivin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chai...

  3. Risk factors analysis of white matter lesions of different degrees in the elderly aged 80 years and over%高龄老年人不同程度脑白质损害的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月菊; 侯宝元; 董凌燕; 李虹; 李建中

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the independent risk factors of cerebral white matter lesions (WML) of different degrees in the elderly aged 80 years and over,and provide the evidences for forecasting the prognosis of WML.Methods Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) findings in 151 people aged 74 to 93 years were collected and analyzed.According to the severity of WML in brain MRI using the Fazekas Scale,the persons were divided into non-WML (control) group,mildWML (grade 1 WML) group and moderate-to-severe WML (grade 2 WML) group.The cognitive score,vascular risk factors,cerebral hemodynamic and arteriosclerotic index,and radiological features were compared among the three groups.Subsequent one-way ANOVA and multivariate logistic analysis were performed to determine the statistically significant factors and the independent risk factors among groups.Results The statistically significant factors with one-way ANOVA analysis among the three groups were cognitive performance (F = 48.595,P = 0.000),hypertension (x2 =7.052,P=0.029),cigarette history (x2 = 19.476,P= 0.000),cholesterol (TC) (F= 3.086,P=0.049),Crouse score (F=3.968,P=0.021) and multiple cerebral atrophy indexes.When compared with control group,cigarette history (OR 2.031,95%CI 1.244-1.317),lacunar infarction (LI)numbers (OR 2.031,95%CI 1.316-4.015) and cholesterol (OR 1.610,95%CI 0.972-2.668) were independent risk factors in grade 1 WML group (all P<0.05).The independent risk factors between grade 1 and 2 WML group were cognitive performance (OR 0.276,95%CI 0.143-0.532),cigarette history (OR 2.262,95% CI 1.260-4.059),and sylvian fissure ratio (SFR) (OR 1.954,95% CI 1.013-3.768) (all P<0.05).The independent risk factors between the grade 2 WML group and control group were cognitive performance (OR 0.091,95%CI 0.030-0.273),bicoudate ratio (BCR)(OR 2.511,95%CI 1.147-5.499),Crouse score (OR 2.304,95%CI1.127-4.712)and LI numbers (OR 2.200,95%CI 1.028-4.707) (all P<0.05).Conclusions Mild WML patients have no

  4. Photography and modernization of the press in Brazilian capital: the first fifty years of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Louzada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development of mass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

  5. PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Louzada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development ofmass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

  6. Report of NRL Progress. Fifty Years of Science for the Navy and the Nation, 1923-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    available earlier, and more widely used. Window was the code name of the aluminum foil strips cut to be resonant in the Wuizburg frequency band...RESEARCH features that have been incorporated in later designs. It used all- aluminum construction and propellant tanks integral with the skin. The...propellant-type shaving creams and deodorants , something on the order of 30 pounds of fluorinated propellants of un- determined composition would

  7. Assessing Fifty Years of General Health Surveillance of Roe Deer in Switzerland: A Retrospective Analysis of Necropsy Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewsner, Mirjam; Origgi, Francesco Carlo; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes of mortality or morbidity observed in roe deer in Switzerland and to assess potential changes in the disease pattern over time; and (2) to evaluate the value and limitations of a long term dataset originating from general wildlife health surveillance. We compiled 1571 necropsy reports of free ranging roe deer examined at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health in Switzerland from 1958 to 2014. Descriptive data analysis was performed considering animal metadata, submitter, pathologist in charge, laboratory methods, morphological diagnoses and etiologies. Recurrent causes of mortality and disease pictures included pneumonia, diarrhea, meningoencephalitis, actinomycosis, blunt trauma, predation, neoplasms and anomalies. By contrast, other diagnoses such as fatal parasitic gastritis, suspected alimentary intoxication and reproductive disorders appeared only in earlier time periods. Diseases potentially relevant for other animals or humans such as caseous lymphadenitis (or pseudotuberculosis), salmonellosis, paratuberculosis and listeriosis were sporadically observed. The disease pattern in roe deer from Switzerland was largely in accordance with previous reports. The observed fluctuations were consistent with methodical and/or personnel changes and varying disease awareness. Nevertheless, despite such limitations, the compiled data provide a valuable baseline. To facilitate comparison among studies, we recommend systematically archiving all case documents and fixed tissues and to perform data analyses more regularly and in a harmonized way. PMID:28103325

  8. From My Place: Teaching the Holocaust and Judaism at the University of Mississippi Fifty-Three Years after James Meredith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Willa M.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores classroom dynamics when students identify and connect their own painful experiences to structural racism or ethnocentrism exhibited in the Holocaust or parts of Jewish history. The intrusion of this proximal knowledge can be an obstacle to student learning. If engaged by professors, however, I argue that proximal knowledge can…

  9. Fifty-year spatiotemporal analysis of landscape changes in the Mont Saint-Hilaire UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Quebec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Marc; Germain, Daniel; Ianăş, Ana-Neli

    2017-05-01

    Diachronic analysis with a GIS-based classification of land-use changes based on aerial photographs, orthophotos, topographic maps, geotechnical reports, urban plans, and using landscape metrics has permitted insight into the driving forces responsible for landscape fragmentation in the Mont Saint-Hilaire (MSH) Biosphere Reserve over the period 1958-2015. Although the occurrence of exogenous factors, such as extreme weather and fires, can have a significant influence on the fragmentation of the territory in time and space, the accelerated development of the built environment (+470%) is nevertheless found to be primarily responsible for landscape fragmentation and the loss of areas formerly occupied by orchards, agriculture, and woodlands. The landscape metrics used corroborate these results, with a simplification of the shape of polygons, and once again reveal the difficulties of harmonizing different land uses. MSH has become somewhat of a forest island in a sea of residential development and agriculture. To counter this isolation of fragmented habitat components, forest corridors have been proposed and developed for the Biosphere Reserve and particularly for the core area. Two corridors, to the north and south, are used to connect the protected area and other wooded areas at the regional scale, in order to promote genetic exchange between populations of various species. In that regard, the forest buffer zone around the hill continues to play a key role and has great ecological value for species and ecological preservation and conservation. However, appropriate management and landscape preservation actions should recognize and focus on landscape composition and the associated geographical configuration.

  10. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We have developed a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, which indicates that the SMAPI is capable of identifying the onset of a drought event, its progression, as well as its termination. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts in China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions (Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North from 1951–2009. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been weak in the rest of the five regions (South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been showing steadily wetter since the 1950s. Two regional dry centres are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first centre is located in the area partially covered by the North and the Northwest, which extends to the southeastern portion of Inner Mongolia and the southwest part of Northeast. The second one is found on the central to southern portion of the South. Our study demonstrates the applicability and the value of using modeled soil moisture for reconstructing drought histories, and the SMAPI is useful for analyzing drought at different spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Fifty seven years of follow-up of the Israeli cohort of Laron Syndrome patients-From discovery to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Kauli, Rivka

    2016-06-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations of dwarfed children newly Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Middle East and who resembled patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency were started by our group in 1958. In 1963 when we found that they have high serum levels of hGH, we knew that we had discovered a new disease of primary GH insensitivity. It was subsequently coined Laron Syndrome (LS, OMIM #262500). The etiopathogenesis was disclosed by 2 liver biopsies demonstrating a defect in the GH receptor. Subsequent investigations demonstrated deletions or mutations in the GHR gene. The defect lead to an inability of IGF-I generation, resulting in severe dwarfism, obesity, and other morphologic and biochemical pathologies due to IGF-I deficiency. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Following closely our cohort of 69 patients with LS enabled us to study its features in untreated and IGF-I treated patients. This syndrome proved to be a unique model to investigate the effects of IGF-I dissociated from GH stimulation. In recent studies we found that homozygous patients for the GHR mutations are protected lifelong from developing malignancies, opening new directions of research.

  12. Fifty Years of Soviet and Russian Drilling Activity in Polar and Non-Polar Ice: A Chronological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    86 Dzhantuganskoye Firn Plateau (Central Caucasus, drilling site #C5).....................................86 1984: Vavilov...32 Figure 13. Core auger used at Druznaya Station for drilling in firn . ..............................................34 Figure 14. Drilling...in October of 1956 just outside Mirny (Kapitsa 1958; Model 1959). Two holes to depths of 23.5 and 86.5 m were drilled using a conventional GP-1

  13. Fifty years of geophysical researches of glaciers in Institute of Geography, the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1966–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1967‑2015, Institute of Geography of the USSR/Russian Academy of Sciences together with other organizations carried out field expeditions in different areas of mountain and polar glaciations in many regions: the Polar Urals, Caucasus, Pamir, Zailiysky and Jungar Alatau, Tien‑Shan, Pamir‑Alai, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Pyrenees, the Arctic – Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef and Severnaya Zemlya, and Antarctica – on the ice flow B, and in the sub‑Antarctic – Islands King George, Galindez, and Livingston. The gravimetric and ground and aerial radar observations were made in these expeditions. About 300 glaciers of different morphological types and sizes with cold, subpolar and temperate thermal regime were studied. Basic results of these studies are the following: (1 the new data on the ice thicknesses, ice volumes, subglacial relief, internal structure, and thermal state of the glaciers were obtained; (2 the two‑layered (polythermal glaciers consisting of the upper layer of cold ice and the lower layer of temperate water‑filled ice had been revealed in Svalbard for the first time; spatial distribution of cold, polythermal and temperate glaciers had been determined; (3 the evidences were obtained that measured changes in thickness of the upper cold ice layer in polythermal glaciers can be used to estimate the long‑period variations of regional climates and serve as regional paleothermometers; (4 methods for estimating the water content in temperate and polythermal glaciers from the RES data were developed; and its space‑time variations in temperate ices of the Svaldbald glaciers were estimated since even small water content inside of them can noticeably change their dynamic behavior; (5 methods for estimating the ice volume within glaciers in large regions of mountain and polar glaciations had been created; the ice storages were estimated in Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Dzhungrsky Alatau, the Great Caucasus, and Mt. Elbrus; (6 detailed data on the ice thicknesses and the subglacial relief had been obtained for 40 glaciers in framework of different national and international programs and projects; the data can be used to solve a wide range of practical and theoretical problems, including numerical modeling. These studies demonstrated the following: (1 the use of monopulse radars VIRL‑6 and VIRL‑7 of decameter range (the central frequency is 20 MHz with digital recording of the radar and GPS data is quite efficient for ground‑based and airborne (from helicopters radio‑echo sounding of mountain and polar glaciers with their ice thicknesses up to 500–600 m; (2 it was found that thicknesses of glaciers in the Caucasus and Tien Shan can reach 330–430 m, while in regions of mountain, ice‑sheet and transitional glaciation on the Spitsbergen Archipelago – 300, 560 and 600 m, respectively, on the ice caps of the Franz‑Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya – 450 and 813 m, and on King George and Livingston Islands (Sub‑Antarctica – 330 and 500 m; (3 large parts of ice caps and outlet glaciers in Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya which beds were located below the sea level were found. Precisely these parts can be undergone quick shortening due to climate warming, and, thus, cause formation of icebergs making threats for ships and gas‑oil marine platforms in the Barents and Kara seas; (4 data of the measurements made possible to calculate volumes of a number of investigated glaciers and ice caps and to estimate the ice storages in large areas of mountain and polar glaciations (the Jungar Alatau, Great Caucasus, Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Land; (5 decreasing of glacier volumes on the Franz Josef Land and some Spitsbergen glaciers for the last decades had been estimated. Analysis of the data obtained had shown that considerable part of polythermal glaciers in Spitsbergen belong to type of surging glaciers; they have the winter englacial runoff and form the near‑glacier icings. It allows considering such glaciers as dynamically unstable, predisposed to surges as well as possible sources of winter water supply and additional sources of paleoinformation about long‑period variations of regional climate.

  14. Philippe Aries's Discovery of Childhood after Fifty Years: The Impact of a Classic Study on Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Groenendijk, Leendert F.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of Philippe Aries's classic "L'Enfant et la vie familiale sous l'ancien regime", published in 1960. His well-known idea of the emergence of "Le sentiment de l'enfance" caused a lively debate among historians and social scientists resulting in fundamental contributions to our knowledge about the early phase of the…

  15. Fifty-year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon of Oualidia (Moroccan Atlantic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourarah, B.; Maanan, M.; Carruesco, C.; Aajjane, A.; Mehdi, K.; Conceição Freitas, M.

    2007-03-01

    The Oualidia lagoon is known for its heavy metal pollution resulting from mining and smelting activities since the late 19th century. Here, we report 137Cs and 210Pb activities and heavy metal concentration depth profiles from sediment cores retrieved in 1997. High mean sedimentation rates of 0.6-1 cm/y are indicated by 210Pb and 137Cs dating. The lagoon sediments have recorded heavy metal deposition and thus allow establishment of a connection between the temporal evolution of the heavy metal pollution and historical changes in smelting and waste-treatment proceedings. Through a study of the evolution of heavy metal contents, we can distinguish between two categories of metals: Al, Fe and Cr contents have varied around a mean value over the last seven decades and could have natural origins. Pb, Zn, Cu and Hg have relatively more elevated contents than those of the natural geochemical background, especially in the station in front of illegal sewerage discharges. These metals are enriched at depths between 20 and 30 cm; this corresponds to the period between 1960 and 1975, which was characterized by the setting up of the main suburbs and the first aquaculture farms that surround the lagoon. The pollution intensity of the lagoon is determined by enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index, which show that the lagoon of Oualidia is unpolluted to moderately polluted on the Geo-I scale of Müler (1979. Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten, des Rheins-Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79 (24), 778-783.).

  16. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    ..., for example, by Cattaneo et al. [11] and Parizkova et al. [12, 13], the increase of adiposity characterized by skinfold thickness was found already in preschool age, due also to decreasing age of adiposity rebound (AR) [14, 15]. All these changes concerning increasing adiposity have been accompanied by the worsening of motor dev...

  17. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  18. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  19. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  20. Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niño, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...

  1. Correlation between Lumbar Lordosis Angle and Degree of Gynoid Lipodystrophy (Cellulite) in Asymptomatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Giovana Barbosa; Filho, A’Dayr Natal; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1–4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB), and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT). The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb’s method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman’s correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p ≥ 0.297). There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p ≥ 0.085 and r ≥ 0.246). CONCLUSIONS The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb’s method. PMID:18719762

  2. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Giovana Barbosa; Natal Filho, A'Dayr; Amado João, Sílvia Maria

    2008-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB), and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT). The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1+/-4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7+/-1.9 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p>or=0.297). There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p>or=0.085 and r>or=0.246). The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  3. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite in asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Barbosa Milani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB, and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT. The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m². There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p > 0.297. There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p > 0.085 and r > 0.246. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  4. Õige valu õiges kohas. Lahinguväljal näeme! Noor veri vemmeldab : Slide-Fifty

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    9.-10. juunil Järvakandis toimuval festivalil Rabarock esinevatest ansamblitest: The Skreppers, Metsatöll, Slide Fifty (vt. www. rabarock. ee, www.skreppers.com, www.metsatoll.ee, www.slidefifty.com)

  5. Õige valu õiges kohas. Lahinguväljal näeme! Noor veri vemmeldab : Slide-Fifty

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    9.-10. juunil Järvakandis toimuval festivalil Rabarock esinevatest ansamblitest: The Skreppers, Metsatöll, Slide Fifty (vt. www. rabarock. ee, www.skreppers.com, www.metsatoll.ee, www.slidefifty.com)

  6. Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  7. What makes a champion! over fifty extraordinary individuals share their insights

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    What drives great and successful individuals — be they athletes, artists, or scientists — or businesses, to achieve the extraordinary? Over fifty champions from all walks of life, brought together by Allan Snyder, draw on their experiences to explore the secrets of success in this inspiring, revealing and thought-provoking book. Hear from the authors what made a McDonalds' branch become the most successful in the world; how a cottage business is catapulted into a world brand; how a visual artist's works crosses almost every medium imaginable; how an Ernst and Young setup becomes a top-notch employer; or why many geniuses or brilliant individuals never become champions, while many 'ordinary' individuals do; why many people don't know about their talent; what constitutes a champion outcome; and the neurological explanation for championship. Straddling academia and practitioners in all fields — government, entertainment, sports, business, arts, education, medicine, media — the authors include business...

  8. Evaluating Efficiency of Tehran Stock Exchange: Case Study for Top Fifty Most Active Companies (TSE-50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza TALEBLOO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economics of information has been developing increasingly in economics literature in recent decades. Accordingly, the information plays a crucial role in efficiency of any market particularly capital market which deals more with this issue. As for the importance of information in stock exchange efficiency, the market efficiency is studied under three data sets in three forms including: 1- Information concerning the past prices, 2- All the released information and, 3- General Information and Confidential private information. Given these three types of information, market efficiency is checked in three weak, semi-strong and strong levels, respectively. This paper in order to examine the efficiency in the weak level employs a decomposed pattern with two stochastic and random terms for Top Fifty most active companies (TSE-50 in Tehran stock exchange based on both long and short horizons. The findings demonstrate that the indicator does not have efficiency in long horizon. This is while; the efficiency is verified in short horizon.

  9. Fifty Shades of Unsaid: Women's Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Towards Sexual Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Guglielmi, Francesca; Mangiulli, Ivan; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in women's attitudes towards sexual morality on an explicit and implicit level. Our findings found that erotophobic and erotophilic women differed only on an explicit level of sex guilt and moral evaluation, while no difference in the implicit measure was found.

  10. Fifty Shades of Unsaid: Women’s Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Towards Sexual Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lanciano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in women's attitudes towards sexual morality on an explicit and implicit level. Our findings found that erotophobic and erotophilic women differed only on an explicit level of sex guilt and moral evaluation, while no difference in the implicit measure was found.

  11. Fifty Shades of Unsaid: Women’s Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Towards Sexual Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Guglielmi, Francesca; Mangiulli, Ivan; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in women's attitudes towards sexual morality on an explicit and implicit level. Our findings found that erotophobic and erotophilic women differed only on an explicit level of sex guilt and moral evaluation, while no difference in the implicit measure was found. PMID:27872666

  12. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  13. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity

  14. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe

  15. The Applied Baccalaureate Degree: The Right Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Collin M.; Bragg, Debra D.; Townsend, Barbara K.

    2010-01-01

    The applied baccalaureate degree, which integrates once-terminal applied associate degrees and course work into a four-year degree, is a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. This article presents findings from the first of two phases of research conducted--utilizing Kingdon's (1995) Multiple Streams framework--exploring the status of…

  16. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  17. Role Preparation of Associate Degree Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Lillian G.

    The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…

  18. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  19. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Fifty Shades: ambivalence about birth control in an erotic bestseller and its cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Waltraud; Israel, Emanuella

    2017-04-01

    The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood. Subsequently, the cultural significance of the trilogy's popularity and its tension between sexual exploration, birth control and fertility is explored. In a globally popular fantasy published more than five decades after the introduction of the pill, the protagonist's lack of attention to reliable birth control leads to a telling dichotomy that combines adventurous exploration of female sexuality and affirmation of the nuclear family.

  4. Comparison of rubber band ligation and sclerosant injection for first and second degree haemorrhoids-- a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, A J; Murie, J A; Mackenzie, I

    1981-01-01

    Fifty patients with first or mild second degree haemorrhoids were randomly allocated to sclerosant injection (26) or rubber band ligation (24). One year after treatment 24 injection and 22 rubber band ligation patients were assessed. All patients presented with rectal bleeding; injection relieved 14 and rubber band ligation relieved 17 of this symptom (N.S.). Three of seven patients with prolapsing haemorrhoids who had sclerosant injections and five of seven who had rubber band ligation were relieved of this prolapse. However, a further six patients in the injection group developed prolapse for the first time during the one year follow-up period (p less than 0.05). Rubber band ligation relieved anal pain in 10 out of 14 patients whereas injection relieved only one patient of this symptom (p less than 0.05). Neither treatment influenced pruritus ani or faecal soiling. Although rubber band ligation caused more treatment discomfort, it is an effective management for first and mild second degree haemorrhoids and it should be considered as the procedure of choice.

  5. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  6. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  7. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  8. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  9. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  10. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  11. Killing horizons kill horizon degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, L

    2006-01-01

    Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-4 - Qualified separate line of business-fifty-employee and notice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-employee and notice requirements. 1.414(r)-4 Section 1.414(r)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-4 Qualified separate line of business—fifty-employee and notice... business (as determined under § 1.414(r)-3) satisfies the 50-employee and notice requirements of §...

  13. Fifty Cases of Child Restless Syndrome Treated with the Integrated Method of Chinese Herbal Drugs and Auricular-Plaster Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Fifty cases of child restless syndrome were treated with oral administration of Chinese traditional herbal drugs plus auricular-plaster therapy from December 1998 to November 2001, and another 47 cases were treated with oral administration of methylphenidate as controls. The result is reported as follows.

  14. Fifty-Five Years of Pediatric Endocrinology and 50 Years of the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelino, Tadej

    2015-06-01

    Paediatric endocrinology started its independent development early in the general development of this specialty, with a strong focus on research and clinical excellence. Slovenian paediatric endocrinology was an integral part of the European paediatric endocrinology from its beginnings and a founding member of the first 'International Study Group for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents'. After the pioneering work of Prof. Lev Matajc, Prof. Ciril Kržišnik firmly integrated the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at the University Children's Hospital in Ljubljana in the international scientific community. In the last decade, the department participates in cutting-edge research and provides clinical services at highest international standards.

  15. Interdisciplinary Robotics Project for First-Year Engineering Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Mercedes; Zacarés, José; López, Jaime; Sánchez, Rafael; Pastor, José M.; Llorca, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of both transversal and specific competences cannot be achieved using conventional methodologies. New methodologies must be applied that promote the necessary competences for proper professional development. Interdisciplinary projects can be a suitable tool for competence-based learning. A priori, this might be complicated, as…

  16. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  17. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  18. PRO-C3-levels in patients with HIV/HCV-Co-infection reflect fibrosis stage and degree of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Leeming, Diana J; Mandorfer, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver-related deaths represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with HIV/HCV-co-infection, and are mainly related to complications of fibrosis and portal hypertension. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the structural changes by the assessment of extracellular matrix (ECM......) derived degradation fragments in peripheral blood as biomarkers for fibrosis and portal hypertension in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients (67% male, mean age: 36.5 years) with HIV/HCV-co-infection were included in the study. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG......4M and C5M levels were higher in patients with portal hypertension (HVPG>5 mmHg). CONCLUSION: PRO-C3 levels reflect liver injury, stage of liver fibrosis and degree of portal hypertension in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. Furthermore, C4M and C5M were associated with increased portal pressure...

  19. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  20. Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Survey: Enrollments - Fall 1972; Degrees Granted - July 1965-June 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewning, June S.

    The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…

  1. Comparative analysis of the gastroptosis and degree of obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Myung Je [Korea Association of Health Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    This study designed for identifying whether female and the thin and the light have gastroptosis more, as known from long time ago, or not, through analyzing correlation of gastroptosis and degree of obesity. People who are subject of health examination for adult disease, who visited a health examination hospital at downtown in pusan, and then are received health examination, who are conducted UGI series between January and June in 2006 are eligible for the study. During the same period, randomised 584 people without gastroptosis were enrolled, grouped with sex and age, and each group involved 73 people. The classification of figure of body was based on standard weight table, and Broca's fomular was used for calculation of degree of obesity, and then We get the result, as following. The women (514/584) have gastroptosis more than men (70/584). Gastroptosis is most common in 90-109%, 54.3% of male, 56.4% of female. The man 90% under, the woman appeared with 110-119%. In the distribution of degree of obesity between ages, gastroptosis is more common at the fifties, and there is no sexual difference.

  2. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  3. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  4. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  5. Rethinking Graduation and Time to Degree: A Fresh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hongtao; Fu, Xuanning

    2017-01-01

    Graduation and time to degree are paramount concerns in higher education today and have caught the attention of policy makers, educators and researchers in recent years. However, our understanding is limited regarding the factors related to graduation and time to degree beyond students' pre-college characteristics (demographics and academic…

  6. Gender Division in Sociology Degree Programmes--Causes and Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ann-Katrin

    2009-01-01

    In spite of engagement and efforts to bring about gender equality in Swedish universities, gender division paradoxically appears in both old and new degree programs and academic disciplines. In recent years there has been a tendency for higher education students to enrol in degree programmes rather than in single subject courses. Due to the…

  7. Top 100 Undergraduate Degree Producers--Interpreting the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents "Diverse Online's" annual analysis of the Top 100 degrees conferred to African-American students. The tables in this edition of the Top 100 analysis reflect degrees conferred during the 2006-2007 academic year as of mid March 2008 by the vast majority of U.S. postsecondary institutions to the Department of Education's…

  8. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  9. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  10. Change in Annual Heating and Cooling Degree Days by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service show changes in heating and cooling degree days by state in the US. Both layers in this service were created by comparing the first 60 years of...

  11. The new algorithm for calculation of median lethal dose (LD50 and effective dose fifty (ED50 of Micrarus fulvius venom and anti-venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One million people throughout the world are bitten yearly by poisonous snakes. Of this, one-tenth died and three-tenth suffer some forms of disabilities. In view of this, anti-snake venoms are currently being developed against viper and colubrid snake venoms using mice. Therefore, a new algorithm for calculation of median lethal dose (LD50 and effective dose fifty (ED50 was developed for Micrarus fulvius venom and antivenom respectively. This paper compared the formula of effective dose fifty (ED50 developed by Spearman and Karber with ideal median lethal dose (IMLD50 formula developed by Saganuwan with a view to bringing out their difference and similarity in calculation of ED50 that could be used to develop a new median lethal dose formula for calculation of Micrarus fulvius venom in mice. The findings revealed that ED50 value (477 mg/kg from Spearman and Karber’s formula (ED50=logED50=logX100-logFDn(Σt-n/2 is comparatively similar with ideal median lethal dose value (428.75 mg/kg from Saganuwan’s formula (MLD50 + MSD50/2. The new LD50 formula (LD50=ED503×Wm×10-4 yielded value (0.29 mg/kg of comparative significance with reported value (0.32 mg/kg. When ED50 is equal to 2LD50, the denominator of ED503 becomes 2. In conclusion, the new formula would yield low doses of snake anti-venoms with reduced possibility of hypersensitivity reaction.

  12. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  13. The Trainee Teacher and His Practice Class. Fifty Pointers for the Student-Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alun L. W.

    1969-01-01

    This handbook, based on the author's experience of supervising the English practice-classes of trainee teachers, was originally compiled for the specific use of students at the National University of Trujillo, Peru, and consists of a list of pointers embracing the most prevalent of trainees' shortcomings observed over a period of years at all…

  14. Expanding the Education Universe: A Fifty-State Strategy for Course Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    After twenty years of expanding school-choice options, state leaders, educators, and families have a new tool: course choice, a strategy for students to learn from unconventional providers that might range from top-tier universities or innovative community colleges to local employers, labs, or hospitals. In "Expanding the Education Universe:…

  15. Fifty-Six Cases of Acne Treated by Auricular Needle-Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯慧先; 吴童

    2002-01-01

    @@ Acne is an inflammatory disease often affecting the boys and girls at the pubescent age, with a tendency of affecting the females aged 30-45 years. We have treated 56 cases of acne by auricular needle-embedding with satisfactory therapeutic results as reported in the following.

  16. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  17. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  18. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  19. Harlequin, vampírur og mömmuklám. Um formúlu Twilight og Fifty Shades

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnheiður Jóhannsdóttir 1989

    2013-01-01

    Formúla Twilight seríunnar og Fifty Shades þríleiksins er tekin fyrir og skoðuð í samræmi við söguþráð Harlequin bækurnar, þar á eftir eru þær greindar út frá menningarlegu viðhorfi nútímans til fórnarlamba og gerenda, betur þekkt sem nauðgunarmenning.

  20. A comparison of one hundred and fifty consecutive parotidectomies for tumours and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, A B; Avery, C M; Taylor, J; Langdon, J D

    1999-06-01

    The demographic profile and complications are compared and contrasted for 150 consecutive parotidectomies. All patients were under the care of one surgeon (JDL) over a twenty-year period (1977-1997). The case records and contemporaneous database were analysed retrospectively. 111 (74%) procedures were performed for tumours and 39 (26%) for inflammatory disease. The incidence of unexpected permanent facial nerve palsy was 1.8% in the tumour group and zero in the inflammatory group. The overall unexpected palsy rate was 1.3%. Transient paralysis was more common in the inflammatory group than the tumour group (61.5% compared with 33.3%, P<0.02) and was more likely to be panfacial (48.7% compared with 17.1%, P<0.0002). The overall incidence of Frey's syndrome was less than 20% and both salivary fistulae and sialocoeles were infrequent.

  1. Fifty-sixth Christmas Bird Count. 147. Southern Dorchester County, Md

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Kendall, W.L.; Smith, G.W.; Caithamer, D.F.

    1956-01-01

    should assess the 'value' of learning. Only when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the effects of hunting regulations on population dynamics will the merit of our proposed strategy be evident. We suggest that this almost always will be true given our current understanding of the relationship between annual regulations, survival and population growth in waterfowl. Nonetheless, careful consideration should be given to formulating the set of alternative models. There is no value in distinguishing between models which differ in their mathematical formulation or biological realism, but which suggest similar harvest strategies. We suspect that 'mechanistic' models (i.e., those that attempt to capture the essence of biological processes) will make better candidates for model sets than so-called 'phenomenological' models. Assuming that all model sets include a good approximation of reality, learning rates will be dependent on the quality of monitoring programs. Fortunately, a variety of high-quality monitoring plans for many duck and goose populations of North America, when used with our adaptive approach, should provide new knowledge about population dynamics and response to hunting, and, thus, lead to improved management.

  2. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss (HL is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1 the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2 the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66% and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%. No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas.

  3. Robot-assisted low anterior resection in fifty-three consecutive patients: an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawadekar, R D; Dhange, R Z; Pandit, A; Bandawar, M S; Joshi, S; Agarwal, G; Jagtap, A P; Puntambekar, S

    2013-12-01

    From December 2005 to December 2009, we performed 150 laparoscopic colorectal procedures. Based on this experience, we started offering robot-assisted colorectal surgery from December 2009. This study is a prospective evaluation of consecutive patients in order to study the technical feasibility and oncological outcome of robot-assisted low anterior resection. This investigation was conducted at a single minimal access surgery institute. Between December 2009 and December 2011, 53 consecutive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent a robot-assisted low anterior resection (LAR) or ultralow anterior resection (ULAR) with total mesorectal excision (TME), using the standard da Vinci 'S' model. Patient demographics, mean operative time, mean postoperative hospital stay, blood loss, days to first flatus, resumption of oral feeds, urinary incontinence, and sexual dysfunction were studied. Surgical and pathological outcomes such as quality of TME, free circumferential margins, and number of lymph nodes dissected were also evaluated. Robot docking and undocking times were noted. Of the 53 patients, 41 were men and 12 were women. Their mean age was 66.7 years (range 37-90 years). The ASA grades were distributed as follows: ASA I 15 (28.3 %), ASA II 25 (47.16 %), ASA III 12 (22.64 %), ASA IV 1 (1.88 %). The mean operative time was 180 min (150-230 min) and the mean blood loss was 101.6 ml (50-300 ml). The robot docking time was 10 min (15-25 min) and the undocking time was 5 min (3-10 min). The mean hospital stay was 8 days (7-15 days). None of the patients was converted to either laparoscopic or open procedure. The longitudinal and circumferential margins were negative in all patients. Histopathological reports of 45 patients showed complete TME while 8 patients showed nearly complete TME. No repositioning of the robot was needed for splenic flexure mobilization, thus decreasing the operative time. Along with TME, even the splenic flexure mobilization

  4. Fifty tours are being planned to mark CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 16 October 2004, CERN will open its doors to the public. The Visits Service is already busy with preparations for this day of special events to mark the fiftieth anniversary and is recruiting volunteers. A date for your diaries! On 16 October 2004, CERN will be holding an Open Day to mark its golden jubilee. The public will be invited to discover 50 years of history through tours of 50 different sites. Over thirty sites for the tours have already been identified, including the experiment halls, the assembly halls for the LHC detectors and magnets as well as the computer centre and the fire station. With a programme offering tours, talks, a play on a scientific theme and a variety of workshops, there will be something for everybody. A number of evening tours will be organised specifically for the inhabitants of Cessy, St Genis, Meyrin and Ferney Voltaire, where the experiment halls for CMS, ALICE, ATLAS and LHCb are respectively located. An area will even be set aside with stimulating games to enterta...

  5. Roster of Astronomy Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2012: Results from the 2012 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. has experienced a sharp increase in the number of bachelor astronomy degrees awarded in recent years with about twice as many degrees now being awarded than a decade ago. There were 385 astronomy bachelor's degrees awarded in the 2011-12 academic year. The number of astronomy PhDs awarded in recent years is up about 50% from a decade…

  6. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yu Chen; Han Zhang; Jinkui Ma; Tomohiro Tuchiya; Yelian Miao

    2015-01-01

    This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on...

  7. Early results of surgical intervention for elbow deformity in cerebral palsy based on degree of contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle G; Hearns, Krystle A; Inkellis, Elizabeth; Leach, Michelle E

    2012-08-01

    Elbow flexion posture, caused by spasticity of the muscles on the anterior surface of the elbow, is the most common elbow deformity seen in patients with cerebral palsy. This study retrospectively evaluated early results of 2 surgical interventions for elbow flexion deformities based on degree of contracture. We hypothesized that by guiding surgical treatment to degree of preoperative contracture, elbow extension and flexion posture angle at ambulation could be improved while preserving maximum flexion. Eighty-six patients (90 elbows) were treated for elbow spasticity due to cerebral palsy. Seventy-one patients (74 elbows) were available for follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with fixed elbow contractures less than 45° were surgically treated with a partial elbow muscle lengthening, which included partial lengthening of the biceps and brachialis and proximal release of the brachioradialis. Fourteen patients (17 elbows) with fixed elbow contractures ≥ 45° had a more extensive full elbow release, with biceps z-lengthening, partial brachialis myotomy, and brachioradialis proximal release. Age at surgery averaged 10 years (range, 3-20 y) for partial lengthening and 14 years (range, 5-20 y) for full elbow release. Follow-up averaged 22 months (range, 7-144 mo) for partial lengthening and 18 months (range, 6-51 mo) for full elbow release. Both groups achieved meaningful improvement in flexion posture angle at ambulation, active and passive extension, and total range of motion. Elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved by 57° and active extension increased 17° in the partial lengthening group, with a 4° loss of active flexion. In the full elbow release group, elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved 51° and active extension improved 38°, with a loss of 19° of active flexion. Surgical treatment of spastic elbow flexion in cerebral palsy can improve deformity. We obtained excellent results by guiding the surgical intervention by the amount of

  8. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-01-01

    The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.

  9. Extended degree functions and monomial modules

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  10. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  11. SECOND AND THIRD DEGREE HAEMORRHOIDS: MANAGEMENT WITH MINIMALLY INVASIVE PROCEDURE FOR HAEMORRHOID (MIPH AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the management of second and third degree haemorrhoids with Minimally Invasive Procedure for Haemorrhoid (MIPH and its outcome. Twenty five cases were included in the study. The major aims of the study were to evaluate the merits and demerits of Minimal Invasive Procedure for management of second and third degree haemorrhoids by using haemorrhoidal set and to study the efficacy of MIPH ( S tapled haemorrho idopexy in terms of duration of surgery , early complications , time of ambulation , mean hospital stay , time of rejoin to work and late complications. The study was carried out in MB Government Hospital associated with R.N.T. Medical C ollege , Udaipur. Patients admitted in different s urgical wards were taken for study. Material and method used in this study include various laboratory investigations including CBC , BT , CT , Blood Sugar , S - urea , S - creatinine , HIV , HBsAg , Urine complete , X - Ray Chest and ECG. Special Investigation including Per rectal examination for anal sphincter tone , pain , any rectal growth , prolapse , bleeding , discharge and Proctoscopy to evaluate positions and grades of piles. Statistical analysis of various data done and maximum incidence thirty six percent of second and third degree haemorrhiods was found in 31 - 40 year age group. Males were predominantly affected as compared to females. Patients with second and third degree of haemorrhoids mostly visited hospital for bleeding pe r rectum and prolapse . Other symptoms about which patient were concerned were pain , itching and discharge and about half of the patients had associated history of constipation. Most of patients seek surgeons attention after a period of about one month. Twe nty percent patients had positive family history of haemorrhoid. Eighty eight percent patients had taken some treatment in the form of laxative and ointment. Eight percent patients had undergone sclerotherapy and twelve percent

  12. CPUG: Computational Physics UG Degree Program at Oregon State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rubin H.

    2004-03-01

    A four-year undergraduate degree program leading to a Bachelor's degree in Computational Physics is described. The courses and texts under development are research- and Web-rich, and culminate in an advanced computational laboratory derived from graduate theses and faculty research. The five computational courses and course materials developed for this program act as a bridge connecting the physics with the computation and the mathematics, and as a link to the computational science community.

  13. 360 DEGREE SUBANNULAR TYMPANOPLASTY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the efficacy of underlay tympanoplasty by elevating the annulus by 360 degrees. SUBJECTS AND METHODS : Two hundred patients with chronic otitis media , tubotympanic disease , inactive stage who underwent tympanoplasty by the above technique between the years 2009 to 2013 were selected for the study as and when they were admitted. All the patients were followed up for 6 months fol lowing surgery. Any complications like secondary infection , wound dehiscence , granulations , were looked for and treated appropriately. Status of the neotympanum was evaluated at the end of 3 months. Any anterior blunting , medialisation or lateralisation of the graft was noted. Any residual perforation was considered as failure. Hearing was evaluated in all patients with an intact neotympanum. RESULTS : Our study showed an overall success rate of 96% as far as graft uptake was concerned. Hearing improvement w as seen in 93% of our patients. 6 patients had complete air bone gap closure , 49 had AB gap of 10db or less , 131 had AB gap of 11 - 20db. 14 patients had no improvement in hearing. Overall hearing improvement was seen in 93% of our patients. CONCLUSION : In c onclusion 360 degree sub - annular tympanoplasty is a efficient technique of tympanoplasty with very good results.

  14. Experiences with the Development of an Undergraduate Degree in Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Walker, M.; Markee, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science established the first undergraduate degree in Ecohydrology in the United States. The degree was designed to prepare students for careers as hydrologists while also including coursework equivalent to a minor in ecology (UNR does not officially offer a minor in ecology). The development of the major was intended to provide students with useful skills and training for the job market, and also to increase enrollment in the University's water-related undergraduate majors. The Department also established an Ecohydrology minor. Since the degree was established, average enrollment in the major has been almost two times higher than the previous Watershed Science option in Environmental Science (the closest comparable degree offering at UNR). The Department has graduated 19 students as of May 2014, and an additional 8 students have graduated with the Ecohydrology minor. Several Ecohydrology graduates have gone on to graduate degrees, and most of the remainder are employed in water-related areas. The students have established an Ecohydrology Club at UNR and are active in organizing water-related activities to do together. This presentation will describe the development of the degree, its implementation, and challenges and opportunities for carrying out an undergraduate degree in Ecohydrology. It will also discuss potential development of a 5-year Bachelor of Science-Master of Science (BS-MS) degree in Ecohydrology.

  15. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  16. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  17. General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺明

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).

  18. Fifty shades of inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Arianna

    2016-12-22

    Inhibitory circuits are essential for brain function. Our understanding of their synaptic organization has advanced extensively with the identification and classification of an impressive variety of neuron groups, receptor types, and patterns of connectivity. However, the conceptual discussion regarding the role of in neural circuits still revolves around the idea that its primary role is to regulate circuit excitability. Here, I will focus on recent findings from cortical circuits and argue that inhibitory circuits are central to the integration of incoming inputs and can promote sophisticated fine-scale control of local circuits. I propose that inhibitory circuits should not be viewed so much as brakes on principal neurons activity, but as primary contributors to a variety of neural network functions.

  19. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  20. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  1. A study of cognitive ability and value degree of 3-year paramedical students'legal knowledge%三届高职高专医护生对法律知识认知与重视程度调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海燕; 陆浩; 王萍; 周健生; 韩氢氧

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解三届高专医护生对法律知识的重视程度和掌握情况.方法 连续3年对即将进入临床实习医护生共648名进行相同内容的问卷调查.采用预先设计的统一调查表和数据库.由专人回顾问卷填写表格及将数据输入数据库,并做预试验及中期核查.结果 三届医护生平均56.1%不能正确回答有关的法律知识,对法律知识学习缺乏兴趣,对国务院、卫生部颁布的长期和临时性法律、法规缺乏了解,对书本以外的知识了解偏少.结论 医护生应加强相关法律课程、法律、法规、护士管理条例的学习,为今后进入临床工作规避法律风险,避免不必要的法律纠纷奠定理论基础.%Objective To know about grasp and value degree of 3-year paramedical students'legal knowledge.Methods A study on a same questionaire was answered by 648 students who were going to enter the clinical practice.For their consecutive years,the pre-designed questionnaire and a unified database would be used by designated persons and not only respomible for recalling questionnairs and inputting data but also respomible for pretest and middle examination.Results An average of 56.1% of 3-year paramedical students can't correctly answer questions about the legal knowledge and also lack of interest of learning legal knowledge.These student knew little about long-term and temporary laws and regulations issued by the State Council and the Ministry of Health and knowledge outside the books as well Conclusions Paramedical students should strengthen the learning of legal knowledge relmed courses,laws and regulations and nursing bill in order to lay theoretical foundation for future clinical work and avoid legal risks and unnecessary legal disputes.

  2. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  3. General relativity 50 years old

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  4. Motives Underlying Bachelors-Masters Transitions: The Case of Dutch Degree Stackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Harry; Kolster, Renze; Vossensteyn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In the light of the Bologna process, traditional degree programmes of research-led universities in the Netherlands have been transformed into 3 year bachelors programmes and 1 or 2 year masters programmes. The Dutch universities of applied sciences (UAS) mainly offer 4 year bachelors programmes. In principle, this UAS bachelors degree qualifies…

  5. The effects of degree correlations on network topologies and robustness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jing; Tao Lin; Yu Hong; Luo Jian-Hua; Cao Zhi-Wei; Li Yi-Xue

    2007-01-01

    Complex networks have been applied to model numerous interactive nonlinear systems in the real world. Knowledge about network topology is crucial to an understanding of the function, performance and evolution of complex systems. In the last few years, many network metrics and models have been proposed to investigate the network topology, dynamics and evolution. Since these network metrics and models are derived from a wide range of studies, a systematic study is required to investigate the correlations among them. The present paper explores the effect of degree correlation on the other network metrics through studying an ensemble of graphs where the degree sequence (set of degrees) is fixed.We show that to some extent, the characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modular extent and robustness of networks are directly influenced by the degree correlation.

  6. Degree of myopia in relation to intelligence and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, T W; Fuchs, J; Goldschmidt, E

    1988-12-10

    Intelligence test scores and educational levels were compared for 5943 myopic and 9891 non-myopic 18-year-old men being drafted for military service in Denmark. The former were grouped by degree of myopia, in the range -0.25 diopters (D) to -7.75 D, according to the power of correcting lenses required. Myopes of all degrees had significantly higher test scores and educational levels than non-myopes. However, the relation of these two variables to degree of myopia was not linear; for both variables there were no significant differences among myopia groups in the range -2.0 to -7.75 D. Whereas factors associated with intelligence and education seem to be important in triggering the onset of myopia, they seem to be much less important in determining the degree to which myopia progresses.

  7. Suzhou 7~9 Years Old Children's oral Hygiene Habits and Parents Educa-tional Degree Survey Report%姑苏区7~9岁儿童口腔卫生习惯与家长受教育程度关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓琳; 李蓓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand Suzhou Gusu area 7-9 years old children's oral hygiene habits and parents, the edu-cation degree of relationship, so as to provide the basis for the formulation of the relevant report and recommendations. Methods The questionnaire survey conducted in Suzhou area were randomly selected from 800 children aged 7-9 years. Results The educational level of parents is very likely to affect the children's understanding of the oral problems. Conclu-sion This part of the children's parents should be the focus of attention, the impact of the family on children can not be ig-nored[4]. Surveys show that parents treat their oral health care is a positive attitude, pay attention to the child's oral health to help the establishment of good oral health behavior, to develop good oral hygiene habits, active prevention and treatment of dental caries;improve the awareness of oral health care of parents, reasonable feeding, good children's food structure.%目的:了解苏州姑苏区7~9岁儿童口腔卫生习惯与家长受教育程度的关系,为制定相关报告及建议提供依据。方法采用问卷调查的形式,在姑苏区随机抽取800位7~9岁儿童进行调查。结果家长受教育水平很有可能影响孩子在口腔问题方面的认识情况。结论儿童家长这一部分群体应受到重点关注,家庭中对儿童的影响是不容忽视的[4]。有调查显示家长对待口腔健康保健的态度积极,重视孩子口腔卫生,帮助其建立良好的口腔卫生行为,养成良好的口腔卫生习惯,积极防治龋病的发生;提高家长的口腔保健意识,合理喂养,改善儿童的食物结构。

  8. Long-term Incidence and Degree of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Otosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Reuven; Halpin, Christopher F; Shin, Jennifer J; McKenna, Michael J; Quesnel, Alicia M

    2016-12-01

    1) To evaluate the long-term incidence and degree of the sensorineural component of hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with otosclerosis after accounting for expected age-related hearing loss. 2) To identify variables that might predict development of sensorineural hearing loss due to otosclerosis. Retrospective audiometric database and chart review. Tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients with otosclerosis observed between 1994 and 2004, with ≥10 years follow-up, excluding patients with postoperative hearing loss or surgery before the initial audiogram. Bone conduction (BC) thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz and Word Recognition. BC threshold change (BCTC) over ≥10 years minus estimated age-related threshold change (ARTC) specific to age and sex for each patient (based on ISO 7029 reference population). Three-hundred fifty-seven ears (290 patients) met study criteria, including 217 ears that had undergone stapedectomy during the study period. Mean follow-up was 14.0 years. The average BCTC after subtracting estimated ARTC was 4.6, 2.6, 3, and 2.7 dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz frequencies, respectively. However, 34% of ears (122 ears) had clinically significant progression of SNHL during the study period (>10 dB BCTC beyond expected ARTC at ≥2 frequencies). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the probability of developing clinically significant SNHL was higher for women (odds ratio 1.86, p = 0.018) and lower for operated patients (odds ratio 0.46, p = 0.002). The average long-term sensorineural hearing loss due to otosclerosis was statistically significantly more than for age alone at each frequency, but these average values (from 2.6 to 4.6 dB for tested frequencies) were clinically insignificant. Approximately one-third of patients with otosclerosis demonstrated a clinically significant progression of the sensorineural component of hearing loss, with the average BCTC above expected age-related changes ranging from 10.2 to 14.6 dB for

  9. Cincuenta años después (Fifty years later - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio de Santa Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo sitúa su reflexión en el tema del ecumenismo, relacionándolo con las propuestas de aggiornamento expresadas por el Vaticano II. Hace también alusión al ámbito de las mudanzas en el seno del protestantismo, de las Iglesias ortodoxas e incluso del cristianismo romano. Además alude a los grandes nombres que trazaron la reflexión teológica en el período de crisis que antecedió al evento –hablamos de aspectos que acabaron incidiendo en los debates conciliares. Siguiendo a Gutiérrez, el artículo destaca tres dimensiones relativas a la búsqueda del diálogo de la Iglesia con el mundo contemporáneo: la urgencia de ser actual, la perspectiva ecuménica y la solidaridad con los pobres. Analiza los “caminos equivocados” que fueron adoptados por la Iglesia en lo concerniente a las propuestas ecumênicas del Concilio: el tomar un “execesivo cuidado” en lo que respecta al mundo moderno, las posiciones de intolerância frente a lo diferente, la comprensión reduccionista del ecumenismo. Hace mención a la exigência de construir relaciones que tengan como bases: la gracia  y el amor. Por último, propone la tesis de que “no puede existir un sentido del diálogo, un encuentro entre los seres diferentes, sin la libertad”.Palabras-clave: Iglesia. Vaticano II. Ecumenismo. Diálogo inter-religioso. AbstractThis article focuses its discussion on the theme of ecumenism, in relation to the catholic proposal of aggiornamento expressed by Vatican II. The text refers to the changes within the Protestantism, the Orthodox churches and also within the Roman Christianity. It also mentions the relevant names that marked theological reflection in those times of crisis prior to the Council. Following the author´s thought, the text highlights three dimensions of the dialogue of the Church with the contemporary world: the urgency in getting things update, the ecumenical perspective and the solidarity with the poor. The article evaluates the "wrong path" taken by the Church in relation to the propositions of the ecumenical council: attitudes of intolerance to the different and the reductionist understanding of ecumenism. It also refers to the need to build relationships whose bases are the grace and love. The article finally expresses the following thesis: "there cannot be a sense of dialogue among different beings without freedom."Keywords: Church. Vatican II. Ecumenism. Inter-religious Dialogue.- DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246

  10. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia Guatemala's Pacific Cetaceans: Fifty Years of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Cabrera Arreola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala el estudio de los cetáceos inició en la década de los sesenta con los primeros registros de varamiento y captura incidental. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos científicos con datos de cetáceos han sido publicados. Con el objetivo de centralizar la información de cetáceos y obtener conocimiento biológico para el desarrollo de planes de manejo y conservación, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de cetáceos en Guatemala que recaba información de los últimos 50 años. Se obtuvo un total de 1,014 registros de avistamiento (1979-2011, 62 registros de captura incidental (1961/85 y 16 registros de varamientos (1975, 2007-2012, los cuales se analizaron en mapas batimétricos y en mapas de presiones antropogénicas. Se identificaron diecinueve especies pertenecientes a cinco familias de cetáceos, incluyendo Balaenopteridae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Kogiidae y Physeteridae. El esfuerzo y área de muestreo varió durante 1961-2012. Se identificaron diferentes patrones de distribución especie-específicos. La mayoría de avistamientos se registraron cerca de zonas con topografía compleja. Aunque los eventos de captura incidental se registraron únicamente en alta mar, los resultados sugieren que especies de distribución costera se encuentran en zonas con mayor riesgo antropogénico. Se reportaron ocho especies de cetáceos varados, eventos ocurridos principalmente en el departamento de Escuintla desde el año 2007. Debido a la gran diversidad en los patrones de distribución, comportamiento y uso de hábitat de los cetáceos, combinado con los riesgos antropogénicos de la zona, es necesario que se considere un enfoque integral cuando se implementen planes de manejo y conservación marina en Guatemala.

  11. Fifty years after Martin Luther King’s speech, Obama’s gradual approach to political change still needs King’s visionary dream to play against

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Last week saw the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King’s ‘I have a dream’ speech, which was marked at an\\ud event by President Barack Obama. Rune Kier writes that while King’s speech was one which\\ud articulated abrupt and revolutionary change to achieve equality against an apparently stagnant establishment,\\ud Obama’s rhetoric is that of gradual, hard won, political change. Despite these differences, King’s speech is still\\ud the vision that Obama is striving for.

  12. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H.; Kaae, S.; Jensen, Maiken Brit;

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy...

  13. Brian R. Billman and Gary M. Feinman, editors, Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Viru, Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    2000-01-01

    The most significant historical information in this volume is the short (3 pages) piece by Gordon R. Wllley entitled "The Viru Valley Project and Settlement Archaeology: Some Reminiscences and Con­temporary Comments." These remarks add to Willey's original background notes in his seminal 1953 publication, as well as his own retrospective look at the program in a chapter in his 1974 volume. Wllley notes that when he started out in 194...

  14. Brian R. Billman and Gary M. Feinman, editors, Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Viru, Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The most significant historical information in this volume is the short (3 pages piece by Gordon R. Wllley entitled "The Viru Valley Project and Settlement Archaeology: Some Reminiscences and Con­temporary Comments." These remarks add to Willey's original background notes in his seminal 1953 publication, as well as his own retrospective look at the program in a chapter in his 1974 volume. Wllley notes that when he started out in 1946, at age 33, on the Viru venture, he was not at all sure what he was going to do. The original project was not one primarily devoted to settlement pattern study, rather it developed as the outcome of a suggestion by Wendell C. Bennett that post-war research on Peruvian archaeology could be moved forward by having several archaeologists from several institutions focus their efforts upon a single Peruvian coastal valley. The Viru valley was ultimately settled upon, because not only had Bennett had worked there earlier and knew something of its cultural sequence, but the valley was of a modest size and thus, with the resources available, a viable project.

  15. Fifty Years in the Development of a Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220) to Balance Brain Reward Circuitry in Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Pictorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Febo, M; Badgaiyan, RD

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine along with other chemical messengers like serotonin, cannabinoids, endorphins and glutamine, play significant roles in brain reward processing. There is a devastating opiate/opioid epidemicin the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day due to narcotic overdose and alarmingly heroin overdose is on the rise. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for alcoholism, opiate and nicotine dependence, but nothing for psychostimulant and cannabis abuse. While these pharmaceuticals are essential for the short-term induction of “psychological extinction,” in the long-term caution is necessary because their use favors blocking dopaminergic function indispensable for achieving normal satisfaction in life. The two institutions devoted to alcoholism and drug dependence (NIAAA & NIDA) realize that MATs are not optimal and continue to seek better treatment options. We review, herein, the history of the development of a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex called KB220 to provide for the possible eventual balancing of the brain reward system and the induction of “dopamine homeostasis.” This complex may provide substantial clinical benefit to the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and assist in recovery from iatrogenically induced addiction to unwanted opiates/opioids and other addictive behaviors. PMID:27840857

  16. A fifty-year journey of China towards the world economy : an empirical study on the determinants of China´s bilateral trade relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong

    2005-01-01

    Tot 1978 was de communistische volksrepubliek China een geïsoleerd land. De buitenlandse handel was een staatsmonopolie; de omvang was beperkt en het betrof voornamelijk transacties met naaste buren. Nu is China een van de belangrijkste handelsnaties in de wereld. Het aantal handelspartners – ook ov

  17. Recollections of a Dental Researcher. Fifty Years at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards: Interviews with George C. Paffenbarger, DDS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    were!) We designed partial and complete dentures , constructed a vulcanite, with wire clasps and bars for the partial dentures . I had an advantage over...idenfify by block nutriber) Dentist George C. Paffenbarger’s autobiography Dentistry’s progress in the History of dentistry military Military dentistry... history Paffenbarger’s contributions in ;National Bureau of Standards’ dentistry dentistrY Dental materials research Navy en i t Rear Admiral....... b

  18. 激光发明50周年的几点启示%Some enlightenment from fifty years of laser development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜祥琬

    2010-01-01

    2010年是激光发明50周年.文章首先同顾了50年前激光的发明,说明基础科学创新的重大引领作用.接着概述了50年米激光领域的重大进展,包括激光器技术及其应用研究的进展;举例说明了激光应用对基础科学的反馈和推动作用;归纳了高能激光器的几个发展趋势;分析了激光的军事应用及其科学技术支撑.最后给出了激光50年发展史的4点启示和今后的3类发展方向.

  19. Cincuenta años de política fiscal en materia de vivienda = Fifty years of tax policy in housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carbajo Nogal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la evolución de la política de vivienda en nuestro país a partir de los años sesenta y hasta la actualidad, estudiando para ello los planes plurianuales de subsidios y ayudas a la vivienda. Estos actúan como instrumentos presupuestarios que incluyen medidas de fomento basadas, en la mayor parte de los casos en ayudas a fondo perdido, en la financiación de los diferenciales de interés o de la propia cuota o en la concesión de créditos preferenciales en función de los ingresos de las familias y del tipo de viviendas protegidas en cada periodo; se hace particular hincapié en los beneficios de naturaleza fiscal, que en los años sesenta y setenta se centran en la ampliación del hasta entonces escaso parque de viviendas sobre las que la población española empezaba ya a decantarse sobre el régimen de tenencia en propiedad. Desde esa fecha hasta hoy las políticas públicas han ido evolucionando y pese al alto nivel de viviendas en régimen de propiedad, los poderes públicos han vuelto de nuevo la vista al mercado del alquiler como posible respuesta al problema de la vivienda.AbstractThe aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of housing policy in our country since the sixties and until today, by assessing grant term plans and housing assistance. These act as budgetary instruments including building measures based, in most cases in refundable aid in the financing of interest rate differentials or own quota or preferential lending based on income family and the type of housing in each period; places particular emphasis on the benefits of a fiscal nature, that at first, in the sixties and seventies are focused on expanding the hither to scarce housing stock on that the Spanish population was beginning to opt for tenure in property. From then until now public policies have evolved and despite the high level of housing ownership, public authorities have become again the view to the rental market as a possible answer to the housing problem.

  20. Wie Effektiv ist Microteaching? Ein Uberblick uber funfundreifsig Jahre Forschung (How Effective Is Micro-Teaching? A Survey of Fifty-Three Years of Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Reviews 200+ studies on microteaching. Argues that the use of microteaching in pre- and inservice education leads to positive and long-term effects in the acquisition of verbal and non-verbal behaviorial patterns, integration of learning into individual behavioral repertoire, and in the transfer into professional teaching practice. (CAJ)